By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014
“A Mother’s Wisdom” developed a system of understanding how growth and creativity came about via the Least Energy Principle (LEP). This will extend these “Depths within Depths” to show not only how evolution comes about, but the biochemical and physical roots of that which drives evolution, and even our own societies, and those of the other animals, too..
In Darwin’s “Origin of the Species” he related finding that Malthusian ideas of scarcity of resources necessary for living was constrained by competition for those limited resources as the population rose. This rising population then created population pressures, & then created “survival of the fittest”. Thus those individuals in a race who were best able to survive did so, & this process drove evolution.
Darwin spent most of the rest of his life exploring by trial & error to find supporting evidences & to more clearly characterize his model, realizing that natural selection created the species. He took the many examples of human domestication as yet another application of this principle, where in humans took the better of the wild animals/plants species & using goal driven choices of humans, more trainable dogs, bigger ears of corn, better behavioral traits, & so forth which processes of choosing those traits, produced domesticated species & their varieties which better met human needs. This purposeful human selection mimicked natural selection in being goal oriented. Human selection in the farms was analogous to natural selection for survival in the wild species.
But as most models are incomplete,
“Beyond the Absolute…”:
we know that Darwin’s early 19th C. model left out genetics, among other important factors, which by the later 19th C. was found, and in the 20th C. was vastly extended by the formal field of genetics. Just how a great deal of domesticated evolution took place was found by comparing the behaviors and traits of domesticated species, such as dogs, corn (maize) and wheat, as well as other domesticated species, with their wilder counterparts from which they clearly and provable arose. This was by using numerous and extensive comparisons of where and what those species looked like. Again, massive application of comparison processes.
But the critical point is that this did NOT go far enough. The idea of random genetic mutations brought into high relief that this appeared to be a random process, and that there was No genetic or evolutionary purpose, or did not seem to be. Thus randomness of evolutionary changes become a more dominant model than “natural selection” and human selective breeding. But this has become a distraction and misdirection from a more complete understanding of evolutionary processes.
And here it is. Evolution IS very likely driven by the Least Energy Principle(LEP) of genetic efficiencies, metabolic efficiencies, and those structural forms from the cells to the organs and shapes or the multicellular forms, to including how efficient they were at the behaviors of foraging for food, building nests, dens, hives, etc. In addition were their behavioral relationships with those of their species for mating and survival, viz. flocks, schools, herds, and so forth. It’s the very efficiencies of the genome, where a single gene in a complex system can perform many functions, not just one, in its interactions with the other genes, which created efficiencies. The complex system traits that less does more, in other words. The same is true of the cellular metabolisms, where recently chloroplasts from algae were show to have a 20% increased starch production compared to domesticated plants. Then those highly efficient chloroplasts were transferred inside of human varieties of plants, to create the same increased efficiencies of starch outputs. Thus it’d provoked a growth among the outputs which was a decided agrocultural advantage.
But here is the point. Growth is created by increased efficiencies of all sorts. It does a lot more with less, thus creating an excess of energy which can create more growth. The combination of all of these efficiencies creates competitive edge, via additive and exponential growth which is the advantage. Thus an efficient, more outputting metabolism will create survival advantage. This is most all driven by the Least Energy Principle.
In human domesticated species, those outcomes of so called random mutations have been “selected” for, notable by Burbank, who took vast numbers of a species, and selected and culled (by Trial & Error methods, comparison processes) for the characteristics he wanted. Thus in his own way, reduplicating Darwin’s observations of the analogies among the natural selection of species. But in the wild, those species which by so called random mutations, are ALSO selected by evolution. Those mutations resulted in possibilities such as down and feathers becoming emergent phenomena of flight feathers. That keratin not only can become skins, but nails and hair and horns. That much is done with less, thus increasing the efficiency of the species and its survival. Thus the deepest analysis is that these greater efficiencies of all sorts are transformed into the competitive edge. That survival is NOT only fittest and competitive advantage, but more deeply most all manifestations of the depths within depths of the LEP at work.
Thus the older semi-purposeful drives of evolution towards creating new species, is NOT random (although the mutations are, mostly. & logically, simply because the mutations are random does not rule out the outcomes of those mutations being selected by the LEP outcomes more likely surviving), but is in fact, most all least energy driven. Those outcomes of least energy not only create better structures throughout a species, but allow it to grow fatter, faster and bigger, & have more offspring. & this reformed LEP evolutionary model extends & deepens our understandings of evolutionary processes. But in this case it’s NOT a human purpose, but a least energy drive, which also accounts for human purposeful evolution of domesticated species. This combines into a single model of the natural selection processes which are least energy, plus the human driven selections of species which meet, by trial and error, our own purposes, also LEP forms. And thus we see that human purposes are in fact, in their own way, as purposeful in a least energy way as are the natural selective drives for least energy solutions to the problems of competition. Those make the most of resources vis a vis climate stresses, finding food, protections thru nest/den making and fur and changes of fur (thicker in cold, shedding with warmth, colour changes from white to brown) with changing seasons. among many other examples.
