The Common Origins of Growth, Development and the Markets: A New Synthesis of Universal Understanding
By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014
“Simplify, simplify, simplify.” –Henry David Thoreau
“Least energy rules.”
“A society which cannot break out of its current abstractions is doomed to stagnation after a limited period of growth.” –Alfred North Whitehead
“Build a better mouse trap and the world will beat a path to your door.”
“The “invisible hand” of Adam Smith drives the markets.”
As previously written in more expansive terms,
The comparison process in our brains/minds creates the relationships, associations, recognitions, pattern recognitions, & visualizations, etc., which underlie thinking and the other various functions of consciousness. The comparison process is universally applicable to most all known events. In short, as it allows that Everything can be compared to everything else for the similarities & (differences) of those events to each other. Then those similar events are grouped into categories, classifications, taxonomies, etc. This simplifies our understanding of events by grouping and organizing them into a readable and memorable forms. Those events which are more dissimilar can be grouped by alphabetization of words into dictionaries, thesauri, encyclopedias, and using words and numbers into paginations, indices, and so forth. Points on a map can be organized according to their relationships on a North, South, West, East grid, and every map point can be shown to correspond to a real existing point on the earth. & further, how each site relates to every other point/site besides. In the periodic table of elements, the noble gases, alkali metals, halogens, etc., all have their corresponding, comparison places in that visual map of the relationships of the elements to all the others. Further, the electronic configurations of the atoms relating to how atoms combine to form compounds is a higher level characteristic of periodic table, & its chemistries (inorganic, organic, biochemical/biological), which are related and derive from a higher classification, molecular bonding, implicit in Mendeleef’s table, which he was not originally aware of. Thus, the depths within depths, yet again. The Periodic Table thus is simply another form of the classifications methods without limit which can be created by comparisons.
Further the more education and knowledge the more which can be compared, understood and more knowledge is thus created. ?This then can be fed back into the process creating, over time exponentiating growth. This is in short, a piece of how scientific exponential growth has come about and is continuing. this is yet another reason why education is important. Because it gives more to be considered and built upon, providing new raw data, discoveries and findings for the person.
It’s also reinforced by an internal dopamine boost, not jsut by external reinforcements which are also key. Each new finding, each new “Eureka” moment, each new “Aha!”, and the “pleasures of philosophy” known by Aristoteles, will & can reinforce this kind of comparison process growth and development, too..
At each stage of individual entry into those classification schemes, or comparison models, entropy declines, organization increases and the entire system does more with less. There is a place for everything and everything in its place. The system is both created and read by the comparison processes. Thus the comparison process does a LOT with a little, and gives a result which is far, far more least energy than other methods/models. It is profoundly Least Energy Principle (LEP) driven.
Knowledge is thus found to be most likely & largely the relationships of events to other events by comparison processes and methods. Understanding is also more of the same. The processing of the individual facts in knowledge further creates the hierarchies and classifications. Which is just another way of saying the first paragraph. Being complex systems, there are many routes to the same point, but some are far, far more efficient than others. Those more efficient are favored and privileged in this universe.
Discoveries are recognized when something does not fit into the overall classification scheme of our long term memory. Then it’s studied, observed and finally classified by comparison processes to take its place in the grander scheme.
Curiosity, driven by the dopamine boost, explorations, & trial and error methods are yet more of the many, unlimited ways in which these constant interactions between our brains/minds via our senses with events in existence continue to grow and extend our knowledge. It is innately self-corrective, also, like the sciences, which are so very deeply driven by comparison processes and the LEP. Those constant, interacting input/output processing of events in existence, the cortical comparison processes, very likely create our consciousness in most all of its varied functions.
The Least Energy Principle (LEP) is a comparison process where costs, time, energy, materials, values, etc., are all compared to each in a series of methods of doing things, to find the one or few which are least energy in those areas. Their outcomes are compared in those terms and the ones with the least energy/costs/materials win & are used.
The Least Energy Principle (LEP) creates advantages by creating more with less. It results in systems arising which by this process creates surpluses, excesses, and savings of time, energy, materials, costs, etc. This is little less than wealth, value, worth, meaning, etc. That is then ploughed back into the system to create growth in living systems and much else, as it turns out, besides.
