The Ages of the Brain & Brain Aging

Ages of the Brain and Brain Aging
..The Ages of the Brain are very likely seen as the development & aging of the brain. And also the hardwiring of the brain, very often. So if we want to block the CxSys of aging, then we have to address the Ages of the brain, as well.

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The first thing to think about are lay downs of Long Term Memory. Clearly, facial recognitions come earliest in the infant. There is the FFA which are at the base of the temporal areas, which do this. The babes know their mothers very early on and that memory sticks, It’s the earliest of the brain hardwiring to do so. Thus as soon as the infant can recognize mom and some other caregivers,& that marks the earliest “Age of the Brain” via LTM. Babes know who their caregivers are and if an unknown person picks them up, they get stiff, upset and are not happy, consistently confirming this LTM disparity.

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Next, the infant learns the sounds, face expressions, & the voice of the mother. That comes next, and the babe will always turn to the sound of his mother. This is in addition, an extension of import to the magnificent work of Dr. Jean Piaget, who taught us the child’s age related sequences by observations, of how the brain develops its functions. Logic, significantly begins to start ca. age 12-14 or so, very likely. Sadly, we did not have the  fMRI and the other means to detect how and where those structures did the work to create those functions, but NOW we do!!

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And as have written before in the Ages of the Brain, a work in progress, this is critical to making psych and psychiatry into a bona fide, far, far more complete set of sciences. It creates the highly empirical S/F relationships which SHOW the neurochemical, &  neurophysiology of where the brain behaviors are, that is the functions arise from and makes psych into a REAL, far more complete science. And that’s critical to explaining each of the ages of the brain, which Piaget did his great work on. & thus again, the CP, LE, S/F, & CxSys  (Complex System) methods, using the highly empirical, visual process thinking, to go about finding more efficiently the solutions to the problems of psych. Because if we have the S/F relationships we then know a lot more about how to intervene & detect the problems with those Functions/behavioral outputs, do we not?

.As long as the behaviorists did NOT look at the “black box”, the brain, the S/F understandings and relationship of brain S/F were closed to them, unlike the clinical neurosciences which created and find most all we know about S/F of brain. The S/F relationships of the brain are how we KNOW much much more about how the brain works, by comparing S/F and F to S. That is the key to figuring out in detail how brain/mind work.

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And that is why the Ages of the Brain becomes a deep insight into how the brain works, by extending the S/F relationships of brain to our understanding to make a very much more complete psych knowledge!!!

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&  that’s a key part of the sciences of clinical cognitive neuroscience, as well. Thus psych becomes subsumed into the natural sciences, and becomes far, far more capable and without limits, as well.Ergo, Clinical, cognitive neurosciences.

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The next major LTM we see is that of the language functions. Kids do NOT have to be reminded at 8-9 mos. old what those words mean every day. do they? Of course not. This is the 2nd of the lay downs of LTM (outside of motor skills). And the sooner that language skill set becomes good enough, they can be advanced in their training. That can be easily studied using fMRI and MEG, as well. A Magnetic point stim device can add vastly to this, as well, when that article gets written, because it will BLOCK the activity of these structures, which creates those outputs, i.e., the behaviors, and thus proving more details of S/F once again. MORE about what’s going on with the S/F relationships which create psychologies, is not?
.This is why we start children in formal education in Kindergarten by ages 5-6, also. At ages 3-4 the LTM begins to get laid down more richly. Their LTM are good enough for words and concepts now to begin teaching them, because the learning will now be retained, due to that Age of the Brain’s LTM being well enough developed to make learning, formal learning, possible. Again, another Age of the Brain.
.I noted this because we spent 4 years in the warmth of Florida over the X-mas holidays, when my birthday was. Only the last trip,when I was 4, did I recall, “Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer” playing at the shopping mall in the St. Pete area. And the thin, light brown bricks in the walls, there.  & the Parking meters were very, very much taller than I was. Plus the X-mas citrus, the tangerines which I first recall having there. Plus the drive in we went to, as well. & G’ma with us, and seeing my gr- grandparents in Apopka. where from his citrus orchard, we carried back grapefruits and oranges, plus the very long drive back home.

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The next thing is the lay down of learning new things. Kids learn a lot very easily, but this slowly abates, and reduces learning speeds. After hitting puberty, they cannot any more learn a new language without an accent, nor as fast. That is the Language Acquisition System, first described by Chomsky. He was on target,  but had NO way of ID’g where those systems in brain were. Now we do & can, and why it’s not been done with the fMRI so far, is absurdly egregious and blatant. Lack of creativity!! Which the CP, LE and S/F relationships create without limits, too. Compare brain structure to functions & then compare functions to structures. CP (comparison process) vastly and throughout, universally.

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Also, the language also is in the right temporal lobes for some functions as well. My g’ma God bless her, had a stroke of Left Broca’s area, middle cerebral artery. She could understand lots better than she could talk, and Broca’s was mostly out. Plus her speech output was seriously impaired.

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Then came this interesting fact. Women are very gifted compared to males when it comes to language. They must adjust the male’s verbal IQ to match the females. And the females’ brain usually stores language MORE diffusely than the males. They also teach the kids to talk, and that is yet another evolutionary advantage to women’s speech abilities. But we see this in several ways, too, anyway, Clinically, G’ma could not speak very well, nor clearly, yet her understanding was fairly good, meaning Wernicke’s area for speech processing was mostly intact. But she could swear, and for her that “Oh, Sugar”, which came out as clearly as anything. And shocked me., & then the other words, when emotionally driven out of the Right parietal center would activate the speech there, such as Heck or Darn, etc. Thus we know language is stored more diffusely, esp. in women.

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But there is yet another finding. And that was when we sat down to sing, G’ma could sing the hymns’ words very, very clearly as I played them for us on the piano. Her words were exacting, very different from the jumble she spoke when trying to find the words to talk to us. & when I could visit, read the National Geos. to her, page by page also, which she enjoyed a very great deal, too.

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And yet again, the clinical findings can guide us in teaching those with speech problems (speech therapies), to get better. We used those intact right hemisphere, temporal music centers, the lyrics of the music, to get her to talk better. Instead of talking from the damaged L speech areas, she’d activate the words there on the Right by singing the phrases which were useful to talk to us; AND the verbal processing Wernicke’s areas there;  & it all came out a lot better, She learned as fast as she could  singing her words, and those cortical columns, tho well after she’d passed 14 y/o, she could still talk better there!!! And we got us a great vocab for her to sing the words, after which in time she could speak better, by activating her right temporal swearing & lyrical word areas, too.

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This was a shock to her speech therapist. and shows HOW we make progress in the clinical neurosciences. Knowing THAT the lyrical words and swearing goes on in the intact RIGHT temporal areas, after a stroke damages those on the left, is critical here in understanding the S/F relationships of speaking, CxSys thinking, and learning, Likely in fact. S/F can be studied to see how others with speech defects from all sorts of clinical structural problems can learn to speak better, esp. if very young!!! This is how progress is made, because the S/F system creates info and creativities without limits, we see, do we not?

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Defeating aging of the brain, which is part and parcel of the ages of the brain.

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We know that DA (dopamine)is a great motivator. High DA (& other catecholamines) drives emotions and motor systems. Thus DA creates largely the Motion AND Emotions (D1 & D2), to simplify the observations more easily. When the DA gets low, esp. in Parkinson’s types of conditions, the emotions fail, as well. This is CxSys thinking. DA does not do just 1 thing, but has at least 10  receptor sites: &, likely more receptor sites, there, as well, including the alpha/beta adrenergics, which are not often realized to be basically DA receptors as well, because of linear, logical, NOT Cx Sys thinking &  processing of informations. Thus showing the superiority of the model of CP, LE, S/F and CxSys AND visual, process thinking, the last first discussed by Whitehead’s vast insights.

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The DA system is a stimulant, and creates wakefulness and arousal. It drives extreme behaviors as well, such as Manic depressive illnesses and Schizophrenic both discussed in some detail in the Emotional Continuum of DA article. 

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.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/02/the-emotional-continuum-exploring-emotions/

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.That’s the issue here which has been missed. Again, limits to linear thinking, yes/no, logical thinking, “Beyond the Absolutes”.


.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/09/03/beyond-the-absolute-limits-to-knowledge/.

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.& the overarching Towards a Model of Everything, Unifying knowledge inside and outside of us, by a simple means of near universal, & general processors and processes.

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.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/07/06/a-basic-model-of-a-unifying-system-of-most-all-knowledge/

.Neurokinins are also stimulants. We cannot sleep in great pain. & that shows us this neurophysiologic fact. We MUST attend to the pain and that’s the overlap of neurokinins with DA, and how the CxSys works. We suppress pain by GABApentins, and other sedatives, do we not? Same system. Inhibitory, as well. Not a shock, but shows the CxSys visualizations of the system, too.

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Pain is blocked by DA, and esp. by Adrenaline. And when the horse anesthetic, NMDA is given to humans, nothing short of direct muscle block by tasers can affect them. There it is again, described clinically and without maths, nor anything  but empirical logic of CP of visual events, is not? And that’s how and why the CP, LE system works so well. But much is going on there, too, and there that is.

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.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/05/30/a-standard-method-to-understand-neurochemistrys-complexities/

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So, how do we block aging using clinical, cognitive neuroscience? We block the ages of the brain. We know for a fact that androgens have a huge aggressiveness built in with the young men, who must learn to control as they mature. We see that androgens of all sorts cause “roid rage” in the bodybuilders. And that is a form of mania/psychosis, which are the same ranges of the DA activity over activities seen in psychoses and manias, is not? And thus maturing with androgen must be controlled, because some of those persons with ‘roid rage do NOT come back to normal, either. And the psychoses created excessively by MJ with “reefer madness” and other drugs, are not curable easily, either.  With amphetamines, yet another releaser of endogenous DA, &  which creates the delusional states of madness.

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.We teach children at least 2-3 languages by age 14, so they can “hear” the accents, adopt them, and then for any other new language in the future, they can look for those, hear them and then use them to speak languages, better.

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.The old joke about the Southern belle, who first learning French said in a thickly accented  “Coe-Moe Tah-Lay Voo, Y’all!! We Can’t easily escape those English accents when speaking other lingos, can we? Nor can other languages, either.

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. I recall saying ” Guten Morgen” to a clear cut Tcherman speaker. and then he said, which was endlessly amusing to most of us around him at the front desk of the Cairene Hotel, “Yore AhK-Zent is ah-Trojious.” and I replied, “Yours ist nicht Besser, Mein Herr. “Harrumph” was what came back from him. Much laughing then.
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Now, some of our families have genetic, familial, high DA. We see those effects all the time. The aggressiveness of young males, learning to control the androgen related higher DA activities, all the time. Women do not get that very much, because estrogens are not that way, altho estrogens are well known to create problems of their own, esp. during withdrawal of menopause, which can create some psychoses, as well. Or with estrogen supplements, too. We medicos all see that. The psych problems with the steroids of all kinds are rather well known, in fact.

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.My mother told us one huge insight. Never Stop Learning!  You will live to be old enough to use most all of the important concepts, facts, and how those fit together and work. If we never stop learning. The aging and fossilizations (hard wiring) of brain behaviors will be abated more or less, as well. In addition, when first formulated, I changed my brain organization over 6 weeks to adapt to the new comparison process, LE method, and the S/F relationships. That made it possible for new insights, new creativities and from there, including this vast compendium of how events work, both inside and outside of us, using much the same universal, unifying generally applicable methods.

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.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/06/03/a-mothers-wisdom/

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.It also made it possible to “see” the prime patterns of 8 prime sites per 3 sets of c/o 3 Remainder 1, 2, and zero quartets. That recurring, unchanging universal pattern in the number line had been missed for 2300 years. Thusly:

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.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2020/05/26/how-to-find-primes-anywhere-in-the-number-lline-fast-efficiently-no-matter-how-large/

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.And the huge miss in physics of the Ubiquity & universality of stellar fusion, the emission/absorption lines of elements, atoms and molecules. Not to miss, plus the universality of Einsteinian light bending from a high gravitational field (gravitational lensing), as so unlimitedly seen on the Hubble Telescope’s arcs and related images, without limits. No matter where we look, ALL, universally, the same!!  The Principle of Universality, to give it a name. All the same over billions of light years and over billions of years of time from past to present, and anywhere. The implication of that universality finding are protean, and why it was missed, is that peculiar human cortical blindness of incompleteness we are all subject to.  ET’s ARE likely, & as we can live most anywhere and any-when under the right conditions in this universe, as well. Thus what ceated us is likely to create living systems, eventually capable f interplanetary space flight, anywhere and anwhere, Under the Right conditions, stable long enough.

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.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/15/cosmology-and-the-comparison-process-comp-explananda-5/

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The Neuropsychiatry of beta blockers is well known, but those create DA declines and depressions in many persons. & there that is again. And also many antidepressants create suicides, because the 5HT goes up, and the DA activities go down and they get depressions, as well. Again, the beta blockers can create a decline in DA activity & create depressions, just like the GABA and Serotonin agonists can do, as well. the SSRI’s are notorious in suicides for that. Again, more insights when we do CP of DA creating emotions, as well.

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.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/05/30/a-standard-method-to-understand-neurochemistrys-complexities/

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These are often ignored, but are very, very insightful in understanding psychopharmacologies, & are too often missed because the CxSys thinking and process visualizations are NOT being widely used, either. Thus creativity is blocked and is not good for patient outcomes, either.

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. Our personalities are also stabilized between about 16 and 20. Diagnosing a  personality disorder (PD) before that time isn’t very useful, as the personalities do stabilize mostly by 20. Lee Iacoca remarked on that stating that if a person didn’t have the right qualities for employment by age 20, he was not likely to get them, either. After 20 many persons find it hard to learn new ways. Also, we note that early teens, tho their language might have stabilized in terms of pronunciations and oft used phrases, the disorders are not. Diagnosing a narcissistic PD before age 16-20 is fruitless, as those can still be removed. But if the traits persist, then they will be very hard to treat after age 20 or so. So brain hardwiring for our personalities, as shown consistently by the MMPI doesn’t hold until after age 20, in most all cases.

.Stability of personalities is necessary for stabilities of our  societies, as well. If the traits keep changing, as in drug usages, which modify personalities, then the society loses that needed stability in order to keep from drifting too far off moral and legal courses.

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.Also the Jesuits were very fond of truthfully stating, give us a child for 7 years, into his teen years, and he will be catholic for life. They know how to do that, making use of the personality stabilizing events in living brains of humans. and yet again, shows the ages of the brain.

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The problem with Growth Hormone is egregious in aging as well. We see in older folks, the big noses, the coarsening of facial features and the early AODM, as well as the larger ears, so often seen in the short lived HGH overactivity problems of gigantisms. THOSE CP findings have been missed. HGH is a thanitin. It creates advanced aging, as well. &  if we want to block them, we must find by S/F studies the parts of the HGH which do such bad things and block them. This also shows HOW AODM is age related as well, and is not a point which should be missed in studying aging. Block the HGH thanatinic (death creating or life shortening effects) and aging is at least partly blocked, as well.

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Thus the aging of the brain shows us how to block some of the CxSys factors of aging, as well. Sadly these are so often missed because of linear, logical, math thinking, and missing the Forest for the trees, or not seeing the wider picture, is blocked and missed as well. CP, LE, S/F and CxSys. visual processing thinking do far, far better than traditional methods, which are ingrained, and thus, “Physics (and the sciences and most fields) advance ONE funeral at a time. ” Max Planck, and still true today over 100 years, later. Eric Thompson, noted mayalogist is yet another serious example of such lack of insights. Which drives the scientific publishing crisis in most fields, including psychology; psychiatries, as well.

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These “castings of our nets widely” as the saying goes, are implicit to our problems of creativities of all sorts. Which is why the CP, LE empirical methods, which are MADE intrinsically empirical by those PLUS S/F thinking, works so well. Those Thermodynamically driven processes thinking necessary make us MUCH more realistic and the outputs of such thinking processing far, far more empirically without limits, as well. It creates a vast mental tethering system which creates creativity and unstained muchy, much better than the old, even ancient methods. Esp. the sillinesses of idealisms, which have already been addressed as massively, empirically proven fallacies, without limits, too.

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Thus do we clear out the deadwood which prevents us from being the best, and ridding ourselves of the burdens of our cultural past, and current sillinesses, esp. of hegelian idealism and Fabianisms of the 19th C. The astutes know Exactly what those mean. The rest will eventually be forced to advance in those ways, too.

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AODM can be cured. Why has it not been? Have addressed this before. There is the tie in to HGH to be found, physiologically. There is the tie in to aging, to be addressed. There is the major tie in to removing the distal 2/3 of the gastric volume, as well. A clear cut quasi insulin like factor(s) is likely made there in the stomach, which creates with aging, and HG, AODM. And it’s curative if that factor(s) is removed, or inactivated. Why has this not been pursued?
.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/07/18/how-to-cure-diabetes-aodm-2/

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By  CP, LE, S/F, there is a structure of the stomach creating the blocking factor and creates insulin resistant, clearly! CxSys, and visual thinking of the blocking factors in the stomach, There’re the problems.
.How is information created in the brain? East to understand and do deliberately instead of brute force and by sheerest accident. That creation of info creates creativities without limits, in addition. An important but not oft realized fundamental of understanding brain, too.
.What creates information (descriptive/ numerical) also by finding further patterns creates creativity as well. Very simply.

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.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/05/01/how-physicians-create-new-information/

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.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/06/06/the-break-outs-roots-of-growth-unlimited-creativities/

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.Thus the Ages of the Brain.

A Universal Model of Construction, Building, & Architectures

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/CP Theory/Model; Copyright © January 2021   

Applications to most all of the complexities of each piece & materials of it, to the whole of these fields.

Just more Structure/Function relationships, a universal processor used widely in raising smaller buildings out of wood, larger buildings with aluminum and the largest buildings with highly strong steel and related skyscraper S/F methods. Not to ignore most all stone, brick, and concrete structures as well. Just more easily understood with CP, S/F, and LE efficiencies.

Now the better part of 1 km., high, too.

Allmost all Structure/Function relationships, comparison process driven with observable, least energy guides, that is efficiencies driven. S/F analyses apply widely to most all construction, engineering of building, architectures and materials, plus the manufacturing of same materials. Most all of those vast fields can be desfibe in exacting details, with S/F rules and comparisons processing of S/F relationships. Of how most all structures are put together and work.