And there is this very much more important point, which also has wider applicability beyond mere genetics, evolution and so forth. Evolution is creative. Most all known species have come from the few original bacteria and viruses, the latter of which probably created or at least, greatly contributed to our genetic control mechanisms. How to explain this using deep principles? Again, Least energy. The benefits of mistakes of copying of the DNA, or the mutations which arise from radiation, chemicals, etc., are taken by life and turned & tuned into a benefit in the long run. Just as the fireweed arises from destructive fires and the other plants and animals use wildfires in the long run to their benefits, so does the DNA within living systems take these random mutations, these “mistakes”, so called, and turn them into the origins of the species.
This arises by a simple creative mechanism, the Least Energy Principle. Most of the mutations are not useful, or even lethal. But this is the subtlety hidden within the process which has been widely missed. Surely, the mutations are random. BUT, there are selections, which in earlier models were due to chance and indeed it seemed to be. But a mistake in logic, in observation was made. Because DNA mutations are based upon chances, doesn’t mean that ALL of it is random. Indeed, the selective processes are NOT random, but create huge variations upon the same themes of each species. Creating a variability of types, of all the myriad ways, to explore more completely, how EACH major genome has its limits and capabilities of its structure. This is the structuralist rule, once again. Thus a far, far, wider range of possibilities is being explored.
Epigenetics adds vastly to this variability was well. Thus dominant genes are expressed with wide variability, instead of strictly a single, linear outcome. This is seen as the case in paranoid schizophrenias, where the high dopamine activity becomes in worst case, psychosis, or lesser expressions manic/depressive disorder, the bipolar syndrome. Or not complete mania/depression but a milder form of it, which is both energizing and capable. This is why the dopamine profile of activity/DA levels of highly creative people is very much like that of schizophrenia. They ARE creative because the DA can create creativity and inspiration and a DA DRIVE to create and yield all of those benefits which come from that. It’s the multiplicity of the complex system of genetics, we see. Multiple outcomes from a single gene. This also explains why genius and madness are ofttimes related. For instance, “A Beautiful Mind.” Much can be explained with little using comparison process and complex systems methods.
Thus we see the utility of the so called “junk” DNA. It’s NOT junk but raw material for more capabilities. And it also allows genes to be partially, mostly, or all the myriad forms of expressions in between. It substantially increases the flexibility of the genome’s output, the organism, to deal more capably with the challenges it will meet. Again, it creates an almost Lamarckian functionality which extends the capabilities of the single genes and gene complexes much further. This is an evolutionary edge. All that junk DNA was NOT junk, but critical to survival. Mother Nature is conservative. Very little exists and is kept for no reason. This also is least energy principle at its core, too. Ubiquitous, omnipresent, universal LEP.
Thus the creativity of the DNA and genetics comes about. Those genetic advantages can give genetic, metabolic, structural and behavioral and many other advantages. Each gene gives the advantage of LEP. This means it does more with less. This means if it’s even a few percent more efficient, that advantage will accumulate every time the gene is used, with multiple, recurring expressions of advantage. This creates growth potential. & the organism will make sure those are taken and used.
On the most basic level, a single genetic advantage can have multiple expressions and uses. This gives both additive and exponential advantages, which mean the same amount of energy/matter in two differing living systems being compared can be used to do MORE in the one, than the other. THAT is what creates growth from the creative selections of random DNA mutations. THAT’s not random, but selected for by environmental processes, which are again repeating and complex. The LEP creates a direction in which evolution moves towards LEP outcomes, and gives a subtle appearance of purpose, teleology and direction of evolution. In fact, it’s mostly Least Energy principles, which not only drive photons, atoms and molecules and their larger forms, but the veriest force in the universe which also drives evolution towards, more useful, more capable and more efficient forms. The LEP drives evolution.
But not only does it drive evolution, but it drives not genetic developments of all forms. The orbits of the planets are least energy. The conformations of soap bubble are metastable or most stable configurations, as well. Omnipresent and universal, the LEP determines market forces, social rules and regulations, and indeed the whole panoply of events in existence, as well. Subtle, but ubiquitous. The most energy efficient methods are those which give growth by energy/matter/time advantages. And in fair markets create growth. the “invisible hand” of Adam Smith. The research labs of Edison, & of Andrew Carnegie’s organization which made more and more efficient methods of steel making, until his dominated the US industry and of which enormous growth from LEP gave him his phenomenal success and fortune.
