An Hierarchical Turing Test for General AI

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014
Have been following Jeffrey Hawkins’ work with some interest, and note his work in hierarchical  temporal memory models. It’s likely that Jeff Hawkins has the closest working model to creating a good simulation of AI.
These insights which may help facilitate creating AI & can be explained in   detail using concepts of comparison process, structure/function relationships, least energy, complex systems thinking, and related methods.
Using structure/function relationships (clinico-pathological correlation) traditionally, we can generate & create unlimited information about how the brain works, and its corresponding outputs, vision, language, motor/sensory thinking, memory, and so forth. These tools which have seemed to work for me to create higher brain functions right off the cortex, the mind brain interface, (cortical columns of Mountcastle), are S/F relationships, found by the millions in clinical comparisons between lesions in brain and functional deficits, & are self evident to us all. However, using a comparison process model, which largely operates in the CC’s, a very much better understanding can be found.
The model is both elegant, simplifying, as well as highly fruitful. Because a comparison can be made between or among most every event in existence both inside brain and outside (in the various permutations), it’s part and parcel of the structure/function method. And appears to be a universal tool. Least energy is also a comparison process, comparing energy, resources, time, and efficiencies of different methods, to find new insights. & likely universally applicable, too.
 I ask this deep question. How does it happen that the brain is organized upside down & reversed right for left in humans, and very likely most normal primates, as well?
Right hemisphere controls left body and vice versa, in both motor and sensory homunculi. This is well known from the time of Wilder Penfield and numerous published cases. The toes are at the top, & in the interhemispheric fissure. Then moving down the cortex of the motor strip comes the instep, the arch, the ankle, and the ankle is connected to the leg bones, & those to the knee, then the thighs, etc. The face is at the bottom, and the trunk and arms fit in between in a smooth transition. Why is this so? In addition, the visual system is also reversed right for left and upside down, with the sup. visual fields functions processed in the inf. occipital lobes and the inferior fields from 3 to 6 to 9 o’clock in the top parts of the visual cortex. & again, left field from 6 to 9, to 12 on the right visual cortex, & vice versa for the right visual fields.
And there is the optic chiasm which takes the right visual field to the left, and vice versa, and the inferior fields to the superior cortex in a smooth transition of reversed upside down & right for left. & the decussations of the pyramids of the inf. brain stem take right sensori-motor afferents from the limbs to left brain, the same way as do the cortical efferents are taken right hemisphere to left body, also. So wherever we find the decussations of the pyramids, we know the brain is most likely upside and right for left oriented. and not just in humans & primates, but likely for most mammals, including the ancient marsupials, and the platypus and echidna.
Why & how does this arrangement come about? We hear of the top/down models which were fashionable a few years back, but were somehow not clearly satisfying, either. Somehow incomplete.
The best, most efficient answer, & the key to understanding human/primate/mammalia brain neuroanatomy is quite simple. When we take a magnifying class, and hold it at arm’s length, comparing the images of the room around us, the image thru that double convex lens is reversed right for left and upside down. This is the visual comparison which shows us what’s going on. The eyes have it!  The brain is organized visually, and never in my years of study and work has this simple correlation/comparison been described nor discussed. It’s a deep and universal observation, spanning most higher animals. The ability to create new insights using visualization methods is highly human, and species specific. Altho some primates can copy our actions, the meaning of many actions, as in cargo cults, oftimes eludes them.
Quite simply, we are visual creatures, & our brains are organized largely upon the images of events upon our retinas, and very likely least energy, as well. We have stereoscopic vision, different from other species whose visual fields rarely overlap, but for our cousins, the primates. The evidence is also in the internal capsule’s organization, that of the massive connections of the white matter to the cortices, and the internal mirroring deep structures of the globus pallida and the thalami as well. A truly universal structure/function comparison.
But not only does this occur in humans and land mammals, but also in the dolphins, where the same decussation of pyramids are also seen. We don’t have to dissect these creature to see it, but simply image their nervous systems to find it. & thus we know their hypertrophied sound cortices also are organized in the same way, to highly and efficiently coordinate with the older visual systems. This is basic neuroanatomy, and although the top/down, old at bottom and younger at the top is interesting, it doesn’t have the depth, profundity & universality of the right for left, upside down features.  Even our cerebellum is organized the same, as well.
The comparison process when generally applied to data both within and outside of us, gives us the ability to see events in new ways and relationships which we have missed. For instance, colour vision. How does this come about, this model of events in existence? We can compare our brains’ color system with the EM spectrum for new knowledge. We know that orange is a frequency of light in the spectrum. But not in the visual cortex. It can be generated by mixing yellow & red pigments, but still we perceive orange! Blue green, by mixing blue and green, where the blue-green, real and existing frequencies are there, but not a mix. And then purples by mixing blue and red. And browns, a highly significant colour for some colour blind persons, are red/green in combined EM frequencies. Show us by comparison the “brown” frequency in the spectrum!! It’s not there. Thus our rhodopsins interacting with photons’ black/white continuum, create the colours simply and elegantly by mixing. But they cannot convey to us the existence of the spectrum based upon frequency, even tho, in fact, it may use the energies of colours to detect those.
Another insight is the rainbow, by which Newton was able to see frequencies of light by creating them from refraction. The rainbow is rare, or is it? In fact, it’s a daily phenomenon. Part of a Kuhnian revolution is “new seeing”. New comprehensions created by a new model. As Einstein once stated, “Every advance in physics is preceded by an epistemological advance.” This might also be true of neurosciences. Where IS the daily rainbow seen? Sunrise and sunset. First, it’s black, hardly any colour, then it’s IR with black/red. Then red, then orange, yellow, a bit of green, and then finally blue sky. We see the greens from the plants, and the browns as well, seeing bark and branches. & with the black and then shades of greys with clouds, the colour palette is set for us everyday. And at night once again with the sunset rainbow, too.
Consider that our eyes see colours at the brightest and most common frequencies which the sun creates, yellow/green, the center of our visual sensitivities. If an eye needed to detect light best, it would have highly receptive colour sensation for yellow/green. Which eyes do. Those frequencies, which the sun creates at its highest numbers of photons, thus brightest, give the greatest amount of information. It’s efficient, least energy. If we lived on a planet whose sun were yellow to slightly orange, our photopigments would be most sensitive at those frequencies, would they not? So our eyes are clearly attuned, evolutionarily & structurally to the sun. So is the rest of our nervous attuned closely to other common events in existence. As will be shown shortly. These are but a few of the  of the many kinds of insights which comparison process thinking can give.
These insights have been missed, for want of the comparison process and least energy tools. & perhaps, we can still see a lot, by just watching, to paraphrase Yogi Berra. Observation still trumps most all models, and creates, corrects, and extends them, too. & so the sciences are self-correcting by carefully observing repeating events in existence.
Thus do we find this comparison process which creates many methods to be useful. At your UC Berkeley campus, Dr. Paul J. Stark, PhD, Statistics chair, has a lovely video in which he discusses, “How do we know treatments have effects? The Methods of Comparison.”
“the effect is ubiquitous.” That is, universal in application. and he’s worked it out rather well, though he’s likely talking about methods, plural, rather than one. The comparison methods create information, and as Dr. Karl Friston states, regarding least energy (LE), it’s “consilient”. Crossing many fields in application, as Dr. Stark also writes. Pieces of this model are all over, but not yet fully integrated and developed. This is yet again more evidence of near universality.
Dr Friston’s works on connecting least energy to how brain functions is pretty well spot on and well worked out over the last 25 years. My work on evolution from the comparison, LE approach, pretty well confirms his, and that of others who’ve also seen those relationships when applying LE.
This is cutting edge evolutionary biology, but few have realized it. & at the heart of it lies LE and comparison processing.
When the comparison process and least energy are added in, we get a very great deal of information back out. The inputs and outputs of our CC’s can do this repeatedly, and even input outputs to create the hierarchies of our understandings. Essentially, our language and modeling systems are built upon this. Cognition psychology taught us a very great deal, but hasn’t progressed enough yet, tho intuitively  they realized that recognitions are basic & the case. But what is behind recognition? Clearly, it’s comparison process. When we perceive events in existence, we at once compare those to our long term memories, and if we find a match, we recognize it, that is we “re-know it”. The language, etymology reflect the structure which gave rise to it. and this is another key to understanding understanding and thinking about thinking.
The constant calls to LTM for recognition and the learning which establishes those memories are very clearly related. Events in our universe repeat themselves multiply. Those which are important to us, reinforce themselves into LTM. These are the CC’s modeling the repeating events by reinforcement. & then we create our landmarks & so forth upon those perceived events. This is essentially the behaviorist model, but it’s missing big pieces, neurochemical and neurophysiolgoical. It’s incomplete, which will be shown below. The highly repeating events in existence, are yet another basic clue to AI and how it can be created. Plus they weigh in heavily with respect to confirmation of events in existence by the sciences.
But when we want to understand description which is largely verbal, we also can find the quantitative version of description, measuring, most useful. When we take a ruler or tape to measure length, we compare the set, stable length standard to the event to be measured. This creates data, or information of length. & when we compare to a word standard, we describe relative to that standard, say a colour among the ROY G BIV standards. Is it red, or yellow, or green, or blue, etc.? So it’s likely that our descriptive measure of events, using words, which are primary, are intimately related by comparison processing to measuring standards as well. They both are comparison methods. Virtually all we do to create information & understanding is thus rooted in comparison processing in our cortices. Again, essential to creating AI.
Most words are likely descriptive standards which we compare to events in existence to understand those events. That is we relate them to events. and this is the point, it’s the comparison which creates the information and knowledge, as the measurement creates the data and information also. Ideas/Words are relatively arbitrary standards by which we measure events and describe them, qualitatively.
For instance, “son”. We know how he is related to his parents, mother and father, his siblings, and his parent’s sibling as his aunts and uncles and his parent’s sibling. The “relatives” of the son are clear. This builds up the hierarchies of genealogies and how we are related to others in our families. The son has a father, as his father was a son, and can have a grandfather, too, or grandsons and so forth. Each comparison creates an hierarchy. Each relative has set specific relationships created and read by comparison processing. In order for AI to be able to function, it MUST be able to understand, create, and navigate the hierarchies of our understandings with simple facility. This could be termed a “hierarchical Turing test” for AI.