Those systems which gain savings by least energy win the lottery. They create, every time they are used, more savings, more value, more energy and more usable resources & surpluses, Comparatively. Thus they are worth something; they are value and wealth itself. The building up of food surpluses was what drove the agricultural revolution. & the creation of the wealth of surplus foods & goods was what created the cities. It was efficient, least energy methods, which grew & grew without limit which has creates the US agricultural methods by which less than 1.5% of the population creates enough food to feed everyone here and 30-40% left over for export, thus creating more wealth, besides. Compared to those societies which still to this day use 30-40% of their people to grow food, to barely feed the rest, this is a huge advantage. & it grows by compound interest over the years, too. And also those not engaged in agriculture can be engaged as teachers, professionals, soldiers and in the manufacturing and service industries, which creates wealth, far, far higher than agricultural societies possibly can create. That wealth can then be plowed back into the society for further growth, thus creating an exponential economic, social, scientific and cultural growth, comparatively.
In living cells, the same is true. Formerly, as shown in the referenced main article above, the efficiencies of genetics, metabolism (and the endless cycles of glycolysis, arginine, citric acid), mitochondrial oxidation for energy, & multiplication and reproduction. cellular and macroscopic structures, plus behaviors of the cells in the single cells and multicellular organisms of plants and animals, are what give the same advantages of energy & materials. Those ALSO build up in the cells so they can reproduce. This is almost all driven by the LEP. By their outcomes we will know if they are efficient or not. Because the LEP is also applicable to almost every system using energy/materials, it can describe, UNIVERSALLY and measure outcomes of almost every method. Thus it’s also universally applicable, as its parent process, the comparison. Here is the universality of the system. It can apply to almost everything known, without limit, with endless repetitions, as well.
What of the creativity of the DNA molecule & of human creativity? Let us compare the two and see the same processes working there, from the veriest molecular levels throughout metabolism of energy production, to protein synthesis, to the repeating citric acid, Krebs, oxidation, arginine, the endless cycles of life, we find the same events. Efficient methods rule. Least energy rules.
The DNA can mutate a single or over time in many bases. These mutations are often lethal, or harmful in some ways thus doing harm to the cells which carry them. But here is the decisive edge. The copying errors and mutations can occasionally rarely, say a few percent of the time, result in a slightly more efficient means of doing something necessary for the cell. A more stable structural protein, or starch, a more efficient way of metabolizing starches/cellulose/sugars to energy. A more efficient way of building a stable molecule.
Those advantages will then build up the energy savings, and materials surpluses every TIME they are used. This will procure incrementally a growth probability, no matter how small, which over time, can, by the rule of 72, result in doubling times of compound or additive interest. This creativity of the DNA molecule, by the LEP will build up a decisive advantage over the long run, so that mutation is successfully transmitted to the next generation because of those advantages. This operates WAY below the level of behavioral competition or survival of the fittest. It’s a very much more basic and deeper analysis of the processes of developments of the species. EVERY time the LEP process is used which is more energy/materially efficient, which arose from the DNA’s chance mutation, it will be favored over time. Thus the species evolves NOT only by the macroscopic “competition” and “survival of the fittest”, but also on the very molecular, genetic, and metabolic, structural and intervening levels, by the deeper process of LEP creating savings, surpluses and the like, which creates more growth potential for those which carry that gene. Or in the same way, an epigenetic predisposition to use that gene in a flexible way, which favors the build up of energy/materials compared to other genetics.
This then is how creativity of the DNA comes about on the molecular level, from a mutation to the creation of surplus outputs which create more growth, & which is often in the case of cells, exponential growth. Thus, creativity of the DNA molecule is transformed into cellular growth, and often multicellular growth, as well. This can be seen at all levels of genetics, metabolism, structures, functions and even at the highest levels, the behaviors of the cells, either as individuals or in multicellular species of brain/neuronal complex functions and behaviors..