And all of the assembly lines are also S/F relations driven with least energy efficiencies, driving the rest. Manufacture of the most all building materials. S/F driven with Least energy methods of efficiencies. ALL of it CP, LE driven as its basis.

Understanding most all of the details of complexities, unimaginable as well. And how creativity understood using the same creates unlimited creativities in these related fields, as well. Creativities without limits.

Universal processes creating universal methods/architectures. ALL universal understanding of nearly everything connected and relating to everything else. All simple. All interconnected with most all else.

Thus, The Compendium. It applies to almost everything deeply, and provably. Buildings of Most All sorts, is S/F Comparison processing of outcomes with S/F and least energy guides. Widely used, almost always ignored, but nearly all applicable.

Universal processors create universal models, unified simply. 1 simple process does it all. Least energy drives efficiencies and those are detected by S/F comparisons.

Our Entire building and construction industry….. in all its vastnesses of materials, methods and outputs. Very easy to see, Simple, all the same, virtually.

Move over Einstein, we have universal, unifying models on the way……..

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2020/11/24/808/

Originally posted in Reddit:

https://old.reddit.com/r/todayilearned/comments/kmurpd/til_aluminum_is_so_corrosion_resistant_because/ghqm6hy/

Table of Contents

Table of contents. Updated 24 Dec.. 2020

1. The Comparison Process, Introduction, Pt. 1
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/02/14/le-chanson-sans-fin-the-comparison-process-introduction/?relatedposts_hit=1&relatedposts_origin=22&relatedposts_position=0

2. The Comparison Process, Introduction, Pt. 2
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/02/14/le-chanson-sans-fin-the-comparison-process-pt-2/?relatedposts_hit=1&relatedposts_origin=3&relatedposts_position=1

3. The Comparison Process, Introduction, Pt. 3
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/02/15/le-chanson-sans-fin-the-comparison-process-pt-3/?relatedposts_hit=1&relatedposts_origin=7&relatedposts_position=0

3A.. Extensions & Applications, parts 1 & 2.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/05/17/extensions-applications-pts-1-2/

4. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 1
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/02/28/the-comparison-process-explananda-pt-1/

5. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 2
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/02/28/the-comparison-process-explananda-pt-2/

6. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 3
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/04/comparison-process-explananda-pt-3/?relatedposts_hit=1&relatedposts_origin=17&relatedposts_position=1

7. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 4
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/15/the-comparison-process-comp-explananda-4/?relatedposts_hit=1&relatedposts_origin=38&relatedposts_position=0

8. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 5: Cosmology
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/15/cosmology-and-the-comparison-process-comp-explananda-5/

9. AI and the Comparison Process
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/20/artificial-intelligence-ai-and-the-comparison-process-comp/

10. Optical and Sensory Illusions, Creativity and the Comparison Process (COMP)
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/06/opticalsensory-illusions-creativity-the-comp/

11. The Emotional Continuum: Exploring Emotions with the Comparison Process
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/02/the-emotional-continuum-exploring-emotions/

12. Depths within Depths: the Nested Great Mysteries
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/14/depths-within-depths-the-nested-great-mysteries/

13. Language/Math, Description/Measurement, Least Energy Principle and AI
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/09/languagemath-descriptionmeasurement-least-energy-principle-and-ai/

14. The Continua, Yin/Yang, Dualities; Creativity and Prediction
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/21/the-continua-yinyang-dualities-creativity-and-prediction/

15. Empirical Introspection and the Comparison Process
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/24/81/

16. The Spark of Life and the Soul of Withttps://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/30/the-spark-of-life-and-the-soul-of-wit/

17. The Praxis: Use of Cortical Evoked Responses (CER), functional MRI (fMRI), Magnetic Electroencephalography (MEG), and Magnetic Stimulation of brain (MagStim) to investigate recognition, creativity and the Comparison Process

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/05/16/the-praxis/

18. A Field Trip into the Mind

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/05/21/106/

19. Complex Systems, Boundary Events and Hierarchies

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/06/11/complex-systems-boundary-events-and-hierarchies/

20. The Relativity of the Cortex: The Mind/Brain Interface

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/07/02/the-relativity-of-the-cortex-the-mindbrain-interface/

21. How to Cure Diabetes (AODM type 2)
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/07/18/how-to-cure-diabetes-aodm-2/

22. Dealing with Sociopaths, Terrorists and Riots

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/08/12/dealing-with-sociopaths-terrorists-and-riots/

23. Beyond the Absolute: The Limits to Knowledge

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/09/03/beyond-the-absolute-limits-to-knowledge/

24  Imaging the Conscience.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/10/20/imaging-the-conscience/

25. The Comparison Process: Creativity, and Linguistics. Analyzing a Movie

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/03/24/comparison-process-creativity-and-linguistics-analyzing-a-movie/

26. A Mother’s Wisdom

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/06/03/a-mothers-wisdom/

27. The Fox and the Hedgehoghttps://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/06/19/the-fox-the-hedgehog/

28. Sequoias, Parkinson’s and Space Sickness.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/07/17/sequoias-parkinsons-and-space-sickness/

29. Evolution, growth, & Development: A Deeper Understanding.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/09/01/evolution-growth-development-a-deeper-understanding/

30. Explanandum 6: Understanding Complex Systems

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/09/08/explandum-6-understanding-complex-systems/

31. The Promised Land of the Undiscovered Country: Towards Universal Understanding

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/09/28/the-promised-land-of-the-undiscovered-country-towards-universal-understanding-2/

32. The Power of Proliferation

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/10/02/the-power-of-proliferation/

33. A Field Trip into our Understanding

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/11/03/a-field-trip-into-our-understanding/

34.  Extensions & applications: Pts. 1 & 2.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/05/17/extensions-applications-pts-1-2/

(35. A Hierarchical Turing Test for General AI, this was deleted after being posted, and it’s not known how it occurred.)

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/05/17/extensions-applications-pts-1-2/

35. The Structure of Color Vision

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/06/11/the-structure-of-color-vision/

36. La Chanson Sans Fin:   Table of Contents

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/09/28/le-chanson-sans-fin-table-of-contents-2/

37. The Structure of Color Vision

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/06/16/the-structure-of-color-vision-2/

38. Stabilities, Repetitions, and Confirmabilityhttps://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/06/30/stabilities-repetitions-confirmability/

39. The Balanced Brain

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/07/08/the-balanced-brain/

40. The Limits to Linear Thinking & Methodshttps://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/07/10/the-limits-to-linear-thinking-methods/

41. Melding Cognitive Neuroscience & Behaviorism

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/11/19/melding-cognitive-neuroscience-behaviorism/42. An Hierarchical Turing Test for AI

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/12/02/an-hierarchical-turing-test-for-ai/

43.  Do Neutron Stars develop into White Dwarfs by Mass Loss?https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/02/08/do-neutron-stars-develop-into-white-dwarfs-by-mass-loss/

44. An Infinity of Flavors ?                             https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/02/16/an-infinity-of-flavors/

45. The Origin of Infomration & Understanding; and the Wellsprings of Creativity

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/04/01/origins-of-information-understanding/

46. The Complex System of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/04/22/the-complex-system-of-the-second-law-of-thermodynamics/

47. How Physicians Create New Information

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/05/01/how-physicians-create-new-information/

48. An Hierarchical Turing Test for AI

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/05/20/an-hierarchical-turing-test-for-ai-2/

49. The Neuroscience of Problem Solving

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/05/27/the-neuroscience-of-problem-solving/

50. A Standard Method to Understand Neurochemistry’s Complexities

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/05/30/a-standard-method-to-understand-neurochemistrys-complexities/

51. Problem Solving for Self Driving Cars: a Model.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/06/10/problem-solving-for-self-driving-cars-a-model/

52. A Trio of Relationships and Connections

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/08/04/a-trio-of-relationships-connections/

53: Einstein’s Great Subtleties:  Einstein’s Edgehttps://wordpress.com/post/jochesh00.wordpress.com/583

54. The Problem of Solving P not Equal to NP

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/04/28/the-problem-of-solving-p-not-equal-to-np/

55. How to Create a Blue Rose

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/06/02/how-to-create-a-blue-rose/

56. The Etymologies of Creativity

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/06/14/the-etymologies-creativity/

57.  A Basic Model of a Unifying System of Most All Knowledge

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/07/06/a-basic-model-of-a-unifying-system-of-most-all-knowledge/

58. Understanding Psych with S/F Brain Methods

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/07/11/understanding-psychology-with-s-f-methods/

59. The Wiggins Prime Sieve

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/08/02/the-wiggins-prime-sieve/

60. The Complex System of Love

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/08/22/the-complex-system-of-love/

61. The Limits of the Comparison Process

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/08/27/the-limits-of-comparison-processing/

62.  The Bees, Cortical Brain Structure, Einstein’s Brain, etc.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/09/14/the-bees-cortical-brain-structures-einsteins-brain-the-flowers/

3. The Wiggins Prime Sieve, Version 3.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/09/15/the-wiggins-prime-sieve-version-3/

64. The Prime Quartets Method

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/10/04/prime-quartets-method-capabilities-insights-sans-limits/

65. Is Goldbach’s Conjecture True And/or False, Conditionally?

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/11/17/is-goldbachs-conjecture-true-and-or-false-conditionally/

66. The Magic of the Prime Multiples and Goldbach’s….

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/11/27/the-magic-of-the-prime-multiples-insights-into-goldbachs-conjecture/

67 The Wiggins Primes Sieve:  Cycles of 30’s in the Primes

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/12/17/the-wiggins-prime-sieve-cycles-of-30s-in-the-primes/

68. Winning at Solitaire, Basic Strategies

jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/02/04/winning-at-solitaire-basic-strategies/

69, The Failures of Idealisms & Brain Hardwiring in the Sciences

jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/04/04/the-failures-of-idealisms-brain-hardwiring-in-the-sciences/

70. The Break Outs: The roots of Growth & Unlimited Creativities

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/06/06/the-break-outs-roots-of-growth-unlimited-creativities/

71. How to Find the MH370 Crash Site

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/06/19/the-likely-indian-ocean-so-equatorial-current-crash-sites-for-mh370/

72. Walking Shortcuts, a Cameo

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/06/21/walking-shortcuts-a-cameo-for-creating-unlimited-professional-growth/73. Einstein’s Quotes & Neuroscientific Insights on Creativity & Understanding

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/07/09/einsteins-quotes-and-neuroscientific-insights-on-creativity-etc/

74. Towards a Model of Everything 14 Jul. 2019

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/07/13/towards-a-model-of-everything-moe/

75. Addenda: The Walkabout Article  22 Jul 2019

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/07/22/the-walkabout-article-addenda/

76. NP not = P, Second considerations

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/07/23/np-not-equal-to-p-2nd-considerations/

77. The Kategoria of Incompletenesses, Limits to Our Growth.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/08/05/the-kategoria-of-the-incompletenesses/

78. The Flight of Tennis Balls:   A Cameo of Creative Thinking & Understandinghttps://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/08/15/the-flight-of-tennis-balls/

79. The S curves of Growth

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/09/10/the-s-curves-of-growth/

80. A New Possible Sunspot Duration Detector

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/10/07/a-new-possible-sunspot-duration-amplitude-predictor/

81. 2nd Addendum to Walking/Decision Making article.

jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/10/08/2nd-addendum-partial-mathematization-of-the-walking-decision-making-article/

82. Part 2: An Historical Genealogy of Tom Horn

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/11/16/an-historical-genealogy-of-tom-horn-part-2/

83.  Part 1: An Historical Genealogy of Tom Horn

jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/11/16/part-1-an-historical-genealogy-of-tom-horn/

84. The Power of & Great Age of Human Predictions/Prophecies

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/12/19/the-power-of-great-age-of-human-predictions-prophecies/

85. Four Short, Creative Insight Articles

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2020/01/14/four-short-creative-insight-articles/

86>  The Likely Indian Ocean Southern Equatorial Current Crash Site of Flight MH370

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/06/19/the-likely-indian-ocean-so-equatorial-current-crash-sites-for-mh370/

87. Our Eyes Cannot See Our Eyes:  The Mindtrapsjochesh00.wordpress.com/2020/02/08/our-eyes-cannot-see-our-eyes-the-mindtraps/88. The Fatal Empirical Flaws of Socialistms.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2020/02/15/the-fatal-empirical-flaws-of-the-socialisms/.

89. The Complex System of our Colour Vision.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2020/02/22/the-complex-system-of-our-colour-vision/.

90. Decision Making and Shopping.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2020/03/11/decision-making-shopping-the-fundamentals/

91. How to Find Primes Any Where in the Number Line , Fast & Efficiently, No Matter How Large ; 5/20..

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2020/05/26/how-to-find-primes-anywhere-in-the-number-lline-fast-efficiently-no-matter-how-large/.

92.   The Problems of Causality, & Solutions..

.
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2020/11/07/the-problems-of-causality-solutions/

93. The Compendium: Towards a Model of Everything, Nov. 2020

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2020/11/24/808/

94. The Roots of Money, & Efficiencies of Growth

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2020/12/25/the-roots-of-money-efficiencies-of-growth/

The Roots of Money & Efficiencies of Growth

.

 The Roots of Money & Efficiencies of Growth

.
.By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/CP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014.Copyright © December 2020   

.
.There exists a massive Comparison Processing of values of one good/service to another. Value in money is  a CP, when we use money to buy something we compare value of the goods/services to the money it costs. When we create an exchange rate, this is  yet another CP, we compare the value of one currency to another, and use a ratio, a proportion, that is algebra to calculate the exchange rate. That is a purely comparison process at the root of exchange rates.

.

Thus CP is a nearly universal processor, and this proves it, beyond much doubt because of its vast usage, applicability & capabilities in markets and using money.
.Why do we Use money? That’s a huge question which has not yet been deeply and satisfactorily described. This article will show beyond all reasonable doubt that CP, LE efficiencies, and growth are all very much interrelated, too, in creating, use, and exchanges in most all ways of money.


.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/09/01/evolution-growth-development-a-deeper-understanding/

.First of all, the first comparison, We will compare the most ancient form of trade of goods and services, that is barter, compared to money. The origins of trade are clearly in barter, at the most fundamental levels. These day to day exchanges by persons, throughout the millennia likely for 100K years or more, and down to today. The Ancient Phoenicians & descendants have done that using barter for over 3K years. As did the Achaean Greeks, the Egyptians, &  Babylonians, back to the Sumerians. These trade records are seen and clear. It was most all by barter.


.Now, the pricing method was to charge as much as possible, that is, buy low, and sell high. So the barters were all comparison process (CP) relationships.  Comparing the value (in money, prices)  we can potentially predict for a good amount of wood, compared to what it could be traded for; say, woven fabrics, like linens commonly found from Egypt and then spread across the seas to Anatolia, and the Greek areas, to Italia, and thence west to Barcelona, and North Africa. Will not write about East Asia and India, which were also large areas of trade by barter. Nor the Maya, Toltecs, nor Aztecans, or Incans. They all used barter, provably, early on. which they traded by comparison process means, using the value of each good to trade for a comparative value for all of the others. They had no money until the advent of Europeans. Barter is the basic universal process of trade. & it’s CP, LE modelled.

.
.Now comes the highest, important roots of the first efficiencies of currency over barter. When we trade goods, occ. services for work for other goods, such as food, clothing, skins, furs, and so forth, we must estimate how much each costs in terms of all the others. Market forces are efficient. Thus they optimize the cost of the goods to the value it can be traded for (or sold for in money) by empirical means of trying it out. Bargaining down All of this being an exchange rate in terms of the goods to be bartered. So wood was traded for foods of all kinds, chickens, meat, breads, grains, and so forth. All of those had to be denominated and bargained for in terms of all of the other goods,& services. Barter is a CP. But it’s extremely complicated.


.Thus if we have wood, copper, water, bread, grain, linens, fruits, wines, clay vessels, and metals in bulk, ingots, or fashioning knives and other instruments (including the musical kinds) we must denominate each in terms of all the other goods by “comparative” values. Thus CP, again. This is combinatorial complexity, N!. For dozens or scores of goods, it is thus, 48! or even 84! for foods alone. That is a very, very large number, and had to be sorted through every time it was bartered. That took a great deal of time. Anything such as bartering skills which saves time, would be valuable. Doing much more with less. AKA, Efficiencies.

.
.So we find very early onwards, the standardization of the values of goods/services by Hammurabi, and in many other civilizations, to shorten and speed up, both tax collections and values. Sadly, this lack in efficiencies of standard prices is trouble, as food becomes more valuable in the spring early summer months, and then falls with the harvest of vast amounts of kinds of foods, esp., plants, too. Wool, sheep, mutton and so forth served as multiple usage goods & to store.  So the complexity of bartering goods is very, very real and time consuming. & is not efficient, either. This method was standardized via some kind of efficiencies, by the Phoenicians who gained great profit, driven by the differences by efficient comparing the cost to the trader versus what he was to get for it. Again, CP universally used.  Each time there was a bargain driven, there were many CP driven skills operating Those of themselves are millions fold evidences for the use of the CP to value one good in terms of other goods/services. And thus is a huge verification among all the other ones known, for the CP being a highly used, the likely universal brain processor of information.

.
.And everyone with any knowledge knows that price fixing and price controls acts mostly to drive goods/services from the markets, because the market forces prevent goods from being sold for less than their value. Doing that consistently destroys the markets. No one business can absorb losses for very long without collapsing. That’s why Hammurabi’s code for fixed valuations failed, very badly.

.
.Now we have that long term bartering system which likely got more efficient, over time, as both the buyer and seller had a good idea, as traders, what things were worth to them. The more time consuming the trading was in determining the bartered sales, was a limit to efficiency  of trade. Thus, they tended to use fewer goods, the commonest ones, to barter goods, to save time such as wood, grain, linen, all of which were transportable, easily stored and saved up.

.
.In addition getting goods to market was by transporting short distances with low friction sleds early on, and then as the wheel & axle spreading first by about 2000 BC widely, by transport of goods and services by beasts of burdens among roaming traders, & became far, far more widely done. The easier it is to do thermodynamically, that is comparing the cost of energy/time/distance used, the more often it will be used, is the key. 