And we see the hierarchies all around us. Comparison process both creates the hierarchies and navigates among them. The hierarchies of the dictionaries in alphabetic order, for instance.  Every word ordered by alphabetic comparison processes using trial and error, and dictionaries read by same process. It BOTH writes and reads, & is thus LE. It does lots with a little. The taxonomies of the species, in the millions; the taxonomies of the languages, both current and extinct, each finding its relationship to the others by hierarchic relationships among comparisons without limit of the words in each language (&/or dialects), and how those are related by “comparative linguistics” to the other. The Teutonic are clearly related by comparison, massively. The next hierarchy of the Indo-european. The Ungaro-altaic related to Suomi and Magyar, as well. Each, massively compared by words to the others. The Semitic languages, of ancient Egyptian, Arabic, Amharic, Coptic, Aramaic, etc., are all seen by massive comparison of words to be closely related languages. Each comparison combines to create a huge amount of data supporting the ubiquity and limitless use of comparison process, innate to our cortices. 34 millions of elements & compounds ordered in the IUPAC hierarchical listing, alone; all of them comparison process created, placed and read.
This is Einsteinian epistemology as well, because there are NO absolute measures or times or spaces, or much else. Most all that we measure is “relative”, that is, a comparison standard, which Einstein believed was arbitrary, but in fact is not likely that arbitrary. Thus does comparison process tie in neatly with the established facts of relativity, and explain it as well.
For instance, he stated that one could use any planet, or any position in our solar system as a fixed point to which we could relate everything else in the universe. But he missed this crucial point. Newtonian physics puts the sun at the center, because of least energy. Orbits about the sun are least energy. Orbits around the earth are not. Least energy rules, yet again. And this is the point. our linguistic standards, and the means by which are brains operate are NOT unlimitedly listings of complexities, but related to least energy rules as the standards. Thus our measuring systems, Hands for horse heights at the shoulder, and feet for length, are least energy. & based upon comparison to human anatomies, at first. Least energy rules are often the means by which we cut the Gordian knots of complexity.
For our senses we feel hot and cold. Hot, hotter, hottest, and cold, colder coldest. Hot, more hot, most hot, and cool, more cool and most cool. Notably, the central “hotter” words, etc., ARE the comparative forms!!! Again, language shows us the way, but we did not see those clear clues. Those scales are most all comparisons!! These are many instances of linear temperature scales.
But put a warm object on a cold hand, and it will feel hot. Put a cold object on a cold hand and it will seem normal. or a cold object on a very warm hand? Extreme temperatures again. Sensation is thus largely comparison process, too. And we compare the relatively fixed standard of our temperature scales, based upon the STP boiling point of water and its vaporizing points, do we not? Simple, ubiquitous water, becomes the basis of human temperature scales. An efficient, stable standard is thus created by simplicity and the commonality of water.
Hardness is the Moh’s relative scale to talc which is soft, limestone harder, corundum (sapphire) and diamond, hardest. Thus hardness description is also comparison process. Now we use GPA’s, but that is relative to a more standardized and thus more efficient hardness standard, is it not?
And for visual images? Why should we think that the visual system uses our geometries for modeling the universe of events? Non-euclidean models the real universe, and neither do we see perfect circles, right angles, squares and triangles very much in the natural world, either. Instead, more fractal types of features, which are clearly NOT Euclidean, even as our space/time maths use non-euclidean geometries. And so for shapes the visual system uses curves and roundness, because those are the commonest features the occipital lobes detect. The mother’s face is marked by roundnesses and curves. That likely sets the standard for shape processing in our visual cortex.
Thus, we see optical illusions, some of the commonest of which involve seeing straight lines as curved. Esp., the two straight lines drawn through a series of nested circles. This optical illusion is illustrative of all the others. and how to show those lines are NOT curved, which our visual systems insists they are? Take a clear plastic straight edge ruler and lay it down next to the straight line. and the illusion disappears at once. & generalizing, for nearly every optical illusion there is a comparison correction, or more than one, which will show the illusion. Again, recalling the colour generation of our visual systems, the comparison shows the illusion and the comparison correction(s) which fixes it. THAT is significant evidence again how the comparison process creates sensations of all sorts through central processing.
I referred this article to the Euro Radiological Society and am STILL getting hits after 2 years. & this is how we can further investigate how the visual system creates images, by the misfires of comparison processing in creating the whole, unlimited panoplies of optical illusions. Among those illusions lies the structure/function relationships about how our visual systems work. and not just ours, but most all animals with eyes, too.
Radiology is simply reading images and reporting the findings. But how is this “reading” done? Simple, just like description and measurements are done against fixed standards to create meaning and insights, and new data/information. Each medical specialist, & the more so radiologists, have relatively fixed, efficient standards by which “normal” is judged. By comparing those standards by which they have learned efficiently to read images, they know using a set routine, if AP and lateral chest X-rays, by massive comparisons, are normal or not. The same for all MRI, fMRI, EEG’s, MEG’s, ultrasounds, arteriograms, etc., massive, standardized comparison processing. The same for lab data of patients which is compared to normal standard. How many more instances of comparison processing do we need to realize it’s ubiquitous & universal, and thus proved to exist? It’s self evident.
What of the plate tectonics model in geology? It’s complex system, largely visual thinking, too. Setting up the standards of upwelling zones, or mid-oceanic rift zones, subduction zones, etc. If AI can learn to understand tectonics, and its hierarchies, and how those all interact and work, as well as recognize its features, WITHOUT previous specific training in new examples it hasn’t seen, then General AI is upon us. My work has shown some of this water. But it’s likely there are many more wellsprings of our humanity’s creativity, understanding, and much else.
& there it is. The mind/brain interface of the cortex, which in the CC’s of Mountcastle, a simple, single, repeating process creates the outputs of the mind, including languages, sensations, creativities, the many, multiplicit functions of consciousness, as well as the moral conscience. The latter of which can be imaged at this time.
Thus language is easy to generate, from the simple repeating “dada, mama” to the complex. And math as well. Take the linear, number line of counting, 1 + 1, 2 +1,. etc. We can count up and then down. From 2 to 8 there are six counts and vice versa. From that we know there are 4 two’s in 8, and vice versa. By subtraction the same, and by division the same. The we get the exponential both base 10, natural and logarithmic methods.
And the hierarchies are again there, the 1’s place, the 10’s, the 100’s, the 1000’s, 100’s of 1000’s, millions and so forth. And the counting, 1st hierarchy; addition/subtractions, second hierarchy; 3rd hierarchy, multiplication and division; 4th, exponentials, etc.
For geometries and algebra, we see that when we compare the circumference to the diameter, we derive Pi, as a ratio, a proportion. We get constants, and speed in the same ways. Thus do we get algebra, which is essentially ratios and comparisons, too. And we get trigonometry which are the precise ratios of idealized right triangles by comparing their 2 sides, and angles, to derive the other side, Most all comparison processing, is it not?
And yet it’s far, far deeper than that. When we value items against each other by barter, a bushel of grain is worth some silver, or some copper. Or we create money which measures values of items against a relatively stable, set constant called, for instance, a dollar or pound. Its costs and values, and each currency, each value can be compared to all others by “conversion factors”, or constants, derived by, you guessed it, comparison processing. And when we shop for the best items, for the best costs, we use both massive comparison processing as well as least energy to get the best for our bucks, too.
Most all of our brain higher cortical outputs are comparison processes. Again as some AI experts have stated, “a single repeating principle in the brain which creates predictive control.”
This is how predictive control is obtained:
Comparison processing creates classifications, indices, and social classes among humans as well as the flocks, herds, schools, and so forth. “Like knows like” through universal recognitions created by comparison processing, that is thinking. IQ also becomes easy to define and measure, and not only in humans, either.
Communication becomes translation & lots easier, because of
Ich bin hier.
I am here.
Je suis ici.
Estoy ahi.
Sum hic.
Most translation is comparison processing, tho context is also CP and is not easily recognizable to a computer. It cannot recognize as easily as we can and with high facility, that we talk differently to bosses, employees, lover, parents, and so forth. Thus context is comparison process, easily seen once we begin to apply CP.
“It’s beautiful.” he said to her later in the day.
“It surely is.” she replied. Computers will have a hard time recognizing the sunset context here, let alone the others which are social.
& how to communicate with dolphins? What do we recognize in common with them? By the rule of commonality, fish, sharks, bubbles, colours, and so forth. Recently it’s been claimed dolphins have names for each other. because they observed that specific whistles often in a pod attracted the attentions of single members. & when those were played back, only the one whose “name” was broadcast showed interest. Trial and error, comparison process.
& when we go into space and meet other species space faring or not? How did our trading ancestors do it?
This is wood, this is water, this is meat, and what’s your name for those? Those events in existence which we have in common, those events in existence which create recognitions by continuing reinforcement because similar events repeat themselves. We show the aliens ice, liquid water, and water vapour. Give them our names for those, and at once we have 3 phases of matter and water, which is the commonest life giving element, & must be ubiquitous, as well. Commonest standards, commonest used, even for weight as the 1 cc. gram of water, too. and densities, yet another comparison of mass over volume? The rest flows easily from there. Universal understanding, at a stroke. Simple, easy, elegant, highly fruitful.
Have gone on way too long, but the model is highly applicable to most everything. Without limits. The universality of the CP and the LE models is notable. It can even, where Hawking’s “The Grand Design” lamented, we cannot integrate the classical models of thermodynamics, relativity and QM, while he missed biology, which also isn’t consistent with two of them, either. The commonalities of understanding can likely create a Unified model of most everything. Defragmenting the sciences, as well.
ER equals EPR. Some of your physics colleagues will see this relationship as part of unifying physics of relativity and entanglement, as this model predicts. There are many, many other bridging concepts which can be used, of which LE is key, too. Esp. in solving the complexities of Quantum wave equations. There are approaches possible to achieve even that. Well past renormalization, which is a specific app of a more general solution kind.
The implications for AI of where the hierarchies of our understanding come from, how to both create and read and extend those using creativity are thus almost at once apparent. The system can even model neurochemistry, using Dopamine and its ancient and central, 10+ receptor sites, which both create motion and Emotion (D1 and D2, largely). DA can be compared against most all the other neurochemicals such as serotonin, to create sleep/wake cycles, why we dream & even how to better treat migraine headaches, using complex systems thinking. Or how to make Viagra 50 mg. last about 3 days, where its normal duration is 6-8 hours. Then there’s Cialis.
Bacterial resistances to antibiotics, which are very easily overcome, as well, using this new paradigm & epistemology of comparison process and least energy, structure/function, and complex systems thinking. Thus we do more with lots less. The secret of growth of all kinds.
Hope you found this interesting. I can answer a LOT of questions, including how and why events go viral, fashions/fads & where humor comes from and how to create professional vs. amateur skills for improving education across the board, without limit. It’s behaviorism on super charge, largely extended, because the internal brain source of the classical & operant conditioning model has been found, too.
These methods can answer many questions about AI, and how to get to the Promised Land of general AI. Half the problem of getting there is solved if we know WHERE we are going. And if some go by trial and error, in all its combinatorial complexity, compared to those of us who know WHERE to find our goals, that is we know better & more completely what we are trying to simulate, the win goes to the best model because it’s swiftest & most efficient.