What drives this creativity in the DNA? It’s the LEP. It’s a thermodynamic principle based upon the laws of the universe, and a corollary to the entropic principle, the Second Law. This is why the cell is efficient. This is why the cell survives. This LEP also makes it far, far stabler than those without those efficiencies. It creates durability and stability through time. It;’s more resistant to change, attacks, and breakdowns because it has more resources and energy to draw upon than less efficient cells. This is how evolution comes about. This is a much, much deeper understanding of not only creativity, but how evolution occurs. & this model is so deep, so vast, because it’s comparison process and LEP, that it’s universally applicable. It is driven by the universal forces of thermodynamics everywhere known in the observable universe, & it can be extended without limit even to human creativity, at the highest levels of multicellular organization, the brains of animals & humans. it’s ineluctable, it’s inevitable, and it’s a deep molecular process driven by the very thermodynamics forces of the universe, itself. Thus we have the beginnings of a deeper understanding, a more universal understanding of the evolution of the species.
Let us now extend this same model to markets. Essentially, markets are energy and material throughputs which increase value and wealth, by creating growth by the same methods stated above. The farmer grows food & then sells it for a profit, if he is to be successful. This gives him the means to further expand his food growing to make more and more money.
Now money is an interesting invention and why does it arise? Essentially, we must understand that costs, prices and barter exchanges are simply done by the comparison processes. Humans did great amounts of trade in many goods in ancient times, before money, and when reached a an agreement to trade, was called barter, by which both persons could make a profit by this trade. Essentially, in the tit for tat models, where everyone benefits from fair trades, or as Proverbs states, “fair measures”, then the system will be stable, and as everyone wins by not cheating, it becomes unbreakable by outside forces largely. Tit for tat is the LEP form of trade.
Now we must have some way of deciding the relative, comparative worth of each product we are to trade. This is largely created by barter of goods for other goods. Thus goods were valued in terms of how much they could barter for in terms of OTHER goods. Their value was dependent upon comparison with their relative values with other goods. And then those were traded. It was cumbersome, and hard to carry all of those goods around. It was also difficult to fully value items with each other, because of the combinatorial complexity of everything being compared to everything else in order to reach a trade. There were few common standards, in other words. Those exchange rates of copper for silver, wheat and grains for gold, timber and leather, etc., would so often change that for those using it to arrive as some commonly accepted valuations, due to changes in supply and demands was a huge problem of time and energy cost. Prices, costs and values of services and products are virtually ALL comparison process driven.
So a brilliant creative invention was made in the mid 1st millennium B.C. of Asia Minor. Lydian gold from Kroesos’ mines was converted into relatively standardized gold coins which could, by the stability, rarity and value of gold be converted into a universal exchange rate for most anything. This meant that coins as a form of money, because a universal standard mostly was used mainly (tho bartering did remain), and largely simplified the exchanges. Using standard silver and copper coins, the same was done. No longer was everything being compared to everything else, but mostly to the gold standard. So exchanges and trade were simplified, facilitated and much time and energy was saves. Thus LEP. It also had the unique ability to be measured in terms of how many gold pieces as well. But those also were cumbersome, too, and could be easily stolen. A thief simply looked at which side of the belt of the pantaloons or tunics were weighed down by the coins to find “where the money was”.
Less valued coins of copper and bronze and silver were made to more finely divide trade values by lesser coinages Then there were more gradings of value created, compared to barter, as well. This is a distinct and in the long run a major advantage, too. But overall, it was a vast simplification in trade. There was a common measure, a common comparison, a commonly accepted standard then for worth. The barter system disappeared over time, replaced by a far more efficient system, which could also create over time accounting methods, banking and other such measures and standards. Income and output could be compared more exactly by this mathematics, and the truer financial status of a business more carefully understood, used and extended.