.
.CF: The CxSys of The Second Law, driven by least energy efficiencies.  So the best they could do that was some standardization of what wood, cloth, wine, clay vessels, metal knives, and other goods were worth. This persisted for 10K’s of years, growing a bit more efficient esp. in the larger empires of the Sumerian, then Babylon, Egypt, and the others. They were all constrained by time, energy, efficiencies. were they not? 

.
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/04/22/the-complex-system-of-the-second-law-of-thermodynamics/

.

.Now, why did they use round, clay pots & vessels to ship fluids? This shows why. 

.
.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/09/14/the-bees-cortical-brain-structures-einsteins-brain-the-flowers/

.

.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/04/22/the-complex-system-of-the-second-law-of-thermodynamics/

.

.So how did trade grow? It grew by efficiencies of the trading vessels of the Minoans, the Achaeans, eventually Phoenicians. Each time they made a profit, the excess created growth and more wealth. Which could then create more wealth, thus market growth and development. Their efficient, light shipping systems which used rowers when the winds failed, were the case. They had to be excellent sun and starlight navigators, as those are the universal principles used. They knew the Mediterranean landmarks as standards they could compare to where they were, and where they wanted, predictably to go. Thus landmarks were the earliest rules which traders used, to compare where they were going to what landmarks showed where they were. Mediated, that is ,by Long Term Memory lay downs The more they knew the further and faster they could get around, another efficiency. Knowledge can be power because it’s more efficient than trial and error. If you know where you’re going using efficient landmarks, currents, and winds, then you will get there faster, easier, and with less risk. 

.
.Thus efficiencies throughout by using CP of landmarks for sailing and knowing conditions changing with the seasons, too. And that also explains why paper maps were enormously efficient means to navigate and sail by, travelling both on land, and sea. Efficiencies spread quickly, as did paper maps, too.

.
.Sailing the winter Mediterranean Sea is very perilous due to storms. Sailing in spring, summer and fall, much less so. So they efficiently prepared and collected their goods overwintering to when it was earliest to sail and make money.

.
.Eventually as the efficiencies of the cities got very high, they concentrated lots of population, skilled people, horses, ships, and wealth goods. That left them open to the “sackers of cities”, who themselves could be sacked, too. Thus the well built walls of Troy which resisted their defeat for 10 years, until finally they were betrayed, & fell.

.
.So we have the big traders, & the Pylos records showed many goods & services as well as slaves, which counted as wealth. They bartered with each other for goods, grains, wood, groups of the skilled to build & fashion walls for protection. Thus masonry became an imperial service to each of the city states.

.
.As they grew in population, & thus ability to defend, and build up goods, they got wealthy. They listed the kinds of wealth hierarchically, that is goods in types of wool, linen, sheep, slaves, metals, and such. Each a comparison process of types ID’d & sorted & created by a simple, obvious CP of lists of similar wealth types.

.
.And at the time, the most efficient ruling systems were kings and nobles. Noted by control of power, which created wealth, & wealth which was power if used right, and so forth.  History is a series of efficient developments and growth, Who does the most with the least, in the long run succeeds, too. That TD outcome is the way of the universe.

.
.So we had the trading going on with more and more efficient sailing, barter, making of goods to be traded. More efficient agro which created larger populations; Plowing where a blade was drawn by oxen, or anything else, which could till the soil faster than humans digging. Thus the plow was created initially of wood, then with some metals for durability, and so forth. Plowing did a LOT with a little, altho it took enough wealth to have the beasts and the skilled laborers who could make the plows, and yoking required for the teams, just like chariots. During Phoenician and Achaean/Philistine times, those rose to very high levels. Growth occurred from their increasing efficiencies.

.
.Most all trading was barter & stable, that way to the time of the Anatolian, Asian Greeks, of which the Lydian empire, vastly influenced by the Greeks came about. There, some genius, likely who knew of similar smaller bits of gold being used to trade, but carefully weighed, began the process of making money. The info on who that person was did not survive. But these methods had a lot of gold and silver to  use & trade. Esp. for goods and services. So the first coins by the Kroesos’ family were developed. As they controlled the only money which could be used, that is his gold coins, he became amazingly rich, then powerful, and then made a huge trading empire, too. Their mining/smelting efficiencies were also some of the best, most efficient, at the time.

.
.Now why all that growth? Complex system evaluation via CP shows how.
.Let’s once again compare and contrast bartering with the use of money. They had to overcome the traditions of barter, and that meant they’d found a highly efficient way to trade gold and other metals for goods/services. It was so efficient, that it compactly gave value which was intrinsic for the coins. It was also a standardized kind of value, easily stored or hidden, transported and usable. Gold and bronze coins could denominate ANY goods and services within less space and weight. The intrinsic value of money also created stabilities. There was no longer any need except when necessary, to barter but for how much gold, bronze, was worth how much wood, how much grain, how much services, and so forth.  But bargaining for prices still existed as it does to this day.

.
.Suddenly bartering was becoming obsolete. The gold and bronze coins stabilized the values, and markets. and further, the number of coins were easily counted, & then accounting became possible. They didn’t; have to keep but an inventory of what one had, then denominate it all in gold coins. & sell & buy for gold and bronze coins, which lowered denominations to the best & lowest levels of prices. Thus most all the inefficiencies of barter, became obvious, and using coinage, cut the complexities of exchange down by orders of magnitudes. Not suddenly but steadily & slowly this system developed. That was the key process of efficiencies which drove then the creation of coins, whose intrinsic gold/bronze value supported and capabilities of the standard weights, which they could test, check very well. & then CP, CP, CP to value goods and services, very quickly and easily. & because it was so clearly efficient, it spread very quickly over the Greek world & eastern Mediterranean.

.
.Some barter we still have today, altho most goods are values as the prices, which then vastly speeded up trade, money to be made, more sold in less time, thus profits, and the markets expand rapidly, and grew from all of those efficiencies create by money/coins.

.
.Kroisos’ father created electrum, a silver/gold alloy which was both heavy and concentrated form of wealth, and the gold would not tarnish and thus electrum was possible.  And it occurred Ag with Au in the ores, so it did not need to be mixed much, except to standardize the weight of the coinage with set %’s of Ag/Au. Percentage being yet another ratio, another proportion, another CP of Ag/Au. And they knew of algebra by then to figure out the exacting proportions, again CP, massively. Coins were weighed, determined, and they made each coin of the same weight as the others. Standardizing value, and making a more universal value of gold for trade possible. Every single measure, a CP to standard weights on the scales. Massive proof alone of the universality of  CP.

.
.So we find the origins widespread of money.  The first coinage by Hermodyke of Kyme, a rich coastal city and thus trading was important there. She married Midas, who was rich in gold, By the time of Allyates, father of Kroesos, massive wealth had been created by coinage, a state Monopoly of coins. & usage of standard coins was very well developed. Then used the wealth from the Ag/Au ores of the region, created even greater growth of wealth as they made more efficient their mining, smelting of the ores and then storing and fashioning the Au/Ag into coins. 
.Thus the origins  of the first coins largely used & widely spread. & grew their wealth proportionate to their methods and efficiencies. 

.
.It was done largely using bronze and Au/Ag coinage, which was stable and easily transportable and compact, compared to wood, grain, glass, pottery & and foods of all sorts. Coinage made them very, very rich. Until the gold mines failed, after Kroesos was conquered by the Persians. 

.
.But the coinage spread by that time to the rest of the Greeks, of which the Athenian silver owls were the widest spread and known. Their mines created an expansion of wealth in economies, as the amount of silver coins vastly increased, and thus their wealth, too.

.
.But why? And we can detail the major efficiencies of coins compared to barter. It was compact and easily transported, used, and stored, safely. Thus everything was denominated in bronze & Ag/Au coins, easily, tho barter could be used, but much less often efficiently.

.
.So efficiencies of coinage drove out and spread widely because of those massive savings in time, energy, and processing of trade. Denomination of most everything in terms of bronze/copper and gold coins made that the case. So wherever it was, barter died back, and trading vastly increased due to standardized coins. There were always those paring off the coins to debase the coins , or mixing with more copper and less silver, but simply weight the coin, showed that. Still, it created a larger economies, and thus more stable, and efficient, too.

.
.That is why coinage spread widely from Western Lydian areas, teas to the Persians, and to the Indus river and then more eastwards to East Asia all of whom by land and sea, had trade with each other.  Bronze coins from China are likely known by that time, too. The carefully made images and denomination of values on those are well known and early. The Persians conquered the Lydian areas, but the Greek efficiencies won over them. As Alexander was quick to show.

.


.Whenever enough metals could be found to make gold, silver and copper/bronze coins, trade vastly increased in terms of rapid trading, and the stabilities of such coinages, which they created. The complexities of barter were vastly simplified, then to barter of coins for goods and services, and money became more efficient by at least 50% at first, and then as the coinages grew, faster & faster. An exponential growth curve, ending in a slow tapering off. 

.
.& these conditions persisted for a very great time. spread to mainland Greece, to Egypt where coinage was used in Alexandria and thence to the Magna Graecia, and into Roma, where the empire spread world wide, their world, anyway. & all over the Seleucid, Persian, Macedonian, and then the Roman world to today.

.
.& there matters stood for centuries  as coinage was the basis of most all trade, accounting, and storage of wealth, for about 2000 years, until a simple invention from the East came, Paper made efficiently and reliably from wood pulp came about. Papyrus was mostly even sheepskins, as parchment was also used. But paper was faster, very cheap, as cellulose is stable and universal material, But not quite as durable as parchment, and certainly not as stable of papyrus, which was highly labor intensive and paper was not so much. Thus paper drove out papyrus and parchment, because it was cheap, efficient, and durable enough. Just like coinage had done to barter.

.
.There had been letters of trade largely used for centuries, using papyrus, parchment, for some time.  And hauling around paper was more efficient than transporting metals such as gold, silver, copper and bronze. Thus the bank promissory notes were accepted, as economic activity became more stable, and widespread instead of coins. And that was the origin of the next major innovation, again driven by efficiencies of early coinages, to more efficient coining methods, and then letters of merchandise were next being used widely. 

.
.The then next great innovation occurred, again delimited, described and made possible by using wood pulp sources of paper, based etymologically on papyrus, tho it was not durable and far, far more easily damaged even burned. Paper money.
.That required very stable banking, governments, standardization of values, that is comparison processing, & so forth. So the gold & silver backing for currencies were created. Accounting methods made possible to coinages, which gave stable worth and transport, and storage, too. Thus banking arose. economies reached larger, more stable sizes, not seen since the days of the Roman Empire.

.
.Thus the promissory notes of legally processable value on paper, & were the first paper monies. As those were standardized in the west, with stabler economies of scale, paper became the next efficient comparison processors of vast worth. The banking promissory notes were often made by banks to pay out interest, and receive and send monies. Those made by banks were subject to all of the vagaries of inflation, loss of bank notes by theft, fires, accidents, bankruptcies and so forth. But with stabler economies of size, and net worth increasing, they became  increasingly stable against economic downturns, and so forth. & as great wealth could now be easily transferred by promissory notes, bank notes issued by banks came about.

.
.But those weren’t stable enough. As governments became stable, they decided to create wealth and take control of economies, & did this with wealth creation by the state using paper money. It was light, could be made rather durable, widely accepted and used, and thus became the most efficient form of trade known. By that time barter was hardly there at all, except in great need, or by theft and other illegal activities. Money had by that time virtually reduced the universal barter of the 7th Cl BC to obsolescence, because it was so incredible efficient. & so today still we use the efficient government issues, widely, & counterfeit resistant by various means, too.

.
.So that is the story in a nutshell about how efficient barter, simplified down to using standard items for barter, and then with the advent in 7th C. of coinage, began to eliminate barter, opening the way for paper monies, via banks.
.Money won, because it was found out how to make it stable, & regulated efficiently. and gave very great wealth  Then by the 20th C. the value of the economies became so great there was no possible use for the gold standard, which had been used, essentially since the 7th C. BC for stabilizing money as standardized by content and weight of Au/Ag in the coins.

.

Will not go into the huge increase of wealth in Spain from the vast mines in the New World, but that also drove the Renaissance trade, while the  inflation from that much gold/silver coming into the state damaged fatally ihe  economies of imperial Espagna, as is well documented. Even England got coinage from Espagna, most silver but some gold, as there was no silver nor gold in England, either. The enormous trade efficiencies gave them that.

.
.Thus we have massive comparison process bartering, then coinage another kind of bartering, and thus CP and up until today, when the massive currency exchanges, CP driven with LE guidance, are currently used. The proportions of the value of currencies comparison processed by the exchange rates/ratios, which are CP in every case, and thus the CP can easily be seen within the economics of the entire world every time money is used and exchanged age for goods and services. EVery exchange of paper money for goods is yet again, each a case of CP, and unlimited proofs that CP is universal.

.
.Thus CP with LE guidance are the most important universal standards for thinking, info processing, the markets, which give us wealth, survival and most all else.  Universal processes which drive our economies, and our growth in all possible senses most likely.

.
.And create wealth, and creativities without limits, very likely, as the market creates growth via the CP using LE as the major driving forces for most all growth, evolution, development and most all of the markets, driven by LE via CP methods, without limits. 

.
.

The Compendium: Towards a Unified Model of Everything.

“The Compendium:  Towards a Unified Model of Everything.


.By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/CP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014;  Copyright © 20 November 2020   


.The Basic 5 Fold Way


.Essentially, we must learn to overcome our built in limits and constraints. Have stated this many times before, and esp. in the Kategoria of the Incompletenesses.


.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/08/05/the-kategoria-of-the-incompletenesses/

.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/06/06/the-break-outs-roots-of-growth-unlimited-creativities/

.Among these are many. many implicit and thus largely unrecognized limits, which are very serious, because they have NOT been widely understood, seen, nor addressed   Often this is the linearity of our thinking. That is, the counting, the maths, and the logics. Those are either/or, true/false, A or not A, only A or B. The rich false dichotomies of formal logics, where logic eats itself very likely, like the worm of Ouroboros. & which cannot be complete. Binary thinking isn’t that good. Expressing all in terms of 0 or 1 cannot describe the universe very well. This is a built in, structural, nearly hidden limit. Our genetics uses a quaternary structure, DNA of 4 base pairs effectively do create the most survivable systems known, living systems. Thus we must use at least a quaternary system to describe most everything.


https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/07/10/the-limits-to-linear-thinking-methods/

.

DNA is a universal info storer, and with RNA processors/creators of living systems. It has likely survived billions of years. Thus the Complex System(CxSys) of Not linear, but CxSys thinking; the rejection of the absolutes, the rejections of using linear systems only, & instead the adoption of S/F relationships, and all of that mediated by the Comparison Process (CP) and the Least Energy (LE) rules of the Second Law.

.


That provides the complexities and capabilities to far, far better understand likely what’s going on both inside of us, our brains/minds. And events on the outside. Thus a more Universal, unifying model of most everything. But not quite…..

.

The “Structure of our Colour Vision  2” article shows this uniquely & clearly.  The linear shape of the EM spectrum of the colors and frequencies of light is very, very not complete. Neither white, nor grays, not black, nor browns are there.  There are no colour combinations at all. Most all of the visible colours are thus ignored. & Oversimplified out of consideration.  So this kind of linearity is a very serious problem. & enlightens us to the problems of linear thinking. Comparisons of our colour vision, what we actually see & the visible light of the EM spectrum, exposes these implicit, deep biases and errors.  This is a verbal, visual disproof of the validity of logic. The False dichotomy of logic defeats the universal value & applicability of logic. Only A & not A is incompatible with the empirical events of the universe. Godel’s Incompleteness Theorem is likely the case.

.
.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/06/16/the-structure-of-color-vision-2/

.

.

.The universe of events is NOT linear, nor can it be, and any attempt to put all of it on the Procrustean bed of measuring, counting line is doomed to quick failure. It’s useful, but NOT complete. And the most complete description of colours, are again, the hierarchical paint chips in our paint stores. They show this richly and hopefully not under incandescent lights, or worse, Hg vapor lights, either.  It won’t match against the universal sunlight as the standard.  Almost all of the richness of the visible colours and combinations (also missed by EM spectrum), including Day Glo.  Not much of colours are found on the EM spectrum, Instead the rich mixes of grays, and colours very likely are the case.  Logical form? It’s true, hardly complete, & thus not that useful in real life past a certain point.

.


Likewise the sound spectrum is linear and misses a very great deal of what actually exists in complex sounds. The rich harmonies, the combinations of sounds, full spectrum of our symphonies. The ignoring of overtones and how voices can be rich for singing, and also individualizing, allowing us to recognize a voice specifically amidst all the other 1000’s of persons, often uniquely. Again, linearity missing richness and very, very not complete, as well. QED. The incredibly richness of the voices of most all of the musical instruments, not ignoring that one of the richest, the human voice.
Thus the limits of this linearity are visually made real and to be avoided. The number line, and linear logics are way too limited to create a complete understanding of what’s going on with visual events in existence. Thus they cannot easily create, estimate, or approximate a near Universal, unified model.

.
This leads to the next great find. Einstein searched for this as have many others. He had an inkling of it with his simplification methods, which are TD (Thermodynamic), LE paths, but never stated, nor likely realized that. If we want a Universal, unified model, then we must find and use the most universal processors of information created and processed in our brains. And that’s how it’s done. CP which finds the LE guidances in most all processes in our universe. Then Structure/Function, S/F methods. Then trial and error and sorting all mediated by CP and LE. Finally, Complex System (CxSys ) thinking,  setting up the vaster background of unlimited processes going on in our universe. We use our brain processes therefore, largely visually, but also by logics and maths, to process and model the processes in the universe. That is a major  secret to making unified models. Visual thought experiments in part, which processes events using nearly Universal processors, can unite, combine and also create and bring together the vastnesses of processes in our universe. Simply by showing the major relationships of processes in our Universe.

.
How to find those UP’s?  Very simple. To most rules there are exceptions. The Exception tests the rule. Look for those. CP, LE, T&E, sorting methods, and S/F and CxSys have very few exceptions and are almost universally applicable. By their exceptions, we will know them as not universal enough….  How many exceptions to the cell model for living systems do we find?  Very, very few. Thus the Cell model is a UP in biology.
As Ulam so wisely stated and was ignored, 70 years ago, Math must greatly advance before it can describe complex systems. 