Extensions & Applications: Pts. 1 & 2

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014

The tools to be used and applied here are the comparison process (CP), its complexities, multiplicities and characteristics; least energy and its rules (AKA the least action, least free energy, tendency for systems to reach low energy, lower order, entropy, the minimalist principle), structure/function relationships as  comparison methods relating structure to function in brain and vice versa (brain, neurochemicals, genes, enzymes, etc); complex systems  approaches and models (chaos a la James Gleich, systems models, etc.); Recognition is the interaction via comparison processing between events in existence with Long Term Memory (LTM), learning, and the creation of the series of signal detection, recognition, then the pattern recognition, pattern recognition, etc., which create the endless hierarchies of our understanding. This is done via similarities, near matches/identities, the categories of Aristotle, etc., By comparing the two competing systems of behaviors, the younger, neocortical thinking and information processing (CP, rational, reasoning) interacting with the much older emotional system (“Dragons of Eden”, Sagan”), Dopamine 2 receptors mediated, the spark of life, the id/ego of Freud, the irrational logics of the emotions, etc.
1. Brain structure and advances in understanding neuroanatomy
This is fairly obvious and has been used for generations in medicine to figure out how the brain works. Essentially, there are brain structures, which can be very well correlated by brain & brain outputs exams in neuropathology, CT & MRI scans of brains, EEG’s, MEGs, and evoked potentials. The structure/function relationships of brain are often called by the complicated and sesquipedalian, impressive and somewhat confusing, “clinico-pathological correlations”. This is easiest to use by calling it structure/function relationships  (S/F). If in the left temporal area, near the angle of the temporal lobe, there is a lesion, from whatever cause (cause/effect relationship, AKA also, S/F) then there will be a functional loss of speech in some ways. These have been very well worked out for speech & highly confirmed, observably, medically and scientifically in the millions of examples. But not only in the left temporal areas, either. There is a “swear center” in the right temporal area, next to the area of brain which integrates emotional, musical and spatial relationships ( each with their own areas adjacent to each other) which can be located. If a person has a left speech center stroke, surprisingly, these persons having lost most clear speaking, & may have garbled words,& so forth, yet they can swear very clearly. In addition, if they know song lyrics, many times, those are also preserved even those the major speech centers on the left are damaged, while the right is intact. Thus they can sing words very, very clearly, despite their rather serious damage and functional loss of the left speech centers.
This was initially posted and has been more fully developed below from the original “The Explananda 3” article
In addition, between the superior frontal lobes of the interhemispheric fissure, there is a speech output center, which, if both sides are injured by some cause, such as stroke of right or left anterior cerebral arteries arising from the same side, they lose the ability to speak, temporarily, because this is the speech output center. Without it, spontaneous speaking, babbling of babies ( part of the built in speech development system), and so forth, is not functioning. In time, in adults, speech will come back, altho its output will be fairly impaired and they will not have the spontaneity of speech normal for most people.
If the left thalamus is damaged by a point lesion from small vessel arterial disease, there may be a total loss of verbal memory for words. They will not be able to recall words. however, they will completely understand words spoken to them, because the cortical speech centers are intact. It’s likely there are other speech centers in the brain, as well, such as cerebellar and tremors abnormalities which can severely degrade speech motor output as well.
Now, let us consider something totally new and unknown. It’s been known using S/F relationships, that in damage to the brain’s right motor and sensory strips which lie exactly adjacent to each other (for obvious reasons of coordination, feedback and reflexes of fine motor control, etc.) the left side of the body will be damaged in terms of motor control & sensations. Vice versa, if left motor strip and sensory areas are damaged, there will be corresponding loss of sensori-motor functions on the right side of the body. In addition, in general, the toes are mediated by the top of the motor & sensory strips at the fissure between the two hemispheres, then come the balls of the feet, the arch/instep, the ankle, and the ankle’s connected to the legs bones (tibia/fibula), the legs bones to the knee bone, and up the legs on both sides. As the functions of these strips move down from the top of the brain, then come the hips, torso, the chest and then the fingers, forearms, upper arms, shoulders, and then the neck and face. This is true of both sides. The so called sensory and motor homunculus is upside down and reversed right for left. This has been largely known since the studies of Wilder Penfield at McGill University in Montreal in the 1950’s, which correlated well with pathological injuries compared with deficits in living patients.
In the visual systems, the round visual fields are organized like a clock face analogy. The upper visual fields’ functions on the right ( 9 to 12 to 3 o’clock) are subsumed in structure of the inferior occipital (visual) lobes at the back of the brain. Inferior (lower) visual fields are subsumed by the top of the occipital lobes all smoothly from top to bottom. and again, the right visual fields in both eyes, from 12 to 3 to 6 o’clock are found in the structure of the Left occipital lobe, all smoothly integrated. & the left visual fields are on the right occipital lobe. Thus the same pattern, Right reversed for left and upside down. The same as the motor/sensory systems. In the right frontal eye field, this pushing the eyes to the left to direct attentions. Left frontal eye fields, push the eyes to the right by a similar yoking system which is brain stem in origin, but controlled by the frontal eye fields. The same system. In addition the cerebellum also conforms to this pattern of left reversed for right and upside down.
In addition, we find at the decussation of the pyramids, where at the base of the brain stem which becomes the spinal cord, the left cortical motor and sensory descending fibers from the left hemisphere crossover to the right, and the right cortical fibers cross over to the left. In addition, the sensory/motor fibers coming up from the left side of the body cross over to the right side of brain stem & up to the right cortex, and  the right body conversely. Further, the optic nerves coming out of the retina of the eyes carrying their visual signal cross over corresponding to the same visual field where right visual field crossover over at the optic chiasms, to the left, and left visual field conversely; plus the inferior visual fields rise up to go to the superior occipital lobes, and conversely, left visual fields to right.
Thus we see all over the brain, including the white matter connections (80% of brain mass) conforming to this pattern, the deep basal ganglia structures, and even the internal capsules and thalami conforming to this right reversed for left, and upside down structural plan.
Why is this so? How does this come about? What has kept us from seeing HOW this happened? And in addition, we find this same pattern, by Comparative neuroanatomy, occurring in most all normal humans, primates, mammals of all families, including porpoises,because they have those “decussation of the pyramids” as well, thus shown by MRI and CT scans, too, as in neuropathological studies, This same universal, pattern. It’s Very likely seen in the birds, reptiles, amphibians, as well as possibly the lobed fish from which our ancestors descend, esp. the Coelocanth family.
This article discusses this mystery from the first and confirms anatomically what happens, but NOT why. Not a single mention of why the brain is reversed right for left and upside down, but it declares & discusses that it’s so!
The solution to this hitherto unrecognized and heretofore fact of neuroanatomy, much ignored but highly basic, and widespread upside/down and reversed right for left anatomy of brain is easy to comprehend via the comparison process. It creates the solution, simply, easily, elegantly and is highly fruitful for understanding brain, too. The CP is the basis of these structure/function method by which we comprehend and understand brain functions and structures, very likely. & thus is Least energy configuration of brain anatomy as well.
Take a double convex magnifying glass and hold it at arms’ length. What do we see, compared to the right side up background? The image thru the lens is reversed right for left and upside down!! Exactly conforming to the complex and universal neuroanatomy of mammalians’ brains, of most ALL mammals, primates, and certainly normal human beings, most all 7.5 billions of us. Why has this not been seen, literally, before?  The “eyes have it”! Thus much complexity is simply reduced to correlating motor, sensory, visual information to the images which fall upon our retinas when passing through the double convex lenses of our eyes. Traits which we likely share with all of the mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and perhaps even some fish, as well. Thus uniting us all by a simple, common brain structural feature. Simply look for the decussation of the pyramids, or analogous structures, and this will be seen, widely. Perhaps it’s even true of some insects as well, in their millions of species & 100’s of trillions of individuals.
This is an example of the comparison process creating information, and creativity, which cuts through the Gordian knot of complex systems, and simplifies, simplifies, simplifies (Henry D. Thoreau), creating a least energy solution, and thus growth in understanding of how our brains work. The implications will likely be protean as well. The top/down model of brain, the older structures being at the bottom and the newer at the top was touted a few years ago as significant, but it was somehow incomplete and not satisfying, and it did NOT explain the upside down & right for left universal neuroanatomic facts, either. Though the cortex of the brain is at the top, it’s also the newest part of the brain, thus “neocortex”. While visual system is at the bottom, it’s also neocortex, as are the hippocampi under the temporal lobes, which subsume most laying down & organization of memories.
This is how comparison process creates new knowledge and new understanding. The implications of this upside down, right versed for left new neuroanatomy created which corresponds to the visual images on our retinas are bound to have fruitful consequences. We are overwhelmingly visual creatures!
2. Einstein’s model of relativity, that measurements and thus description are not absolute, because those rely upon an arbitrary standard, relatively stable from which to measure. There is no absolute space or time,because all time is relative, and complete synchronization of times is not possible. & all space measurements are relative standards. Thus times/space are relative that is comparative standards. and underlying the basic relativity principles, since proven to be the case in physics, lies comparison process as the parent of relativity. We measure by relative standards, and create data/information. In the same way we describe as another kind of measurement, which is yet another kind of description, too.
By using relative standards of comparing events to others, we create useful standards by which we describe.  For instance, ROY G BIV. We describe most all other colors of events by those standards. Similarity, high higher highest and low, lower lowest, of the general and universal used in English. Some more and  most; and some, less(er) and least. Thus are linear scales created which correspond to measurement scales, as well, rather universally. The number of these kinds of standard descriptions such as “bigger than a breadbox”, and so forth, plus hands as measures of horse heights at shoulders, and feet for most all length measurement in the older, less efficient English, and yet persisting American system, are the case. Comparison process underlies most all measurement and description in language.
Relativity is thus subsumed to comparison process as a specific case of CP. Thus the “Relativity of the Cortex”.
 & this is important in terms of understanding of how events are related to each other. Understanding, relationships and associations, comprehensions, and so forth are all of a type. The hierarchies of our understanding are thus relationships of the elements of the classes/categories in those relationships. & can be easily seen within the alphabetized hierarchies of our massive dictionaries of most all languages, universally. Indices, telephone and city directories, literally billions of examples of laying down of these organized structures, organized by trial & error according to the linear alphabets, most all using the comparison processes massively to create order and reduce entropy, but in a least energy way. The CP both reads and writes, as well as orders those systems: encyclopedias, thesauri, paginations, even street addresses and maps. Maps being another kind of hierarchies. So are the branching hierarchies, the taxonomies of all living things hierarchically ordered by the similarities and differences seen, perceived, detected and created by comparison processes. Examples & comfirmations of the CP in the 100’s of millions alone with dictionaries, by themselves.
And the taxonomies of the languages, both living and extinct, all by comparing massively the words of Semitic, Teutonic, Romance (Latin based), and many and most others, too. By massive comparison of words, where the similarities of words and etymologies clearly show the close (Espagnol & Portuguese); and similiar Norsk, Dansk, Svensk, English, Dutch, Deutsch and the Polski, Russki, and Ukrainski assocations, as well. And those all within the ( higher)  hierarchic category of Indo-european. The Magyar, Suomi and Sami languages, lie within the hierarchies of the Altaic/Ungarian group of central Asia, as well. Massive comparisons of words, which establishes these relationships of each language to others in the same groups. & the lone language of the Basque, not related at all at present to any known. Its ancestors long gone.
The IUPAC, 34 millions of examples of compounds and elements; Hertzsprung/Russell diagrams of the kinds & classes and evolutions of the stars. The organization of the galaxies and clusters of stars and clusters of galaxies, as well. It’s the Same with the hierarchies of the reductionist model of the sciences: protons and electrons, make neutrons. Protons and neutrons make atoms, elements and isotopes; atoms bond by their relationships into molecules. Carbon based atoms make massive numbers of endless organic compounds; then the biochemicals.Then the biologicals, then the single cells, the multicellular types, and then the many organ systems of cells. Finally the neurons, the many kinds of those and the brains, from which come the top hierarchy, the minds/brain functions of animals and primates.  & at the most developed, humans. The comparison process arising out of the neocortex to create & mediate most all of the multiple functions of the human mind. These are but a few of the hierarchies of understanding, showing the relationships by comparison process of events in existence against all other events by combinations, comparing, and so forth.
By extending Einstein’s epistemology of relativity of measurement to description from which measurement arose via mathematics from left post temporal and inferior parietal areas, anatomically. Math arose from words, i.e. descriptions which have been linearized and numbered.
Further, Einstein analysis was not complete. In his model he states that it’s just as easy & OK to use any of the planets, or any other point, as the relatively fixed point versus any other from which to organize our understanding, as none are privileged. But this, for thermodynamics reasons, is not quite correct. There Are privileged positions, which Newton’s model of the orbits of planets & planetoids, and even applies to large galaxies, as well. & that is least energy orbits are the case. The sun is the gravitational center of the system of planets and that “least energy” stabilities is not only privileged, but in fact central to the system. Newton’s solutions to planetary orbits ARE least energy solutions. Thus a relatively fixed stable (characteristic of LE) standard is the rule.
Thus simple common, widely seen water forms both the standard of the temperature scales as STP, freezing (0 C., 32 F) and boiling (100 C., and 212 F.), plus the standard of 1 cc. of water at STP is e 1 gram, too. Length is standardized against a fixed number of wavelengths of the Argon atom, not as easily found, but unique, too.
Thus we have an extension of Einstein’s relativity, the comparison process, which makes relative measurement easier to understand in its limits, and also extends Einstein’s epistemology, fruitfully, to understanding how our cortex works, as well.

