An Infinity of Flavors?

 
By Herb Wiggins, MD, Clinical Neurosciences, Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process Logics, 14 Mar. 2014
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This is really interesting, because there are many depths and aspects of interest in taste coming from the tongue.

The tongue is the most richly innervated and endowed with sensations of ANY organ in the body. It can detect proprioception, that is position of itself and all parts of itself. Further, because the tongue can change shape, position, and move all over inside the mouth, this shows it has a very sensitive nature. No other organ can move in so many ways, in 3-D other than the tongue.  It helps us speak, drives good diction, and allows many more sounds to be made, than can be made without it.

It can feel pain, points, and feel something moving over its surface, too. Senses hot and cold and the cools/warmths in between. Can detect vibratory senses, and all of the senses in our fingers, are ALSO within the tongue’s vast capabilities.

But the very most interesting is that of taste. It can do that too, and no where else is this seen. There are said to be a number of basic flavors, but this is likely not complete. Sour/acids, sugars/sweet; bitter, for avoiding alkaloids, many of which are very toxic; the milk taste, also of meat; salt flavors, salt being necessary to our very survival.

But there are others, in fact, without limits. There is the taste of metal, when we put a penny on the tongue, for instance. And related to that metallic taste is the taste of blood, and why that’s special, a distinctive flavor there is very much an important issue. Self survival, as well as tasting meat. Who has not tasted the startling & special flavor of blood from a cut lip? OR a bitten tongue? It DOES get our attention, is not?

Then there are those tastes without limit which are combination tastes. We taste a dominant flavor of a fruit for instance. And then compare that taste to the bread we had several minutes ago, and it’s NO longer the Same. Flavors can meld/mix with other flavors and create unusual combination flavors without end, or compound flavors.

Those are endless. Even the spicy flavor, burning sensation we get with peppers and black pepper are additional tastes, as well. And those can create compound flavors with tomatoes and other fruits, such as strawberries.

Now, do this calculation. If we have a mixture of flavors, the combination of the flavors is the Factorial (!), of 1 X 2 X 3 X 4, and so forth, which becomes a VERY great number within a few flavors. With 10 different flavors interacting in comparison, there are potentially 3.6 millions of flavor combinations possible. AND, consider moreover that when a new taste combo is create, THAT can interact with another 3.6 M flavors, to potentially create more kinds.

So, likely we can explore the worlds of compound flavors forever and even taste, like those who explore a Mandelbrot design find a part no one has EVER seen before, either. The same with unlimited flavors. A unique flavor which no one else has EVER tasted before!!

This can be done by empirical introspection and asking fo valid questions of the tasters. The comparison process is uniquely capable of doing this, as has been explained in detail, before in Empirical Introspection and the Comparison Process.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/24/81/

Who knows what unusual and interesting flavors can be created by careful, systematic exploration, which Could take the world of cuisine by storm, once they are found?

Endlessness of flavors. Unlimitted kinds/varieties of tastes. Brought to you by your tongue!!

These are the depths within depths even of our lowly tongues. A Near infinity of flavors!!

Who’d have thunk it?

Do Neutron Stars Develop into White Dwarfs by Mass Loss?

By Herb Wiggins, MD;  8 Feb. 2017

There’s an interesting omission in these articles was HOW the white dwarf was also a pulsar and WHERE it came from.

There is a real possibility here. First of all a neutron star for physical reasons, the n –> p+ & e-, and an antineutrino. This process will take place probabilistically, and result in most antineutrino emissions as they are small enough to escape, and occ. electron emissions, as well. Whether or not an active pulsar will also tend to evaporate mass by such processes, among others, is a real question.

But what happens in a pulsar very close to the limits of mass of becoming a white dwarf, esp. if a steady draining away of mass by many processes is ongoing? It may well turn into a white dwarf AND retain the magnetic field of a pulsar. Thus, this presents a kind of neutron star which by mass loss (ejection of mass) and the constant loss of antineutrinos will eventually in some cases, become a White dwarf.

Further, if electrons are lost by the highly energy processes going on in neutron stars, the neutron star will become very, very massively positively charged. This could, theoretically create a magnetar as well, and with mass loss become a white dwarf, tho still highly charged and acting like a pulsar.

If the positive charge becomes high enough, it could result in a large mass ejection of positively charged material, which could further reduce the mass of the NS, speeding its way to becoming a white dwarf.

This model accounts for the super high magnetic fields of neutron stars, for magnetars, as well as the eventual development by mass loss of a pulsar into a white dwarf with a high magnetic field. Thus it simply accounts for much with little. And the finding of a pulsar type white dwarf, may be the first evidence for such processes of mass loss ongoing in neutron stars.

Neutron stars may well develop into white dwarves in some cases.

 