So first in China, paper money was created, using a set exchange rate for more valuable gold, silver and other commodities, & thus the whole process became, once again, vastly simplified. Coins were used for tangible support of the paper currency standard, which greatly simplified exchange rates. Now there was much less carrying around lots of goods & heavy metals of coins. No more figuring out how much leather was worth in terms of foods, metals of many kinds, etc. There was a more easily determined exchange rate, that is conversion system, that is comparison and ratios, what the value of that standard coin was worth. It was also flexible enough to change for supply and demand oscillations which were fairly common, too. Thus coinage and therefore money arose because it was extremely more efficient and simplified trade. Bartering everything for everything else was complicated and took time. Using coins by which most goods could be exchanged is in fact LEP all the way, relying once again on prices and costs, which are comparison processes. It was all simplified by LEP and greatly facilitated and sped up trading, thus increasing exponentially the amount of commerce and thus wealth generation and distribution. If one could trade more itemsin less time, more profit and further trade was possible. These are LEP and comparison processes to the core.
The use of coins and money is in fact a direct analogue of using a relatively fixed, stable standard to measure lengths, time, temperature, distance, weights, and so forth. Thus it fits neatly into the Relativity model & epistemology of Einstein with the same capabilities and limits of such a method. There is no absolute money or coinage. Money is yet another comparison method to take the measure of events in existence, also. Money can be a fair measure of the worth of events, be they goods or services. This yet again reduces an essential part of economics to basic physics. (AHA!!)
In fact, shopping is essentially a comparison process. We try to find the best goods for the best prices, by comparing quality, size, freshness, newness, and other characteristics. And we then, if we can, buy the best for the least. Again, comparison process, driven by the least energy principle!! It’s so obvious. It’s the physics of thermodynamics and how it works in the market place, with the clear overlay of human psychological interactions, as well. But we try to get the most for the least and the seller charges whatever the market will bear to get the most profit. And the reward/reinforcement for making more money and wealth added that extra dopamine boost. Incentives & Greed, yet more forms of the dopamine boost.
These profits then build up, and the seller can grow his business, by the LEP. This is the fundamental physics of the market place, which can be seen by comparison processing of the information and then which grows, without limit using the LEP as the driving force. Market forces and money are said to be driven by the Invisible hand of Adam Smith, which we can now recognize is the LEP and comparison processes in human minds/brains. Simple, elegant, & explains why money came about, as well as banks and accounting methods, and how the markets are innately least energy driven, as well.
If we find a better way to create a more capable product, we can sell it for more, derive more profit and grow without much limit at least for a while, until we run into the Whiteheadian S-curve limits to growth, the market gets saturated, others create similar or better products & so forth. Thus economics is essentially reducible to LEP forces, the same which drive evolution and the universe of events by thermodynamics wherever we have observed events in our universe. These are the kinds of simplifications and reduction of economics to physical forces which extend our understanding of “how things work”, made possible by comparison process and its fraternal twin, the LEP.
This also shows that plants and animals are just as market driven in their own ways, piling up the advantages of efficient methods to create surplus energy & materials, and then using that to grow and reproduce. Most of the complexities of systems are built upon these principles, and the complex systems of the market place can easily be more understood as variations on these two themes of comparison process and LEP. The song without end: La Chanson.
Thus plants and animals are the biggest and oldest capitalists of all in terms of energy and resources and how they work!! Thus human markets simply are other forms, and extension of these far, far older systems for growth. Free markets, which permit the widest play of LEP production and methods work best. And are highly favored by the forces in our universe. Those factors which block innovation, and the creativity which create the newer, more capable goods, services & marketing methods, and for lesscosts are not favored. This, essentially, is why Marxism/Leninism failed, because it violated the LEP rules of the universe. And Why the USSR fell, because it was so incredibly inefficient compared to the market place. The Chinese, essentially under Deng Xiao Ping, understood this, and opened up the markets, even a new stock market in Shanghai, creating a massively growing economy, which now has become the world’s largest. Their growth rate is falling off at present, once again due to the Dictum of Whitehead. In order to grow more, they must innovate, reform, & create greater wealth by doing more with less and thus continue their phenomenal growth.
This is essentially why Walmart grew. Sam Walton created a far, far more efficient supply and distribution system. He knew what goods by computerized daily accountings were being sold and which were not. Those which fell below a certain sales level were removed from the shelves/displays and replaced by better selling items. He stored goods for sale for much shorter times, thus reducing substantially his warehouse costs, inventories and amounts of unsold or unsalable goods. Those left over items were then efficiently resold in bulk to recover their value, too..Only the items which sold, driven by efficient resupply systems, made him huge profits, which were then re-invested into the system, which continued to create the same kind of growth, exponentiation into the largest store system of its type.