A Field Trip into Our Understanding

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014


“User Ma’at Ra.” (Truth is the Power of Ra.) –Ramesses 2, “The Great”
“Uas, Djed, Ankh” (Power, Stability, Life), –The oft repeated Trinity of the ancient Khemetans
“Knowledge can be power.” –John Locke
“Knowledge is worth more than gold and rubies….
Knowledge is good because from it comes wisdom, and from wisdom comes many good things.”–Proverbial sayings
“Basic, scientific research is very important because it often creates technologies of value.” –Common wisdom


“There is a repeating principle operating in the brain which creates predictive control.”

“Simplify, simplify, simplify.” — Henry D. Thoreau

“Least Energy Rules.”

“Most every advance in physics is preceded by an epistemological advance.” –Albert Einstein, referring to his relativity epistemology.

“Raffiniert ist Der Herr Gott….” (Subtle is the good Lord…) –Albert Einstein & Proverbial saying.

“Beauty is Truth. & Truth, Beauty.” –John Keats

“It’s not over until it’s over (…or until the Fat lady sings(Tosca.).)”
“You can see a lot by just watching.” –Yogi Berra

“Let us pray; Let us prey; Lettuce spray; Let us spray; (& 3 others) –Repeating, homonymous puns, origins of human humor, & the dopamine boost which creates and sustains..

Human understanding can now be cleanly generated from the structures of our cortices and explained on that basis. The structure/function relationships of our brains/minds have been used for generations to examine and explain how the brain works, and how the functions of the mind, senses, thinking, speech and language, vision, and so forth, come about. This will essentially extend the S/F model to further explain how thinking and all of those higher abstracting functions come about in a consistent, clearer way than heretofore has been possible.
Structure provides the basis for function. This is basically a structuralist approach and will use a peripatetic method to explore what’s going on and how to understand it. As speech is located in the left hemisphere in 97% of people, and damage to the speech centers uniformly and universally is causative (cause/effect model) of defects in speech, this is clearly established. Because damage to the motor cortex causes damage to movements on the contralateral body, and the same with the sensory system; & damage to the visual centers as well creates visual problems in higher functions, These are highly established, scientific, medical facts.
In the same way, we must understand plate tectonics as an analogy which can also help explain brain/mind relationships. The outer surface of the brain is analogous to the plates on the earth’s surface, which interact in complex ways with respect to each other. The endless upwellings of the mid oceanic ridges, whereby the underlying geological processes both support & drive the plate movements. Each of which act in a complex relationship to the others, in a grand system of organization. But this is complex system, and the future of plate movements cannot be easily understood, either. We can see past movements, but future movements are not easily predictable
In the same ways the outer surfaces of the brain, the cortex, create the complex higher abstractions and processing of events, supported & driven by the deeper structures of the brain. But in this case, the outputs of the structures of the cortex are created by the underlying structures of the 100K’s of cortical cell columns (CCC’s, Mountcastle), which are composed of 50K-60K neurons  of columns arranged in a hierarchical way of 6 layers, and they are everywhere the same, save for the motor cortex, which is slightly different in layer 4 where there are Betz cells. And on the EEG the outputs of alpha, beta, and theta are all the same all over the cortex, as well. Thus the structures of the cortex and their outputs are remarkably the same in origin, too, satisfying the S/F rules.
There, in the CCC’s is where the comparison process is going on, and it’s well established that the consciousness is created in the cortex. Because if the cortex is damaged selectively by carbon monoxide poisoning, leaving virtually the rest of the brain intact, consciousness and the cortical functions are ALSO lost, while the deeper vegetative, not processing elements are preserved. Thus consciousness and the higher abstraction functions are mostly located in the cortex. When damaged, they are lost, the lights might be on, but no one is home. That which makes up each personalty, our characters, are all gone, irrecoverably. This simple fact largely shows us what’s going on, & the structure/function rule is strictly satisfied. Cortical functions are what we are in terms of personalities, those traits and memories, behaviors & distinctive speech, gaits & habits, and everything else which makes us individuals & human. When cortex is damaged, the veriest essence of our humanity is damaged or gone.
But how does this come about? How do the feedback loops of self-sustaining cortical outputs arise? Through the inputs/outputs of internal information be it thinking, memory, actions and so forth. & we see how these are created by those endless, unlimited feedback loops by the very repetitious nature of our words, actions, habits, & so forth. It’s this very repetitiousness of the comparison process which is on display there, then the repetitions of the neuronal CCC’s. & they are all over the gyri of our brains, packed tightly as well. The information comes in thru the white matter from the sensory and internal systems, and are then processed in cortical input/output loops, which can feedback into the other cortical processors, too. Thus the CCC’s are the major processors which drive and create the outputs of knowledge, understanding, reasoning, language, visual and other sensory functions, the hearing, music, spatial relationships & so forth.
This is how it works. Knowledge and understanding arise from the relationships established & perceived by the processing of internal & external inputs. The comparison  process takes those inputs & processes them using a kind of “Uber Logic” arising from the CCC’s. At first we have, empirically, the signal detection, which gets the attention of the CCC’s. then comes the comparison of the incoming data with the Long Term memory, through which a match/similarity created by the CP creates basic recognitions. Then comes the magic!! The outputs of the CCC’s are then fed back into the CCC’s for further data processing, and the pattern recognitions arise. First comes the initial recognition and is then further processed to pattern recognitions, one after the other in a repeating input/output feedback, process, creating the hierarchies of understanding.
Further, the comparison process gives rise to the comparison process word cluster of other mental processes, which all have this consistency, this transitivity. We can logically and with sense compare a comparison. And then compare that comparison. and then on and on. We can think about thinking (introspection) and then think about that thinking. We can explain explanation, and so on. We can talk about talking, again and again. We can speak about speaking, etc. We can write about writing, & write about that writing again. We can analyze analysis and again and again. Indeed the number of comparison process word cluster members which are all TRANSITIVE & repeatable in this way, and thus created as methods/variations on the theme by comparison process, are endless. Again, just as the cortical cells columns can endlessly process. We can observe observation, and observe that observation as well. We can do most everything as a result of these highly similar processing words show.
But we cannot swim about swimming, and we cannot walk about walking. These are NOT comparison process words, or mental functions. This is the comparison difference. We can add adding, then again and endlessly multiply adding & multiplication. & subtractions, divisions endless, but we cannot ski about skiing. We can walk endlessly, but it’s not a mental, higher abstractive function. This is the difference. We can recall recalling and remember remembering, but we cannot drink about drinking, or eat eating, either. These are motor functions, tho while related to each other, cortically, are NOT understanding understanding, nor comprehending comprehensions. They are not transitive, not recursive, not self consistent either.
Although this seems trivial it’s in fact deep. Because the endlessness of these transitive functions underlies most all higher mental functions. And the feedback loops of input/output, from which clearly arise comparison processing are in fact the case. But the feedback loops in the cortical structure create the creativity, create the reasoning, the thinking, as a unique structure/function relationship. This is how we know and understand. We create comparatives, relationships, associations and build up our knowledge from those. Most All is relative to everything else. The comparison process can compare endlessly, without inconsistencies and find the relationships of all to everything else. These are the keys to understanding the structure/function of the cortex and how it creates mind. The transitivity of the logic, this mental process, the comparison process & its methods offspring, does most all of the work.
How does it work? By least energy principle (LEP). By combining two or more inputs it finds the consistencies, the relationship(s) among those and simplifies down our understanding. We realized that all critters and bugs with 6 jointed legs are arthropods. We understand the presence of wings in those forms and the antennae, heads, mouth parts, thorax and abdomens are all the same/similar, too. Just endless variations of the forms. We call them insects. And this cameo, this basic method, can be applied to most all living things, including the viruses to create the grand design, the complicated, detailed and unending (as more extinct and living are found) hierarchy/Taxonomy of the living species of life on earth. This massive hierarchy relates all living species to all others. And it all comes about by massive comparison processing of the samenesses, the similar, the endless, recurring duplication of what is seen. Suddenly, it all makes sense.
Almost at once we see everything has a place & a place for every known species in the taxonomies of life. This is how understanding is created by the organizing power of the comparison process. These relationships of “compare and contrast” (the lumpers & splitters) create the creativity which we see, to identify them again and again. Not only does the CP create the organizations of the classifications & hierarchies, but it simultaneously reads it, too.
Take the medical images which we recognize, identify, such as in radiology. The radiologist in order to read (a metaphor) an X-ray must have a basic knowledge of what’s normal and what’s not. Almost all the acceptable variations and those which are abnormal, thus disease causing states. He, with this long experience, then uses a systematic observational method on the PA and L Lateral chest images to “read” the X-ray, by massive comparison processing. In the same way, most all images are read, whether inside the reading room of hospital or in the wider world outside. Again, it works within and without. Image recognition is comparison process. Reading the radiological images is also comparison process. How much of this is done every day? Millions of times. Those are the massive evidences in a single place which make the comparison process (CP) which we can hold to be a “self evident truth”. Or comparing the normal lab values with the patients’. or the EKG’s, EEG’s, or the pulmonary function results. Most all comparison processing. Each an evidence of the endless evidences of how wide spread it is. & reading most all words too, & understanding and hearing the words is the same. Comparison Process.
Most all the taxonomies of living systems, the Hertzsprung/Russell diagram of the stars, the organization of the galactic types; the IUPAC classification of 34 millions of chemical compounds (each molecule’s place yet another of the massive evidence for the CP). Also, the periodic table of the elements, the bodies of legal laws, and morals, and the scientific laws of our universe, and indeed even our moral consciences in our frontal lobes have this underlying structure of relatedness. Most all of these arose by comparison process.