An Hierarchical Turing Test for AI

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/CP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014
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Have been following Jeffrey Hawkins’ work with some interest, and note work in visual systems. It’s likely that Jeff Hawkins has the closest working model to creating a good simulation of AI.
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These insights which may help facilitate creating AI & can be explained in  detail using concepts of comparison process and comparison methods, structure/function relationships, least energy, complex systems thinking, and related methods.
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Using structure/function relationships (clinico-pathological correlation) traditionally, we can generate & create unlimited information about how the brain works, and its corresponding outputs, vision, language, motor/sensory thinking, memory, and so forth. These tools which have seemed to work for me to create higher brain functions right off the cortex, the mind brain interface, (cortical columns of Mountcastle), are S/F relationships, found by the millions in clinical comparisons between lesions in brain and functional deficits, & are self evident to us all. However, using a comparison process model, which largely operates in the CC’s, a very much better understanding can be found.
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The model is both elegant, simplifying, as well as highly fruitful. Because a comparison can be made between or among most every event in existence both inside brain and outside (in the various permutations), it’s part and parcel of the structure/function method. And appears to be a universal tool. Least energy is also a comparison process, comparing energy, resources, time, and efficiencies of different methods, to find new insights. & likely universally applicable, too.
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For instance, How does it happen that the brain is organized upside down & reversed right for left in humans, and very likely most normal primates, as well?
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Right hemisphere controls left body and vice versa, in both motor and sensory homunculi. This is well known from teh time of Wilder Penfield and numerous published cases. The toes are at the top, & in the interhemispheric fissure. Then moving down the cortex of the motor strip comes the instep, the arch, the ankle, and the ankle is connected to the leg bones, & those to the knee, then the thighs, etc. The face is at the bottom, and the trunk and arms fit in between in a smooth transition. Why is this so? In addition, the visual system is also reversed right for left and upside down, with the sup. visual fields functions processed in the inf. occipital lobes and the inferior fields from 3 to 6 to 9 o’clock in the top parts of the visual cortex. & again, left field from 6 to 9, to 12 on the right visual cortex, & vice versa for the right visual fields.
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And there is the optic chiasm which takes the right visual field to the left, and vice versa, and the inferior fields to the superior cortex in a smooth transition of reversed upside down & right for left. & the decussations of the pyramids of the inf. brain stem take right sensori-motor afferents from the limbs to left brain, the same way as do the cortical efferents are taken right hemisphere to left body, also. So wherever we find the decussations of the pyramids, we know the brain is most likely upside and right for left oriented. and not just in humans & primates, but likely for most mammals, including the ancient marsupials, the platypus and echidna.
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Why & how does this arrangement come about? We hear of the top/down models which were fashionable a few years back, but were somehow not clearly satisfying, either. Somehow incomplete.
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The best, most efficient answer, & the key to understanding human/primate/mammalia brain neuroanatomy is quite simple. When we take a magnifying class, and hold it at arm’s length, comparing the images of the room around us, the image thru that double convex lens is reversed right for left and upside down. This is the visual comparison which shows us what’s going on. The eyes have it!  The brain is organized visually, and never in my years of study and work has this simple correlation/comparison been described nor discussed. It’s a deep and universal observation, spanning most higher animals. The ability to create new insights using visualization methods is highly human, and species specific. Altho some primates can copy our actions, the meaning of many actions, as in cargo cults, oftimes eludes them.
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Quite simply, we are visual creatures, & our brains are organized largely upon the images of events upon our retinas, and very likely least energy, as well. We have stereoscopic vision, different from other species whose visual fields rarely overlap, but for our cousins, the primates. The evidence is also in the internal capsule’s organization, that of the massive connections of the white matter to the cortices, and the internal mirroring deep structures of the globus pallida and the thalami as well. A truly universal structure/function comparison.
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But not only does this occur in humans and land mammals, but also in the dolphins, where the same decussation of pyramids are also seen. We don’t have to dissect these creature to see it, but simply image their nervous systems to find it. & thus we know their hypertrophied sound cortices also are organized in the same way, to highly and efficiently coordinate with the older visual systems. This is basic neuroanatomy, and although the top/down, old at bottom and younger at the top is interesting, it doesn’t have the depth, profundity & universality of the right for left, upside down features.  Even our cerebellum is organized the same, as well.
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The comparison process when generally applied to data both within and and outside of us, gives us the ability to see events in new ways and relationships which we have missed. For instance, colour vision. How does this come about, this model of events in existence? We can compare our brains’ color system with the EM spectrum for new knowledge. We know that orange is a frequency of light in the spectrum. But not in the visual cortex. It can be generated by mixing yellow & red pigments, but still we perceive orange! Blue green, by mixing blue and green, where the blue-green, real and existing frequencies are there, but not a mix. And then purples by mixing blue and red. And browns, a highly significant colour for some colour blind persons, are red/green in combined EM frequencies. Show us by comparison the “brown” frequency in the spectrum!! It’s not there. Thus our rhodopsins interacting with photons’ black/white continuum, create the colours simply and elegantly by mixing. But they cannot convey to us the existence of the spectrum based upon frequency, even tho, in fact, it may use the energies of colours to detect those.
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Another insight is the rainbow, by which Newton was able to see frequencies of light by creating them from refraction. The rainbow is rare, or is it? In fact, it’s a daily phenomenon. Part of a Kuhnian revolution is “new seeing”. New comprehensions created by a new model. As Einstein once stated, “Every advance in physics is preceded by an epistemological advance.” This might also be true of neurosciences. Where IS the daily rainbow seen? Sunrise and sunset. First, it’s black, hardly any colour, then it’s IR with black/red. Then red, then orange, yellow, a bit of green, and then finally blue sky. We see the greens from the plants, and the browns as well, seeing bark and branches. & with the black and then shades of greys with clouds, the colour palette is set for us everyday. And at night once again with the sunset rainbow, too.
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Consider that our eyes see colours at the brightest and most common frequencies which the sun creates, yellow/green, the center of our visual sensitivities. If an eye needed to detect light best, it would have highly receptive colour sensation for yellow/green. Which eyes do. Those frequencies, which the sun creates at its highest numbers of photons, thus brightest, give the greatest amount of information. It’s efficient, least energy. If we lived on a planet whose sun were yellow to slightly orange, our photopigments would be most sensitive at those frequencies, would they not? So our eyes are clearly attuned, evolutionarily & structurally to the sun. So is the rest of our nervous attuned closely to other common events in existence. As will be shown shortly. These are but a few of the  of the many kinds of insights which comparison process thinking can give.
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These insights have been missed, for want of the comparison process and least energy tools. & perhaps, we can still see a lot, by just watching, to paraphrase Yogi Berra. Observation still trumps most all models, and creates, corrects, and extends them, too. & so the sciences are self-correcting by carefully observing repeating events in existence.
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Thus do we find this comparison process which creates many methods to be useful. At your UC Berkeley campus, Dr. Paul J. Stark, PhD, Statistics chair, has a lovely video in which he discusses, “How do we know treatments have effects? The Methods of Comparison.”
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“the effect is ubiquitous.” That is, universal in application. and he’s worked it out rather well, though he’s likely talking about methods, plural, rather than one. The comparison methods create information, and as Dr. Karl Friston states, regarding least energy (LE), it’s “consilient”. Crossing many fields in application, as Dr. Stark also writes. Pieces of this model are all over, but not yet fully integrated and developed. This is yet again more evidence of near universality.
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Dr Friston’s works on connecting least energy to how brain functions is pretty well spot on and well worked out over the last 25 years. My work on evolution from the comparison, LE approach, pretty well confirms his, and that of others who’ve also seen those relationships when applying LE.
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This is cutting edge evolutionary biology, but few have realized it. & at the heart of it lies LE and comparison processing.
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When the comparison process and least energy are added in, we get a very great deal of information back out. The inputs and outputs of our CC’s can do this repeatedly, and even input outputs to create the hierarchies of our understandings. Essentially, our language and modeling systems are built upon this. Cognition psychology taught us a very great deal, but hasn’t progressed enough yet, tho intuitively  they realized that recognitions are basic & the case. But what is behind recognition? Clearly, it’s comparison process. When we perceive events in existence, we at once compare those to our long term memories, and if we find a match, we recognize it, that is we “re-know it”. The language, etymology reflect the structure which gave rise to it. and this is another key to understanding understanding and thinking about thinking.
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The constant calls to LTM for recognition and the learning which establishes those memories are very clearly related. Events in our universe repeat themselves multiply. Those which are important to us, reinforce themselves into LTM. These are the CC’s modeling the repeating events by reinforcement. & then we create our landmarks & so forth upon those perceived events. This is essentially the behaviorist model, but it’s missing big pieces, neurochemically and neurophysiologically. It’s incomplete, which will be shown below. The highly repeating events in existence, are yet another basic clue to AI and how it can be created. Plus they weigh in heavily with respect to confirmation of events in existence by the sciences.
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But when we want to understand description which is largely verbal, we also can find the quantitative version of description, measuring, most useful. When we take a ruler or tape to measure length, we compare the set, stable length standard to the event to be measured. This creates data, or information of length. & when we compare to a word standard, we describe relative to that standard, say a colour among the ROY G BIV standards. Is it red, or yellow, or green, or blue, etc.? So it’s likely that our descriptive measure of events, using words, which are primary, are intimately related by comparison processing to measuring standards as well. They both are comparison methods. Virtually all we do to create information & understanding is thus rooted in comparison processing in our cortices. Again, essential to creating AI.
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Most words are likely descriptive standards which we compare to events in existence to understand those events. That is we relate them to events. and this is the point, it’s the comparison which creates the information and knowledge, as the measurement creates the data and information also. Ideas/Words are relatively arbitrary standards by which we measure events and describe them, qualitatively.
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For instance, “son”. We know how he is related to his parents, mother and father, his siblings, and his parent’s sibling as his aunts and uncles and his parent’s sibling. The “relatives” of the son are clear. This builds up the hierarchies of genealogies and how we are related to others in our families. The son has a father, as his father was a son, and can have a grandfather, too, or grandsons and so forth. Each comparison creates an hierarchy. Each relative has set specific relationships created and read by comparison processing. In order for AI to be able to function, it MUST be able to understand, create, and navigate the hierarchies of our understandings with simple facility. This could be termed a “hierarchical Turing test” for AI.
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And we see the hierarchies all around us. Comparison process both creates the hierarchies and navigates among them. The hierarchies of the dictionaries in alphabetic order, for instance.  Every word ordered by alphabetic comparison processes using trial and error, and dictionaries read by same process. It BOTH writes and reads, & is thus LE. It does lots with a little. The taxonomies of the species, in the millions; the taxonomies of the languages, both current and extinct, each finding its relationship to the others by hierarchic relationships among comparisons without limit of the words in each language (&/or dialects), and how those are related by “comparative linguistics” to the other. The Teutonic are clearly related by comparison, massively. The next hierarchy of the Indo-european. The Ungaro-altaic related to Suomi and Magyar, as well. Each, massively compared by words to the others. The Semitic languages, of ancient Egyptian, Arabic, Amharic, Coptic, Aramaic, etc., are all seen by massive comparison of words to be closely related languages. Each comparison combines to create a huge amount of data supporting the ubiquity and limitless use of comparison process, innate to our cortices. 34 millions of elements & compounds ordered in the IUPAC hierarchical listing, alone; all of them comparison process created, placed and read.