.
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/09/03/beyond-the-absolute-limits-to-knowledge/

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Godel’s Incompleteness Theorem (oft euphemized to Godel’s Proof) is yet another way of showing these logical incompletenesses in current methods & systems. & again, missed.

.
The S-curves of Growth are part and parcel of a beginning to do this. Showing the origins of mathematics coming from verbal description is very clear. S-curves are very nearly highly adjustable, limitless universal processors of events.  UP are the case. Anatomically, Math is processed right next to or even interdigitating with the Speech cortex in the left Temporal  area & L Hemisphere.

.
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/09/10/the-s-curves-of-growth/

.

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Part and parcel of our limits are the Idealists & their idealisms, which are terribly anti-empirical and also very limited, too. These do ignore CxSys, as does Feynman re’ Biology and QM, Hawking in the “Grand Design ” limits to physics, and many others. & the incompletenesses of physics in Bell and QM, as well.  In biology we cannot show much progress until we then better describe, model & understand CxSys. We use Universal brain processes to model Events in Process in the universe. A neat symmetry. Processes visual model/describe events in process.

.


.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/09/08/explandum-6-understanding-complex-systems/

.

.These unseen patterns & findings are very common in our languages. Sadly, Linguistics is not a science. but by adding in LE methods and analysis, we begin to do that to language. And we learn a great deal from comparative linguistics. There is the CP once more. Using that we can simply find a great many, well hidden, and well taken for granted patterns in the language, esp. English, which have been missed. The CP is a great creator of info, and a UP of considerable capabilities.


.Let’s ask a big question. Why is English so widely spoken world wide? Are there any good reasons for that, other than the UK ran and controlled about 1/3 of the world’s land surface and Ruled the Waves? After the bankruptcies of WW2 in England, the US, another English speaking system, took over and then largely ran things widely, and was highly efficient & innovative, too.
.Are there any advantages, then to speaking English compared to the other languages in the Western world? The answer is a very surprising yes, very likely.  And this is once again, LE, CP and comparative linguistics.  We note this vast trend. The words we use the most often are also those which are the shortest having the fewest letters as well; & as easily pronounced & written because of the fewest sounds/letters. Thus one, two, three, four, five, six up to the next 4 digits in 10, which is the decimal system base. Again, the verb to be, has forms: is, are, was, were, be, and so forth. Very short, very easy to use often, and quite, quite time, ink, and pronunciation efficient. LE yet again. 2nd Law. 

;


.Esperanto failed because it lacked those efficiencies. The made up words were not very linked, and were very long words. Meaning any language, which is not LE efficient by using shorter words as the most frequently used, will be not efficient as English is, relative to those which do not. Language is efficient, or else. And any short word savings gain time, energy, storage space, again & again, until they pay for themselves. So if we want to construct a new language, it must be very LE efficient as possible.

;
.Now let’s look at the English nouns and compare & contrast those with the romance languages, the other germanic language, and others. In Romance language, Portufuese , Espagnol, Francais, Italiano, etc., all of the nouns have gender. And those nouns also must have gender related articles, as well as the adjectival forms must match/reflect that gender. That is a lot of extra processing time, is it not? Even German has gender for nouns, too. Ever more, if we take  a usual phrase and very similar in meaning sentence in English, and compare it to the Deutsch, we see at once the German is lots longer. An Englischen efficiency, is not?

.
Now, compared to the others, with nouns having gender, irrespective of their biological sex, English does not do that. Only animals are given generally sex. And we have special names for the Ewes,& Rams, the Mares & Sires, the sires & bitches, do we not?  But for windows, doors, ports, and most other nouns outside of animals, English has no feminine, masculine, or neuter articles, nor genders, nor adjectival forms which have to be matched up with the noun genders. Even some verbs have gender, too.
.Who has seen this before and realized what it means in terms of the some 10K’s of nouns we use every day when speaking English? We are free of that. English is thus highly efficient compared to the Romance languages, and those which have nouns with fem., masc. or neuter genders. English saves LOTS of time every day in every speaker, relatively to that simplicity, does it not?

.
.When we look at Mandarin we see much the same. Only biological gender, and the rest rarely genders in the nouns, either. That is a very clear cut Chinese efficiency. Very close to what’s found in English. Once instance is guiding. Two major examples are nearly proving.

.
.Again, hidden in our languages are the efficiencies of English, unseen, unspoken of, just like as above with the linearities and false dualities and not recognized characteristics of those, either. 

.
.Our dictionaries likewise hold vast amounts of com- words, based upon the Latin, Cum. Unseen, and in the midst of all of those vast variations, are Compare, comparison, with which our brains process, recognize, create information, and organize the hierarchies of our information. Most all of it, Missed, again.

.
And there that is for all to see, what was hidden before in the rich complexities of the com- words, The word, Comparison, which does most all the work in higher brain functions. Now seen for what it likely is in most cases. Hidden just like the efficiencies and the unnecessary excesses of noun genders has been for 1000’s of years, very likely. Too.
.Or the near absolute patterns of the primes missed for 2300 years for that matter.

.

.
.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2020/05/26/how-to-find-primes-anywhere-in-the-number-lline-fast-efficiently-no-matter-how-large/

.

.The richness of this system of CP, LE, S/F, process thinking, and CxSys is unlimited. It can create crativities in most all fields without limits. It can explore and describe & create new findings, and newer discoveries. For instance if events were deterministic,  instead of probabilities, there would not be that richness there in this universe very likely to create all of the possibilities of living systems, and all else. It would be too simple to work.  But because the probabilities of QM become the possibilities of events without limits, nearly, then most all we can think of becomes possible.

.
.And the CP puts events back together, organizes them into a richer understanding of what’s going on. It shows that QM is CxSys, at least, with the kinds of nuclear combinations and all of the rich electronic levels those create. Because we describe CxSys with probabilities, it also shows that QM is an early mathematized form of CxSys mathematics. And that the world of quantum events is thusly CxSys, too, because the probabilities rule in most all CxSys’ such as weather, plate tectonics, the interactions of the planets in large planetary solar systems, & so forth, including living systems, all CxSys. So QM is very likely a form of CxSys as well, and is thus understood better.

.

It’s a unifying system made possible because of far more universal processors. The brain processors model processes of events in existence. And those rich confluences are the beauties of new discoveries and understandings unlimitedly possible in this system. The comparison processing puts together the incoherent mess of breaking down most all events into their parts. CP is a powerful tool, highly capable of creating unification and universal understanding, very likely.

.
.That’s the promise here. Which has been ignored, avoided, and missed for 1000’s of years. Yet the complexity of events and types, including the normal variations on the theme of a species, genetics, is quintessentially, CxSys. 
.What is information and knowledge, and how do we create those? How do we create language, and creativities? How do we generate mathematics?  All of these deep questions are to be greatly, altho not completely described, but explained & solved here in major ways. And it will most all of it be self evident, too.

.
.Have written a number of times before of the essential elements of the categoria which basically describe the aspects of this new model of brain functions, being how we think, what creates information, what then creates creativities without limits from those creations, and how we organize that information into the hierarchies of our understanding, first done magnificently by Aristoteles. He knew it worked, but did not understand how it worked. Basically a major discovery about information and knowledge, but not as well understood until today what we know about information & how it’s created, processed and stored in the cortex, largely.
.”How Physicians create Information”, details this; A cameo of how most all informations in our cortices are created and imported from outside events into our brains.

.
.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/05/01/how-physicians-create-new-information/

.

.The first key is comprehending Least Energy (LE) in all its rich comparison processing (CP) forms. Essentially the Complex System (CxSys) of brain structures & functions (S/F).

.
.Complex system of the 2nd Law here:

.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/04/22/the-complex-system-of-the-second-law-of-thermodynamics/

.

.Once we understand that CxSys are best understood by least energy (LE) rules, based upon ThermoDynamics, then we have found another great, universal processor, one of many to be introduced here, and go from there. From those universal processors, which Karl Friston has highly formalized into an understanding of brain higher information functions, we can build from there.  

.
James Hamilton, the great Irish mathematician, ca. 1800, called by other names, least actions, as well. The minimalist principle, and many other forms of it. Least free energy being a highly mathematized abstraction, and not easily applied as is the LE rule & form,s of it, here.And then we must figure out The universal processors, and how those come about, and what drives their creations and sustains their usefulnesses.  

.
.And then the massive S/F relationships, again, which are nearly universal.

.
.The near universal processor of biology is very structural, that is the anatomy at the core of biology.  The Cell is The basic universal processor of biology, is it not? Sitting there for centuries, using it, and not realized, and missing once again, why the cell concept works. It universally applies to all life, does it not? Bingo. Hiding there all this time, a universal structural processor of biology.  And cells have both structure which implies their functions, and vice  versa. Unlimited creator of information BTW. The most vast Universal Processor in biology.

.
Universal social processors? Simple and obvious too, and missed, for 1000’s of years, those simply stated 2K years ago, by Yeshua, of course.

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We have the ways which we are taught, the wise sayings, the aphorisms, the adages, the words of wisdom, the Proverbs, and the rich categoria found in Poor/RICHard’s Almanac. Most of those are in fact, short cuts, efficient ways of dealing with day to day problems, which have been created to solve important questions. & to efficiently guide our actions daily. They are efficient, process a great deal of info very succinctly and can be nearly universally used most of the time, to efficiently, LE sort out our problems.  That is, make decisions. More nearly medium grade to universal processors.
.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2020/03/11/decision-making-shopping-the-fundamentals/

.

.

.This breaks down most all decision making into simple LE methods, and rules. And thus solves most of the problems regarding decision making, including why it can be so hard to make good decisions. Operating in Complex systems, in short.

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.*Brain and most all processes/events in existence highly follow least energy rules. Friston has proven this beyond much doubt operating in brain. So it’s very likely the case.  But it has many forms, least time, as a special case, because time cannot be created, begged, borrowed or stored up. Once it’s gone, then it’s gone forever. We can save lots of time and then use that for more work, than we’d have done before. Or we can have others do our work for us, but we must pay a price for that, so it doesn’t come cheaply. and involves complicated work and employment relationships which are CxSys, too. Machines, too, can solve problems faster and do tasks faster.
.With word processors we can write, print out, store and publish, perhaps 20-30 times faster than mere keyboards typing on paper. AGAIN, LE efficiencies in practice and action. TD rules of least energy. Which is easily why those were created, and have largely through phenomenal growth replaced typewriters.


LE creates growth of all sorts, simply and efficiently: Evolution, Growth , Development article:

.
.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/09/01/evolution-growth-development-a-deeper-understanding/

.

.

.So we have the LE working. But HOW do we detect least energy forms? And that is simply solved by doing a Comparison Process (CP) among the choices we have settled on for testing. We sort them out by CP of those to each other. Some will not be least energy, and require lots of time. Least energy,costs, and availabilities of metals and materials, do that, too.  But generally, if we are observing  which antibiotics to use for example, or which materials to use to make an electric light, we are widely and nearly universally constrained by LE rules.

.
.Does the antibiotic have lots of bad systemic effects? Then it’s out. Does it have a high cost? Out. Does the patient have an allergy to it? Out. Does it work effectively and have a good deal of actions to kill the bacterial strain? Yes, then it’s in, the other problems being the same.  So we are thus Sorting out by CP among the CxSys decision making going on here. Essentially, decision making, and using LE to sort out by CP which means gives the best outcomes, for the least costs, times, problems, and highest effectiveness with the microbe strain.

.
.Thus, we have yet another method here, sorting by trial and error (T&E). We’ve often used that antibiotic a fair amount, & we know largely that it’s effective. So of the 6 we are looking at, that works best in this case. And it’s the most life saving, efficient, least energy solution to the choice. So we see at once, that testing, checking, and the vast compendia of info about antibiotics, we have, all guide us to that LE rule, which one to use. Again, universal processors: sorting the Wheat from the Chaff. There it is again.

.
.Outcomes work, that is what are the fruits of using this antibiotic is the case here. By comparing outcomes of what we do, the materials we use, etc., we create knowledge and Information. Yet another part of least energy. Outcomes are done by CP as well.  So that sorting process, even of coins, involves comparing the coins, organizing by CP to groups of cents, nickels, dimes, and quarters, and then counting out what we have, and storing those efficiently in coin wrappers.  Sorting is most all done by CP as well.

.

.According to types, according to repeated calls to long term memories, which are also stored by LE rules, viz. how the words sound. Sound alikes is LTM storage, LE rule. It’s first used and the primary LTM storage method. Easily seen & reported by Hofstadter and have discussed that rule at length.

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.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/07/13/towards-a-model-of-everything-moe/

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.So, now we have the antibiotics or the structures, and choose methods to use by T& E found by CP, LE, and good outcomes work, all mediated by CP at every stage. Then we try it out to see how it works compared to our goals of fast, effective, least cost/energy cure.  & most often it works, depending upon how good, reliable our memories are.

.
.Thus, we have by comparison process, LE driving the Method of  Comparison, Actually  Methods of comparison, hierarchies, not linear descriptions, but the multiplicit Categoria of Aristoteles, discussed  above, too.

.
.Decisions made, and we test and check, and observe and find out how well that works. It does, and so we need go no further. Or it doesn’t and we repeat the CP process, the sorting, the LE rule driven methods once again.
.Now we have LE guidance to CP sorting in decision makings, and the elements of those CxSys decision making rules, as well. That’s a huge aspect of our compendium of understanding, too.

.
.Also, we have a group of 1st choice, near universal processors to look at. and find more without limits. Universal processors which we largely use to derive most of our decision making. LE detected and used by CP. Sorting, T&E method, all driven by same.  But what are the other universal processors (UP)? & they are all of them energy efficient, following Ockham’s Razor, another UP for the best outcomes, the best goals of what we are doing. Cearly.

.
.LE, CP, T&E are those we have so far. But in all of their near limitless variations and types used. The others are S./F relationships, and those are also using LE and CP to work. We compare, for understanding how molecules work by the structure of a molecule to its outcomes. And once we learn enough we can design newer antibiotics on these basis, & by comparing structure to function outcomes  (& Function back to Structure), find out which work the best. ie. Which match our goals best. So S/F is yet another universal processor in biology, pharma, and in figuring out how brain works. And much else.

.
There is one other which lies behind most of the sciences, and our day to day personal use. By its outcomes (fruits) we will know it. By how it saves lives by antibiotics, by how the metals, plastics, etc.  and structures/devices they are made of work, and virtually all else of our medical methods,  technological and scientific knowledge is based upon Observing the empirical outcomes of what we do, Truly, by its outcomes we will know whether and how well those work. Yet another vast, universal processor.

.

Essentially widely used by brains of all kinds, but until here, not formally described, elucidated, explained, and apparent.  Just like the efficiencies of English were missed. Just like the Depths Within Depths and the patterns of the Primes have been missed, too.  For 1000’s of years…..

.
.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/14/depths-within-depths-the-nested-great-mysteries/

.

.

.When we see a patient with brain injury, where functions such as speech or movement are affected we know by T&E testing, which structures and where in brain which create speech impairments. The Left post temporal area brain is where the basic language grammar, sequencing of words and so forth is done. Because when that area is damaged, we get characteristic defining loss of grammar, etc., there. If widely damaged, mathematics is also damaged, too.  S/F again. So we do an MRI or quick CT, and compare that to what is normal to read it. This confirms the S/F once again. And it’s done unlimitedly every day in major medical centers world wide. Called reading the images. Yet another of the 100’s of forms of CP. All of Which creates information useful to our treatments and survivals.

.
.Any other universal processors of import? Yes, biological, surface area phenomena. That essentially the size of the particle to be processed, absorbed and otherwise treated has everything to do with absorption. And the absorbing structures upon which they rely, also influence how fast, efficiently they work.

.


.For instance, the lung air sacs, and the villi in the small intestine, plus the haustra of large colon are surface area structures.  The very tiny alveoli are the end points of the trachea, the two main bronchi, the bronchioles and finally down to the air sacs. Hierarchically described at every size, we see. Those effectively give the lungs about 1/2 football field size of area to give up CO2, take on O2, and humidify the air. One example.

.
.Next is that of villi, which are very tiny hair like  cells, which absorb a huge amount of nutrients etc., from the inner linings of the small intestine, again with a vast surface area, like unto part of a football field, all held within our small intestines.

.


.Again, if we chew up food with teeth, it reduces the surface areas of the food particles, occ. to powders. (why pills are made of powders, BTW, to max out absorption) Then the stomach makes the food even smaller mechanically as well by acids, and enzymes. Again, Surface area phenomena. Another near UP.

.
.Finally, we look at hairs as a complex system. Hairs of keratin have about 20 uses in the body, and keratin is also a near universal structural compound, like chitin, cellulose, and many others. Stable, efficient, least energy as well.  Near universal building substances, viz. Hair can protect by retaining heat for most mammals. It also coats the shoulders and head to provide sun protections. It also acts as emitters of pheromones. Because those are important  in terms of behaviors, the very high surface areas of the skinny hairs in the groin, crotch, and other areas in humans, act to very quickly evaporate water, and thus cooling. But also to release pheromones important in most mammals.  It’s an efficiency principle, surface area phenomena, as well, and thus shows how structures of the body show LE efficiencies in multiple ways, too.

.
.Hairs on our heads, shoulders and arms protects from sunburn and skin cancers. And now that we have clothing, we need fur less. and with hats, we can tolerate baldness, as well.

.
.Hairs in the cochlea give us hearing. Hairs there also give us balance in the Vestibular system. Hair of the eyebrows keep sweat and rain out, and also protect eyes from dust and other things getting into our eyes. Eyelashes not only protect, but have an immediate local connection to create the protecting eye blinks, too. More Functions, 1 simple structure. Hairs in the nose, and ears also protect those orifices. Hair on the chins, keeps our human chins, which other mammals do not have, protected and keep it warm, as well. That keeps the base of the tongue necessary for speh, from freezing, too.

.
.Fur on the throats keeps the vocal cords of the larynx protected from cold and freezing, as well. Again universally found structures, which are types of universal processors and so forth. Does a LOT with a little, thus LE, TD efficiencies which shows physics operating universally in our biologies & bodies. and those of the other animals and plants as well. Which all have their forms of hairs, too. & doing a lot with a simple hair, is the very essence, the very basis of least energy efficiencies of CxSys.