The classification schemes of medical diagnoses was/is created by the same means. The dictionaries of the words in all languages, by the same process of organization as has been previously shown. & at every stage every point where each new  entry is inserted, the organization rises, the relations of the words to the others becomes clear, entropy declines. These dictionary lists are also hierachical, as are the city directories, phone directories, street addresses and so forth. But the hierarchical organization is hidden by the listing of one word after another, with no break from where words starting with “cab” become “cac”, tho such divisions could be made to show those hierarchies and the shifts necessary to continue onwards. If there were black lines in the left margins of each column at the start of each new shift in hierarchies, it would also serve to shorten our trial and error searches, too.


But significantly the least energy principle is also obeyed. The organizing is least energy. More is understood with less. It’s efficient, which also is the hallmark of the LEP. But further, it’s also more stable as LEP creates stability as well. LEP is built into the CP, and that’s so well and universally why it works and how it works. The structure/function principle of thermodynamics applies to the CP and how it organizes events.

Maps are much the same as they are read according to comparison to N/South, East/W axes, and each point on the map corresponds very well to sites in existence. Mapping is most all comparison process. Each map is “read” the same way, largely. And the more accurate the map, the more closely it “Corresponds” to events in existence. The more accurate our verbal model of events, the more it simulates and correlates to events in existence. & thus its value and utility rises as well. As we explore and manipulate the model, so do we essentially explore and manipulate in our minds, the events within and outside of us. this gives organization & predictive control.
The CP as the main mental processor is transitive, consistent and has created large bodies of consistent organizations. Even the delusions of the well developed mental disorders are of the same. The irrational & the rational are shown to arise by these means. Thus CP explains both the rational and irrational. A simple process does most all of it.
CP explains the origins of the trial and error method. & Where this is used endlessly, over and over again, thus showing its structural origins in the input/output feedback loops of the CCC’s. Also the major characteristics of the CP, as well, showing the tight structure/function relationships of the CCC’s with the CP functions, its outputs and methods.
The events in existence are also created over and over again, the endless circles, wheels & cycles and repeated events in existence. The suns, moons and the orbiting planets and our paths endlessly move past the relatively fixed stars and their constellations. The moon and sun repeat their orbiting movements and set up times of cycles and wheels. The cycles of day/night, of birth, life and death. The noons and midnights, the weeks and months (moon), the seasons and holidays, the years and decades to the centuries and millenia and eons of time. The endlessnesses of branchings &  leaves, roots and trees. Of white clouds, of the sunrises and sunsets where a part of the spectrum is seen every day & sets up a palette of colours every day of the black before sunrise, lightening to a deep red, then bright reds, oranges and then yellow colours for us. With greens in the plants and browns, & the blues of the sky, the black of the night flowing into the many dark and then lighter gray shades in the days. as well. The endlessly repeating particles, giving rise to the atoms/elements/isotopes; creating the molecules; those creating the organic & biochemical molecules and then the biologicals which create the cells. The endlessness repeating cells of the bacteria and algae; the combining  into the multicellular forms. the endless segmentations of the worms and insect larvae. & the jellyfish and fish, segmented, too; the birds and the reptiles, & above all; the primate families. Then  the body organs and the brain, the latter neurons with endless potential connectivity as well & finally the mind arising from the repeating, simulating of events in existence, the CCC’s with the repeating CP’s and it’s many offspring the CP word clusters. Rising up the reductionist hierarchies, from the simple to the complex beyond all imaginings.
The pages of our dictionaries also show these structure/function relationships. Not only the word clusters, but the synonyms, of like meanings in words, and the antonyms, as well, as an analogous, complementary method. Much much more can be stated about the various kinds of antonyms, being complementary, complete opposites and negations of each other. They are very heterogenous kinds. The Homonyms, endless repeated, being used, over and over again. from which some humor can also arise. Thus the dopamine of emotions.
But there are deeper depths within depths hidden in our language and here a few of the many those are, of which hugely more can be easily found. The CP shows the relations & associations of most all events to each other, It established those. But we see the word, “comparison” and it was put into the dictionary by a consistent means. It’s self consistent. It applies to itself. It can understand itself consistently. It’s recursive. It does a great deal with a little.  It’s stable for this reason, it also is least energy, which its stability arises from, too.
And there is the “iter cum” word cluster, the “go together” words, the relationships and associating words, all starting with “COM-” and CO- & the endless variations of those, as well. The correlation, the company, the combine, the correspondence, endlessly it seems, 1000’s of them, nearly without limit. The community, the commons, the Koine. Those are the relationship words, and they arise by the CP. For in amongst those, all those endless trees of the COM- words, the comparison words of relationships, lies a huge complexity and hidden, subtle as the ways are, lies the generator of the whole forests of the COM words. It had lain camouflaged by the very complexity it had created from its simplicity. For it was subtle, as a process, NOT a thing, nor a Principle, but a process, a logic. Thus do we understand WHY there are so many COM words and can be created without limit, too. The endless repetitions of the CCC’s and their outputs, the word, comparison, CP was right there all along!! The veriest roots of the tree of life hidden by the complexities it had created around it.
Take the “RE-” words as yet another vast & major example in our lexicons of all languages. Those words such as remember, recreate, recall, iterate and reiterate, again and again, over and over, and times and agains, endlessly. Clearly, CP characteristics, The 1000’s of such, etc., etc, etc, forever and ever word clusters. ALSO showing the structure/function relationships hidden well within our speech, is it not?
But there are others, many other mysteries and depths within depths in our language, which have almost completely arisen from the CP, too, and its interactions with the inputs within and those without, and how it comprehends comprehension, as well. & the lovely, “recombine” which is both RE- and COM- united, consistently.
Take for example, the adjectival words of the type, high, higher and highest. and low, lower and lowest. High, mo-re high and Mo-st high. Some, less-er, lea-st. Good, bett-er, be-st. See it again? It’s been there all along, and the positive adjective is the base adjective. The last is the superlative form. But the middle form, the “meet in the middle”?  It’s the “comparative” form hiding there all along in the complexity it has created. And the clincher? It’s the reverse of the “RE-“, the “-ER”. The relationships among the Mo-st word and the “highe-st” word is structure/function again. Didn’t see it? NOW you do.
This all goes back to Alexander Kuhn’s “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” and how with the new epistemology of our improving understanding, we “see with new eyes”. The veils are torn from our eyes. We see better and further. The new paradigm shows us knowledge and relationships and understandings we did not have before. & like with the eka elements by which Mendeleev’s new periodic table predicted unknown elements, it can be very fruitful. The CP creates creativity. It allows us to “make the connections”, connect the dots, put it together, to see and visualize the recognitions. It’s the essence of creativity as well. The wellsprings of creativity, of LEP forms, the sources of our insights, figuring out, understanding, the “AHA and “Eureka’s”, as well. Most all knowledge & Understanding are relationships & associations, a relativity created/mediated by the CP.
Again, Good/God; Gut/Gott, and Nefer/Netcher, all of the same kinds. All those relationships. Not accidental in form or structure. Hiding there. And then there is “gold”, we see, again.
To Live is good. But the reverse (boustrophedon, implicit in our reading), thus “Evil” and with a ‘D’ become Devil. or in another form, vile. Or, to “die”, yet again. These are not accidents. These are the deeper connections within our languages, which show the structure/function relationships created as meanings by the CP and ever it goes on.
Take the relationships of the families. A son, for example. he’s related to his parents as a child. He has a father and mother. Each father has his own father and mother. they have siblings, such as brothers and sister, to which their son is a nephew, and his sisters nieces. and he can become an uncle, and his sister an aunt. And they have fathers, and grandfathers, and great-grandfathers. And the son may become a father, and a grandfather, etc. Or a spouse, or husband & uncle. Each of these clearly showing the relationships of all to all others.The endless cousins, second cousins, etc. The endlessness genealogies, the hierarchies of life. Without limit. But mathematics cannot easily navigate nor create, nor read these relationships. That is the key problem here with math and its very great limits as well, & has been developed already and will be shown yet again.
Take the structure/function relationships word cluster. We have cause/effect; Stimulus/response; Input/output & their related characteristics. Not pure synonyms, but the meanings are there as well. The word clusters are extensions of the idea of synonym, related but not the same. Showing the relationships again by comparing those to each other, and reaching a higher understanding & organization. What goes out, come back around, “karma”, again. The same basic relationships. Cause and effect. Do to others, as you would have others do to you. Cause & effect. Actions have consequences.
The very repetitions of the words, words used to explain words. Measurement and description are two forms of the same process, comparing. We compare events to our measurement standards, and we compare words to words and events for meanings. These are all the same as in the article

Etymologies are yet another prominent comparison process. (CP). As the languages are organized & related into taxonomies by comparing their words, so is etymology yet anther related CP method. Essentially words are compared to their putative earlier forms for usage and evidence. There are unlimited numbers of these known, but as a comparison processor for decades, this interest personally again shows the ubiquity, omnipresence over time and universality of the CP.

For instance the ancient Etruscans of Etruria inhabited an area in Italia known as Toscana, or Tuscany as the English etymologically derived word usage shows. “Tosca” of Puccini, is yet another form of the same word. & it’s no accident that Toscana overlies largely the area of ancient Etruria, so important in early Roman history.

The romance languages again show these etymologies, with literally 10Ks of words in each language sharing etymological relationships, clearly and provable with ancient Roma. There are Francais, Lang D’Oc, Catalunya, Espagnol, Galiciano, and Portuguese, Italiano, Romanian, Romansh, and the many dialects of each, well known, 6-7 in Lang D’Oc, alone.

“Red Land Black Land” by Barbara Metz shows many more of these interesting etymologies. Khemet was the original name of ancient Pharoanic Egypt. Khem meaning black, and -et meaning land. As a Semitic language, Ham in English as the son of Abra-ham are also cognates. From those came the Al Chemi of Arabic from which are derived Alchemy and chemistry and and other forms such as biochemistry, etc. From Djeseret (Red Land) comes via the Hellenistic Greeks and Romans, the word for desert, as the ancient “red land” precisely meant that dry, sere land outside of the fertile black soil of Khemet along the Nile. In its modern extension, Deseret also comes from this ancient word. From the Khemetan for gold, we find Nubia present to this day. The comparison process roots of etymologies are very closely derived and easily seen. This is very, very clear evidence.