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This is Einsteinian epistemology as well, because there are NO absolute measures or times or spaces, or much else. Most all that we measure is “relative”, that is, a comparison standard, which Einstein believed was arbitrary, but in fact is not likely that arbitrary. Thus does comparison process tie in neatly with the established facts of relativity, and explain it as well.
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For instance, he stated that one could use any planet, or any position in our solar system as a fixed point to which we could relate everything else in the universe. But he missed this crucial point. Newtonian physics puts the sun at the center, because of least energy. Orbits about the sun are least energy. Orbits around the earth are not. Least energy rules, yet again. And this is the point. our linguistic standards, and the means by which are brains operate are NOT unlimitedly listings of complexities, but related to least energy rules as the standards. Thus our measuring systems, Hands for horse heights at the shoulder, and feet for length, are least energy. & based upon comparison to human anatomies, at first. Least energy rules are often the means by which we cut the Gordian knots of complexity.
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For our senses we feel hot and cold. Hot, hotter, hottest, and cold, colder coldest. Hot, more hot, most hot, and cool, more cool and most cool. Notably, the central “hotter” words, etc., ARE the comparative forms!!! Again, language shows us the way, but we did not see those clear clues. Those scales are most all comparisons!! These are many instances of linear temperature scales.
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But put a warm object on a cold hand, and it will feel hot. Put a cold object on a cold hand and it will seem normal. or a cold object on a very warm hand? Extreme temperatures again. Sensation is thus largely comparison process, too. And we compare the relatively fixed standard of our temperature scales, based upon the STP boiling point of water and its vaporizing points, do we not? Simple, ubiquitous water, becomes the basis of human temperature scales. An efficient, stable standard is thus created by simplicity and the commonality of water.
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Hardness is the Moh’s relative scale to talc which is soft, limestone harder, corundum (sapphire) and diamond, hardest. Thus hardness description is also comparison process. Now we use GPA’s, but that is relative to a more standardized and thus more efficient hardness standard, is it not?
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And for visual images? Why should we think that the visual system uses our geometries for modeling the universe of events? Non-euclidean models the real universe, and neither do we see perfect circles, right angles, squares and triangles very much in the natural world, either. Instead, more fractal types of features, which are clearly NOT Euclidean, even as our space/time maths use non-euclidean geometries. And so for shapes the visual system uses curves and roundness, because those are the commonest features the occipital lobes detect. The mother’s face is marked by roundnesses and curves. That likely sets the standard for shape processing in our visual cortex.
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Thus, we see optical illusions, some of the commonest of which involve seeing straight lines as curved. Esp., the two straight lines drawn through a series of nested circles. This optical illusion is illustrative of all the others. and how to show those lines are NOT curved, which our visual systems insists they are? Take a clear plastic straight edge ruler and lay it down next to the straight line. and the illusion disappears at once. & generalizing, for nearly every optical illusion there is a comparison correction, or more than one, which will show the illusion. Again, recalling the colour generation of our visual systems, the comparison shows the illusion and the comparison correction(s) which fixes it. THAT is significant evidence again how the comparison process creates sensations of all sorts through central processing.
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I referred this article to the Euro Radiological Society and am STILL getting hits after 2 years. & this is how we can further investigate how the visual system creates images, by the misfires of comparison processing in creating the whole, unlimited panoplies of optical illusions. Among those illusions lies the structure/function relationships about how our visual systems work. and not just ours, but most all animals with eyes, too.
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Radiology is simply reading images and reporting the findings. But how is this “reading” done? Simple, just like description and measurements are done against fixed standards to create meaning and insights, and new data/information. Each medical specialist, & the more so radiologists, have relatively fixed, efficient standards by which “normal” is judged. By comparing those standards by which they have learned efficiently to read images, they know using a set routine, if AP and lateral chest X-rays, by massive comparisons, are normal or not. The same for all MRI, fMRI, EEG’s, MEG’s, ultrasounds, arteriograms, etc., massive, standardized comparison processing. The same for lab data of patients which is compared to normal standard. How many more instances of comparison processing do we need to realize it’s ubiquitous & universal, and thus proved to exist? It’s self evident.
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What of the plate tectonics model in geology? It’s complex system, largely visual thinking, too. Setting up the standards of upwelling zones, or mid-oceanic rift zones, subduction zones, etc. If AI can learn to understand tectonics, and its hierarchies, and how those all interact and work, as well as recognize its features, WITHOUT previous specific training in new examples it hasn’t seen, then General AI is upon us. My work has shown some of this water. But it’s likely there are many more wellsprings of our humanity’s creativity, understanding, and much else.
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& there it is. The mind/brain interface of the cortex, which in the CC’s of Mountcastle, a simple, single, repeating process creates the outputs of the mind, including languages, sensations, creativities, the many, multiplicit functions of consciousness, as well as the moral conscience. The latter of which can be imaged at this time.
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Thus language is easy to generate, from the simple repeating “dada, mama” to the complex. And math as well. Take the linear, number line of counting, 1 + 1, 2 +1,. etc. We can count up and then down. From 2 to 8 there are six counts and vice versa. From that we know there are 4 two’s in 8, and vice versa. By subtraction the same, and by division the same. The we get the exponential both base 10, natural and logarithmic methods.
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And the hierarchies are again there, the 1’s place, the 10’s, the 100’s, the 1000’s, 100’s of 1000’s, millions and so forth. And the counting, 1st hierarchy; addition/subtractions, second hierarchy; 3rd hierarchy, multiplication and division; 4th, exponentials, etc.
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For geometries and algebra, we see that when we compare the circumference to the diameter, we derive Pi, as a ratio, a proportion. We get constants, and speed in the same ways. Thus do we get algebra, which is essentially ratios and comparisons, too. And we get trigonometry which are the precise ratios of idealized right triangles by comparing their 2 sides, and angles, to derive the other side, Most all comparison processing, is it not?
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And yet it’s far, far deeper than that. When we value items against each other by barter, a bushel of grain is worth some silver, or some copper. Or we create money which measures values of items against a relatively stable, set constant called, for instance, a dollar or pound. Its costs and values, and each currency, each value can be compared to all others by “conversion factors”, or constants, derived by, you guessed it, comparison processing. And when we shop for the best items, for the best costs, we use both massive comparison processing as well as least energy to get the best for our bucks, too.
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Most all of our brain higher cortical outputs are comparison processes. Again as some AI experts have stated, “a single repeating principle in the brain which creates predictive control.”
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This is how predictive control is obtained:
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Comparison processing creates classifications, indices, and social classes among humans as well as the flocks, herds, schools, and so forth. “Like knows like” through universal recognitions created by comparison processing, that is thinking. IQ also becomes easy to define and measure, and not only in humans, either.
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Communication becomes translation & lots easier, because of
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Ich bin hier.
I am here.
Je suis ici.
Estoy ahi.
Sum hic.
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Most translation is comparison processing, tho context is also CP and is not easily recognizable to a computer. It cannot recognize as easily as we can and with high facility, that we talk differently to bosses, employees, lover, parents, and so forth. Thus context is comparison process, easily seen once we begin to apply CP.
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“It’s beautiful.” he said to her later in the day.
“It surely is.” she replied. Computers will have a hard time recognizing the sunset context here, let alone the others which are social.
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& how to communicate with dolphins? What do we recognize in common with them? By the rule of commonality, fish, sharks, bubbles, colours, and so forth. Recently it’s been claimed dolphins have names for each other. because they observed that specific whistles often in a pod attracted the attentions of single members. & when those were played back, only the one whose “name” was broadcast showed interest. Trial and error, comparison process.
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& when we go into space and meet other species space faring or not? How did our trading ancestors do it?
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This is wood, this is water, this is meat, and what’s your name for those? Those events in existence which we have in common, those events in existence which create recognitions by continuing reinforcement because similar events repeat themselves. We show the aliens ice, liquid water, and water vapour. Give them our names for those, and at once we have 3 phases of matter and water, which is the commonest life giving element, & must be ubiquitous, as well. Commonest standards, commonest used, even for weight as the 1 cc. gram of water, too. and densities, yet another comparison of mass over volume? The rest flows easily from there. Universal understanding, at a stroke. Simple, easy, elegant, highly fruitful.
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Have gone on way too long, but the model is highly applicable to most everything. Without limits. The universality of the CP and the LE models is notable. It can even, where Hawking’s “The Grand Design” lamented, we cannot integrate the classical models of thermodynamics, relativity and QM, while he missed biology, which also isn’t consistent with two of them, either. The commonalities of understanding can likely create a Unified model of most everything. Defragmenting the sciences, as well.
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ER equals EPR. Some of your physics colleagues will see this relationship as part of unifying physics of relativity and entanglement, as this model predicts. There are many, many other bridging concepts which can be used, of which LE is key, too. Esp. in solving the complexities of Quantum wave equations. There are approaches possible to achieve even that. Well past renormalization, which is a specific app of a more general solution kind.
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The implications for AI of where the hierarchies of our understanding come from, how to both create and read and extend those using creativity are thus almost at once apparent. The system can even model neurochemistry, using Dopamine and its ancient and central, 10+ receptor sites, which both create motion and Emotion (D1 and D2, largely). DA can be compared against most all the other neurochemicals such as serotonin, to create sleep/wake cycles, why we dream & even how to better treat migraine headaches, using complex systems thinking. Or how to make Viagra 50 mg. last about 3 days, where its normal duration is 6-8 hours. Then there’s Cialis.
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Bacterial resistances to antibiotics, which are very easily overcome, as well, using this new paradigm & epistemology of comparison process and least energy, structure/function, and complex systems thinking. Thus we do more with lots less. The secret of growth of all kinds.
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Hope you found this interesting. I can answer a LOT of questions, including how and why events go viral, fashions/fads & where humor comes from and how to create professional vs. amateur skills for improving education across the board, without limit. It’s behaviorism on super charge, largely extended, because the internal brain source of the classical & operant conditioning model has been found, too.
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The facts that human think visually is well known. The above alignment of our brains to visual images is no accident and shows that we are visual creatures. In Sagan’s “Cosmos” he showed how Einstein was using “visual thinking” in order to create his relativity model. Einstein asked what it would be like, using a visual thought experiment, to be “riding on a photon”. Also used was the image of picturing a person in a gravitational field and then comparing that to a person in a rocket which was constantly accelerating. The person could not easily know the difference!  And these two visual and sensory insights were basic to creating relativity.
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Thus, if there is to be TRUE AI, then it must be able to think visually as we humans can. It must be able to solve the problem of where to place an insect in the hierarchies of the beetles, for instance. And if presented with an unknown, to know where that critter must be placed in the established hierarchies of living species.
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In addition, if it were to hear a language, it must be able to place that language into the hierarchies of the taxonomies of Slavic, Teutonic, romance, and Indo-european, languages, not to ignore the Eastern Asian language as well. It must also be able to create new categories from data, and make sense of that data, thus understanding the relationships of the categories in our hierarchies, upon demand. It must understand the IUPAC, and hnow to place, read and add new categories to that hierarchy as well. Thus, the HIerarchical Turing test, will, if AI can read, understand and creatively add to it, be a solid test for actual, real existing general AI.
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These methods can answer many questions about AI, and how to get to the Promised Land of general AI. Half the problem of getting there is solved if we know WHERE we are going. And if some go by trial and error, in all its combinatorial complexity, compared to those of us who know WHERE to find our goals, that is we know better & more completely what we are trying to simulate, the win goes to the best model because it’s swiftest & most efficient.