.
.Thus Universal processors, processes & structural events are all of a type. Do a lot with a little, again. These are the minimalist, and widely known, and now better understood, by CP, LE methods.  And how everything is related to most everything else, too.

.
.Universal processors created universal events everywhere. A rich panoply of CxSys, as well. Simply detected, described, and created by CP & LE. Missed for 1000’s of years, but still here and getting better, too. In creation, in evolution, history and in the markets and other forms of growth and development without limits.

.
.To simplify, IOW (abrev. are LE, efficient), in order to model the universe of events we can use universal processors to create unified understanding of most everything, too. This vast insight has been missed.  Just like the absolute pattern of the primes and where to find them specifically no matter how large the number,,,,,,

.
.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/05/01/how-physicians-create-new-information/

.

.

.And that tells us if we are right or wrong, and if there are other events going on such as bleeds, trauma,  infections, and related. All of which can look at arterial damage, &  related. Will not go into the complicated differential but to say it’s S/F related, CP all. & reading the entire rich panoply of Images is all CP related, too. Comparing S/F is the basis of understanding how brain works, & how we Diagnose, and how we read most all images. CP those findings to normal, in all its complexities. Again, S/F as universal processors of information.

.


.In the body, the movements of the lips &  much else is also S/F related, Kinesiology is not only how the bones, joints, muscle, tendons and ligaments work, but is also how the info is stored in the Motor and Sensory systems, too.  Kinesiology shows us how the brain knows in the motor and sensory strips how to perform skilled actions as well. It shows and knows the limits of the joint movements, and where the body parts are, as well, relative to the others. And it’s all S/F discernible, too.When we see the inferior motor strip damage it mostly involves a body part in the upper body and the opposite side. Simply flex the joints or extend them and we have the landmarks the sensory motor systems use to figure out where the body parts are. It’s that simple. Kinesiological knowledge is how the Motor/sensory relationships are set up and used as landmarks.

.
.The basic revolution in understanding brain anatomy and how it works, is S/F as well. In all its rich panoplies of CxSys outputs.

.
.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/04/comparison-process-explananda-pt-3/

.
.So we do that as well. It shows us this richly rewarding simplicity of HOW the brains in humans, and the great apes and all the rest of normal mammals are structured. Upside down and right reversed for left, according to the double convex lens images on the retina or equivalents.
.Right left reversed in brain, and upside down is the simple organizing rule of brain anatomy. This simple rule fixes the anatomy of the brain in most all humans, & animals, even into the leggy fish via the birds, reptiles and amphibs, too. It’s rich complexity comes down simply to Reverse left for right, and vice versa, and upside down. Following the image on the retinas from the double convex lenses, which do this. Thus a revolution in anatomy of the brain is seen, and this impels us to know a lot about brains, and thus have with this simple rule, see a lot more.

.
.Thus a revolution in brain organization propels a structural revolution in understanding how S/F is created in brain. This is not an accident, but S/F becomes a clear, near universal info processor, simply by this alone. We can use it to understand understanding without limits.

.
.Now then we have the structural reformation & a revolution, too, in brain/nervous system functions, behaviors & operations. The functions are thus also strongly implied, because of S/F. For every function there is structure, and vice versa, tho they can often be CxSys and then structures implies functions and vice versa. It’s not simple, linear but a modular, CxSys which describes the brain. Cognitive Neuroscience, by Gazzaniga, who saw that deep, rich pattern first.

.
.And thus we make the transition from linear tools to S/F which is widely used, to Cx/Sys rules. HAve defined those before by unlimited examples and will only cite this article for reference, as amn not going reinvent the wheel once again.

.
.Soi, thus we have the compendium of our understanding, built up by CP, detecting least energy configuration, and then S/F creating the information, and the rest. But we are missing a few more essential elements in our Categoria of understanding.

.
.Clearly, how do we organize this information?  The Kategoria of the Hierarchies, of Aristoteles. Info is widely hierarchically organized according to the same or very similar types, again, modeluatle and created by C{ of types. and these create the rich types, which fit into each category of ,kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species, and variations.

.
.Hierarchical organizations also created by CP. So we have that rich means, again simplified. The functions are simply CP driven again. CP does a lot with a little.

.
.Where does creativity come from? Where does understanding come from? Solved already. The relationships among events is what creates understanding, wrote Einstein, in “Reality and Physics”, 1936. CF.  Thusly, too, E is related to mass, M mby  MCsq. That in a nutshell is how we take specific facts, elements and understand the larger picture.


.But how do we do that? Create kategoria. We create them by mixing, matching comparison processing. It’s all organized richly by LE guidance of CP. That gives us understanding of how everything in the universe is likely related to all else. The rich interconnections of the universe, make it possible to relate/connect all to all else. 

.
.The rules of QM, relativity/Newton, and thermodynamics, TD are all the same, over time &  spaces back to 13-14 B years, and across 13-14 B light years, and in all spaces and times in between. See Depths within Depths, and Explananda 5 for the solid evidences of this.

.


.Once again, CP with LE driven guidance largely organize this information, too. Self organization by LE driven processes.  Where do development, evolution and market forces come from?

.


.Skimple LE driven processes. Very simple. & the least energy brain Structure/Functions are also driven by LE processes. & thus brain processing describes UP’s, too.

.


.Any more UPs? Yes, a rich panoply and not the time to recite all of them., See the basic types already given. But the social UPs are there too. There is but one universe, or God Equivalent to which all must be subjected. That sets the basic structure. A higher power, the universe of events, bearing a clear relationship to some aspects of God, therefore.

.
.& the next? Do to others. The rich panoplies of the silver rule to Hillel’s rule, the behaviors of a positive & negative reward system by Jeshua ben Joseph addressed already. The rule of LE is do to others, positive, and creates growth, and shows that not to do rules as well. It creates the laws, rules of living, the morals that by their outcomes. If evil results, it’s wrong. If survival is short term & reduces life, then it’s wrong. If it creates more life and good outcomes of survival, then it’s moral to do so. Thus ethics and morals become least energy, scientifically . And lots more amenable to scientific testing.  it’s comprehensive and comprehensible. LE rules, as a UP of moral activities.

.


.Or to put it in brief, A patient said to the medico, If I move my head This way it hurts. Said the wise doc, Then don’t do that!!  That’s good and bad outcomes, and by their fruits we will know them, in a nutshell. Don’t do it if it damages you, and do it if it creates good, survival and living outcomes.  The Moral imperative of Biological survival at work,  again another UP, compared to the rules of living, by other UP’s, CP, LE, and by their outcomes you will know them by CP. And the rules and laws are also read by using CP and obeying them by same unlimited CP driven UP in brain.

.
.Then all of the methods, ways of doing things, approaches, and rules, standards, which create the techniques, and technologies, the tools , devices, and physical aspects of the basic systems used. Thus, the rich compendium of our understanding is widely simplified down.


.LE rules, guidance. Detected by  CP.  We find Least energy outcomes using CP of the outcomes.

.
.Extended by sorting &  observing, T&E, Sorting, being UP’s. Then Process thinking using the universal processors. And S/F rules which are also created by comparing S to F, and vice versa. & the knowledge thus created organized by CP into the rich, unlimited Hierarchies of our understanding.
.

.And finally, what of creativity? Clearly, it’s there too, Comparing S/F created nearly universals, another UP, information of all kinds, most all info is created by doing so, and then hierarchically organized by another CP driven creativity into our understanding of how events relate, by comparing the one to the others. Creating information by CP creates the rest of the creativity in most all fields, in most cases.

.
.But with this TD guide and limits. There is no perfect heat engine, There is thus NO perfect description, too, or much else which can do everything. A lot likely. but not all. Thus there are no absolutes and the rich empirical findings finally deal the death blow to the pagan, idealistic, mind centered beliefs, of absolute space/time, perfection, determinisms, ultimates, finalities & certainties,

.
.& results inevitably in rich probabilities of QM and outcomes of most all CxSys in which we occ. find stabilities which give us understanding, using CP, LE rules. Thus we can be limited and nothing but, but the beauty of these system is the universe is so big &  our brains/minds so small, that almost anything we want to do,w e can find a way, if we will only do the work to find the relationships which give us the details to begin to create better &  better ways of doing most everything.

.
.Problem solving is then largely, but not quite solved. as there is NO perfect heat energin, model, nor system, nor tool or device either. Which means unending room for growth, development and richness in most all things.

.
.But not quite.,… The brain limits are built into TD, and much of what we do, But not quite permanent limits, either. Always another S-curve of growth to create, always new ways to look at events  more efficiently, & do more with less, and thus grow, develop and succeed.
.

.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/14/depths-within-depths-the-nested-great-mysteries/

.

.

.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/09/01/evolution-growth-development-a-deeper-understanding/

.

.This is the rich compendium of this new model and what it portends, for most all persons in almost all fields. Allowing the rich connections of these methods to create new, understanding, new sciences in most every field. No longer unable to comprehend the arts & humanities, but both interconnected in rich panoplies of the hierarchies of our understanding. Now created by the UPs (but not quite)  as discussed  above and how everything is most likely related to almost all else, in our universe.

.
.We must therefore mention that great opposer of the sciences and empirical , Feyerabend of the Vienna school. He stated that there was no objective science. And he was right. But he looked for ultimate absolutes, which do not either exist. Einstein’s epistemology showed there was no absolute space and time, because of no absolute measurement, All standards for measuring are relative, and thus not final. 

.

Einstein’s last criticism of QM was that it was true, but NOT complete. And from there we have started again here. There is also no absolute, perfect heat engine. We cannot arrive there. There is thus no absolute, nor perfect description , and thus no final, ultimate models, either. Having extended and thus conjoined TD and relativity of physics, we arrive at a fully new path to take. Having jettisoned the idealisms, and finalities, we are left with the probabilities of events in existence. And those probabilities  likely create unlimited very likely possibilities to extend our models, very likely without limits. Feyerabend was both wrong & right. But he missed the possibilities of endless improvements, however. Einstein might have had some idea, but he did not want to take on the dragon of knowledge, descriptions and language not being absolute either.

,
.Because the limit’ to our knowledge are there because of limits to our measurements. and our descriptions being CP are also limited, and incomplete, we have within our grasp endless improvements and advances, beyond our limits, at present.

,
.Empiricisms work, and we have created a massive techno civilization which extends our lives, improves them, and makes life far more worth living. People now live twice as long as 100 years ago, or so. And that we now see can be extended without limits into the future, if we are willing to do the work.

,
.But not quite….. Always more room for growth, and unending creativities, as clearly and likely shown above.

,
.The  is the Compendium of most all knowledge, now, with Universal Processors. UP’s we see.& there it is.

,
.But not quite…..  grin.

The Problems of Causality, & Solutions

The  Problems of Causality, Origins & the Powers of S/F Relationships

.
.By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/CP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014.Copyright © Nov. 2020

.

.The problems with causality are like most tools, they have their limits &  capabilities/functions they can and can’t do. That of causalities are serious because that will create endless lines of cause and effect, which leads to endless regress.

.
.How came about  the first living life and cells? We cannot say.  What of the ages and times of the first mass/energy? We cannot know. This  comes from the endless regress. What created the first stars?  We can’t know. As Sagan explained,  if you would make Apple Pie from scratch, you must 1irst create the universe.  Where did the universe of mass come from? We do not know. If it’s causal then something had to create it. But how did that first cause get created? Limitless regress problems occur, which means causality is flawed in that, and likely in other ways, too

.
.Endless regress. Same problem for the origins of origins is also endless regress. Thus ancients explaining what the earth rests upon stated on the back of a turtle.  And what does that rest on? Well it’s turtles all the way down…  Again origins of causal nature can’t explain creation of events like our universe. The concept is fundamentally flawed as an explanatory,tool/idea.

.
.Thus totally not workable is that cause/effect form. Causality does not work to explain origins.

.
.Neither are the findings of QM consistent with causality. Thus the origins of the origins doesn’t work very well either.  Because QM can find cases of causes which follow the effects, effects can occur before their QM causes, probabilistically. Strange, but true. Thus QM is not compatible with cause/effect models. Another fatal flaw in causal explanations & methods.
.This is yet another limit, problem with C/E model. And similar words.  
.The Big Bang started with a  linear time explosion . That created that titanic origin. Again c/e breaks down. It doesn’t work from future events either, which become probabilities.. Clearly if we are to progress we must use some other ideas to explain not linear time flow, with constrained time. Time might well not be linear, but hierarchical, instead.

.

Different structural possibilities create different outcomes. Thus it’s always changing flows, shifting back and forth, not linear.
.Thus we have the  Structure/Function (S/F) method which process thinks outside of linear causality.  That means Structures can create something new, a new function like mass/energy which created space/time. It’s multi functional, not just 1 cause yields 1 effect, but a Complex System(CsSys) structure which can create multiple effects, perhaps in part without limits. Therefore, S/F might in part be a way round the C/E problems & paradoxes, too.

.
.Thus we are able to conjoin instaneity, eternity of the structure which our universe arose when mas/energy were created, thus slowing down instantaneity, and creating time/space. Eternity, instantaneity is required for making sense of QM effects. That the eternity of the ancients sneaked into QM model surreptitiously, and being renamed, eluded the clean steady progression of physics from the ancient beliefs.

.
.So we create a complex system which observably, provably creates new functions.  This is CxSys, which can create unexpected, unintended, nor foreseen, not linear effects. Such as a new mutation which creates new, not expected functions as in living systems. The rule of unintended effects is part of this CxSys process.

.
.Thus C/E problems are avoided using CxSys and S/F with process thinking. & we set aside linear processing and replace it  with highly flexible process thinking. All we need to do is to step outside of linearity, causality.

.
.Thus asking what structures create what functions? By finding out how mass/energy come about.  How is structure related to underlying structures? Mass is related to energy by E = mc sq.  That’s how we do it.

.
.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/14/depths-within-depths-the-nested-great-mysteries/

.

.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/15/cosmology-and-the-comparison-process-comp-explananda-5/

.

.Sort out and find out how mass/energy created time by slowing down time
.We know that this occurs empirically.  When in a low grav place relatively  to a higher grav spot, Compare  the two. When mass/grav  is low. time goes faster relatively to the higher gravity zone. Gravity fields slow down time, relatively. This is a fact established and confirmed empirically without exception.

.
.When neutrons are outside the nucleus, they  decay  But if the  mass concentration of the nucleus shows many can be as stable as protons. That tells us the conditions which can create stable nuclei, atoms and thus mass.
.What creates that stability is obvious. But will not concern this article here, as to how it comes about, and the clear cut patterns that certain stable proton/neutron configurations have. Certain configs are stable, thus least energy. Those which are not stable, are too high in energy to stop radioactive decay.  This comes from the constant, Quantum conversion of n —> p+, plus e-, + antineutrino. But in high density grav fields, it’s so high, the neutrons are highly likely not to break down, and thus are stable isotopes. As time however speeds up in regions with very low mass areas, the isotopes must decay faster, proportionately to the low grav fields. Thus mass tends to become Less stable in lowered gravity, higher speed portions of our universe with ultra low gravity, in the great voids, where mass is far, far lower as are grav fields.

.
.Neutrons normally, stochastically decay into a proton plus, electron.plus antineutrino.

.
.The proton is stable because mass concentration of the protons internally is high enough to create stability by time slow downs. That also stabilizes the neutrons in such nuclei with lots of protons. Those neutrons are stable in H4, and other related stable nuclei.

.
.Nuclear stability fails as the more neutrons there are break downs in mass concentration.  Thus as nuclei get larger the neutron effects reduce nuclear stability.

.
.Understanding how the tight packing of the protons/neutrons could show us the pattern of stable structures which create 3-D stability.

.
.H1 is stable. Deuterium or 2 p+ is stable. 3 nucleons, 1 proton and 2 neutrons are not stable. And the decay rate is related to these CxSys empirically in the nucleus.

.
.Thus we.find He3 is stable, but He5 and 6 are unstable in 3-D shapes.
.Figure that the symmetry of He4, where 2 protons, and 2 neutrons in 3-D space are  symmetrically shaped & allows very close packing of all four, to concentrate the mass of the 4 nucleons so tightly, that the atom is stable. This seems intuitively correct, because stabilities arises most of the time due to least energy configurations, and conditions.

.
.Find the.least energy, stablest repeating patterns of S/F stabities and we can then figure out why least energy configs, structures are not radio-active.     
.Now let us use the wisdom of the ancients to solve this conundrum.  They knew that cause/effect (C/E) resulted in limitless regress. But at some point , there had to be a change, where structures existed without causes. At that point, the universe came into existence.

.
.For this reason, eternity and limitlessness outside of time was created as an explanation. Because if it were eternal, never coming into existence, but always existing, nor passing out of existence, then the idea of causality would not apply. This is very easy to see. Get rid of causality by some means.

.
.Carl Sagan in “Cosmos” provides a good idea of what’s going on with the eternity, unlimited time concept. He stated that the problem of stating that God created the universe, or that the gods created the universe, was flawed because of the question, what created God or the gods?

.
.Again he invoked the causality ideal which is flawed due to QM uncertainties about cause/effect relationships and the unlimited regress problems. So we simply say, the First Cause was infinite in time, and eternally existing. It always was, and always will be. Only in this universe does Causality come about. The deity or being, or whatever the structure was, underlying our universe, always was and always will be. It’s eternal. A Quantum shift of some sort, by the creation from the underlying structures in a part of that eternal universe saeems to have  made our mass/gravity/energy, which slowed down that eternity and created time/space. What that structure was/is, as it still is likely there underlying our universe of events/processes, is rather unclear.

.
.However, it does exist, as “Depths within Depths” & “Explandanum 5” clearly show. No causality at all, allows this, because it’s eternally existing. It always was, and is not bound by causal ideals,&  limits.

.
.Thus, Eternity, or instantaneity in QM and physics shows this. Study Einstein’s models of absolute Zero, with a Bose/Einstein model where it’s so cold, molecules and atoms hardly moved at all, thus almost no time passes at all. Time is most all process. Where there is no process, then no time, either.