Description & measurements, etc. Most All CP.
Because the stimulus/response shows the deepened understanding of behaviors to the input/output systems of the CCC’s, which they SAW, but did not see, tho they imitated it to make sense. This method of CP is an extension of Behaviorism even as it’s a recognition of what’s going on. The behaviorists saw the external reinforcements which created learning via classical and operant conditioning. But they missed inside the black box which contained the internal dopamine boost which created the endless internal reinforcements which are responsible for the external reinforcements and how those come about. Thus this system extends and explains the behaviorist model of learning, as well.
Re-cognition, re- knowing arises from CP. Thus “cognitive” psychology. again the relationship, the recognition, but not clearly, tho intuitively seen, yet implicit.

The chi  (tai chi, chi gong), the dopamine boost, the “drive to survive”, the spark of life, the soul of wit, are all related in this same way.


Different ways of saying much the same events. The LEP is essential to comprehending the “simplify, simplify simplify” of Henry D. Thoreau. Or the Least Energy of Occam’s Razor. Do you see the connections, the relationships, the new recognitions? The CP endlessly creates & thus it’s creativity as well. LEP/creativity. CP/LEP, the two fraternal twins. The CP embodying and generating the LEP solutions. The LEP recognized by comparing outcomes, and the best one, LE, wins.

“Brevity is the soul of wit” said Franklin. The shorter phrase which makes the point, is the better. Least energy once again. See it? Now you do.
Least energy principle. Least action, least free energy, the minimalist principle, etc., etc., etc. The word cluster again, in all the myriads, repeating ways. This is how it’s done and found. It’s no accident. It’s the endless repeats, cyclical structure of the universe, reflected in the repeating functions of the comparison process outputs, which closely model those events. Do you see with new eyes?

The words which we use the most are the shorter ones to save energy. LEP. Looking at the numbers, one, two, three, four, five, six, then longer, seven, eight, nine, and then shorter again, 10. Because ten is the base 10 of our numbering system & we use it a lot, it’s shorter to meet the LE purpose, do you see? Least energy, again. The unlimited number line building up complexity of 3 millions, 1 hundred, forty-five 1000’s, eight 100’s &(!) fifty 4. The symbols for each number, shortening, each time & energy saving abbreviations and such, again least energy. In the number 1, instead of one. Use it often enough & we do, it saves HUGE amounts of time, printing, and energy, We abbreviate it. saving time, ink, and energy.


We can state the same thing of mathematics, that it’s used and useful because it creates savings, LE advantage. Consider driving from Philadelphia to Baltimore, or LA to San Francisco, or indeed any city to another place. If we have no idea of how far they are from each other, then we cannot easily predict and know how long it will take. but if we don’t know the gallons of capacity held in our gas tank, nor the mileage of our car, nor the speed limits on the roads from place to place, the system becomes very hard to figure, predict, control, or efficiently drive.


However, if we know Baltimore along I-95 to Philly is about 100 miles away, and the speed limit is 65, then we can reach it in 1.5 hours. If our fuel mileage is 25 mpg, and our tank holds at least 5 gallons, we can make it without stopping to refuel. If gas is $3/gal., then we know it will cost us about $25 to drive there & back. Thus does math save massive amounts in time, energy, without limit, and increases our predictive control of our traveling. It’s least energy, far more so than verbal descriptions. This, in essence, is why we use and have developed mathematics. Least energy, more exacting predictability & control.

The contractions are more of the same, saving both print and speech times & space.
NASA, NASCAR, the endless numbers of acronyms created by comparison process, CP, etc., etc., etc(!). LEP in our language yet again. Always been there, but now you see it!! It’s in the dictionaries, too. Efficiency by any other name is still least energy.
In English we find a largely general absence of gender of all words, almost always seen in romance languages, all of which have gender for most all words. English is LOTS more efficient because we don’t have to memorize genders of the words & indeed los/las, el/la and un/la and les in those languages are not needed. “the” replaces all of those. A LOT of memory space & time is saved by English NOT having gender except when actual sexual differences are important as in biology, male/female, etc.
These are ways in which German, the romance languages and others can be become a LOT more efficient by ridding themselves of the genders of words outside of biological usages. It’s NOT efficient. it’s a memory and time hog.
The use of tonality in Chinese and Vietnamese allows tone to be used as a way of creating meanings. High, medium, low tones in Chinese give it the ‘sing song” quality, which describes it, but does NOT state the deeper truths. That tonalities can hold meaning. The vowels of the Vietnamese dialects hold meaning in how they are pronounced and held and what tones they carry.
Tonality is used in English with the stressed syllables. Speak’-ing, and these variations also can hold meaning. Two tones only in English, stressed and not stressed. English is not as tonal as Chinese, but similar in that respect. In Japanese each syllable is given equal stress, To-kee-yo. not To’-key-o as English accents state. This is part of the English accent when speaking Nihonese.
Ma-ma, Da-da. Simple, repetitious, cortical in origin. From the simplicity of baby talk to the complexity of our professional languages and terms. The simplicities of Chinese with its repeating syllables, and then combining them to form new words. Same process,.From the simple 4 DNA base pairs to the complexity of the genome. Again and again.
We can get lost in this endlessness. “Om padme Om, Om padme Om”, etc., etc. The endlessnesses of the prayer wheels, of the cycles of time and processing. Meditation as just that. Clearing the mind, not thinking, but then meditate on this.
The analogy word cluster: Analogy, metaphor, simile, parable, fable, Koan, anecdote, story, etc, all related closely, too, to explanation, understanding, knowledge and knowing, and comprehension. To figure it out, make the connections, connect the dots, “see what’s going on”, endlessly.
There are duplication, replication, copying, and so forth with many words of the same type. Reproduction, and so forth. and how do we recognize they are the same and duplicate?  By comparison process in most every case. From the DNA polymerase which detects a thymine and adds the adenine, & vice versa, and the guanosine to which it adds on the other helical chain abuilding a cytosine and vice versa. It’s comparison process at a molecular level. To the m-RNA which is built up by RNA polymerase which is basically the same, but uses Uracil to complement adenine, tho Cytosine pairs with guanosine and allows the cell to distinguish between DNA and RNA.
Then the m-RNA goes to the ribosome, and it detects the 5′ start, reads up a single 3 base codon, and puts in an amino acid, then reads a next 3 base codon, & another, again and again, repeating up the chain until it reaches the signal to end, frees up  the completed chain and the polypeptide or protein is now created. Each additional nucleotide decreases entropy and creates order, just as the letters in the dictionary do, also. Again & again, without limits. The endless repeating chain of the DNA molecules working like a comparison process on the molecular level, again and again, within the endless cycles of time. This is reproduction, which like in our printing presses, TV’s, radios, magazines, the internet, websites and even the transistor, magnifies and amplifies by repetitions. Media are amplifications. So is speech which all can hear, or as used in teaching as well. It’s simple, and basic, we use the CP and apply it, endlessly. It’s clear that we may easily hold this truth, the comparison process in our cortices, to be self evident.
In summary, There are stabilities and metastabilities in our universe, created and re-created and stable due to the constant flow of events. Because of these repetitions of events in existence, those are reinforced and pass into our lot term memories as stabilities, created by protein synthesis, resulting in synaptic, stable memory traces. Dopamine can reinforce those faster, thus facilitating the lay down of those traces, the memories & habits and their uses & methods. As we recognize patterns by their repetitions, thus those patternings become stable as  created traces in LTM, modeling recurring patterns inside ourselves and outside as well. These then become stable patterns of behaviors, LTM and so forth, and they are LE, and thus stable, too. As persons age, their personalities become stable as well, as experience & Meyers/Briggs testing show. Society then becomes stable as the morals, rules, laws, and languages also become stable by use and LTM/synaptic facilitations operate this way. Then as we age, we find it harder and harder to learn more, to learn new languages without accents. But more of this in the coming article “Ages of the Brain”.
Confirmations of the repeating of events in existence is required to establish the truth of the matter in the sciences. We do it again and again until the signal rises out of the noise. In doing evoked potentials, we do those repeatedly until the signal arises out fo the background noise. In the CCC’s those also are done, checking, testing, repeatedly until the signal rises that a good LE solution has been found. It pops into our consciousness from all those parallel processes in our CCC’s and we understand. These relationships are not an accident.
Time telling, reading the clock, synchronization, setting a clock, all of them comparison processes. Also addressed pointedly by Einstein’s relativity.
And so in this way does our understanding model and mimic and comprehend events in existence. In our language it does as well, and the now recognized S/F relationships flow out of the dictionaries like water, endlessly. There all along, too. The fruitfulnesses of the comparison process models by these endless comparisons, of the hierarchies which are endless, the reductionist model, the comparing of languages, to show the taxonomic associations of the language. Each word, each etymology, comparison process. Each task, each step, adding to the massive evidence, and thus simplification of the “blooming, buzzing” confusion to understanding via the Least energy rule of thermodynamics. Applying it again and again, processing without limit to gain our understanding & control. & standing in the middle like a high tower of confirmability, the CP.

In summary drawing towards a close, Dr. Douglas Hofstadter’s “Godel, Escher, Bach…” has been very prescient and instinctively helpful in making progress in understanding our understanding. He mentioned a problem with trial and error, and this has been explained about how it comes about using the CP, and its universal use and value, as well, From Edison’s T&E creating of artificial lighting, to how we learn most everything using T&E. & to perform those using least energy methods, which form the bases of professional abilities, as compared to amateur, slower, less quality, less efficient work. & how those more efficient methods come about, as well. And how our education can be vastly improved, limitlessly, by working out those skills, styles, methods and techniques, then teaching them and improving them, endlessly.

Hofstadter’s simple comment was that he had a very large file of word mistakes he’d made, but what to make of that? Here it is. Our Long Term Memories (LTM-W) for words are organized initially as babies according to word sound similarities. Thus when we make mistakes, using the wrong word for the one intended, this subtlety shows us that words are stored by comparison of similar word sounds. There are endless numbers of those!! Again the repetitions, the commonalities in most all humans. Before we can read, nor think very well, most all verbal memories are stored this way. Thus, “word” is mistaken for “world, or “work; or syzigy for Cecilly, and endlessly.

But implicit in the error of saying a word mistakenly, lies a deeper, more valuable trait of the CP. Because even in our errors, there is enough CP information to correct them. Thus we check, test, and comparison process and realize, very quickly the word wasn’t the right one, and we then re-type or re-state the correct one. When we forget a word, very often the words we at first think of, in addition, is very close to, but not the same as the one we want to use. Was trying to recall the name of a noted actor, and could only come up with lysis and “ferber”, tho I knew those were wrong, the Rule of Commonality and eventually came up with Bruce Willis. The same for a noted country western singer, which came out at first, gooks and earth, which, of course, was Garth Brooks. Note the boustrophedons, and the substitutions, which is also how we mistake words. Such was “dig bitch” which once stated to my embarrassment as it meant, Big Ditch. Or how our puns are created. Not all of our errors are errors. Those can be the creativity of our cortex as well as DNA’s evolutionary creativity, as well. previously stated (Evolution, Growth, Development (

But the implicit, depths within depths, is that the comparison process is least energy, by combining groups of words, ideas, pronunciations, and meaning together, as well. So the means by which are memories work are complex networks of relationships, of which the primary one is that of sound similarities among words. Upon that as we learn, grow and develop the more complex relationships of words & so forth, memory becomes more diffusely stored by these richer and greater associations. Not only does this organize our words & their meanings, but it creates the word segues, the flow of the streams of consciousness and the lovely flow of creative writing as well. And in addition, it creates backup memories and tracing which if we can’t think of something, or are damaged in an area, the other connections and relationships of words act as backup systems. Thus dos our memory becomes diffusely and multiply stored in our cortices, which is in fact the case. No matter how much brain damage we have as adults, there is plenty of archiving, backing up of memories in all those tracings. &  this is why a very great deal of brain damage, diffusely must occur if our LTM’s are to be seriously degraded and eliminated.