Melding Cognitive Neuroscience & Behaviorism

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/CP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014

Cognitive Neuroscience and Behaviorism can now be significantly joined by using the models in the previous articles. Comparison processes, Least energy, Complex systems, and Comparison methods which exist without limit, can be combined in a more comprehension model of the higher cognitive functions. lastly, the Structure/function relationships which allow us to identify areas in brain which subsume the higher abstractive functions, such as language/math, thinking and reasoning; vision, and other senses, motion and skilled acts;, etc. Essentially, the many higher cognitive functions which create and make up when combined and integrated, our consciousnesses, i.e., how we structure and understand events around us and within us..

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Comparison process is a universally applicable function, and virtually everything within and without the nervous systems can be compared and contrasted to other events as well. The CP creates the comparison methods, which were widely and well described by Dr. Paul J. Stark, dept. Chair, Statistics, Univ. Cal. Berkeley, and has been referenced numerous times before.
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Dr. Stark writes of the “ubiquity” of the comparison method(s), which are available, and cut across most fields, making the CP consilient, and virtually universally applicable worldwide.
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 In addition, when we look at our adjectives, which are used to describe most all events, as well, we find the series “high, higher, highest, low lower lowest; cold colder coldest, hot, hotter hottest”, without limit, from the base forms, some, more, most. The first base form is that. The last the “-st” forms, universally used in English worldwide, is the superlative. And the middle form, the “-er” form? The Comparative. There it is again. Very likely all those 3 basic forms are comparison methods as well, with the first setting, then to the highest, or lowest and the rest being comparatively used, universally and applicable to most all descriptive uses. It’s bigger than a breadbox, or hotter than hell, or colder than a freezer, to give some idea of the widest ranges of these comparative terms within our language, called adjectives. Unlimited, as well. Comparison is ubiquitous, it’s universal in our languages, and most all have forms of these same meanings, as well. These are the comparison methods at work in our adjectives, which we use to describe, and measure as well.
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Have previous discussed how the comparison process (CP) is a kind of logic which does NOT use the negative. And have discussed how the negative arose as a specific, likely over extension of the exclusions seen. This insight into the negative as a near universal exclusive form Hofstadter shows how the incompleteness of Godel’s Proof arise from this inconsistency, of “This statement is false.” or “I am a liar”, among all the limitless permutations.
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In contrast, the CP is the original logic, and it’s a logic of exclusion, which is NOT like formal verbal logics and because of this is naturally self consistent. Exclusion is a highly limited form of the negative. And from this logic likely arises what has heretofore been called “inductive logic.” But it’s lots more than mere induction, too.
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The CP does a very great deal as it organizes information in many ways, as well. This was discussed in alphabetization of dictionaries, indices, maps, hierarchies, taxonomies, the IUPAC listing of all known compounds, and elements and their characteristics. & the periodic table of the elements. Also we see the family trees of genealogy, which naturally relates to the taxonomies of both life (Kingdom, phyla, class, order, family, genera, species, and variants of species), and languages, a la the romance languages, the Slavic languages, the Teutonic, Semitic, as well as the overall hierarchy of the Indo-European languages, & those of Asia, as well. All massively CP of the similarities of words to each other, which finds those relationship/associations of words and organizes languages into a genetic order, as well.
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 It’s also the root and method of trial and error. CP does a VERY great deal with a little. Creating, writing our dictionaries, as well as reading them, all by trial and error.
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Please peruse section 8.
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It’s also the origin of data, information and knowledge, and can be very, very easily shown to be the case by this simple, but easily expandable proof using measurement, which is a numerical form of description.  This discussed in the article:
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By measuring, using the epistemology of Einstein’s relativity (relationships), we compare a relatively fixed, stable, useful and efficient scale, such as a meter stick. And compare all lengths against that numerical standard. The output is numerical data, and information. So every time we measure something we are creating new information, be it degrees (comparing to the boiling and freezing points of water in both Centigrade and Fahrenheit scales), or weights (against 1 cc. of water at STP, the gram). Or volumes (against a cc. of water). Or pi as the comparison of the lengths of the circumference and diameter. Or algebras as the ratios & proportions, viz. the Comparisons. Trigonometry compares the angles of the sides of the right triangle, as is a form of algebra as well. It’s endless in mathematics & measuring, endlessly useful and repeatable, as well. A comparison method of immense utility.
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Many concepts and constants in nature are found this way, viz., Pi, the gravitational constant, density, which is gm./cc. ratios, and speeds/velocities, which are km./hour, or minute or second as the case may be. Each of them specific and repeatedly applicable evidences of the wide use of the CP operating in our cortices, producing our mathematics, as well.
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Now examine the verbal descriptions we use, as above with the quasi numericities of high, higher and highest, or short, shorter, and shortest Thus showing how verbal descriptions are converted, translated by comparison process into numericity of the scales arising from our senses, long/short, hot/cold, warm/cool, big/little, etc., without limit. There are 10K’s of these adjectival forms in English and they can be created at will without limit. And in each case of them, these trios are specific and unlimited evidence for the existence of the comparison process repeatedly and provably working without end (La Chanson Sans Fin) in our cortices.
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Observe how we describe colours, ROY G BIV, by COMPARING those universal standards of colour, against which we describe new events by comparison to our standards. & thus create new information/data. Each word, by clear, logical extension  can be seen & understood, as an efficient comparison standard, which when applied to each new event seen, can describe it relatively to those ideas/words which already exist. Description and measurement are two differing methods by which we describe, but both act, at their root, using comparison processes, arising from the cortical language centers.
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Ideas/words most often reinforce each other. The idea is connected intimately to the word, both spoken and now with writing, spelled. Ideas are thus grounded, and reinforced by words, both written & spoken. Ideas become more stable, more usable, more memorable, in these cases. Thus does description using words, act in its own way, as does numerical measuring, to describe events in our existence, both internally or externally. But verbal descriptions are the older system and far, far more flexible. & mathematics as Ulam stated, needs to be much more developed and advanced in order to describe what our words do easily, more flexibly and more universally.
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The cameos of how we think, a guy sitting in the sun. It was a cold day, breezy, so to stay warm, he found a place in the warming sun, out of the wind, and kept warm. The animals know the same, and use it intuitively, such as insects warming in the sun, the seals laying on the beach in sun to warm up from the cold water, & even Dimetrodon whose sail like back structures allowed it to warm up more quickly as ir ran blood thru the sail on is back, and thus warmed up more quickly, too. Thus showing how ubiqutous this is. Altho those animal use, but cannot express what they are doing as we can.
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So the chap thought about it, and this created creativity, by finding through trial and error, methods to warm up and stay warm, too. It’s universal in how we think, as well. CP shows us how to look inside of the brain and see how the mind orders itself and works.
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CP is also the source of how our memories are ordered. Hofstadter has a list of 100’s of words which he’s used erroneously, but which were VERY similar to each other, as evidence of his analogy model of brain processing. But at the root of the analogy, is the comparison process of the entire word cluster of Analogy, metaphor, story, parable, fable, aphorism, koan, etc. All fundamentally comparison process methods, differing modestly, but like the moral laws, the civil/legal laws, the universal scientific laws, and the rules and regs organizing and governing all human groups from the family units up to the means of running schools, churches, corporations and indeed all forms of human groups and associates. The same, massive CP among rules and regs and how we, and events in the universe, behave, and are to behave. From whence comes the moral Conscience as well. All forms all CP methods with the same roots.
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At the roots of mnemonics, most all of them are the comparison processes. The word associations, the tricks of memory, because most all words are, as Hofstadter intuitively saw, are organized by what he missed, the comparison process. Universal, ubiquitous, as Dr. Sharp showed, consilient, La Chanson Sans Fin.
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But how are our verbal memories organized? Clearly not by logic, nor by numbers, but by Sounds. For instance, when we want to use the form, “word”: we can mistakenly use world, or work, as all 3 start the same way. Thus most all words are stored in this hierarchical way, with wor- being a starting form, then we check by T&E for the k, or -ld, or d which we need to find. Because we are searching by T&E we will occ. make a mistake, but as the words are very closely organized, and resemble each other greatly, the information in each allows us to find the right one. Again, information in our “mistakes”, which are not totally wrong. Thus most all words are stored by such sound alike hierarchies, at least at first.
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As we grow older we begin to attach many new relationships and information to each word. As these categories become more complete, reasoning begins to occur about age 12 or so. But take Ohio, for instance. At first it’s simply the 3 syllables, with the 2nd accented. The we learn there are counties there, geographical regions, and that Ohio borders on Michigan to the N, Indiana to the W, PA to the East and Kentucky to the south, on the Ohio River, and W. Virginian to the SE. Then we learn the cities and major counties, the capital, and that it’s on Lake Erie, one of the whole collection of
Great Lakes, too. So when we think of Ohio, all of these connections are available for our thinking. And just as we select what we want to find the words stored by sounds since childhood, so do we create hierarchical chains of memory tracing tying all of these facts together around, Ohio.
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Another example outside of the two ways in which that chap stayed warm, and how he created solutions of staying out of the wind and in the warming sun, synergistically operating. & both which minimize by comparison of outcomes, i.e., trial and error, comes “A mother’s wisdom, the putting together, making connections, the roots of our creativities in most all fields, as well.
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IN addition, there is yet another basic way of using this information. Most of us have had that time when we could not recall a name or word, but we had something close to it, such as when looking for a name we think of Lewis. as stated before, there is information in our mistakes, which is the beauty and value of the CP. Even our mistakes have the information within them to correct those. So we do a permutation search, knowing we are close to the right name, but not on the money. and we see the name Bruce, and it complete it. We were looking for Willis, and we see thus how close it was to Lewis. Just switch the first 3 letters around and there is the answer. There are endless kinds of these queries we can use to find the words/names we want. Just by being aware of it, is often enough to eventually by T&E finding the right combo to lead us to the word searched for.
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Clearly, because words are organized by CP this is how both mnemonic systems work and how we store as well as find the words we seek, tho in a very facilitated way, which of course, is called verbal fluency in language.
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Now combine the comparison processes  and CP methods with least energy, which is a comparison process as well. All actions take energy. We can compare the energy cost of each action against those similar, and find the one which is least energy. That’s the winner. This is a creativity aspect as well, and as stated before, any systems which can be translated to thermodynamic methods ARE very likely to be real. Least energy methods are real, as the source of tgrial and error outcomes of advantage. As the sources of figuring out good solutions to problems, that is decision making. As we compare outcomes, a la Dr. Sharp, we learn which is most effective, and which has least side effects. & which has the least energy costs, least money cost, least wastage of materials, and least time to perform. Least energy, least energy, least energy. Simplify, simplify, simplify outcomes of Henry David Thoreau. As well as  Occam’s Razor, which states, that the model which explains the most, with the least is the most likely to be right. Least energy again. Creativity again. Do you see? CP, CP, CP, LE, LE, LE, outcomes compared to each other for maximizing benefit with minimal costs.
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This article shows how this creates growth from LE processes:
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Having established the fundamental basics of mental processing of information and creation of same, it’s necessary to look at behaviorism and meld this with the cognitive neurosciences. Essentially, behaviorism seeks to explain human actions based upon stimulus/response, the comparison process form very similar to cause/effect, input/output, structure/function, etc., being most all CP forms.
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And this is an extension of behaviorism into the complex system, structure/function model of CP and least energy. In our environment there exist endless numbers of repeating stabilities. Days, hours, sunrises/sunset, trees, grasses, stars and constellations. All fo this are easily and readily seen, recognized and known again and again without limited. The repetitions of events in our existences, the stabilities.
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And how this related to the reinforcement and learnings of behaviorisms is at once very, very clear. Each time we see the same, similar and repeating event, it’s reinforced. We see each stability/event enough times, our long term memory stores it by this constant reinforcement of being sense, again. Be it a word/idea, a kind of bird, a building, a morning/evening star, and so forth. The repetitions of events reinforces those events into our LTM, and this happens naturally and spontaneously. & the more we see any event the faster it’s going to be stored, is not? And is this not learning?  Repetitions of events promote reinforcements of Long Term Memories.
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Now consider these, the neurophysiology of dopamine, the growth and spread of humor and memes, the going viral on the internet, or the creation of fads and fashion. All spread and are created by the same, repeating means. The dopamine boost, as has been described before an an internal reinforcing process driven by dopamine (DA). IN fact, DA will preferentially facilitate laying down of LTM, as well. For instance, we most all of us easily recall the first time we had sex with another. We recall the momentous events in our lives, those wedding, that first child born to us, the dreadful accidents and injuries we had. In each case, there was a huge DA boost, in cases of injuries the flight or fight response, created by release fo DA, adrenalin(DA originated, metabolically), cortisone, anandamide, etc. This forced us to lay down deeply ingraining information into our LTM. DA and catecholamines facilitate us to recall those events. And as such, DA also creates growth, in the same was a the Growth and development article above shows.
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So not only does Least Energy create growth in brains, with fads, fashion, and the spread of humorous stories, memes, and going viral on the Net, but it Synergistically acts with DA to create growth of our ideas, & actions, as well. These are the two brain systems both in competition with each other, but capable of working together. The physical and the emotional (DA drive). DA creates both the Motion and Emotion in our bodies and brains. & when combined with LE processes can substantially promote growth of both sorts in humans, as well. & it applies by easy extension to the animals and plants, and even the creativity of the DNA itself. Because the laying down of LTM is protein synthesis driven and that means DNA activation by DA without question via messenger RNA to create the physical LTM, mediated by neuronal synapses, rather permanent Long Term Memories.
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These internal events have been missed. The external reinforcements of Pavlovian classical conditioning as well as the behavorist discovery of operant conditioning, BOTH operate using LE as well and DA boost. The external conditions effects, are in fact, very likely reinforced and made to work by the DA boost, acting as the final common pathways in learning of most all kinds. The person who is motivated to learn. The pleasures of Philosophy, as Aristotle states, are dopamine boosted. The mother who gives her child sweets while he’s learning so he will be reinforced to learn and LOVE learning, again, internal DA boosting. Thus the DA boost is the internalizing  event of the exterior, visible conditioning events. and not only simplifies our understanding of behavioral reinforcement, but this comparison process explains behaviorism, as well. Providing a cognitive, neuroscientific process which underlies behaviorism and thus in a deliciously efficient, elegant, and simple way, shows how learning occurs.
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The “Eureka” moment of Archimedes. The thrill of victory and the agony of defeat. The mountaintop experiences, and discoveries, all driven simply, easily understood both by LE in tandem with the highly reinforcing and remembering, dopamine boost euphorias.
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Curiosity is likely the same. I recall when my son brought in a lizard in a bottle. and he was very excited. “Daddy, daddy, look what “I” found!” And it passed into his LTM because it was exciting to him, via DA boost. Cognitive activation methods in teaching in school are of the same kind, easily explained by DA boosting of the teaching methods. The “AHA”, again, you see?
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And this is how both cognitive neuroscience AND behaviorist methods can be brought together in a fruitful melding of ideas, Now systems are joined together by the deep connectivity of the comparison process acting within brain/mind.
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And how in “Towards Universal Understanding” the thermodynamics, relativity and QM, when combined with  complex systems thinking, CP and it’s methods, LE, and structure/function relationships can create, potentially, Universal models, which by using the universally applicably Comparison processes and methods, plus Least Energy (universally applicable, too), can unite most all knowledge, and explain most all which is within &  without  our brains/bodies and the universe of events in existence.
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Universal models. The logic of the comparison process.

La Chanson Sans Fin: Table of Contents

1. The Comparison Process, Introduction, Pt. 1
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/02/14/le-chanson-sans-fin-the-comparison-process-introduction/?relatedposts_hit=1&relatedposts_origin=22&relatedposts_position=0

2. The Comparison Process, Introduction, Pt. 2
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/02/14/le-chanson-sans-fin-the-comparison-process-pt-2/?relatedposts_hit=1&relatedposts_origin=3&relatedposts_position=1

3. The Comparison Process, Introduction, Pt. 3
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/02/15/le-chanson-sans-fin-the-comparison-process-pt-3/?relatedposts_hit=1&relatedposts_origin=7&relatedposts_position=0

4. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 1
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/02/28/the-comparison-process-explananda-pt-1/

5. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 2
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/02/28/the-comparison-process-explananda-pt-2/

6. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 3
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/04/comparison-process-explananda-pt-3/?relatedposts_hit=1&relatedposts_origin=17&relatedposts_position=1

7. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 4
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/15/the-comparison-process-comp-explananda-4/?relatedposts_hit=1&relatedposts_origin=38&relatedposts_position=0

8. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 5: Cosmology
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/15/cosmology-and-the-comparison-process-comp-explananda-5/

9. AI and the Comparison Process
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/20/artificial-intelligence-ai-and-the-comparison-process-comp/

10. Optical and Sensory Illusions, Creativity and the Comparison Process (COMP)
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/06/opticalsensory-illusions-creativity-the-comp/

11. The Emotional Continuum: Exploring Emotions with the Comparison Process
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/02/the-emotional-continuum-exploring-emotions/

12. Depths within Depths: the Nested Great Mysteries
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/14/depths-within-depths-the-nested-great-mysteries/

13. Language/Math, Description/Measurement, Least Energy Principle and AI
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/09/languagemath-descriptionmeasurement-least-energy-principle-and-ai/

14. The Continua, Yin/Yang, Dualities; Creativity and Prediction
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/21/the-continua-yinyang-dualities-creativity-and-prediction/

15. Empirical Introspection and the Comparison Process
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/24/81/

16. The Spark of Life and the Soul of Wit
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/30/the-spark-of-life-and-the-soul-of-wit/

17. The Praxis: Use of Cortical Evoked Responses (CER), functional MRI (fMRI), Magnetic Electroencephalography (MEG), and Magnetic Stimulation of brain (MagStim) to investigate recognition, creativity and the Comparison Process

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/05/16/the-praxis/

18. A Field Trip into the Mind

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/05/21/106/

19. Complex Systems, Boundary Events and Hierarchies

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/06/11/complex-systems-boundary-events-and-hierarchies/

20. The Relativity of the Cortex: The Mind/Brain Interface

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/07/02/the-relativity-of-the-cortex-the-mindbrain-interface/

21. How to Cure Diabetes (AODM type 2)
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/07/18/how-to-cure-diabetes-aodm-2/

22. Dealing with Sociopaths, Terrorists and Riots

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/08/12/dealing-with-sociopaths-terrorists-and-riots/

23. Beyond the Absolute: The Limits to Knowledge

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/09/03/beyond-the-absolute-limits-to-knowledge/

24  Imaging the Conscience.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/10/20/imaging-the-conscience/

25. The Comparison Process: Creativity, and Linguistics. Analyzing a Movie

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/03/24/comparison-process-creativity-and-linguistics-analyzing-a-movie/

26. A Mother’s Wisdom

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/06/03/a-mothers-wisdom/

27. The Fox and the Hedgehog

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/06/19/the-fox-the-hedgehog/

28. Sequoias, Parkinson’s and Space Sickness.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/07/17/sequoias-parkinsons-and-space-sickness/

29. Evolution, growth, & Development: A Deeper Understanding.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/09/01/evolution-growth-development-a-deeper-understanding/

30. Explanandum 6: Understanding Complex Systems

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/09/08/explandum-6-understanding-complex-systems/

31. The Promised Land of the Undiscovered Country: Towards Universal Understanding

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/09/28/the-promised-land-of-the-undiscovered-country-towards-universal-understanding-2/

32. The Power of Proliferation

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/10/02/the-power-of-proliferation/

33. A Field Trip into our Understanding

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/11/03/a-field-trip-into-our-understanding/

34.  Extensions & applications: Pts. 1 & 2.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/05/17/extensions-applications-pts-1-2/

(35. A Hierarchical Turing Test for General AI, this was deleted after being posted, and it’s not known how it occurred.)