.
.Then see Einstein’s normal time events of his equations for Brownian movement, and then at the other end of the velocity of mass spectrum, where mass approaches light speed, with Time simply slowed down a very great deal, relatively.  Thus at either end of the mass velocity graph, time speeds up so almost all processes occur instantaneously. And we live in the middle of those two exponentially barriers and cannot reach Zero K., nor Light speed, where respectively, almost no time passes, or time (All processes) passes instantly. Tho the photons move at light speed, and for them, time around them seems to occur as all processes seem to happen all at once, instantaneously, while the photons have normal time clocks.
.So this is what’s going on, clearly. No processes, or most all processes occurring instantly. That is the two kinds, at least, binary nature of eternity. No processes at all, or most all processes occurring instantly. This shows us what’s going on.

.
.As have stated before, the relationship of the Casimir effect which occurs in all mass and very short distances, is attractive. With much mass, the attractions of gravity extend out very far, and can be very high. Again, a duality between the Casimir effect and gravity. both attracting and both aspects of the other. CxSys.

.
.So we have a solution here in hand. The fine Structure of the Casimir effect will reveal the popping in/out of existence, and then back by disappearing of virtual particles at the quantum levels. Measuring the Casimir effect in high grav versus low grav, relative to earth time/gravity standards, will show variations from smooth. The fine structure of the Casimir effects, if measured among different conditions, elements and in differing speeds nearly light speed, will show those hints as to how this all comes about.

.
.Similarly the fine structure of gravity in high fields versus low fields, will show subtle variations as well. And at high velocities, and extremely low matter velocities, such as at nearly Zero K, which can now be achieved. Using those comparison processes we will be getting hints about how gravity and the underlying structures which give rise to our universe behave.  And there may ie our answers. .All brought to us by cause/effect problems, and comparing events to find structures in them, unsuspected, which will give answers to some extent about these major problems.

.
.Or is it just turtles on down, again?  Clearly.

.
.Now, what of human immortality?  We know now that eternity of a kind exists. We can show that in many different ways. The ancients tried to find ways, karma, reincarnation, heavens, etc. to get us into that biologically imperative, Survival. Thus do we seek immortality, and to some extent, eternity is part and parcel of that biological urge to live forever. Or as the Ancients egyptian sstated, Ankh Cheten Heh. Life/live forever and ever. Not so different then is it? A 5K years old concept, which has in QM, some real physical existence.

.
.Is it possible transfer ourselves to this eternity, to convert normal mass/energy space time being as ourselves into an eternity?

.Various religions have addressed this issue, but the physics has, until now, seemed remote from such. But it’s not. 

.
.So, we have one characteristic of God, that of eternity, which clearly is shown to have some existence, as being part or that structure from which our universe arose. & the instantaneities of photons, non -locality, that is “spookie action at a distance”, that is, the Bell test solution, that entanglement is instantaneity, IOW most all of the universe is, at theQM level interconnected with all other matter.

.
.So, we have just established the likely existence of 1 trait of God, eternity, with physics’ instantaneously, the photon, and entanglement.

.
.Is there another? And it’s the Casimir Effect, which all matter shows relative to all other matter. There is a Nanometer level interaction of matter with other matter. This is QM, and not classical physics, and it demonstrably, subtly exists, too. Explained by virtual particles and photons popping in and out of existence, which creates that attraction, the Casimir effect. It’s everywhere in the universe, and the sub space structure from which our universe arose, is still there, and in instantaneous contact and attraction of all matter to other, very close matter, too. That’s how the laws all remain the same, Cheten Heh.

.
.Thus like God, the Casimir effect, and the underlying structure of the universe where all is in contact with, and everywhere, like God is said to be, with everything else. He, like the Casimir effect, is everywhere instantly.  All is connected to all else. As Whitehead averred, and the facts likely show with entanglement, and the massive STABILITY of this universe. CF. Depths within Depths.

.
.It’s the case, eternity/entanglement, God being everyone at once, and the Casimir Effect the same CxSys form of the same concept. Something exists. And in the fine structure of gravity and the Casimi effect we will find some answers, too…..

.
.This is what all of this means. These insights are robust and proven to be the case. We now know where to look to find our biological imperative, life, forever and ever, perhaps…..

.
.In the Depths Within Depths. 

.
.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/14/depths-within-depths-the-nested-great-mysteries/

.

.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/15/cosmology-and-the-comparison-process-comp-explananda-5/

.

.Subtle, truly are the ways of our Universe.

.
.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/04/28/einsteins-great-subtleties-einsteins-edge/

.

.And most of, if not most all driven by the below:

.
.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/08/05/the-kategoria-of-the-incompletenesses/

.

.Wherever ignorance declines and knowledge grows so does our power to survive. Knowledge can be power and these are the ways out.

.
.https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/06/06/the-break-outs-roots-of-growth-unlimited-creativities/

How to Find Primes Anywhere in the Number Line, Fast & Efficiently, No Matter How Large 

How to Find Primes Anywhere in the Number Line, Fast &
Efficiently, No Matter How Large
.
By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/CP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014.
Copyright © May 2020
.
This is based upon the Wiggins Prime Sieve, which has shown that there are only 8 places in every 30 digits which can be primes. Those occur no where else.
.
Because the prime quartets occur in repeating cast out 3 Remainder 0, 1 and 2 (Rem0, Rem1, Rem2) throughout the entire number line.  Those positions are invariant throughout the entire number line.
.
.
Therefore NO matter how large the primes are, if we locate the Rem1 quartet by summing up the total of the numbers to the left of any number  of digits, then divide by three, we will only find 0, 1, 2, remainders. Because the Rem1 has 4 possible primes ending in -1, -3, -7, 9., only those can be primes . There are only 2 primes possible in the Rem0 quartet of 1, 3, 7, 9, viz, 1 and 7.  In Rem2 only the 3 and 9 ending numbers can be prime. Thus the largest number of primes is found in the Rem1 quartet, and often more in  than in the Rem2 & Rem0 combined, as well. Thus we need only test the Rem1 quartets to find  the most primes.
.
As this is a compound method, we know that it works. For instance in Dugas and O’Connor, out of the Technical Uni of Tenn.:
.
.
They found over 54 Million primes to 1 billions And listed the last 50 known primes up to 1 Billion. IN EVERY case each of those primes fell in the exact sites  allowable in the Rem1, 2, & 3 quartets. And that proves that the method works even to 1 billions.
.
Thus we can locate primes very easily using this compound method. The Wiggins Prime Sieve shows easily by the c/o 3 remainder method where the Rem1, & all primes possible sites are targetable anywhere, no matter how high.
.
Thus by using a prime certification method on ONLY those 4 sites in any number of any digits long, we can ID primes without limit as long as the computer can sum up the totals of the digits and cast out 3, thus locating the Rem1 quartets anywhere. IN addition, for no matter how high the primes are, we can always find larger primes, without limits. This is done by simply adding 30 to the largest known prime, and then locating the next Rem1 quartet higher and lower than that. Easily, repeatedly, & efficiently.
.
Effectively 4 of every 30 numbers has the Rem1 primes sites, Thus out of 30 numbers only 2/15 of the number line need be only looked at. That greatly simplifies the search. And in addition using the prime squared +2, then +4, then plus 2, and then +4, etc., we generate primes composites very simply, and quickly, and reduce down the number line easily by 92% more, Giving, eventually only by taking out primes from 7 to 23. IF using primes up to 61, nearly 99+% of the number line can be removed. And thus speed up the finding of the primes by the well known AKS prime identifier process, which is the fastest known.
.
Thus by this method, for no matter how high the primes of whatever length of digits, we can locate higher primes at will and with a simple method., Thus speeding up the ID’g of primes by 100’s, & even 1000’s of times faster then current methods.
This also weighs in on the twin prime question quite easily and simply.  Because there are ONLY 3 places in the 1, 3, 7, 9 quartets of Rem1, 2, & 3, where there are twin primes, Twice in Rem 1, viz -1 & -3, and -7 and -9. The other is from the transition from Rem2 -9 to Rem0 -1. From 19 to 21 the 21 is not prime. From 29 to 31 is IS prime. that is from Rem 2 to Rem0. From 39 to 41, that is from Rem0 to Rem1, again, 39 site is always not a prime. Thus, ONLY in those 3 sites can there be twin primes. That vastly reduces the searches for confirmation of the Twin Prime Hyp.
.
IN working through the number line up to 1 billion, we find exactly those same conditions. Thus it can be proven by exhaustion and simple logic, that twin primes can be found anywhere in the number line, tho they become less common as the number of digits increases. Still, it’s highly likely that twin primes exist without limits, and thus can be easily proven by the Wiggins Prim Sieve quartets method, as well.
.
This largely states the proofs that the twin prime hypothesis is the case. & once the formal logical proof can be sorted thru and created, very, very simply proves the Twin Prime hypothesis, as well.
.
Thus the Magic of the Wiggins Prime  Sieve.
.
.
& also shows that Goldbach’s is both true, not true, and at very high numbers where the primes because so very rare, is possibly not true, as well.

 Decision Making & Shopping: The Fundamentals

 

Decision Making & Shopping: the Fundamentals

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By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/CP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014.
Copyright © 2020
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The basics of shopping are the essentials of decision making in a nutshell. Everyone does shopping for items. The decisions we make are ALL relevant to an understanding of decision making in most all of its aspects. As the largest general application of decision making, understanding shopping decisions is critical to understanding most all decision making in the markets.
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First, we just realize the basics. Hows does the brain work in its higher Functions? It’s CP, LE, S/F, anatomically; and Complex systems (Cx Sys). The latter tells us why it’s so hard to figure out how decisions are made. We must FIRST have the basics of how the brain works by invoking the universal processors (nearly) as above. And then within that vast framework apply those methods of understanding Cx Sys to a more complete understanding of decision making processes, mostly, but rarely always & not completely.
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Thus we have a solid framework for approaching shopping, the most universal of easily investigated decisions making and one of the most important, & common, as well, financially. When using comparison processing CP) with Least Energy (LE) guidance, we can optimize shopping simply & practically. & use those optimized outcomes to compare to actual shopping, market research to detect by those disparities, how Emotionality intrudes in most persons while shopping. This gives the essential standards by which we can not only understand the best shopping, AND decision making, but creates the means to see how people actually DO shop, as well. If we have the standards of how brain processes work, then we can better Understand what’s likely going on.
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In addition we understand that there are the CP operations to make Both LE efficiencies the best possible decisions at one time for each of our various goals. Goals must be set to optimize what’s best to buy. Then we see at once that emotional factors of what people like, the fads and the fashions ALSO play a large role in this.
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And the difference between the optimal decisions, relatively speaking and what people actually do, highlights the emotional, and ID’s those as primary players in most all of their aspects in decision making. Thus, we have a very large S/F system of Cx Sys understanding which gives us the optimal decisions, most important in business, corporate marketing situations. & then we contrast those, which exposes the emotional aspects as revealed by this limitless CP between what’s BEST for the customer, vs. what they Like the best, & choose, widely.
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And that’s how it’s structured. This has also been discussed in similar detail using the Walking Cameo article, which shows the best, optimal decisions are made by goals of what we need to do, where we are going & HOW we optimize those routes, vs. what we need to do to meet our physical & emotional goals, too. Thus Cx Sys & LE drive the outcomes of walking decisions, to optimize getting there in least time, distance, energy, cost, least heat, cool routes, and so forth, which make the OUTCOMES research Identified as THE major way in which we understand what’s going on. We cannot calculate outcomes of Cx Sys. BUT we can quantitate the sums of the results of outcomes, and that shows us in detail how we make decisions in the Cx sys in which we work. This deep understanding allows us to solve, largely, optimally, as best we can, the decisions we need to make. & allows us to also to Study how experts and professionals make decisions & Learn without limits from those, too.
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  The S-curves of growth are also basic to understand here.
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Thus, we are able to better model, understand, project &  predict what’s going to happen in the long run with LE optimized decisions, versus the ones which are temporarily made & which drive fads and fashions, but inevitably yield to LE optimized outcomes in the long run. This gives a vast, flexible almost unlimited ability to understand shopping, thus marketing, thus most all decision making, too. The power of these nearly universal brain processes cannot be underestimated nor completely understood, but yet it’s an excellent start to a more coherent understandable, applicable & above all Empirically Practical model of shopping. This shows us the vagaries and multiplicities of “shopping decision making” processes ongoing.  It simplifies down vastly what we are looking at &  renders it far, far more comprehensible, but NOT absolutely, but optimally for a time, place & conditions. That’s what going on largely.
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So let’s get going over to the supermarket, look & see what we are doing there, mostly & likely.
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We know by past experience with the markets in the area which has the best, freshest, widest selection & best prices, by CP with most of the stores. We need some fresh fruits and veggies. We find the area there. We want some lettuce, green onions, tomatoes and related. The lettuce can’t be floppy, but is best when crispy, too. So we check for that, and then the price. Is it off season and high cost, or not? Is it locally grown as in California, or imported from the south? So we get a head of lettuce with no brown on it, as they don’t put expiration dates on the unpackaged lettuce. Then bag it up into the cart, and look for those tomatoes. Like some nice round, not bruised & fresh looking tomatoes, but not too pricey, either, as in off season. How many do we need? & 75 Cents/pound. good enough for here. sort out the not bruised ones which also look clean. & then for the green onions., Again, not stale or soft looking, and in a fair sized, good bunch, always looking for freshness, and good price. There’s some in a large bunch for almost the same price for smaller, and so we get those. We can always chill them, & they’ll keep fresh. We see all of the Cx Sys factors going into our purchases. It’s at least 3-4 characteristics we use for each item, which makes it Cx Sys decision making. We know by outcomes what’s fresh looking or not. by the comparative prices when we’ve been there before. So we have the fixins for a good salad.
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Then to the fruit section., Oranges are in season. Best Vit C is the navels, but they are not as sweet as the Valencias., We pick up some of those. Are they soft or firm? Any green mold on them? Is it too dry or too light or heavy? Thus meaning been there too long, or picked too late (crystallization). But there’s a 5# bag of navels for sale at 1/2 the price of the unpackaged ones. Are they fresh in the bag, are they soft/ and no visible green molding? We get the best of that bunch.
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Bananas always in season, as are year round grown, unlike the oranges which are confined as in the navels, tangelos & tangerines to later Dec. to about Feb./March. Any of those found very much after, must be imported from S. Hemisphere, where the ripening times overlap. And the Valencias take ripening from about April-Mar, as long as through Sept. for freshness. So sometime we can get valencias for the table or navels are better. Cx Sys decision making, again.
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Oops, forgot the taters!! So we see the spuds there, big and nice looking, but the red skinned ones are cheaper, and not moldy, or soft, either. Not lots of dirt in the eyes, either, which adds to price being simply paying for dirt, too. & more time to clean up to eat. We’ve noted the Idahos at off season have lots of internal black mold below the skins, which we can’t see from the surface. So those have to be avoided. It’s the overlap times which make it hard to tell. and we can’t go cutting opening the spuds and the bags, to see that, either. So we guess what’s likely right. Are those above all in abundance, or too well picked over?
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Are he bananas bright yellow, or black spotted, too soft and bruised looking? So the decisions we are making are Cx Sys for outcomes, mostly. And if we just shop too fast, we miss and make mistakes. We rush shopping we make too many mistakes, too. Bananas and oranges. We’re set for a week, or so, and those will keep that long if refrigerated and enough room in the crisper and bottom level for those, too. Otherwise they spoil faster. Esp. in the hot summers, which can be humid, or not in California, too.
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An another line of inquiry, very relevant to decision making on a higher level.
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My sis showed me this. She knew the backyard well enough, and saw some grayish smoke rising. Went out back to see better what it was, and then realized it was not a fire in the back alley, but wispy grayish stuff coming up out of the deep creek’s ravine behind the house. coming up, from the waters of the creek..
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Being a field biologist for 50 years, I went out with her, and saw because the frost was thick and heavy, and the sun was bright and hot, was making the leaves with frost turn to water, making the leaves along the creek shiny from the water. The sun hit the leaves, evaporating the water, and soon as it struck the 32 deg. air, it turned the invisible water vapours to fog.
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Had seen much the same on the roads in Rocky Mtns, where the snowy, icy black asphalt gets hot sun on it, the vapour pressure at high altitudes is much less, and thus the sun heats the ices/snow, turns that to vapor, which then rises and gives the impression of steam when it hits the very cold air. The roads steam in the Rockies in the winter with ices/snow on them hit by hot sun days.
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Saw much the same in the back, not rising form the water of the creeks but evaporating off the wet, previously frosted leaves, giving the impression of steam rising. But it was rising H20 vapours, cooled down suddenly, which became fog, and that was winter fog, and how it often may come about. Some valleys in the RMtn. areas get covered with that kind of fog from related events, just like in back of her house, too. Now the frost that AM was very heavy, and from a rapid fall in temps to about 30, or so, the frost was thick on the grass & leaves, & the proximity to the creek water, meant more would freeze out on the leaves. Thus many effects, combined to give the illusion of “smoky air” rising up, when in fact, once we analyzed it, and CP’s processed and LE processed it, was simply fog in winter. Sort of odd, like the Moon at Noon, too. Rare, but does occur.
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&  we had yet another example of complex systems of how fog can rise up, from many causes and create rime frost, thick and heavy, which was what the frosty grass and the leaves by the creek had been processed thru. Cx Sys processes all. & there it was. I could watch my sis think in detail, aided by correctives, knowledge & figured out what had happened. It WAS fog, but winter fog, and let that be a lesson to us. Cx Sys thinking works LOTS better than logical, math, linear methods. &  with CP/LE  methods, works very well to empirically correct our first impressions, too, that it was smoke, then that was water coming up off the creek which was WAY below and not in the sun, and then at last it was the frost melting  on the leaves, as witness the shiny wetness, and so forth.
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 And then using T&E until we find the best, most likely right, empirical testing to arrive at the best conclusions. Not smoke, but fog. Not rising from the creek below OUT of the sun & very cold, but from the hot sun on the frosty, then wet, evaporating water on the leaves, which hit the cold air turning to winter fog. Rare, but the case, too. & that the CP, LE & the methods those create are creative, testable, & can be cameos of how we think, expactly, when we are being creative.
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  Therefore, and VIPoint, CP, LE, S/F relationships as in the invisible water vapor going to frost on the leaves, then hit by the visual processing method of seeing the rime frost coat the leaves, then the hot sun melting those, creating water & shiny leaves. Then it’s evaporated  by the hot sun into water vapours, which become visible hitting the very cold air, and thus fog, again. & that’s HOW we best make decisions, using the inherently LE, CP methods at our disposal. and means that much better, more realistic, stable & FASTER conclusions can be drawn by those means. CP, LE, T&E  sorting, visual thinking in physical processes, all guided by LE and past experiences.
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And shows the wellsprings of creativity in the CP, LE methods, how we test those, and arrive, at least & at last at the most likely conclusions about How events in our universe, being Cx Sys. very likely do work and in all of their rich complexities, multiplicities & outcomes which are totally suspected, too.. & there that is.
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Decision making is a rough, hard question. First, it’s complex system, and found in nearly every field known, as very easily shown in my “Walking Cameos”. Multiple factors, found in decision making in all fields, clearly make it so. Thus it must be considered in those ways, and treated not with logic, math, nor linearity, but Cx Sys information processings. It’s often very complicated because many factors are involved. thus decision making is very complicated because it’s CX Sys of many interacting parts, which we integrate to make a good, reasonable outcome.
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Understanding that, explains why it’s so complicated. But using a fairly simple set of methods, we can more easily solve. The problem is that of guidance. Our goals we pick need to be efficient, that is least energy efficiency chosen to optimize outcomes. That’s the key to optimization of decision making. Next, understanding that we must sort, pick & choose among those possible ways of doing things, using LE as the guide. This automatically empiricizes the outcomes, as well, making them much more likely to be the case, real & existing, as well as practical.
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Time is a major part of this. If we save cost, materials, and so forth, the materials costs go down. But we can always buy more of those. But if we save, above all, a significant amount of time, by picking the right choice among our options, that we cannot buy. and further, we then have more time to do more in less time, as well. Thus the key goal is time savings, and then costs, energy, materials, and so forth.  Using the walking cameo as a guide, we tend to walk at a constant pace. So we take a short curt, a shorter route, then we save time, maximally about 30% by a 45 deg. hypotenuse in distance, for instance, Or the longest hypotenuse under most conditions. That not ONLY saves energy, and movements, but it also saves that which we cannot buy, more time.
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Thus professional drivers know that. They can take a longer route, use more energy, but if it routinely saves them 5-10 minutes, esp. if that route is repeatedly used in a month’s time, then they save a LOT of time, as the outcome. And that pays for itself, by using that time to do more, over all. Thus saving time is foremost, unless the route is too long to do the outcome correctly. Time, distance, energy are Cx Sys, that is N=3. & it’s why such decisions are not easily reached, but can be measured AND to distinguish the best, and sort it out by Outcomes, the least amount of time usually wins. And doing more with less, is exactly an important part of efficiencies, which as is known, drives the markets. Again, thermodynamics in action..It guides our decisions.
Decision making, therefore, in most all cases can be made better, faster, more likely, more empirical, & more creatively using CP, which gives us LE, which gives us creativity, and that which solves for us our problems.
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This empiricizes, simplifies & describes most ALL decision making down to simple methods, which we can all use, & usually have no solid, or plain ideas we are, as my sis did not. & I was able to dissect, analyze and make sense of each step, which she could not do, not  having an effective, efficient, universal methodology, widely applicable.. And that’s the key to understanding most ALL decision making as well. It’s that simple. and it can be then scientifically tested because the CP, LE, S/F and visual thinking processing converts it into testable hypotheses, which can be successfully created, and solve most all problems. But only so far.
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Decision making, in a nutshell, can now be very likely most all of it, broken down into the above mentioned model & we can see brains making decisions as they solve problems in front of us , thus we can Read Their Minds, improve the processes & power of those decisions being made. Without limits, with endlessly creative means and those can be now cast into a form, which descriptions & occ. mathematically can be tested and shown to be the very likely case. But not quite…..
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This is how CP, LE, S/F, visual thinking, Cx Sys, and all of the methods, approaches, techniques & technologies, ways of doing things, devices, tools, & instruments are created & work, in a nut shell. And it’s simple, fast and ca be done without limits, too.
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THAT is the power of these new methods and models. And how it can be easily adapted to creating General AI, is a matter of simple doing it. Most All of the major problems to unlimited advancements, are now on the table and can be used without end. That’s what has happened over the last few years. and it’s very simple, workable, & has been so driving our creativity & advancements, quietly without us knowing, or suspecting it, all these 1000’s of years, too, at least.
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And the animals use much the same basic systems as do we, so it describes a very great deal with very little, endlessly and empirically, testable as well.
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Decision making is best made using the Empirical testers of CP and LE. CP finds the LE outcomes,and lets us choose those & this empiricizes the problems faster than much else, too. It makes he solution far more real and practical. CP & LE analysis naturally give a least energy, very rapid analysis which can be tested for outcomes, be it math or verbal descriptions. It ensconces empiricism of the universal processor of LE in most all its Cx Sys forms, as well.
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Table of Contents