Apple, under Steve Jobs did mostly the same thing, although he knew the key was high profits. To make more for less, thus creating more money & allowing more products to be developed for more sales. He created the mouse and the interactive touch screens apps, which gave fun to the users. His graphics were for years among the best in the world, and preferentially used by artists, printers and designers. This special Apple computer logo and marketing created a cadre of very loyal buyers and users. and with each additional product he expanded his sales, buyers who accepted higher costs for higher quality,. This boosted Apple’s profits to the highest every seen both in terms of percentages of sales and total billions in net profits. Then he created his Apple Stores, which sold on line easily deliverable programs (Apps, note the Apple ad pun as well, yet another creativity by comparison process) to enhance in virtually unlimited ways the use of his devices, and created yet another huge source of profits. What he did was basically creating programs as devices to sell. Thus shipping programs online instead of devices, he cut his costs hugely, and expanded his profit margins once again. This is how growth is created, constant innovation and careful marketing of highly useful and entertaining devices. Apple then integrated cell phones with computers to do more with less. At present a person can hold a telecommunication device in his hands, with more computer power than last year’s desk top PC, and can play music, while working, & while telecommunicating on the Net with persons and with other computer servers. These are but a few of the reasons why Apple is the worlds’ only trillion dollar company. Exponential growth via the LEP and comparison process creating creativity and the bases for ever more growth. “You ain’t seen nothing yet!”, as the CEO recently stated, confidently and likely truly.
This is why Demmings enormously effective methods worked in Japan, by increasing efficiencies of productions. He knew efficincies but NOt the LEP at its core and depths. This was how, once again, Andrew Carnegie’s introduction of the Bessemer converter system from England, far, far more efficient than any iron and steel making systems in the US, & created his wealth. & then he plowed that profit into a research team, which created more & more efficient methods, as well. Henry Ford used the same principles for growth, essentially. This was how Edison’s research labs worked in Menlo Park, creating the electric light, which used highly efficient methods to convert night time into daylight and all the incredible increases in productivity that provided. This was how the telephone of Alexander Graham Bell also worked in the same way. Instead of having to physically walk down to another place to do their business and get information, he introduced an easy to use, simple, inexpensive device, a telephone, to more efficiently & with far, far less energy than moving around people and horses and such, to take care of the business & necessary communications of daily lives. This saved time, energy, materials and is LEP. It created huge new means of alerting persons of dangers, allowing more business to be done, saving lives and time. This is why we use telegraphs, telephones, & radios etc. This is how most ALL growth, development and economic progress occur.
This LEP creates savings of time, money, energy and materials and thus can be plowed back into the same systems for exponential growth, which took place with telephones, & the steam engines in locomotives and steam boats. The internal combustion engine did the same in cars, trucks, buses, and in other vehicles, as well. This allowed humans to escape from the shackles and limits of sunlight and food productions creating the limited and slow moving energies of horses and humans. Replacing those traditional and ancient methods with endless supplies of water and coal to ADD to, and supplement far older forms of energy. It was modernization with a vengeance. It was most all driven by LEP advantages which create growth. This is not limited to just in a single nation or a single continent, or on a single world, but universally, wherever the material and energy surpluses can act to create growth and development and evolution all across the galaxies and super galactic clusters, in fact. It’s observably universal..
The Gutenberg revolution was the same. The Copernican solar centered system was as well the same, a simplifying method. & that of Galileo the same, finally culminating in the Newtonian creation of his laws of motion, which are not only universal, but least energy methods too. We should all re-read Alexander Kuhn’s “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” to see how this comes about. More with less.