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/05/17/extensions-applications-pts-1-2/

35. The Structure of Color Vision

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/06/11/the-structure-of-color-vision/

36. La Chanson Sans Fin:   Table of Contents

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/09/28/le-chanson-sans-fin-table-of-contents-2/

37. The Structure of Color Vision

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/06/16/the-structure-of-color-vision-2/

38. Stabilities, Repetitions, and Confirmability

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/06/30/stabilities-repetitions-confirmability/

39. The Balanced Brain

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/07/08/the-balanced-brain/

40. The Limits to Linear Thinking & Methods

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/07/10/the-limits-to-linear-thinking-methods/

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41. Melding Cognitive Neuroscience & Behaviorism

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/11/19/melding-cognitive-neuroscience-behaviorism/

42. An Hierarchical Turing Test for AI

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/12/02/an-hierarchical-turing-test-for-ai/

43.  Do Neutron Stars develop into White Dwarfs by Mass Loss?https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/02/08/do-neutron-stars-develop-into-white-dwarfs-by-mass-loss/

44. An Infinity of Flavors ?                             https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/02/16/an-infinity-of-flavors/

 

 

The Limits to Linear Thinking & Methods

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/CP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014
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Largely the old ways of linear thinking are coming to an end. This can be demonstrated in many ways, but the Procrustean mythos of the old Greeks was about this real, limiting problem. The false dichotomies, ” A —> B only” mentality of machines where pushing a button yields only one outcome, whereas as in complex systems (most of the universe of events, 99.99+%) can do much with little. Linear logic and methods have reached their limits to growth. We are clear about this because of the rule of diminishing returns of incompleteness and oversimplification. The simple logics and methods are becoming obsolete and being replaced by far, far better methods which can do more with lots less, and thus grow faster, and do what linear methods cannot even dream of. This change of epistemology and paradigm marks the end of the machine age, in short.

That logic and forms of math which use those recursive logics are not complete as Godel’s Proof shows, more accurately called Godel’s Incompleteness theorem. And it’s easy to see how this works. If everything is either A or not A, and there is no excluded third, as formal verbal logic demands, then this is refuted greatly by the statements that events are either White or black. This is but the fallacy of the false dichotomy, which misses the unlimited variations of shades of greys between the two. Thus our logic eats itself like the Ouroboros snake. It’s intrinsically not logical. Or using another approach the koan of Ulam who stated, calling the universe “non-linear” is like calling biology the study of All non-elephants. It misses millions of species. And those are why linear methods are incomplete, and we are reaching the end of the machine age. It’s simplifying, but too much so. It’s to some extent an easier way of looking at things, but it misses too much to be very complete. & that’s the problem. Light speed measurements, which contrast greatly with QM interpretations of the same events which also elide over and cover up this fallacy will be addressed below.

.Another example is that of graphite reactors, which are complex system at low power due to small areas of fluctuation which propagate from chain reactions beginning at some sites more than others and create instabilities, which can blow up, compared to more sustained, more even linear fissioning processes at higher power outputs.

.The same kind of widely varying rates of fissioning at low power are unstable because some areas will rapidly grow by input/output mechanisms. As a few neutrons hit a few atoms those fission, releasing more neutrons, creating the very quickly rising, notable chain reaction. But in fact, those take place at the onset of fissioning at random areas, where more or less fissioning at low power takes place. This arose from input/output effects, where by chance chain reactions grow exponentially simply by random events, and in other places not so much, due to variations in purity and interactions of fissioning centers as they coalesce and become more even, pretty much homogenous fissioning areas at higher power. The instabilities come at shut down, and powering up. This is what destroyed Chernobyl’s reactor block 4, to the destruction of the USSR, and continuing dreadful radiation contamination problems existing widely over central Europe, today. It’s a complex system being ignored by linear thinking which likely created the problem.

.Very likely had the first nuclear pile, created by Fermi and Leo Szilard, the latter who first realized the possibility of the nuclear chain reaction and patented it for himself, was a similar kind of graphite moderated reactor used at both Windscale’s disastrous events, and Chernobyl’s, the RBMK-1000 models. Had Fermi and his team been less lucky, they could have blown up several city blocks in Chicago and essentially badly damaged or destroyed much of the University of Chicago and even that great city. But nothing is gained by not trying out new methods, although hopefully, as in Alamagordo which was way out in the middle of vast empty areas, showed they’d learned their lesson, at least in part. Those are how complex systems can be applied, as well.

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As another example of linear thinking ignoring complex system effects & events, look at a weather vane, turbulent flow and plane crashes to see the aspects of complex systems being missed by the forced linear, Procrustean bed approach of eliminating most of what’s going on. For simplification for sure, but still, yields wildly and serious incomplete methods and models. A weather vane generally shows wind direction. But let’s take a complex system, more complete look at what’s much more likely going on. Compare the direction of the wind using a heavier weather vane versus a much lighter one. (Wind socks are ever much more so linear, too!) The heavier weather vane weighs more, uses inertia of matter to even out all of the other directions of turbulent flow of wind. So do wind tunnels, for that matter. Both are highly linearized methods which ignore what’s much more likely ongoing.