LEP drives growth in markets, & social efficiencies(right actions) create more effective cultures, languages, methods and so forth. The most efficient rules and morals, which are present throughout society from moral ways, to scientific universal laws, to simple legal laws of the UK and other societies, and so forth. The rules by which we live in our tens of millions of family homes. “Young man, if you live in this house you will abide by our rules.” The same rules, laws, bylaws, regulations, customs, and so forth found universally in all societies are driven by LEP, as well. This is not an accident, and this most deepest and profoundest truth of the LEP, as a comparison process method of universal applicability, is not any kind of accident, either. Thus the laws of motion and the photon’s paths, now modified by Relativity from completely straight lines, are seen as much deeper than we ever imagined. Because it not only drives evolution, but the veriest multiplicities of events in our societies, from the smallest to the largest, as well.
So it’s easy to see then, that instead of mere randomicity, there IS a real, existing drive in evolution towards least energy solutions, which take the apparently random mutations and select for those which are least energy solutions for survival. And thus human solutions are ALSO least energy, but in an analogous & different way. Thus evolution either by humans, or by natural selection IS a purpose in a way, a drive, created by least energy outcomes which select those random mutations, epigenetic expressions of genes, & behaviors based upon those genes which create those possibilities of multiple, more flexible expressions of single genes(incomplete dominance), and so forth. Least energy in photons and astronomical bodies is a necessity. There is little choice. But in living systems, it’s expressed in many, many ways: as choice, as free will, as multiple forms of the same genetic expressions, each of which is then selected for benefits. And above all, it creates growth in living systems. There IS a drive, a purpose in evolution, but it’s not a human one. It’s not teleology, but resembles it. And it’s least energy.
& it can be easily shown & has been, that our human creativity found & created by trial and error, is much the same trial and error operating in the single celled and multicellular genetics of DNA mutations of the species. This unifies, extends, deepens and broadens our evolutionary models as well. The outcomes of these mutations, whether human selected for, or by natural environment selected for, is very much the same system operating in two slightly different ways.
This is another point. There is a unity of humanity and life, and all the other events in the universe. The same trial and error mutations which are selected by least energy rules, are also the basis of human purposes and choices, even creativities, too. Those have their outcomes and if they are least energy, they survive in the long run. If not, they fail. This thus combines, extends and simplifies our understanding not only of natural selection, but of human domestication of species. & shows how our very own ideas, behaviors, and ways of doing things are also least energy driven. & this has been addressed in more detail in “The Fox and the Hedgehog”.
Sections 11 et seq. The relationships of LEP and incompletenesses of models, of capabilities and limits of structures, and how those arise.
These are the deeper and more practical applications & outcomes of understanding of the comparison process and its vastly greater and universally applicable method, the Least Energy Principle. For in any system which uses energy/mass, the LEP can be applied to see what outcomes result. These are universal and unifying processes, creating models and methods, skills, ways of doing things, techniques, styles, the whole panoply & multiplicities of a comparison methods word cluster. & it once again shows how this comparison process not only simplifies, but suggests massive new extensions of ideas using creativity, also arising from T&E driven itself by goals, purposes, teleology, outcomes, created in its depths by the universal principle of LEP. Creativity is most likely least energy, at its root and core.
Now consider this further observation. Photons, planets, bodies and atoms/molecules Must follow the LEP, to a high degree of probability. They do NOT have much choice. Those MUST take the least energy course on the macroscopic level. although on the quantum level is there more variability, i.e., probability, that is randomness, & not so deterministic. On the other hand, we humans and other creatures & species have more choices. We CAN wander about and off of the least energy paths. It will cost us more energy, but we gain back by explorations and finding new possibilities, just as the foraging ant has a least energy path, highly efficient to find food. So do the bees and termites. We are NOT constrained to follow all of the least energy paths which planets and other physical systems must follow on the macroscopic level. Least energy paths of Newton’s equations and the determinicities of classical mechanics of the laws of motion show this.
How does this come about? Once again, let us look at Rhizobacter, which gave rise in my mind to this comparison.
See section 43.
We must use highly energetic temps of 1000 degrees and 100’s of atmospheres of pressure to create nitrogen fixation. But Rhizobacter and related nitrogen fixing cells do this at soil, ambient temps all the time, to the tune of 100 megatons of NH4+ yearly most all the time.