To extend this, we now are reaching another turning point, a crisis in human affairs. The scientific revolution as we know it is coming to an end, reaching the Whiteheadian limits to growth. Publications in even respected journals, the heart and core of scientific communication of new and useful findings, are 2/3 simply not confirmable, meaning 2/3 of the time, energy, material & talent are not being efficiently used for good ends. Billions of dollars, 10K’s years of talent, time and abilities are being wasted. One needs no special training to see such inefficiencies, such violations of physical laws cannot continue. Particle physics has run up against the exponential barriers of light speed, and the laws of diminishing returns are too expense. We cannot repeat the Higgs boson experiments because they cost too much with current methods. Thus these too, are simply unconfirmable.
The Quantum Mechanics wave equations still cannot be fully or in many cases even partly computed, either. Nor can QM understand life by developing life from its equations as it can develop a very great deal of physics, already. There are many places QM is simply untestable and cannot go.
The silicon chip revolution has reached the barriers of too small transistors and the quantum leakage of such small transistors means they don’t work much at all reliably. Again, the expon barriers, the tops of the S-curves are starkly, blatantly visible in our era.
Please review sections 6 thru 11.
But there is a better way. When we find the rule of diminishing returns operating, our comparison processes recognize this, and turn instead to other ways, using observations, trial and error, creativity and casting about for any alternative methods to find ways around those problems. The linear methods of our simple maths, our logical systems and such methods have reached that point of decreasing value and output.
These linear systems, which create our simplistic devices, our mere machines can give us small parts & pieces of answers, & yet while they create approximations to the complex systems, they are not the best answers. They cannot of themselves jump over the abyss of epistemology, logic and insights which are able to characterize, see and comprehend complex systems. They, like Moses can see the Promised Land, but they cannot enter it, any more than he could..
Neither can those linear methods produce enough of the points on the graph to give some useful idea of the curve’s truer shape. Nor can they of themselves connect the dots, see the connections, put it together. A higher ability to visualize and recognize far greater patterns, that of the comparison process must be used. If we are to survive we must transition to complex system models and how to best understand those, to make the progress we need to meet our desperate needs of over pollution and overpopulation. To do a LOT with a little, is the universal outcome of the LEP. It’s the way to continued growth without limit, and an end to poverty, disease and suffering.
The way now has opened into complex systems, which richly demonstrated by the weather, living systems, economic systems, and even the organizations of the brain itself, can each do a lot with a little. We have reached and end times, viewing the complicated, tightly compacted devices under the hoods of our cars, evidenced by the over specializations leading to incomprehensibilities, even among the same specialists and fields (the Tower of Babel problem), the fragmenting of knowledge, the high inefficiencies which signal the end of the machine age. This is clearly to be replaced by the non-linear, complex system methods, which can do a lot with a little. The tiny English Robin can create a molecular sized quantum magnetometer, whereas ours require liquid helium superconductors and a complicated machine the size of the very large closet costing millions, by comparison. This a billions to one functional and structural advantage which we must finds ways ot doing, ourselves. The Rhizobacter can fix nitrogen along with its other cousin bacteria, which fix nitrogen world wide in the land and seas, at ambient temperatures. Whereas we require 1200 degrees of heat and 100’s of atmospheres of pressure to do the same. More with less, is the complex system way. It’s LEP. It’s favored by the universe itself, to do the same.
My sildenafil method shown in the above URL in the beginning lines of this article, does much the same, making a Viagra 50 mg. tab last for 3 days & a surprising onset of action within 20-30′ as well. These are the ways of the future: Complex systems. Sure it takes longer and they are harder to figure out, but when they give long term, massive increases of efficiency of production for a lot less, then those will grow very fast. & it also explains why living systems are NOT machines. Those devices are too simple, to inefficient to compete with complex systems. There is the comparison point. Such systems allow us better to predict the future as well, for tracking moving objects, or for tracking time lines.
These very likely are our answers to the current problems which belabor us, tax us with suffering and hopelessness and which are inescapable using current, outdated, moribund methods, from which troubles complex systems thinking and devices can allow us unlimited ways to escape. We have but to open that door and step into the Promised Land of the Undiscovered Country, to see once again as did Daniel Boone saw Kentuckee, the vast ranges of mountains, trees and meadows of fertile land, nearly unlimited to his eyes, stretching out before him. And us.