Table of contents. Updated 10 Nov. 2020

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/05/17/extensions-applications-pts-1-2/

4. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 1
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/02/28/the-comparison-process-explananda-pt-1/

5. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 2
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/02/28/the-comparison-process-explananda-pt-2/

6. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 3
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/04/comparison-process-explananda-pt-3/?relatedposts_hit=1&relatedposts_origin=17&relatedposts_position=1

7. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 4
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/15/the-comparison-process-comp-explananda-4/?relatedposts_hit=1&relatedposts_origin=38&relatedposts_position=0

8. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 5: Cosmology
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/15/cosmology-and-the-comparison-process-comp-explananda-5/

9. AI and the Comparison Process
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/20/artificial-intelligence-ai-and-the-comparison-process-comp/

10. Optical and Sensory Illusions, Creativity and the Comparison Process (COMP)
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/06/opticalsensory-illusions-creativity-the-comp/

11. The Emotional Continuum: Exploring Emotions with the Comparison Process
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/02/the-emotional-continuum-exploring-emotions/

12. Depths within Depths: the Nested Great Mysteries
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/14/depths-within-depths-the-nested-great-mysteries/

13. Language/Math, Description/Measurement, Least Energy Principle and AI
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/09/languagemath-descriptionmeasurement-least-energy-principle-and-ai/

14. The Continua, Yin/Yang, Dualities; Creativity and Prediction
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/21/the-continua-yinyang-dualities-creativity-and-prediction/

15. Empirical Introspection and the Comparison Process
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/24/81/

16. The Spark of Life and the Soul of Wit

17. The Praxis: Use of Cortical Evoked Responses (CER), functional MRI (fMRI), Magnetic Electroencephalography (MEG), and Magnetic Stimulation of brain (MagStim) to investigate recognition, creativity and the Comparison Process

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/05/16/the-praxis/

18. A Field Trip into the Mind

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/05/21/106/

19. Complex Systems, Boundary Events and Hierarchies

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/06/11/complex-systems-boundary-events-and-hierarchies/

20. The Relativity of the Cortex: The Mind/Brain Interface

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/07/02/the-relativity-of-the-cortex-the-mindbrain-interface/

21. How to Cure Diabetes (AODM type 2)
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/07/18/how-to-cure-diabetes-aodm-2/

22. Dealing with Sociopaths, Terrorists and Riots

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/08/12/dealing-with-sociopaths-terrorists-and-riots/

23. Beyond the Absolute: The Limits to Knowledge

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/09/03/beyond-the-absolute-limits-to-knowledge/

24  Imaging the Conscience.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/10/20/imaging-the-conscience/

25. The Comparison Process: Creativity, and Linguistics. Analyzing a Movie

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/03/24/comparison-process-creativity-and-linguistics-analyzing-a-movie/

26. A Mother’s Wisdom

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/06/03/a-mothers-wisdom/

27. The Fox and the Hedgehog

28. Sequoias, Parkinson’s and Space Sickness.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/07/17/sequoias-parkinsons-and-space-sickness/

29. Evolution, growth, & Development: A Deeper Understanding.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/09/01/evolution-growth-development-a-deeper-understanding/

30. Explanandum 6: Understanding Complex Systems

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/09/08/explandum-6-understanding-complex-systems/

31. The Promised Land of the Undiscovered Country: Towards Universal Understanding

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/09/28/the-promised-land-of-the-undiscovered-country-towards-universal-understanding-2/

32. The Power of Proliferation

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/10/02/the-power-of-proliferation/

33. A Field Trip into our Understanding

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/11/03/a-field-trip-into-our-understanding/

34.  Extensions & applications: Pts. 1 & 2.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/05/17/extensions-applications-pts-1-2/

(35. A Hierarchical Turing Test for General AI, this was deleted after being posted, and it’s not known how it occurred.)

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/05/17/extensions-applications-pts-1-2/

35. The Structure of Color Vision

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/06/11/the-structure-of-color-vision/

36. La Chanson Sans Fin:   Table of Contents

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/09/28/le-chanson-sans-fin-table-of-contents-2/

37. The Structure of Color Vision

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/06/16/the-structure-of-color-vision-2/

38. Stabilities, Repetitions, and Confirmability

41. Melding Cognitive Neuroscience & Behaviorism

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/11/19/melding-cognitive-neuroscience-behaviorism/

42. An Hierarchical Turing Test for AI

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/12/02/an-hierarchical-turing-test-for-ai/

43.  Do Neutron Stars develop into White Dwarfs by Mass Loss?https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/02/08/do-neutron-stars-develop-into-white-dwarfs-by-mass-loss/

44. An Infinity of Flavors ?                             https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/02/16/an-infinity-of-flavors/

45. The Origin of Infomration & Understanding; and the Wellsprings of Creativity

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/04/01/origins-of-information-understanding/

46. The Complex System of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/04/22/the-complex-system-of-the-second-law-of-thermodynamics/

47. How Physicians Create New Information

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/05/01/how-physicians-create-new-information/

48. An Hierarchical Turing Test for AI

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/05/20/an-hierarchical-turing-test-for-ai-2/

49. The Neuroscience of Problem Solving

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/05/27/the-neuroscience-of-problem-solving/

50. A Standard Method to Understand Neurochemistry’s Complexities

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/05/30/a-standard-method-to-understand-neurochemistrys-complexities/

51. Problem Solving for Self Driving Cars: a Model.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/06/10/problem-solving-for-self-driving-cars-a-model/

52. A Trio of Relationships and Connections

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/08/04/a-trio-of-relationships-connections/

53: Einstein’s Great Subtleties:  Einstein’s Edge

54. The Problem of Solving P not Equal to NP

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/04/28/the-problem-of-solving-p-not-equal-to-np/

55. How to Create a Blue Rose

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/06/02/how-to-create-a-blue-rose/

56. The Etymologies of Creativity

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/06/14/the-etymologies-creativity/

57.  A Basic Model of a Unifying System of Most All Knowledge

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/07/06/a-basic-model-of-a-unifying-system-of-most-all-knowledge/

58. Understanding Psych with S/F Brain Methods

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/07/11/understanding-psychology-with-s-f-methods/

59. The Wiggins Prime Sieve

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/08/02/the-wiggins-prime-sieve/

60. The Complex System of Love

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/08/22/the-complex-system-of-love/

61. The Limits of the Comparison Process

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/08/27/the-limits-of-comparison-processing/

62.  The Bees, Cortical Brain Structure, Einstein’s Brain, etc.

3. The Wiggins Prime Sieve, Version 3.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/09/15/the-wiggins-prime-sieve-version-3/

64. The Prime Quartets Method

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/10/04/prime-quartets-method-capabilities-insights-sans-limits/

65. Is Goldbach’s Conjecture True And/or False, Conditionally?

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/11/17/is-goldbachs-conjecture-true-and-or-false-conditionally/

66. The Magic of the Prime Multiples and Goldbach’s….

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/11/27/the-magic-of-the-prime-multiples-insights-into-goldbachs-conjecture/

67 The Wiggins Primes Sieve:  Cycles of 30’s in the Primes

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2018/12/17/the-wiggins-prime-sieve-cycles-of-30s-in-the-primes/

68. Winning at Solitaire, Basic Strategies

jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/02/04/winning-at-solitaire-basic-strategies/

69, The Failures of Idealisms & Brain Hardwiring in the Sciences

jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/04/04/the-failures-of-idealisms-brain-hardwiring-in-the-sciences/

70. The Break Outs: The roots of Growth & Unlimited Creativities

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/06/06/the-break-outs-roots-of-growth-unlimited-creativities/

71. How to Find the MH370 Crash Site

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/06/19/the-likely-indian-ocean-so-equatorial-current-crash-sites-for-mh370/

72. Walking Shortcuts, a Cameo

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/06/21/walking-shortcuts-a-cameo-for-creating-unlimited-professional-growth/

73. Einstein’s Quotes & Neuroscientific Insights on Creativity & Understanding

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/07/09/einsteins-quotes-and-neuroscientific-insights-on-creativity-etc/

74. Towards a Model of Everything 14 Jul. 2019

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/07/13/towards-a-model-of-everything-moe/

75. Addenda: The Walkabout Article  22 Jul 2019

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/07/22/the-walkabout-article-addenda/

76. NP not = P, Second considerations

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/07/23/np-not-equal-to-p-2nd-considerations/

77. The Kategoria of Incompletenesses, Limits to Our Growth.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/08/05/the-kategoria-of-the-incompletenesses/

78. The Flight of Tennis Balls:   A Cameo of Creative Thinking & Understanding

79. The S curves of Growth

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/09/10/the-s-curves-of-growth/

80. A New Possible Sunspot Duration Detector

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/10/07/a-new-possible-sunspot-duration-amplitude-predictor/

81. 2nd Addendum to Walking/Decision Making article.

jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/10/08/2nd-addendum-partial-mathematization-of-the-walking-decision-making-article/

82. Part 2: An Historical Genealogy of Tom Horn

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/11/16/an-historical-genealogy-of-tom-horn-part-2/

83.  Part 1: An Historical Genealogy of Tom Horn

jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/11/16/part-1-an-historical-genealogy-of-tom-horn/

84. The Power of & Great Age of Human Predictions/Prophecies

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2019/12/19/the-power-of-great-age-of-human-predictions-prophecies/

85. Four Short, Creative Insight Articles

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2020/01/14/four-short-creative-insight-articles/

86>  The Likely Indian Ocean Southern Equatorial Current Crash Site of Flight MH370

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87. Our Eyes Cannot See Our Eyes:  The Mindtraps

jochesh00.wordpress.com/2020/02/08/our-eyes-cannot-see-our-eyes-the-mindtraps/
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90. Decision Making and Shopping
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91. How to Find Primes Any Where in the Number Line , Fast & Efficiently, No Matter How Large ; 5/20.
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92.   The Problems of Causality, & Solutions.

The Complex System of Our Colour Vision

The Complex System of our Colour Vision
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By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/CP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014.
Copyright © 2020
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As has been explored in part before, “The Structure of Color Vision”. There is a lot more to colour vision than has been explored before, nor understood very completely. The system is necessarily complex system (Cx Sys) and thus is amenable to the best description by using the Kategoria to describe it’s many different aspects and colours.