How is this little miracle possible? Defining a miracle as that which is so highly improbable it will not happen to less than 1 per millions, the Rhizobacter takes H20 and N2 to NH4+. Now, while it’s true that lightning can do the same, but requires a trillion watts of power to do so, is indeed the issue. That’s not least energy, and the NO2 and NO and nitrates must still be converted to NH4+. It doesn’t take humans a trillion watts to make NH4+, ether. But the point is the activation energy. N2 and H2O are very stable molecules. There is very little free energy, except for heat energy of hot water compared to cold, where energy can be extracted from those. The molecules are stable, being least energy. Here it is again. Thus it can take a huge amount of activation energy to create starches from CO2 and H20, just as it does to create bulk NH4+ from N2 and H20.
But here is what’s going on. Rhizobacter lowers the activation energy needed by using enzymes and directed energy. It makes the highly improbable indeed very likely, in fact highly probable and nearly certain. Catalytic systems do this. We know this from Pd and Pt, even nickel catalyses. But complex system catalysis is quite a bit more efficient, than our simple linear, chemical catalysis. It does MUCH with a lot less. Surely the system can misfire, but billions of years of evolution has created a highly stable enzyme and nitrogen fixation cycle to do this. & that in a nutshell is one of the major, many secrets of living systems. This is what gives them their choices and capabilities. To find, by least energy principle rules and methods, ways of making the highly unlikely likely, & useful. These are the little miracles become mundane and indeed omnipresent. Fixing of nitrogen, conversion of CO2 & water into sugars & then starches. The creation of the insoluble and stable lignins of cellulose, the chitins of combined sugars and amines, the other polymers of life such as the highly stable Keratin of down, feathers, hair, horn, skin and nails. The creation of a quantum magnetomter of molecular size inside the English robin, whereas we must use a large closet sized machine, using liquid helium fired superconductors to do the same task. Which is more efficient? Our linear machines or a living system using complex methods. Thus we see the unity of life, compared to how we humans make most things.
& so events are compared, seen as related and simplified and better understood by comparison processes which create LEP understandings of events. We are united with the natural physical processes of inanimate systems which MUST follow the least energy principle, to those exceptions to this rule, living systems, which can create methods which appear to violate those laws. But instead by using directed energies & efficient processes, can create the highly improbable, viz,. DNA and metabolism, from the improbable. Certainly it takes energy, but it creates those events all driven by the same universal, unifying principle of LEP by which inanimate systems MUST follow, but which living systems may or may not follow. We have choices, and those choices can lead to ever greater choices.
The structures which are created, can then feedback into ever more structural interactions, creating ever more newness and growth. The more we know, the more we can do. The more education we have, the more we can understand and create because we have more to compare and work with to create ever more. This creates an exponential growth. The carbon cycles, the N2 and water cycles do this. Creating atmospheric oxygen as the by product of photosynthesis allowed the complexities of living systems to be created, which led to a space faring species, ourselves.
We see that the modeling we do in our brains, which then interacts with events in existence to become more & more accurate, then creates advantages of exponential growth from this creativity. Then those models are again fed back into the brain, which models itself, using the comparison process. And at once it can create ever better models of the universe by self improvement. Creating more growth, more understanding, more capabilities, which are then once again, fed back into humans brains, extending this process without limit. It’s a self correcting system of thinking & modeling as the sciences are self correcting when properly working. And it’s mostly driven by the comparison process in our cortices, and is why the human brain evolved in the first place. Because it’s easier to manipulate highly accurate models of events in existence, than to manipulate those physically. It’s more energy efficient to think of a way to do things, than it is to do it all by hands on trial and error.
For instance, we use an architectural design for a building. Modeled and innate in such design plans, the templates for the building contractors to follow, are the laws of physics, of strengths of metals and materials, based upon long years of building experience and design. The builder constantly compares his reading of the designs to what he’s doing. Not only did the architect create the design using comparison processes, and his knowledge of how to build stable buildings, but the builder reads it in the same, comparison process ways to create it. It’s easier to build by designs from competent architects, than it is to build it by trial and error. This is yet another example of the universal comparison processes and least energy principles at work.
But this progress would not be possible without abandoning the anti-empirical exclusions of the absolutes and idealisms, which actively preclude looking outwards, rather than inwards. As Lewis Thomas wrote, “The introspective philosophies failed, because they looked into the brain for answers and there wasn’t that much there.” Thus, once again, “Beyond the Absolute…..”