In addition, it’s recently been found that very intelligent, educated persons who are mentally very active, are more resistant to the ravages of Alzheimer’s. This is the case because we have so many memory backups by our intellectual connections and activities, that we can if one tracing is damaged by Alzheimer plaques, we can go another route, to circumvent the closed down road, much as we do in cases of traffics accidents, floods, and other emergencies. The CP provides BOTH self-organization and back up, complex systematics for the never ending multiplicities of functions of the CP in our cortices. And if one part of the cortical cell columns are damaged, those locally take over by recruitment and can, esp. at early ages, repair the damage, restore the structure and thus function. We see this in strokes, endlessly. It not only creates the cortical organizations, but can restore and repair it if damaged. MUCH with less. Multiplicity, LE all the way.

In addition, using the CP and the Least Energy rules, the two twins innately intertwined, related and functioning, the comparison process shows us a least energy, stable, and informationally useful, even if only partly correct &, self-organizing, as well. Thus it’s also a case of Occam’s Razor, the simplest truth without adding new hypotheses & ad hoc adjustments, is the one MOST likely to be the case. Thus a CP coupled with LE insight is by far more likely to be the case, just as Occam’s Razor reminds us. It’s a CP & LE sieve for creating and finding truths of greater depth, worth, and power. Thus is much done with a lot less, the CP. Complex systems are again the same, doing much more with much less and thus are favored because they, too, create savings, extra time, energy, resources, efficiencies of all sorts, etc., which create growth of all sorts. Thus they proliferate and dominate. (The Power of Proliferation ( In addition they are much more easily corrected, extended and improved upon, which solidly models how our devices start out simple, as the Wright flyer, and Bleriot’s reform of aircraft’s basic structure by putting the engine/propeller in the front and the steering assembly rudders, etc., in the back, which was more efficient. From there we get the modern planes, jets, gliders, etc, all continuing to be improved without end, based upon the solid foundations of the first devices of ANY kind. We see further because we stand on the shoulders of giants and see and learn to see better with their eyes. The past builds the future, viz. evolution, growth, development, based upon those solid fundamentals. From the simple to the complex, from “Ma-ma”, and “Da-da” to the complex professional vocabularies and expressions used, daily, repeatedly.

A good model is at once simple, elegant, & beautiful in its own ways. This is how we know them. By their efficiencies and outcomes, plus their incredible fruitfulnesses, at once known from many sources, such as evolutionary model, the periodic table and how it forsaw and developed bonding patterns from the alkali, ferrous, precious, even rare earth metals, to the halogen series, among many others, and the Nobel, er, noble gases, which hardly bond at all. Once again, this simplicity, stability and elegance are but more names, showing the complex systems of our understandings, where less does more, and has many characteristics, not just one, and thus is not linear, but complex, and highly multiplicit in its names, forms, characteristics, descriptions and capabilities. These are all interrelated, we can now see. Thus the increasing growth and proliferation of complex systems departments and sections in the schools, universities and corporations and other structures. It’s simple, powerful, and creates growth. All of these many emergent, unexpected relationships being shown, as well.

& what of music & the arts? We store our memories of melodies by their starting tonal intervals. Start almost ANY melody in almost any key with those same intervals, & our right musical temporal lobe compares those intervals to the many, efficiently locates by LE storage that melody, & we hum along, or play or sing it in our heads. If we can’t recall a simple tune, but we can find the words, if we repeat the words, we can hear again, that is, musically recognize and play the tune again, The lyrics re-inforce the melody, and the melody, the lyrics. “Play it again, Sam.” Almost always, it’s the repetitions, endlessly of all of the myriads of ways of tempos, pitches, and scales.

We see the endless flows of the stream of consciousness, the beautiful segues from one sentence to the next in lovely creative writing, of which James Joyce; “Ulysses” is a trinity of art, demonstration and explanation of the CP and the stream of consciousness created by comparison processing..

& the lilting, endlessly variations of themes in music. From Beethoven’s NInth, the Scherzo and finally, Schiller’s (scintillating) “Oden an Die Freude” (Ode to Joy) in the great Chorale, the Gotterfunken, the Divine Spark. (Explanandum 4, near the end; and the “Spark of Life and the Soul of Wit”; all Again, the dopamine boost, and why we like and replay music, again and again. “‘That’s our song” the lovers whisper, & the joy of love builds again, reinforcing, repeating, self-sustaining itself by a DA boost. The “Ode to Joy”, once more in all the myriad ways. The Mythos once and again.


The HammerKlavier Sonata’s lovely middle theme, which is a variation on “Farewell to the Piano” both lilting, memorable, flowing melodies of great beauty. The wonderfully melodic march (1-2, 1-2; 4/4 time) repetitions in Tchaikovsky great 6th Symphony, the Pathetiques, followed by the incredibly lyrical adagio, full of wonderful, flowing minor key melodies of variations, too. The lyrically unmatched Adagio of Grieg’s piano concerto. The moving melodies of Debussy, winding unexpectedly, streaming in “Claire de Lune” (Light of the Moon), and “Prelude a l’Apres Midi d’un Faun”; the orchestral richness and winding, ascendings and fallings of “Daphnis et Chloe” ballet, by Ravel; and the similarly united, streaming of notes of beauty in Vaugh-Williams’ 3rd Symphony, the Pastoral. The exciting and astonishing, 2nd movement, Allegro Molto in Rachmaninoff’s 2nd Symphony, followed at once by the ever rolling, varying, always moving, Adagio of variations on a theme. Again and again. The “An der Schonen Blauen Donau Waltzer” of Strauss, again 3/3 time, the trinity of dancing.

Thus we return to the major theme, the “Eternal Braid” of the interlocking, interleaving weavings in which we live, composed of the endless comparison processes within our self-sustaining, self consistent, self-organizing 100’s of 1000’s of cortical cell columns which create our awarenesses and our consciousnesses, not only of human animals, but of most all animals, from which our lives are closely, connected, related, and composed, The endless cycles, turns of the wheels, of the systems of circles, of the quantum waves of omnipresent repetitions which underlay and drive our universe of events in existence. These are the endless repetitions, which are endless confirmations of the CP and how it works to model a similarly limitless, universal repeating of events in existence. Each repetition a confirmation of the CP model. Endlessly confirmed in the billions at least, daily, ubiquitously. & not just on earth, but everywhere in our universe so far as we can observe, will observe and have observed.

A Model of most all Models, a unifying model of most all the events within ourselves and outside, as well. The Gloria Glorissimae. Nub Ka Kau. A Nefer Neferu (beauty of beauties). The comparison process and its fraternal twin, least energy. The ever relating, ever changing, but the same,  La Chanson sans Fin, Universelle.

The Power of Proliferation

The Common Origins of Growth, Development and the Markets: A New Synthesis of Universal Understanding

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014
“Simplify, simplify, simplify.” –Henry David Thoreau

“Least energy rules.”

“A society which cannot break out of its current abstractions is doomed to stagnation after a limited period of growth.” –Alfred North Whitehead

“Build a better mouse trap and the world will beat a path to your door.”

“The “invisible hand” of Adam Smith drives the markets.”

As previously written in more expansive terms,

The comparison process in our brains/minds creates the relationships, associations, recognitions, pattern recognitions, & visualizations, etc., which underlie thinking and the other various functions of consciousness. The comparison process is universally applicable to most all known events. In short, as it allows that Everything can be compared to everything else for the similarities & (differences) of those events to each other. Then those similar events are grouped into categories, classifications, taxonomies, etc. This simplifies our understanding of events by grouping and organizing them into a readable and memorable forms. Those events which are more dissimilar can be grouped by alphabetization of words into dictionaries, thesauri, encyclopedias, and using words and numbers into paginations, indices, and so forth. Points on a map can be organized according to their relationships on a North, South, West, East grid, and every map point can be shown to correspond to a real existing point on the earth. & further, how each site relates to every other point/site besides. In the periodic table of elements, the noble gases, alkali metals, halogens, etc., all have their corresponding, comparison places in that visual map of the relationships of the elements to all the others. Further, the electronic configurations of the atoms relating to how atoms combine to form compounds is a higher level characteristic of periodic table, & its chemistries (inorganic, organic, biochemical/biological), which are related and derive from a higher classification, molecular bonding, implicit in Mendeleef’s table, which he was not originally aware of. Thus, the depths within depths, yet again. The Periodic Table thus is simply another form of the classifications methods without limit which can be created by comparisons.

Further the more education and knowledge the more which can be compared, understood and more knowledge is thus created. ?This then can be fed back into the process creating, over time exponentiating growth. This is in short, a piece of how scientific exponential growth has come about and is continuing. this is yet another reason why education is important. Because it gives more to be considered and built upon, providing new raw data, discoveries and findings for the person.

It’s also reinforced by an internal dopamine boost, not jsut by external reinforcements which are also key. Each new finding, each new “Eureka” moment, each new “Aha!”, and the “pleasures of philosophy” known by Aristoteles, will & can reinforce this kind of comparison process growth and development, too..

At each stage of individual entry into those classification schemes, or comparison models, entropy declines, organization increases and the entire system does more with less. There is a place for everything and everything in its place. The system is both created and read by the comparison processes. Thus the comparison process does a LOT with a little, and gives a result which is far, far more least energy than other methods/models. It is profoundly Least Energy Principle (LEP) driven.

Knowledge is thus found to be most likely & largely the relationships of events to other events by comparison processes and methods. Understanding is also more of the same. The processing of the individual facts in knowledge further creates the hierarchies and classifications. Which is just another way of saying the first paragraph. Being complex systems, there are many routes to the same point, but some are far, far more efficient than others. Those more efficient are favored and privileged in this universe.

Discoveries are recognized when something does not fit into the overall classification scheme of our long term memory. Then it’s studied, observed and finally classified by comparison processes to take its place in the grander scheme.

Curiosity, driven by the dopamine boost, explorations, & trial and error methods are yet more of the many, unlimited ways in which these constant interactions between our brains/minds via our senses with events in existence continue to grow and extend our knowledge. It is innately self-corrective, also, like the sciences, which are so very deeply driven by comparison processes and the LEP. Those constant, interacting input/output processing of events in existence, the cortical comparison processes, very likely create our consciousness in most all of its varied functions.