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For instance, the light weather vane on a breezy day will point generally in wide ranges of directions, but on the other hand, it varies its directions a LOT more due to the real, turbulent flow of the wind currents. Thus it can move, literally in any direction as does the turbulent flow of wind, which is the case, & will create vortices, eddies and other features developing from normal wind flow, so that the lighter vane can point even oppositely at times compared to the heavier. & light vanes can even spin about whereas the heavier vane will not be so likely to do that. Thus the heavy weather vane is linearizing wind events and creating a false output, which while it simplifies interpretation, is in fact not the case and thus not a very complete description of wind flow.
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Further, Turbulent flow is growth capable, which is why a butterfly’s wing flapping can create via growth processes the outcomes of Tropical Storms to typhoons. & the same growth capabilities of complex systems, create the transforms relative to emergence in complex living systems as well. Turbulent flow is created by this constant adding up and proliferation of events.
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This omission of real data, ignoring existing events has serious implications for aircraft  flight. As mentioned above, wind tunnels give a highly linearized kind of flow, which is NOT what’s seen in the real life of turbulent flow, i.e., winds. Thus the efficiencies of such wings are just about ONLY seen at higher velocities, rather than the lower. As the fixed wing planes fly slowly, the wind flow over wings is necessarily more turbulent. As they speed up, it becomes more linearized. This creates a problem at lower speeds, too, because the fixed wings are designed for high velocity. But, and this is the key point, slowing down and landing and speeding up from stopped to lift off and beyond are NOT as linear. That’s largely what creates the most crashes which are very often seen at take off and landings. These observations should have  very profound effects upon wing and aircraft design, as well. And are why it’s also good to fly into a head wind when landing and taking off, not just because in the latter it slows the craft down, but in the former,  it rapidly increases the linearity and diminishes the turbulent flow, too!! It’s not just a linear phenomenon, we see. & with VTOL’s was an early problem with acceleration and take off, too.
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This is important because it’s at lift off and taking off, as well as at landings that MOST crashes take place. That is, during the not linear wind flows around those fixed, linear wings, where down and up drafts, cross currents, and other normal wind phenomena of turbulent, chaotic wind flow, easily and provably observed takes place. Thus many plane crashes are a result of wings and lift which mostly work best in linear flows, and tend to crash at other times. Even at higher speeds, hitting the jet stream, or a cross current flow of two intersecting weather systems can do much the same thing, the so called, “clear air turbulence”.
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And there is that turbulent flow problem again.and this is the real point. Birds don’t use fixed wings, and they use moving, complex systems to fly by flapping, changing their wing aned body shapes and movements in many different ways. As those are complex system they have much more capabilities to adjust to cross currents & turbulent flows by adjusting automatically in ways which trial and error systems have found to be effective. & they can even create & perform the most amazing flight acrobatics, as well. As our vector thrust aircraft still being developed, can do a lot of it as well. Thus VT is a more non-linear way of flying because of the unlimited combinations  two thrust vector engines flows can create.
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These VT create non-linear, complex system flight paths which linear jets cannot begin to do, nor compete against. The 90% and 99& kill rates of the vector thrust Indian MIG’s and Sukhoi’s, seen against US F-16 advanced fighters in a mock air battle showed this back in 2004-5. And those have been carefully hushed up and not widely broadcast, because it showed, among other things, that complex system approaches were far, far more capable than linear, fixed wing methods so long used. Similarly, thrust vector missiles and torpedoes also have such capabilities, because they are not subject to linear flying and sailing which their target must be. & can outfox anti-missile systems which expect inertial and linear flight paths.
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But how can we deal with turbulent flow? & that’s been the problem of solving and understanding turbulent flow problems. It’s rather simple in fact, and goes to the heart of how we know what we know, that is, our epistemological assumptions. Our cortices can solve those problems by a simple series of methods using comparison processes. They find the stabilities in complex systems, those repeating events which can be seen again & again, recognized, remembered and recalled without limit. Those observations, which the birds have made with their 220 millions years of gliding and flight and have passed into their instinctual complex system of flight skills created by their nervous systems. Those modify wing shape and movements to minimize the interruption of flight every 5-10 ms. or so. Which linear system, fixed wing aircraft cannot possibly do. That’s the secret. Our complex system brain outputs ignore linearity and looks for stabilities (most often created by least energy effects) and patterns which they can recognize, and within those create a working, practical, trial and error driven model of efficient flight. Surely it takes longer to develop and use, but they don’t crash that often as do our aircraft and are at home in flight through turbulent conditions because rather than trying to linearize it, they take advantage of all of the unlimited options to fly with greater safety, skills and abilities than fixed wing, mere machines can do.
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This is what a consideration of weather vanes can show. And once we realize those facts, find the appropriate answers/solutions, then the crashes at take off and landing due to turbulent flow will simply disappear, largely. These are the practical benefits of complex system thinking replacing highly limited, incomplete and not very capable linear thinking.
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Weather is also complex system of multiple factors of wind speeds and directions,  of humidity, density and temps of air, and their complex interactions. As a result the huge numbers of weather of all types cannot be understood very well using linear methods. Thus we have found, that like the simpler complex systems of dice, and the more complex systems of quantum mechanics, that we must use probabilities, which find more of the stabilities and repeating events which lead to understanding. Once again, our ability to input the outputs of events to find the higher order and relationships, which creates our hierarchies of understanding our weather. The seasonal temp changes, the more rain in the spring where cooler and warmer more humid weather creates rain, thunderstorms, even hail, lightning and tornadoes, those attendant dangers, which weather forecasting can develop and use to more cleanly predict what’s going on. Thus we can better guard ourselves against flooding, lightning strikes, powerful storms, wind & hail damage and so forth. Probabilities are one way which we can better deal with, by trial and error outcomes, bad weather and good, heat and very cold weather, as well. It introduces more predictability using math probabilities, than is possible with linear methods. Using the far, far older and still workable comparison processing of recognition and then pattern recognitions. Indeed most math models are developed from the earlier recognition and pattern recognition models as has been shown in Relativity, which was first created by recognition systems, and THEN mathematized after the fact by Minkowski and Einstein. This is where our sensory information has been converted to mathematical forms, although highly linear methods, which also miss a lot of the complex systems details, too.
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With respect to the linearization of complex systems in which medications/drugs are used, this also shows this same kind of epistemological shift from linear systems, that is, drug “side effects”, which are in fact complex system effects. & calling them side effects, simply ignores, oversimplifies, and misses the outcomes needed to increase understanding without limit. Have discussed this before in:
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Peruse about 1/2 way down the article to the paragraph beginning:
“Lets use a clear, medical application of complex systems thinking….. “
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But suffice it to say, the linear method of “take the pill” and ignores the “complex system effects”, is best replaced by complex systems thinking, a far, far better way of doing things, & is leading to a new pharmacology, where multiply active drugs, have far, far more beneficial effects, that just one, linearized pill, & with fewer side effects. More likely, it uses widely those “side effects” & can be our friends. & as current research shows bacterial drug resistance is being attacked by using just those methods. Understanding the deeper ambience, the myriads of milieus of complex systems, allows us to give a dual drug, which blocks the beta lactamase used by resistant bacteria against the highly effective class of penicillins and cephalosporins.
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Thus the PCN starts to work again. & there are other mechanisms which can be used, such as triple therapies, long used in TB and Staph infections, among the more common and earlier forms of drug resistant bacteria. Using 3 antibiotics together in different combinations can create a kind of complexity of interactions, most notably, that the bacteria will have a very hard time figuring out and adjusting to. The trinary method creates, as N = 3 or greater, a complexity of such vastnesses, it’s all but impossible to overcome, therefore. We use complexity against bacterial resistances, in other words. We make the combinatorial complexity too great for bacteria to very easily overcome!! Thus complex systems thinking, extending our models well past the linear “take the pill” with the least side effects (ahem!) approaches.
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This is also how sildenafil can be made to last 3 days. And how drug resistances of most all types can be attacked and blocked. By using 3 or more meds which attack HIV, much more is attained, as well. Complex system approaches, which have been created by trial and error. & sadly those using them haven’t any kind of good model to understanding WHAT they are doing, and why and how to expand greatly with this complex system knowledge to create unlimited amounts of further, useful approaches & work. This is the power of complex system understanding and knowledge and why this can go & grow, without limit, too.
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Largely, though, what we create is what we are looking at. We mistake the “precision” of our figures for something which actually does not exist!  We linearize the outputs by least mean squares, and then admire the accuracies we achieve. This is false reasoning and not the case. The linear points from which we artificially create a line from, by “least mean squares” methods. The measuring of high exponents numbers of events, which we then create a very tight, supposedly highly accurate figure, which disappears when we only measure a few of those points. We sum up endless measurements and get a very tight figure for “cee”, but if we measure only a few photons, we find that those photons are travelling both below and above light speed.  Gleich discussed much of this in his “Chaos” book. The scatter of points so often found in experiments, and then linearized using a lest means square line drawn through all those point is omitting, ignoring and missing actual events.
Extending this further, this is the light speed problem in a nutshell. When 10 exp.30 photons are measured, a very, very tight, linear speed of light is obtained. But this is an illusion. When 10-20 photons ONLY are measured, the velocities will likely be both FTL and slower, too. There will be a distribution of photon veolocies, NOT each photon traveling at ONLY Cee!.  This is the source of the illusion which linear methods create. When Eugene Wigner in his article published in 1955 showed that helium atoms tunneling out of a radio-isotope did not ALL stay below light speed, but that some were transluminal, his findings were ignored and physicists refused to come to grips with the Procrustean bed linearizing of events in existence, which they were doing.
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The summation is not real, the certainty and precision are created by our methods, which hides the awful truth that at the quantum level of events, such precision is NOT possible. This has been shown before when we measure events of specific types again and again, with more and more precise methods which cost more and more to do. Eventually we reach the limits of our precision, but we fail in finding that last digit. The Law of diminishing returns kicks in, as it has in particle physics, trying to reach the end of the exponential barrier of light speed, and we miss what’s going on. We are looking at the forced results of our methods, not necessarily at events in existence. We are looking at the outcomes, the limits to our methods, not necessarily events in existence. We create the Procrustean bed of linearity, forcing events of all sorts into a straight line, when in fact, those events are not likely so.
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Let’s carry this further. By measuring each event with the series of measuring methods, as has been stated before many times, we at first eyeball the length, and get an approximation, say 8 inches. Then we use a good tape measure or rule and get the length to say 8 1/4 in. Then we use a very fine metal draftsman’s rule, and get it to about 8 9/32ths. Then a finer metal rule to 8 & 17 64ths. Then we use a micrometer and get it to 8.25773. But at each level, no matter if we use a light microscope, an electron scope, or use light interference to measure down to nanometers, we still have in each case of meauring, the +/- error of measurement, and each method costs more and more. We are aproaching the rule of diminishing returns, the exponential barrier limit of most all measurements. There is NO final digit possible to be found. There is always a limit to our measurement! Events in existence are not likely to be measurable to any final digits. Further with changing temps and pressures physical characteristics of objects will, at microscopic levels, change shapes & sizes as well. Most all events are very likely irrational numbers due to these limits in our measuring methods, intrinsically.
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And this is the point, linearizing events in existence imposes a Procrustean bed of unreality upon them. Colors are NOT a visible, linear spectrum of wavelengths and energy and Planck’s constant, and energy, AKA E=h times nu. Walk into a paint store and look at their huge collections of color palettes, which mix up all those wavelengths with combinations of colors NOT seen in the EM spectrum, nor even hinted at. And the unlimited gray scales between black and white, all of which create the unlimited vastnesses of colors which are detectable by our eyes. The realities of what colors are much more likely to be. Mixtures of spectra of light photons of varying numbers at many frequencies, combined with both white to black and all the unlimited shades of grey, fixed by the quantum emission events of electron levels, and in some cases nuclear gamma radiation, too.
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This is the problem. Photons making up colors are much, much more than a linear scale of light frequencies. They are in fact combinations of photons of many frequencies, which we can both see, detect and often not detect. Our eyes see at a macroscopic level, which sums up and misses most all of this unimaginable detail and indeed created synthetic colors, such as brown, and mixes red with blue and gets violet, and blue and green and gets aqua & various shades of turquoise, too. Colors are constructs of our brains. We miss most of the details in terms of the numbers photons of light at each frequency, and in fact we cannot begin to measure that complexity, either. And there is NO final digit to brightness, nor the mixtures of frequencies, either. Light is NOT a linear scale but saturation, numbers of photons, and kinds and numbers and intensities of photons, you see. And none of those have ANY final digits, either! Events are essentially irrational numbers at a deep quantum level.
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But understanding this, we can see beyond the highly simplified, linear series  of low and high frequencies of light. Just as we can see beyond linear number lines, to the more complex events which lie behind temperatures, which are essentially simplified down to speeds of particles and atoms. Near absolute zero, which we cannot EVER reach, characteristics change. Bose-Einstein effects take place which are NOT predicted by classical physics. Near light speed, characterizations change, too. In either case our reality is within a well at either end between an exponential barrier of Cee and the same at absolute zero. Whence come these events? There is something beyond absolute zero as well, which our linear methods do not account for, too.
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But cee can be exceeded, because measurement of photons and QT of alpha particles, helium atoms from radioisotopes, shows FTL, which creates the average of light speed, does it not? We are summing not ONLY up from below light speed, but above it, to create the statistical exact light speed.  Cee is a tight figure because we use so many orders of magnitude of repeated measurements to make it that way. But on either side of cee, there are still photons moving both below and above. Accordingly, QM states that cee is a statistic, NOT an absolute. Thus we get “beyond the absolutes”!! Our models are not complete!!
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The same is true of pressure measurements. At normal STP we see solids, liquids and gases, all of this on the linear scale of pressures and temps. But it’s complex and is temp and pressure dependent, and NOT linear. At very high temps we see plasmas, and not gasses. And at very high pressure we get this hierarchy, which is quantized, of solid, compressed solids, including the unusual compounds not seen at earth surface pressures. The white dwarf star matter, then neutron stars, and then finally black holes. The latter two of which likely evaporate due to quantum fluctuations of neutron –> proton, energy, electrons and antineutrinos. And the black holes which evaporate by violations of the fact that some particles and photons will escape from the black hole in pairs, when they exceed cee. Compare and contrast this with evaporation of radioisotopes, which also Qu. Tunnel particles out of the highly compact nucleus, where high densities slow down processes such as neutron decay times. Within many isotopes, the neutrons are not limited to about 15′ of life, but as far as we are concerned, an unlimited life span, within a high gravitational field.
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Yet another limit is the way our cortical columns (CC’s) process information. We read, and count and speak, linearly, because that’s the way the CC’s work. Thus linearity is built into the system. But by using hierarchically ordered means, we can figure out complex systems by looking at stabilities, and linking those together by CP. This creates & writes the hierarchies of our understanding, and also how we read and speak, linearly. But it gets around linearity by allowing us to understand the patterns, relationships, and associations of those groups of events, by thinking about them visually, and not just by using linear speech, thinking and so forth. These visualization and hierarchical methods, using both taxonomies and hierarchies to order information works a lot better than simply induction and deduction. Thus our recognition systems driven by the higher logic of CP get around the linear to create understanding of complex system by this means.
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In addition, we can parallel process in our minds. It’s built into the system, because we know that some persons can multitask. It’s a skill, tho not common. We know that Julius Caesar was dictating to one scribe while riding, at the same time thinking about what he was going to dictate to the other, and so composed at twice the rate. & because the two groups of composition, they could interact with each other, this allowed a deeper analysis of events to take place. The two dictations were interacting, and the whole becomes more than the two apart.
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In the same way, a chemistry prof could not only lecture to us, but also plan what he was going to do in the lab that coming afternoon, at much the same time. & he could integrate the two when needed, also. As our CC’s DO operate rather independently of each other, although many are connected in real time, this also is a way of rising above the limits of linear thinking and data processing. Indeed we are thinking in real space, while walking down the street; we can be listening to music while writing; and we can also be seeing, while hearing, while talking, much at the same time, too. This vast integration, which might be very possibly creating a complex system of outputs, may in fact be creating the non-linear, complex system which we call consciousness. This then, might be a series of solutions to the problems, of rising above the limits of linear thinking and forward flowing information processing, too, in the CC’s. And sounds a good deal like what the many brain functions going on inside our heads are doing all the time, too.
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We can be aware of our breathing and controlling that, tho it falls back to brain stem, sub-conscious control much of the time. For instance we learn subconsciously to control our breathing while speaking, and must. It’s essential to talking normally, too. Talking means we are moving air thru our vocal chords to make normal speech. Thus, much is being done, as well as lip, tongue and other movements of the palate. These combined activities, multitasking in other words, which we do all the time while playing 10 fingers on a keyboard, show this multitasking capabilities of brains. & not only that, but the player of the keyboard, can simultaneously  listen to the orchestra around him, while playing as well, as do the other member of the orchestra, band, choir, and so forth. All of these events, imply  innate, multitasking, simultaneous activities, which can produce, much, much more by working together, than alone. &  shows thus that the normal brain is likely operating as a complex system, and NOT linearly. Thus we must learn to understand how these multiple tasks are done together, and then extend it in our normal brain activities. Then learn to facilitate it and then teach it to others. This represents yet another way in which we can use visual thinking to extend our understanding of complex systems, too. The unlimited options given us by normal brain, operating well out of the forced, linear methods we can grow far, far too accustomed to, as well.