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For instance, comparing (Comparison Processing, CP) the visual system of colours to that of the electromagnetic spectrum of co-lours is very, revealing and shows many disparities and interesting observations.
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Structure of our colour vision, here.
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First Kategoria is the EM spectrum, and we then compare that to the ROY G BI mnemonic listing the colours we ID and name by CP.  That creates data by the differences. The EM spectrum is linear, & thus leaves OUT a very great deal as linear methods do. The Structure shows that starkly. Where is brown, white, grays unlimited and black? Where is Dayglo? Thus in order to complete better our descriptions of colours as we see them, we use the Kategoria. and that yields very interesting insights, Plus we use structure/function (S/F) relationships to further extend our understanding of HOW color vision arises.
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Next Kategoria is 2. Black, the Grays unlimited, and White. What is this? Animals do not always see in colors. They have a black/white system, like B&W TV and photography (Platinum Methods are the best). Simply, this is the number of photons reaching the retina. The more photons, the whiter it is, the less, the fewer & grayer. and at the border zone of detectable, it’s black. The structure/function (S/F) is that of of the rods. Those are the detectors of the black and white colors, and the unlimited grays. The rods quantitate the number of photons and then realizable change those into the unlimited grays from nearly white to nearly black, by a CP method. The top of the photon numbers scale is the white out we see with looking at bright lights. Much like that seen with cameras, when the # of photons white out the image. The lower end is the detectability of the dark grays to black, and we know there are very human limits to that. We use CCD’s to detect photons which we cannot otherwise see. Which is what David Malin used to find the Low Surface Brightness Galaxies (LSBG), which our visual telescopes had missed, using lenses and mirrors. And as a result we found over 1 trillions more galaxies. The limits of our eyes had been once more, as in the IR, UV, X-rays, been extended to see MORE of the universe by using those new technologies.
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So, we have again, another Kategoria. which is explainable by S/F relationships.
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3. Brown. This is NOT on the EM spectrum, like white-gray-black scales. And this huge CP disparity creates many, new insights into our understanding of our visual system. We know that by darkening yellow we get browns. By lightening browns we get yellows. In addition, when we combine red/green we also get browns. By adding a bit more red, we get an interesting set of colors which are those of the red hair colors, as well. Auburn, red, light brown, viz. blond, and red-brown. A combination colour set.
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In addition there are the red/green color blindnesses, X-linked recessives. Those persons cannot see red/green. They cannot see which light, or sign is red, or green, tho they can detect the light from those events. The real problem for them were the horizontal signal lights. They could not see if the light lit was red or green, and until the stop lights were standardized, to red on top, then yellow, then green on the bottom, they had lots of trouble driving!!!.Consequently increased driving accidents results (ed).
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But what, we might also ask do they see if not red, or green? And here again are the values of the kategoria of Cx Sys descriptions as first explored vastly and fruitfully by Aristoteles. (The Kategoria of Incompletenesses, for instance.) Or the unlimited, CP driven/created, read, and modified kategoria of our vast hierarchical organizations of knowledge by the many means of doing so, as also discussed before.
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The red/green blind, deuteranopes (as oppsed to normal trichomacity, 3 pigments) see browns. When asked what they see, they say that most people see brown, and so do they. NowTHAT is interesting is not? By CP of normal colour vision with that of R/G blindness, we learn something about brown.
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Have we ever seen a brown light? Not very often, and why not? We see red, yellow, green, orange lights, and blue even violet lights. Why not much brown, by CP?  Brown is thus created by both darkened yellow, and by combining red/green. The two colors cancel each other out, except when there is a bit surplus of red, & we get hair colours by those combinations from auburn, to red/brown, which is then red many cases. Then we get the default colour, Brown. So we learn that in colour blindnesses, brown is a default color. The red/green in normal vision cancels out red/green to give us brown.
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Thus brown gives us insights into how the colour system works. Now, if red/green blindnesses, can see browns, what is going on? Thus in that case it’s a dark yellow. and that accounts for the rarity of brown lighting. In the natural world it’s most often seen in biological sources, such as brown bark, leaves, skin colors, and hair. It’s a special color, because it’s NOT on the spectrum, and for that reason shows us how the color vision works. Just as a genetic disorder compared to the normal, show us good information by that cognitive dissonance, that disparity, that CP, does it not? Info is created.
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We see the trichomy, which is normal color vision. But there is a third, which is also the case.
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Therefore we know the structures of what creates colors, it’s the cones, and when those are deficient, colour blindness is seen, mostly in men. This is a clear cut, S/F relationship.
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Now, we continue, 4. Dayglo, and this is an exceptionally bright color, which is there because of the specific colour pigments, which take UV light and by reducing the energy convert it to green, yellow, orange, red, & blue. So as the normal lighting is bright, the UV addition makes it visibly brighter, and thus more noticeable, There are more photons being created often of specific colours added by UV phtons by this method. Again not seen on the EM spectrum, at all.
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5. is the vast Kategoria of the colour combinations. Those combos are obviously unlimited. And none of those are seen on the EM spectrum, at all! This sort of like playing two or more musical tones, or chords at the same time. That is vision plus, and can be very interesting too. As stated before the complexity of those color combos is easily seen and explored in one place. The paint store methods, which organize the colours & combos by hierarchical means, we call the paint chips. THAT is the most easily found, complete Kategoria of the colours. The EM is a frail, linear, highly incomplete way of observing & understanding colors, is it not? And once again shows us the limits of linear processing, thinking and related maths, logics, and counting, very likely.
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The next is when we combine red with a bit of blue. It makes the color much more intense, and that is often used in lipsticks, and other signs, where the red must stand out, too.
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Next is 6. The Yellow/Green colors. Those are specific frequencies which our color vision creates by combining yellow & green, as orange is created by the combo of red and yellow, Or blue/green by the obvious. But there is green/yellow as a specific frequency of light, which our eyes, in simplicity, create Yellow-green by combining those. But there are depths within depths of this, as also reported in the “Structure…”. The brightest, most photons of light which are created by the sun which get to the surface of the earth, are the Yellow/Greens. And those are the most photons. And around the nearly exact center of frequncies of visible light, this high information content, are the colours. A high sensitivity to the most photons, gives the best visual distinctions, the most efficient way of seeing, because of the number of channels is far, far higher.
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Interestingly enough, as written before, our color vision centers around the brightest, normal light of our sun. Now if we, or another species lives around a more white sun, or a more red to slightly orange sun the colour sensitivities of our visual pigments would shift to the brightest frequencies for that sun. Thus if we humans and our domesticated species move to such a sun, very clearly, over time, our colour sensitivies in our eyes would shift to that new center of the brightest frequencies, would they not? So our colour vision is uniquely tied/directly related to the spectral characteristics of our sun. Which point has NOT been reported or seen before. Yet it’s of considerable importance in understanding our color vision as well as how everything is connected, too.
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Or if the spectral characteristics of our sun change over time time, then our eyes will also dark adapt.
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Yet another Kategoria is what happens if we wear red to pink glasses? The color vision adapts to this and the colours after a while appear to be normal. Also, if we take off those lenses after adaptation, most everything looks green, does it not? Until ti adapts back to the normal settings, for some reason. Another form of this illusion which shows us how the color vision works, is when we look at the so called colour pairs, such as red and green, Blue and Orange. If we concentrate & look at an image of those for a minute, then look at a white page, we see an oppositie visual image, an illusion of the blue where the yellow was &vice versa), and the red where the green was & vice versa! This is due to the visual image wearing out of the colour cones of our eyes, by sort of a light omission by the eyes, which leave the opposite colour, there.
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The last Kategoria is that of the RGB system for creating colours. In fact, it’s more the RYGB method, as playing around with the color buttons of colour TV sets can show. Our eyes create most all the colours from , red, green/yellow, & blue, not by entreating orange, green, and purple of those specifically, but by combining two colours to make a 3rd. Combining pigments does this as well. Taking yellow and mixing with blue, gives green. Yellow plus red give orange. and blue plus green gives blue-green. True with light, pigments, and colour video screens.

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Now Why in heck does this happen? Because colours are not real outside of our brains. The frequncies of light exist for all detectors of same. Brain uses highly efficient methods of detecting light frequencies by dividing them up into colors. For instance, we see the color spectrum divided into the colours every day, at least twice. And most persons do not know this. they see it so often they ignore it by habituation. & it was Newton using his prism spectrum to show the colour bands in the 1600’s, which showed us that the low frequencies were on the red side, and the higher, on the right, blue side. & that the lower frequencies were bent less than the higher, and thus the colour frequencies going through very clear glass prisms had those characteristics. And this, of course, also created the rainbow, too. altho that’s more than the prism spectrum because it creates accessory, reversed rainbow arcs of light when esp. bright sun shines. The other arcs being due to multiple internal reflections very likely due to the photons bouncing about in the roundness of the rain drops.
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But the sunrises and sets are the same. Sunlight is differentially bent by the atmosphere, and creates the deep black, then the deep red, then red, orange, yellow a bit of green and then blue. So our colours are set every day and evening by those, and the clouds and darknesses set the whites to grays to black. Green we see in the plants, commonly and brown often the same, most often. So the colour spectra are set, reinforced in our brains from an early age, as well. But why it took so long to figure out that the normal frequencies of less energy of red light compared to those further along in the spectrum being higher, each than the previous, is NOT figured out by our eyes.  However, the colours are separated out by this sort of detection of higher energies by the rhodopsins which permit color vision in our eyes.
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There are yet more depths within depths in this as well. How is color created by the eyes and is the colour it is? Some for that reason not simply gave it a name, the qualia, which is like assigning planets, winds, water, the sun, a god’s name, and thinking that explains those, but does not!! But by instead we should be using the empirical methods, widely applicable and nearly universal useful, called S/F relationships. Those universal processes create the colours by the means which we know them have been found, so far. Colours are brain creations, & are illusions, hallucinations created by our visual nervous systems, They, like the emotions and touch, hot, cold, tastes, etc., are Not real but internal creations which reflect real characteristics, in fact, both inside and outside of our bodies. Those correspond fairly well, except for the illusions, which show how sensations are created, and are in fact, not real outside of the structures of our brains. But, they DO correspond to more deep, existing events in our universe, which we share with other livings systems.
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If a tree falls in the forest, exposes the deep idealistic fallacy here, does the tree make a sound if no one is there to hear it? Yes, because, we can see the pressure waves which each tree falling creates,k and record them independently of our brains. So, the idealisms fail & fall to the empirical facts. and the animals run from those, falling trees as do we!!!
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This can be done more completely, esp. in terms of pain, which arising largely as a neurokinin, among a few others, with interesting effects. Pleasure is the same, being a chemical consequence of dopamine like Cx Sys events, or mu receptors of the endorphins and mimicked by the opiates. Thus the S/F relationships show something of how they come about. And to interpret more about how the visual system creates the images we see, the visual illusions must be understood better, as those provide insights into how that is done by the brain. Illusions of all kinds are insights into how the brain works by comparison Processing (CP) of information.
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Have discussed this before, but it needs to be stated once again. The pain centers in the brain, as described by the 9-10 sites (Pain matrix)  in the brain which likely mediate pain, are the case. We know where they are by what lights up on the function MRI (fMRI) scans when pain is induced. However, we have only part of the system figured. Sort of like, when we know what the genes DNA structures are, but we do NOT know how many functions or even what functions the genes have. Yet another, S/F relationship, and why about 20% of the genes have resisted figuring out, is yet another problem, too. That can be done by seeing when the genes are abnormal, what happens to what normal functions by CP them. using the contrast from normal, to abnormal genes, we figure our more of how their multiple Cx Sys functions work.
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In the same way, by the S/F relationship of how the brain works, the language centers, the motor, sensory parts, the recognition of faces (FFA of brain, we can thus learn more by a new kind of instrumentation initially inferred from the Praxis, which shows the various kinds of international neurophysical tests, which so far, in a limited way, gives us more info about the senses, and how the brain works, very likely.
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And that, is the magnetic point stimulator. We can use mag stim grossly to block brain activity by depolarizing the brain with a large paddle, or specific nerves with a smaller device. But it’s large sized and give only very large depolarizations, which are not helpful in the parietal, sensory/motor strips, and forth. It’s all depolarized and the specific areas, such as Broca’s cannot be specifically depolarized. But with a point stim, easily created, then we can selectively depolarize tiny spots in the cortex, or deep structures & see what happens, as well, to functions. Thus we are given a CP to what we know occurs in some parts of the brain AND with the mag point stim, we can specifically explore up & down the cortices & find out what functions disappear, or are modified by comparing the two.
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Using this method we can thus vastly improve our knowledge of the S/F relationships of the brain by reading up and down the cortex, where the major functions of high level info are processed;  thus increase by 10,000 times fold our S/F knowledge about how the brain works. For instance use the point stim on each of the pain matrix and see what aspect of pain is temporally abolished. And that will give us a pretty vast improvement of the specifics, of what’s going on, even in the visual processing of info in the visual cortex. This is how to get past the “qualia’ into the far more empirical meaningful, actual S/F events going on in brain. And represents a very real conceptual advance in terms of understanding how our senses (even colours), and emotions are created, modulated, and work, does it not?
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Or the mag stim can be used within the deep matter of the brain because magnetism passes through living matter, easily.
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There are many other subjects in the category of Colours. One is this, the Qualia, so called, of colours. Does that term tell us anything about the origins of colours, created in our nervous system? Of course not. So, like naming the Moon, Selene, the Earth, Gaia, Saturn and the planets after the gods, it tells us nothing of how those work. Empty pagan, deifications, which act as pseudo explanations, and thus are irrelevant to our understanding.
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Jettison the qualia & use the well developed concepts of CP & S/F comparisons. Then look at colour vision and its loss as well. Then at Synesthesias as ways which elucidate those. We know this: There are structures in the retina which create colour coding by frequencies. If those structures are damaged, such as in red/green blindness, we see Brown instead, if so afflicted. If there are no rods, we do not see white, grays unlimited or black either. So the S/F relationship is the key to understanding where the colours come from. The colours are ways of detecting the different frequencies/energies of light. If low, red, if high, the blue to UV, latter of which can be seen by some.
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Thus we have a simple S/F relationship here. The detection of colour means the retina can detect the differences in the frequencies. Thus, detected, colours are assigned which grossly & arbitrarily divide those into colours. This arbitrary designation is a colour standard, which is also used by the eye & visual cortex, and becomes language, as well. We can further divide up red and yellow combos into orange, and red/orange, too. Recall that those colours are the standards by which we name, ID, and detect colours.
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Thus we have internal, retinal/visual cortex standards which can detect AND see colours. So in order to name those, we arbitrarily designate those colours as the ones we use. Thus naming is relativity, to using set, arbitrary words, and which we arbitrarily assign to colours, and then divvy them up repeatedly. The ability of humans too see such vast shadings of colours, is given here. See if you can get at least one correct, perfectly. You have both intact color vision as well as the discrimination to assign gray/purple/red/blue sequence.
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Now, What are the colours? They are a complex system set of events which we see. Red roses, or blood. For that reason Red is very important (as is the metallic, blood taste tongue receptor, which has been ignored), because if we see it on people, we know there’s trouble. So it’s very critical to know that. Also, the red light at dawn & sunset tells us dawn is coming, & Dusk is nigh, too. Red is there for many reasons, & is arbitrarily assigned as Rote, red, Colorado, or rose. The assignation of red is important because of those reasons. The sounds for words we use are arbitrary as well, but stable, set fixed standards of the descriptive epistemology of Einstein, as well. The relativity of colour vision, in fact.
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With THOSE standards set, we then ask the question how does red differ from orange or yellow. Orange is NOT as red, comparatively, either. If the sun is red at sunrise, and sunset, or from ash and much dust/fire smoke, then white turns red. All turns red. Red is indistinguishable from white, as well. Our brains are then fooled. This CP gives us critical info about how we detect and ID red. When the sun is Red, we cannot see that the rose, or blood are red, either, because white in those cases is red too, and many others are as well.
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We see this the same when we look at tree leaves in the sun. Those are green. But when we look at the same tree leaves in Na+ vapour lighting, the leaves can be yellow! Now, what are the colours? They are based upon arbitrary standard of sunlight, which as it’s there all the time during the day, sets the colour standards for us. Thus the arbitrary standard for colours are sunlight.
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If we use Hg Vapor lighting, we do not see much pink or red. The hand appears pale.Greens &  violets/blue are more prominent. Incandescent lighting can afflict colour schemes in interior paints and designs, as well. As the Interior decorators well know!!!
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So, when we see the various frequencies, and the brain does NOT know, that red up the spectrum to blue/vikolet are in terms of frequencies, either. BUT the Photopsins which are colour detecting proteins in the retina, ID the differences in energies, & report those to the visual cortex. It compares redness to those frequencies, and reports those as reds, and then we see red. The same with the other systems. Thus are the colours created by the nervous system.
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 We see red, yellow, green & blues, from which the others are created, by those synthetic means. It combines red and yellow lights or pigments to create oranges. It combines red/green to create brown, or alternatively dark, deep gray yellow to do the same. It takes green/yellow and we see Chartreuse. And then yellow and blue to create Green, as well. & with 4 simple combos, R, Y, G, and Blue  (RGB, simplified), all the rest comes about, does not? And even purple or green/blues are created by this combining process.
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That’s where colours are created in the visual pigmented photopsins, which by their energies, detect the very narrow spectrum of light, because that is the ONLY way to detect which colours are which.  In addition, the visual cortex then uses a CP to arbitrarily create the colours. Exactly how that’s done is not clear, but using THESE S/F means, instead of the useless qualia, we can then figure out just where the sensations of colours come from. And from there, likely infer the rest of the senses of touch, hot, cold,positon & so forth, all within the S/F methods and by using CP which assigns the standards, too.
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That’s how we figure out where colour visions come from. from the structures which are lost, which create red/green, and other kinds of blindnesses. We now have the genes, the structures,and then we need now to find out how those are converted to the functions, that is, the sensations. It’s that simple. When we know WHERE we are going, then we have half the problem solved. Qualia are clearly worthless in clinical neuroscientific terms.
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The value of optical illusions in terms of understanding the visual system’s  geometries (Not euclidean) related to how the much more simple, sensory illusions has already been addressed.
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Notably, when we have 3 large bowls of water, first at 35 F, second & middle at 70 & last at 105, and we put our L & R hands into L, the near freezing water and the right, into the very hot water. We find this. Letting the skin equilateral to near the temps of hot and cold, we take the left and put it into the 70 deg. bowl. It feels rather warm. Then we remove that, put the R into the 70 deg. bowl & it feels cold. That comparison process (CP) shows exactly HOW the nervous systems works in terms of sensations. It’s all CP, from ambient temps of the skin, to the ambient lighting. And this shows us exactly how it’s done. From the 70 F bowl to the hot, it feels hot, from the same bowl to the cold it feels cooler. Same with the hot bowl. Taking the hand from cold, & into the hot, it’s extremely HOT even painful!!!
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Thus the arbitrary CP is the case acting here. using relative skin temps as the standards, we get the impossible hot bowl from the cold hand, and the impossible cold bowl, from the hot hand.
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That is the power of the CP in determining HOW the senses work, by the CP in our sensory, & visual cortices. & pain is largely the same, too!!!
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Now we have to deal with the synesthesias of the senses, & will use the most powerful, oldest system to work on those. What applies and derives from the vision, as it’s the primary, most highly developed sense, will show us what’s going on in the synesthesias of the rest.
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Many persons claim they are seeing emotions associated with colours. How can we possibly detect that? We cannot. however, we do KNOW of a synesthsia which is associated with the emotions. The visual senses can do that. We see a loved one or a friend. A sort of love, euphoria sets in. The affection for friends and loved ones is a visual association, is not? And that is a synesthesia in the commonest, more real sense. And we have those all in common, so it’s highly evidenced, without limits. The same is true for laughter, altho it’s very culturally dependent. But the same verbal jokes, or visual jokes (visual sensory) shticks work in that same way. “Oh, Honey, that’s our song!” has much the same synesthetic qualities, too.
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And when we hear the great Symphonies, and the anthems of our nations, we have that same welling up of emotions, do we not? Thus we are conditioned, by repeating events, to create LTM of those synesthesias, Der Gotterfunken, the Mountain top experiences, the wonderment, at the great waterfalls, and their power. The same of the grand sight of the incomparable Vale of the Yosemite, with 3 of N. Am’s largest waterfalls within view there, at the same time. The wonderment of Glacier Point when seem the 1st time, too.
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This all presaged in, The Explanandum, of the Dopamine boost, which creates the memes, the going viral on the Net, the wonderment, awes, loves, etc.
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Notably at the end, Der Gotterfunken of Beethoven’s magnificent Ninth. But presaged by the DA boost which creates those as above. the S/F relationships of the DA boosts, in short. Most all LTM generated, too.
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Thus then the existing synesthesias of the emotions, or the sadness of the dolorous tones, all of which we are conditioned to have, by social and musical means, are the case.
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Thus we find an understanding of the rarer synesthesias from the more usual, universal ones.
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Those persons have cross wired certain stimuli into having visual, colour outputs. The system is creating colours to correspond (CP), roughly, because those have been conditioned by events. They are rare, and they are NOT very valuable, either. But those explain the synesthesias, rather well, at least mostly.
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the issues of Tetrachomacity where person do have 4 color receptors in the eyes is the case. it’s very rare, but they can see colours which we cannot, either, very likely. And that’s easily testable using color comparisons, where they can distinguish many colours we cannot see.
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