It’s a LEP of modeling, which gives us power and predictive control over events in existence. This is why nervous systems came about in the first place 100’s of millions years ago. & have continued upwards toward humans over the last millions of years, as well. Leaving in their developmental/evolutionary wake, the other animals, which also use those recognition processes even to this day. There is a decided advantage to human kinds of understandings, well above those of the other species, even the primates and dolfins, which our success as a species most likely shows. And which our brains modified by unlimited feedback of recognition, to pattern recognition to more recognitions, building up the vast hierarchies of understandings, the veritable organizations of our classifications, taxonomies, rules of behaviors, societies, periodic tables of the elements, and our classifications of diseases, normal processes, and the treatment protocols, etc, etc., etc., by which we have extended human life immensely. This is how it works, and why it improves, or can improve, over the long run. Because of the Least Energy Principle driving it.
Thus what’s most likely to be true on the macroscopic scale deterministic to a high probability, but not necessarily so in all cases. It’s a probability of semi-deterministic outcomes in living systems which DO have those choices. Thus the probabilities of quantum level events, become the unlimited possibilities on the human scale of living systems, as well.
And this bears directly upon the concepts of determinism and free will. This question has thus been likely solved by physics and living systems. There is NO complete determinism. It’s mostly, even highly deterministic, esp. on the macroscopic level to some extent. On the molecular, quantum level, the position of electrons are not certain, but a probability. As we try to measure smaller and smaller events, the apparent certainties which yield a practical but not complete determinism in the macroscopic world, breakdown. In the cases of the genes, those have degrees of expression created by epigenetics and the innate altering of probabilities by living systems to near certainties of outcomes which are the improbable. Thus an efficient, best solution to absolute determinism versus free choice is seen to meet in the middle. There is NOT absolute determinism, nor absolute free will. But there is some choice and at times highly probable, but not complete determinism. The universe does have a stable order to it, and must, or most everything would be the same. But with those probabilities come all of the myriads of ways, choices and outcomes, which make life possible.
Analysis of the complex systems of chaos also show these unlimited possibilities, as well. For N =/> 3, the outcomes become virtually unlimited on the human level. Thus again, from complexity, we develop on the macroscopic level, all the myriad ways. The complexities of systems, whose highly probabilities outcomes, generates the myriads of possibilities of efficiencies, using complex systems, which simple machines cannot nor ever match, in the long run. This is why living systems, complex socialites and the outputs of our brains, using widely differing but relevant examples, are NOT mechanical. Because mechanical systems are not efficient. A always yields B. Pushing the button does one thing. Turning the key unlock the door. But the complex system approach is that 1 structure can do MANY things, and thus is far far more efficient. & so in our universe wins by the advantage of LEP, growth and endless, unlimited possibilities.
This has protean consequences regarding our understanding of an unifying of physical systems, which are classical & deterministic and those which are quantum mechanical, thus largely probabilistic. Feynman has pointed out that QM could not develop living systems. But using the methods above it’s possible to combine classical deterministic thermodynamics and relativity of space/time, mass/gravity with QM. AND as well, create an understanding of living systems based upon the energy inputs creating the improbable and converting that into a near certainty. Thus the probabilities model can encompass quantum understanding of both classical systems and the highly improbable outcomes of living systems. QM must change to accommodate these, but that will be good & a greater and greater understanding, a more fruitful & thus more complete solution to QM can come about. Thus LEP, as well. It does a LOT with a lot less.
The universe is all very likely connected on a deepest level, from which our universe arose. All of it is connected by processes involving in some way, the Casimir effect. The comparison processes operating in our brains, which creates our apparent purposes, goals, drives, teleologies, attempts to make sense of our universe around us, that drive is to understand in order to better survive, are now shown to be, very likely, complex manifestations of the universe’s innate LEP, which involves & arises from the universe as a whole. Thus our understanding becomes not only universal, but unified. Because the comparison processes are logics, mental processes, which innately can compare without any limit to we humans, virtually all and everything of events of the universe with each other, & thus model it uniquely by constant comparison with testing, checking, creating order and organization to it. & the LEP can compare all events using energy, which is most all of them, to derive a deeper, uniting understanding of most all events and where from they arise.
It thus answers those universe questions, Why is this? AKA, How does it come about? How can we better understand events around us? These are the some of the unlimited values of the Comparison process and dopamine driven systems by which our brains/minds make sense of that around us. A constant interaction between brain and events in existence, creating least energy driven creations which steadily improve their efficiencies oven time, due to the excess energy created which can do more with less. This is what very likely drive evolution, and as previous discussed, our societies, economies, political systems not only for/of our species but the behaviors of most other species, as well. simplifying by unifying. The comparison process and the LEP.