The Balanced Brain

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/CP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014
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There are a few basic concepts to understand more completely the complexities of neurochemistry. First of all, dopamine is the oldest and most central neurochemical of primate brains. It has upwards of 15-20 receptors with which it interacts, and thus must likely be very ancient to have so many. The D1 and D2 receptors, which largely, respectively mediate Motion and Emotion. In addition, DA is the parent compound of the catecholamines, the precursor of both norepinephrine and adrenaline, from which the former is directly derived.  DA interacts with both NE and Adrenalin receptors as well, and shares many of their alerting, activating, and stimulant qualities.
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Also, it must be understood that it’s the comparative activity of neurochemicals, not just only their absolute levels which determine these activities’ outputs. This is because there are down regulators of DA, such as GABA and Serotonin (5-HT), as well as other catecholamine up regulators. So a modest DA level, but with decline in inhibitory neurochemicals such as serotonin and GABA can produce overexcitation, well past what the actual DA levels would produce. For instance, a GABA setting protein in brain reduces effective GABA inhibition of DA, and may create psychosis or mania, while the DA level really has not changed that much.
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Next, in order to generate information, at least two events must be compared to generate information, just as comparing a length of an object to a measuring scale creates data, so comparing the known major effects of DA with other neurochemicals will create the relationships and information about most all the other neurochemicals, which both share effects of and interact with DA in some ways. Thus we use DA as the major descriptor, the least energy comparison by which we interpret and more completely can understand, in a general framework sort of way, more comprehension of brain neurophysiology and neurochemistries.
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Dopamine (DA) has these multiplicit capabilities as manifested by its many receptors sites, showing its complex systems’ essential nature.
It creates pleasure, and this is well established. DA in too high activity/levels can create an imbalance which creates psychosis and/or mania, which in the “Emotional Continuum” :
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shows how essential it is to understanding emotion. Talking to those who’ve experience such events, they state it was a rich and wonderfully joyous thing. Then did NOT want to lose the mania or psychosis, because it was a highly euphoric state. This observation also explains why taking meds to suppress such states is often resisted by patients as they lose that feeling of “Freude” and pleasure. It’s highly rewarding effect to have high DA activities and levels.
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In addition, high DA levels/activities are associated with increased speed and depths of memory lay downs. The most exciting events we experience, those mountaintop experiences, the dangers and major events of our lives are enshrouded in a high DA state, and we thus rarely forget them, Wild, wonderful, dangerous, or very exciting. DA enhances long term memory, possibly by enhancing synaptic creation by protein synthesis.
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Also, high DA, or indeed high adrenaline as well, creates a euphoria, which can be imitated by opiates, cocaine, amphetamine, endorphines, nicotine, and even the dimethylxanthines, such as Caffeine, theobromine, theophylline, tho the latter three are not as strong as the former.
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Also, each those substances may be quite addictive, in various levels, and when levels decline, also result in addictive withdrawal effects, from mild in caffeine and its congeners, to moderate in nicotine, and rather severe in opiates, cocaine, etc. These withdrawals also reinforce the addiction because getting “high” again will ablate the highly unpleasant withdrawal states of nausea, illness, headaches, etc., as well as restore that euphoric feeling.

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Often those with high DA activity are anorexic, and lose appetite, as it’s a potent anorexic agent, as are nicotine, amphetamines, etc. The implications of this for anorexia nervosa treatment is significant, because if that DA activity is high, it can be blocked with DA inhibitors, such as the haloperidols, and so forth.  Orexin effects can also be a source of this condition, but operates via the older, deeper DA systems creating appetite suppression and satiety.

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Inhibiting DA will also create drowsiness, which is commonly seen with most all DA blockers, as well. Thus DA is a very well described alerting agent in brain among the neurochemicals, as are the other catecholamines and those agents which release them.
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In addition, DA is known to be addictive as well, as giving large doses of L-dopa, will create problems with addictive withdrawals upon stopping higher L-dopa use in Parkinson’s patients. In addition, fava beans have a moderate amount of L-dopa in them and thus can be addictive in themselves, perhaps accounting for some of the popularity of fava beans and humus.
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DA can create nausea and vomiting, as anyone has seen with a flight or fight response of bilateral adrenal discharges released in dangerous, threatening, or modest to severe injuries. Strength, performance and speeds enhancement occur with this survival response, as well. & many of the opiates create serious nausea, too. although the anandamide receptors (via, for instance,THC)which can create euphorias also, creating increased appetite, pain control, and control nausea to some extent. Thus we learn by those chemicals which create & modulate DA effects, more of the entire aspects of DA, itself. We learn by comparison, and create knowledge and information by these fruitful comparisons.
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Those persons often will throw up with high DA effects, and in addition, are highly resistant to pain. PCP users are notable for this pain resistance, and nothing but a strong taser will slow them down. Thus DA has significant pain relieving activity, and notably modest with dimethyl xanthines, nicotine, but more pronounced with opiates (both exogenous and endogenous), and cocaine, as well.
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The association of euphoria producing drugs with pain control is well known, and this is yet again another DA effect, centrally.
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The association of DA with higher creativity is well known. And if the DA gets too high it can also create madness. Thus, the well known association between madness and genius of this type. And the creativity of many highly talented persons is associated with a DA profile very much like that of a schizophrenic, though those affective characteristics are controlled in some way, so they do not come out as mania or madness of frank psychoses. Creativity and inspiration are thus DA characteristics as well. And those drugs associated with this kind of DA stimulation can also promote creativity, though with a cost, as is well known with such stimulant drugs: addiction, death, psychosis, and so forth. Heart attacks with overstimulating effects of the catecholamines are well known. For this reason very little coffee or even chocolate are allowed patients in coronary care units.

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The well known “roid rages” seen in males who use huge amounts of androgenic steroids, show how very widely originating DA stimulation effects can be. And in estrogen usages, or menapausal withdrawal of estrogen, psychoses and related mental disorders can also, clearly be observed. And “roid rage” and those menopausal disorder ARE successfully, confirmably and repeatedly treated with major tranquilizers, as more confirmation of this wide range of substances whose multiplicit effects, show the complex systems at work. Thus, the balanced, brain.

In addition, testosterone can create an aggressiveness often seen in younger men, shortly after puberty, which may persist unless socially better controlled. Almost all of those males who “burn rubber” creating the squealing tires effect are young. Few women do that, either.
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Recently a “Y” chromosome of a highly specific type was reported in 50% of the men in Europe, having a common male ancestor. For that much growth and spread of the few genes on the Y, it must have been potent indeed, creating substantial advantages, Least energy effects, which created its stupendous growth. Y chromosome is uniformly associate with 4-5 fold higher androgen levels after puberty in most all males compared to women. Thus the complex system effects of sex hormones in creating advantage of enough of a value to perpetuate itself and grow to this degree, is likely a possible reason for its growth and success.
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Let us take a number of clinical states, such as sleep/wake cycles, migraine headaches, and in a later article, on the pain complex system of DA, opiates and endorphins, and the neurokinins. This will explain the bases of pain control as a complex system strategy, rather than just taking a single medication, & instead of the usual, linear, and too limited approaches to DA disorders and related conditions.
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During wakefulness, DA levels and activities are rather high. However, as the day wears on, esp. with hard physical labor, a certain amount of sleepiness can occur. Because the DA and 5HT interact in a balanced way, as DA activity declines, the person normally becomes more drowsy and tired, & very often a nap will restore normal wakefulness. Thus, the 5HT effects will rise when DA activity declines. And alertness will rise, as DA effects are enhanced, as caused also with nicotine, dimethyl xanthines, and so forth. This also is another case of the “balanced brain” where effects are activities levels modulated by other neurochemicals, being stimulants or sedatives.
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IN fact, it’s rather interesting that humans have what are termed nicotinic receptor sites, when nicotine is NOT found in the brain at all!! This indicates that there is something in the brain, normally, which activates those receptor sites, and in doing so, creates similar effects as do nicotine, including withdrawal and addictive effects, as well as with higher doses (as with Strychnine), delusional, manic states, and often seizures. Thus, since DA is the major stimulant widely employed endogenously,(it will awaken some comatose patients when given IV to raise BP) the primary nicotinic neurochemicals must be the catecholamines. There is NO endogenous nicotine found in human brain.
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Why then are nicotinic receptors sites discussed? What do those receptor site ACTUALLY bind to? And why is this question never really addressed? But it does strongly imply a relationship between muscle activity and acetylcholine and dopamine. We know that the strength of those who are in high DA states is far, far greater than normally seen. PCP and other manias are seen to do this. Stories of flight and fight responses from Adrenal release are well known. The increased aggressiveness of those with high DA activity/levels is also well known. Thus, the secondary neurochemical in muscle activation is likely DA as well as ACh. The evidence has been there for years, tho and hasn’t really been well understood, either. But these are extreme cases, but nonethless real, observed, and repeatedly seen events showing almost supernormal strength. DA is likely behind this as well as adrenaline.
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For this reason, as we know that stimulants necessarily mimic DA, and that DA creates addiction if in high levels/activities, then the so called nicotinic receptors are in fact, partial DA receptor sites.  External nicotine when administered, activates these sites to produce addictions, some euphoria, appetite suppression, and can create withdrawal effects, as well. Thus the DA spectrum is partially, again, mimicked by nicotine. And that’s the whole key.
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In terms of pain control, euphoria is found with elevated DA levels/activities, as with amphetamines, cocaine, PCP, and even with THC, which is the anandamide receptor, tho that is endogenously produced and often released with stress and flight or fight responses, but short lived. Where DA activity is imitated, or mimicked, then we have found, as with opiates, a cross reactivity with the DA primary sites, in most cases. Thus the nicotine receptors Are NOT actually such sites, but ALSO cross reactive with where DA is also active, either primarily or as a moderator.
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This fact is also strongly reinforced by this observation, clinically, that DA can create nausea, as can any of the catecholamines in high doses, but that they also create pain control as well. This explains why the nicotinic agonists, epibatidine and its analogue nicotinic agonist tebenacline both are powerful pain reducers, too,  200 and 50 times as effective, mg./mg. as morphine sulfate, the baseline pain control drug we use to measure pain reduction (again, comparison process!!). They act as DA analogues, and kill pain as well, but without the addictive side effects, tolerance, although they do create nausea, as do opiates and DA.
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We see partial DA spectral effects with many other meds as well, thus showing the overlaps with DA effects of stimulation. We also begin to understand why the aspirin in some compound drugs, are given with caffeine (Anacin)to enhance pain control, as well, This, too is no accident, but complex system effects acting, which we can see, once we detail the full DA effects of stimulation, pain control, appetite suppression, nausea, increased BP and heart rate, etc. When we measure by comparison other drugs against the DA profile of multiplicit effects, we begin to see more deeply into the neurochemical systems in our brain & how they interact and act.
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Thus we can see why DA operates in the nicotinic receptor sites, when there is NO nicotine in brain to activate them!!
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We see depressions with beta blockers, but why does no one ask how this happens? Because beta blockers block catecholamine effects, the DA is also affected in some cases and thus depression occurs, as partial spectrum of DA effects. Thus the alpha and beta adrenergic receptor sites are ALSO DA receptor sites. This adds about 4-5 more receptor sites to the DA family as well. Plus the nicotinic sites, too.
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Then when we discuss sleep, we must make a model of DA and 5HT and how they interact. The drowsiness which occurs is when the lowering DA level/activity occurs, unmasking the 5HT (and GABA) sedating effects. When GABA is low in activity/levels, mania and psychosis can be produced.
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So when drowsiness occurs, the 5HT may then increase in activity as well as in levels, & the person sleeps for a while. Then awakens when the DA returns more towards normal activities, too. And we can dream during naps as well.
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And that is interesting, because as we awaken partially during normal sleep, the 5HT activity is high and we cannot awaken fully. But the cortex is activated and normal activity during dreaming is seen there. Thus dreaming is a state of heightened DA activity while 5HT is high and one cannot fully move, nor get up.l
How does one explain hypnosis? DA activity stays high enough to be able to hear the hypnotist, but a sort of dream state occurs, and can encode suggestions which act as post hypnotic states. This is largely what’s happening as we know that memory encoding is enhanced during sleep, too. So we dream due to higher DA activities plus heightened 5HT levels, which maintain sleep long enough to get enough rest and not to increase muscle activity. The combinations of Da and 5HT are more than just a few, but also multiplicit as their receptors sites show.
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The facts are, when we are asleep, we are NOT comatose nor fully asleep. This is easily shown by nocturnal bladder and bowel control, and the fact that we do NOT roll out of bed!! Even when we are asleep, parts of our brains are wakeful enough to do these unconscious acts, preventing bed wetting, and falling out of bed, too. Children often do not have these systems fully matured until after 5-6 years old and are often at risk of falling out of bed, too. But few adults do, either.
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Nor are we in total paralysis during sleep, because we move around in the bed at night as time lapse photography has shown, confirmably and repeatedly in sleeping people. Why does this happen? So the body does not get pressure palsies, or bed sores due to too much lying in one position. These ARE seen with paralysis total as well as drug and often Ethanol induced comatose states, as most clinicians quite well know by multiple, confirming observations.
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Thus while asleep, apparently we move, the sleep paralysis is temporarily lifted to allow some movement, & sleep paralysis recurs. But bladder/bowel control are not lost, and neither do we fall out of bed!! These observations which are fairly straight forward and clear, put to rest the belief that sleep is a simple, not complex system state. And it also explains rather well hypnogogic states, as well. It’s more complicated than that, but it provides insights into how the other brain states change and highly influence our behaviors via DA and 5HT, among others.
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Brain is in a balanced state with the core pillar of brain activity being DA for both motion and Emotion. It’s balanced with GABA to maintain sanity and decreased delusional states. It’s balanced with 5HT to create wakefulness and drowsiness, signaling to us via yawning that we need to sleep. Thus yawning is a declining DA level/activity associated with a normal to rising 5HT activity. It often precedes sleep, very likely. Simple, simplifying and highly problem solving. Comparing the KNOWN effects of DA to the other neurochemicals to gain deeper and greater understanding and knowledge about how the brain works.
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Thus, the balanced brain.
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All of this suggests the root of anorexia nervosa, as a high DA activity level, with the delusion states of “being fat” when the person is not. The appetite suppressant effect is very apparent by the extreme weight loss. Thus simple, effective DA blockers currently available will suppress the anorexia, and begin to ablate the delusions of being fat as well. Anorexia is a too high DA activity/level brain disorder, and should be approached as such. No doubt this insight will result in much better understanding of AN, how to treat it and by T&E show more of its complex neurochemical bases, rooted in DA over-activity, at least.
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Sleep disorders are often seen with manias, depressions and related conditions. This should not be surprising. A normal sleep pattern in the circadian rhythms of cycling DA levels/activities, modulated by serotonin. The interesting fact that raising 5HT levels in depressions using SSRI’s shows this codependency of normal sleep with 5HT upon DA, as well. Getting better sleep allows the DA levels to be more normally repleted over night, and thus helps one side of the neurochemical balance equation to return to normal, thus pulling the person out of depression better. Depression IS a complex system disorder, thus neatly explaining the whole spectra of presentations and seemingly unlimited ways of presenting itself. PLUS showing that simply elevating DA activity via a MAO anti-depressant will NOT fully cure/treat the condition. Nor will SSRI’s, either. Thus the stage is set to more fully understand migraine headaches and How those must be treated more successfully using the complex system neurochemical approach, which we use to treat depressions in their fullest variations and nearly unlimited forms.
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Migraines are complex system neurochemical disorders. There are a huge variety of kinds of this, as well, thus complex system traits being apparent. What seems to occur in migraines is that the 5HT level drops, thus releasing the stimulatory effects of the visual scotomata and the other positive effects of DA being unbound and over active.
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In addition, the visual cortex in migraineurs has a peculiarly low threshold to magnetic stimulation causing visual scotomata, when so stimulated. Normals do NOT have this. Thus the migraineur has a 5HT neurochemical variant, which from time to time, will drop the 5HT level/activity and in some cases, create, guess what? The fingerprint spectra of DA being released from inhibition. There will be nausea, which must be treated. There will be pain from vasodilation, the usual throbbing ha’s. There is the spreading depression of Leao seen over the cortex, which ignores and passes over the arterial supply, thus showing an inhibition of normal cortical activity,quite independent of blood supply patterns. There can be seizures about 10% of the time, showing that normal cortical inhibition is gone, and DA activation has occurred as well. The migraineur in an acute attack is NOT interested in eating, either, not just because of nausea, but because of the DA effects increased by decreased 5HT, unmasking DA signs!!
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In addition, many migraineurs will take coffee, and caffeine is often added to ergots to enhance their activities against a migraine. The inflammation which occurs with migraines is often seen. Thus migraines are complex system, neurochemical effects, whose effects are better detailed when compared to DA effects, enhanced or so forth.
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MIgraineurs may be highly perfectionistic persons, because the DA is unmasked in part by lowered 5HT activity. This also goes along with the syndrome of DA hyperactivity as well, but migraines may well enhance inspiration as well as creativity, even intelligence. How else to explain why the gene is present in about 20% of many women, although in males much less expressed. Understanding that it’s a complex system also explains why a single drug approach so often fails to fully control the migraine.
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It used to be we used ergots to control it, to some extent, tho there were side effects, and a tolerance developed, often. Just like tolerance to addictive drugs. Also rebound HA’s came about in tandem. Ergots were largely thought to create more vasoconstriction to control the pounding arterial HA’s like nitrate HA’s which can imitate migraine’s pounding, throbbing pain. BUT, and this is the point, the universe is subtle. The ergots do NOT fully control migraine, and ergots ARE 5HT agonists as well.
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Even the strokes we seen occ. with migraines are a result of the complex system biology, because the platelets contain a LOT of 5HT, and if they discharge will raise 5HT levels & technically could partly treat migraines. But that causes clotting and thus the strokes seen with migraines to some extent, with or without the use of ergots or much else.
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For instance, even if we used the newer tryptans which now exist in a wide variety from slow onset but prolonged action, to fast onset but shorter activity, we see only about 2/3 of migraines responding well. This again, shows that even though the 5HT agonists work, they do not work much more than 2/3 of the time, which means complex system neurochemistry in going on in the brain. 5-HT agonists are NOT the whole story of migraines!!
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The key to understanding this is to understand the full panoply of drug treatments for migraines: the tryptans, the DA blockers, the anti-inflammatories AND the muscle relaxants, plus an anti-nauseant, AND the amitriptyline antidepressants as preventatives when taken largely at bedtime, to sleep.
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Does this complex spectrum at All sound familiar? Nausea AND appetite suppression. The DA activity is unmasked and enhanced by the 5HT plus effects. Thus using a potent anti-nauseant, which is oral, and very fast acting, with the 5HT agonists, or by itself in more mature migraineurs, we can get a close to a 90-100% control rate of migraines.
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When we consider that there are sleep disorders with migraines, helping the person sleep better and more regularizing in the normal diurnal cycles, (NO night shift work!), we can better control them, too. Now this will not ignore Orexin and other neurochemicals, but simply how those too will fit into the DA/5-HT balanced brain model to help control migraines.
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We’ve known for years that chlorpromazine with its massive DA blocking capacity blocks both the nausea and directly the migraine HA’s too. The sleep it induces of itself will substantially treat a migraine. But because of its side effects, we choose not to use it except when, if the migraine goes on too long without effective RX & a migraine rescue is needed, then the whole panoply of the complex system migraine effects are shown.
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Thus the domperidona plus tryptans methodologies. Those, by themselves, block most all migraines, which is not generally known. But we must recall the neurokinins that get going as well, which create pain, directly, create vasodilation and the throbbing pains. Thus Anacin may work pretty well partly, but only 50-60% or so, too. Showing once again, even those there is caffeine with Aspirin, only partial treatment works, in this case, also.
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So here we have the major components: the dropping of the 5HT, which creates the DA effects, occasionally seizures as well, and the scotomata. Then we have the inability to sleep because the migraine is too strong, due to DA overstimulation and activity. & unless the person can sleep, the migraine will be longer lasting. Thus sleep has an effect to restore the balanced brain by raising 5HT levels. & we do this with sedatives such as Fiorinal (APAP plus Butalbital), using a barbiturate to induce sleep, as well as sedate & suppress the overactive DA effects.
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Thus we see very clearly, using the comparison process via comparing with DA, the 5HT effects, the entire spectrum of migraine HA’s in all those full panoplies of presentations, symptoms and signs.
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I had a patient who did well with domperidona alone, but noted if he took an Aleve, the HA went totally away. He had more neurokinin effects than most, and if THOSE get going, then the HA is very resistant to drug alleviation, too, with only the Tryptans. Thus fast treatment at onset of migraines is essential to control. Once the migraine train of events gets going too much, it’s hard to control it from getting worse. & multiple meds are usually needed to block the HA.
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So we have 5HT withdrawal effects, and unmasking of DA effects of nausea, anorexia, decreased pain control because DA is overbalanced, and so forth. Then the neurokinin effects of throbbing HA’s plus the inflammatory effects, locally in brain, best treated with whatever is effect and safe for the patient to use, aspirins, NSAID’s or whatever works best. Then the muscle spasms and pain effects as well, best Rx’ed with sedation, sleep and acetaminophen is some form or combination.
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Most migraineurs except in familial forms, are different. They present in the full complexity of the system in a wide range of forms. All the myriad ways of complex systems. And understanding that it’s NOT a linear condition, but complex system, allows us to not only better understand the wide range of migraines, but also how to best treat it NOT as a linear, single condition, but 5HT declines in actvities/levels, causing DA interactivity, and then neurokinin release, & a sleep disorder, and the muscle tension aspects of it as well, PLUS the nausea from DA unmasking by lowered 5HT activity/levels, etc.
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Extending this model to most other disease states, ignoring the linear models which ignore the complex system nature of most all medical conditions, will result in much more successful prevention, treatment and avoidances of the many, many complications of migraine, such as loss of work time, handicapping otherwise productive persons, strokes, seizures, and long term chronicity, as well. Because if the system simply gets used to having migraines and these recurrent behaviors become ingrained & learned, then those are ever harder to treat, as well. HA’s can be behaviorally learned, indulged, and self-promoted to occur. It’s complex system!!!
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These are the benefits in the long run of considering the “Balanced Brain” approaches to a more mature, more effective and better treatment using the CP, complex systems, and DA as the parent neurochemical in the brain, with whose effects, by comparison with the other neurochemicals, we can far more easily understand much, much more the complex neurochemistry/neurophysiology of brain.
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Will not go into the sleep disorders, too, although those are largely associated with depressions, mood disorders, and many other conditions. But those too, are amenable to the complex system, comparison process approaches for improved understanding and treatment.