The Least Energy Principle (LEP) is a comparison process where costs, time, energy, materials, values, etc., are all compared to each in a series of methods of doing things, to find the one or few which are least energy in those areas. Their outcomes are compared in those terms and the ones with the least energy/costs/materials win & are used.

The Least Energy Principle (LEP) creates advantages by creating more with less. It results in systems arising which by this process creates surpluses, excesses, and savings of time, energy, materials, costs, etc. This is little less than wealth, value, worth, meaning, etc. That is then ploughed back into the system to create growth in living systems and much else, as it turns out, besides.

Those systems which gain savings by least energy win the lottery. They create, every time they are used, more savings, more value, more energy and more usable resources & surpluses, Comparatively. Thus they are worth something; they are value and wealth itself. The building up of food surpluses was what drove the agricultural revolution. & the creation of the wealth of surplus foods & goods was what created the cities. It was efficient, least energy methods, which grew & grew without limit which has creates the US agricultural methods by which less than 1.5% of the population creates enough food to feed everyone here and 30-40% left over for export, thus creating more wealth, besides. Compared to those societies which still to this day use 30-40% of their people to grow food, to barely feed the rest, this is a huge advantage. & it grows by compound interest over the years, too. And also those not engaged in agriculture can be engaged as teachers, professionals, soldiers and in the manufacturing and service industries, which creates wealth, far, far higher than agricultural societies possibly can create. That wealth can then be plowed back into the society for further growth, thus creating an exponential economic, social, scientific and cultural growth, comparatively.

In living cells, the same is true. Formerly, as shown in the referenced main article above, the efficiencies of genetics, metabolism (and the endless cycles of glycolysis, arginine, citric acid), mitochondrial oxidation for energy, & multiplication and reproduction. cellular and macroscopic structures, plus behaviors of the cells in the single cells and multicellular organisms of plants and animals, are what give the same advantages of energy & materials. Those ALSO build up in the cells so they can reproduce. This is almost all driven by the LEP. By their outcomes we will know if they are efficient or not. Because the LEP is also applicable to almost every system using energy/materials, it can describe, UNIVERSALLY and measure outcomes of almost every method. Thus it’s also universally applicable, as its parent process, the comparison. Here is the universality of the system. It can apply to almost everything known, without limit, with endless repetitions, as well.

What of the creativity of the DNA molecule & of human creativity? Let us compare the two and see the same processes working there, from the veriest molecular levels throughout metabolism of energy production, to protein synthesis, to the repeating citric acid, Krebs, oxidation, arginine, the endless cycles of life, we find the same events. Efficient methods rule. Least energy rules.

The DNA can mutate a single or over time in many bases. These mutations are often lethal, or harmful in some ways thus doing harm to the cells which carry them. But here is the decisive edge. The copying errors and mutations can occasionally rarely, say a few percent of the time, result in a slightly more efficient means of doing something necessary for the cell. A more stable structural protein, or starch, a more efficient way of metabolizing starches/cellulose/sugars to energy. A more efficient way of building a stable molecule.

Those advantages will then build up the energy savings, and materials surpluses every TIME they are used. This will procure incrementally a growth probability, no matter how small, which over time, can, by the rule of 72, result in doubling times of compound or additive interest. This creativity of the DNA molecule, by the LEP will build up a decisive advantage over the long run, so that mutation is successfully transmitted to the next generation because of those advantages. This operates WAY below the level of behavioral competition or survival of the fittest. It’s a very much more basic and deeper analysis of the processes of developments of the species. EVERY time the LEP process is used which is more energy/materially efficient, which arose from the DNA’s chance mutation, it will be favored over time. Thus the species evolves NOT only by the macroscopic “competition” and “survival of the fittest”, but also on the very molecular, genetic, and metabolic, structural and intervening levels, by the deeper process of LEP creating savings, surpluses and the like, which creates more growth potential for those which carry that gene. Or in the same way, an epigenetic predisposition to use that gene in a flexible way, which favors the build up of energy/materials compared to other genetics.

This then is how creativity of the DNA comes about on the molecular level, from a mutation to the creation of surplus outputs which create more growth, & which is often in the case of cells, exponential growth. Thus, creativity of the DNA molecule is transformed into cellular growth, and often multicellular growth, as well. This can be seen at all levels of genetics, metabolism, structures, functions and even at the highest levels, the behaviors of the cells, either as individuals or in multicellular species of brain/neuronal complex functions and behaviors..

What drives this creativity in the DNA? It’s the LEP. It’s a thermodynamic principle based upon the laws of the universe, and a corollary to the entropic principle, the Second Law. This is why the cell is efficient. This is why the cell survives. This LEP also makes it far, far stabler than those without those efficiencies. It creates durability and stability through time. It;’s more resistant to change, attacks, and breakdowns because it has more resources and energy to draw upon than less efficient cells. This is how evolution comes about. This is a much, much deeper understanding of not only creativity, but how evolution occurs. & this model is so deep, so vast, because it’s comparison process and LEP, that it’s universally applicable. It is driven by the universal forces of thermodynamics everywhere known in the observable universe, & it can be extended without limit even to human creativity, at the highest levels of multicellular organization, the brains of animals & humans. it’s ineluctable, it’s inevitable, and it’s a deep molecular process driven by the very  thermodynamics forces of the universe, itself. Thus we have the beginnings of a deeper understanding, a more universal understanding of the evolution of the species.
Let us now extend this same model to markets. Essentially, markets are energy and material throughputs which increase value and wealth, by creating growth by the same methods stated above. The farmer grows food & then sells it for a profit, if he is to be successful. This gives him the means to further expand his food growing to make more and more money.

Now money is an interesting invention and why does it arise? Essentially, we must understand that costs, prices and barter exchanges are simply done by the comparison processes. Humans did great amounts of trade in many goods in ancient times, before money, and when reached a an agreement to trade, was called barter, by which both persons could make a profit by this trade. Essentially, in the tit for tat models, where everyone benefits from fair trades, or as Proverbs states, “fair measures”, then the system will be stable, and as everyone wins by not cheating, it becomes unbreakable by outside forces largely. Tit for tat is the LEP form of trade.

Now we must have some way of deciding the relative, comparative worth of each product we are to trade. This is largely created by barter of goods for other goods. Thus goods were valued in terms of how much they could barter for in terms of OTHER goods. Their value was dependent upon comparison with their relative values with other goods. And then those were traded. It was cumbersome, and hard to carry all of those goods around. It was also difficult to fully value items with each other, because of the combinatorial complexity of everything being compared to everything else in order to reach a trade. There were few common standards, in other words. Those exchange rates of copper for silver, wheat and grains for gold, timber and leather, etc., would so often change that for those using it to arrive as some commonly accepted valuations, due to changes in supply and demands was a huge problem of time and energy cost. Prices, costs and values of services and products are virtually ALL comparison process driven.

So a brilliant creative invention was made in the mid 1st millennium B.C. of Asia Minor. Lydian gold from Kroesos’ mines was converted into relatively standardized gold coins which could, by the stability, rarity and value of gold be converted into a universal exchange rate for most anything. This meant that coins as a form of money, because a universal standard mostly was used mainly (tho bartering did remain), and largely simplified the exchanges. Using standard silver and copper coins, the same was done. No longer was everything being compared to everything else, but mostly to the gold standard. So exchanges and trade were simplified, facilitated and much time and energy was saves. Thus LEP. It also had the unique ability to be measured in terms of how many gold pieces as well. But those also were cumbersome, too, and could be easily stolen. A thief simply looked at which side of the belt of the pantaloons or tunics were weighed down by the coins to find “where the money was”.

Less valued coins of copper and bronze and silver were made to more finely divide trade values by lesser coinages Then there were more gradings of value created, compared to barter, as well. This is a distinct and in the long run a major advantage, too. But overall, it was a vast simplification in trade. There was a common measure, a common comparison, a commonly accepted standard then for worth. The barter system disappeared over time, replaced by a far more efficient system, which could also create over time accounting methods, banking and other such measures and standards. Income and output could be compared more exactly by this mathematics, and the truer financial status of a business more carefully understood, used and extended.

So first in China, paper money was created, using a set exchange rate for more valuable gold, silver and other commodities, & thus the whole process became, once again, vastly simplified. Coins were used for tangible support of the paper currency standard, which greatly simplified exchange rates. Now there was much less carrying around lots of goods & heavy metals of coins. No more figuring out how much leather was worth in terms of foods, metals of many kinds, etc. There was a more easily determined exchange rate, that is conversion system, that is comparison and ratios, what the value of that standard coin was worth. It was also flexible enough to change for supply and demand oscillations which were fairly common, too. Thus coinage and therefore money arose because it was extremely more efficient and simplified trade. Bartering everything for everything else was complicated and took time. Using coins by which most goods could be exchanged is in fact LEP all the way, relying once again on prices and costs, which are comparison processes. It was all simplified by LEP and greatly facilitated and sped up trading, thus increasing exponentially the amount of commerce and thus wealth generation and distribution. If one could trade more itemsin less time, more profit and further trade was possible. These are LEP and comparison processes to the core.

The use of coins and money is in fact a direct analogue of using a relatively fixed, stable standard to measure lengths, time, temperature, distance, weights, and so forth. Thus it fits neatly into the Relativity model & epistemology of Einstein with the same capabilities and limits of such a method. There is no absolute money or coinage. Money is yet another comparison method to take the measure of events in existence, also. Money can be a fair measure of the worth of events, be they goods or services. This yet again reduces an essential part of economics to basic physics. (AHA!!)

In fact, shopping is essentially a comparison process. We try to find the best goods for the best prices, by comparing quality, size, freshness, newness, and other characteristics. And we then, if we can, buy the best for the least. Again, comparison process, driven by the least energy principle!! It’s so obvious. It’s the physics of thermodynamics and how it works in the market place, with the clear overlay of human psychological interactions, as well. But we try to get the most for the least and the seller charges whatever the market will bear to get the most profit. And the reward/reinforcement for making more money and wealth added that extra dopamine boost. Incentives & Greed, yet more forms of the dopamine boost.

These profits then build up, and the seller can grow his business, by the LEP. This is the fundamental physics of the market place, which can be seen by comparison processing of the information and then which grows, without limit using the LEP as the driving force. Market forces and money are said to be driven by the Invisible hand of Adam Smith, which we can now recognize is the LEP and comparison processes in human minds/brains. Simple, elegant, & explains why money came about, as well as banks and accounting methods, and how the markets are innately least energy driven, as well.

If we find a better way to create a more capable product, we can sell it for more, derive more profit and grow without much limit at least for a while, until we run into the Whiteheadian S-curve limits to growth, the market gets saturated, others create similar or better products & so forth. Thus economics is essentially reducible to LEP forces, the same which drive evolution and the universe of events by thermodynamics wherever we have observed events in our universe. These are the kinds of simplifications and reduction of economics to physical forces which extend our understanding of “how things work”, made possible by comparison process and its fraternal twin, the LEP.

This also shows that plants and animals are just as market driven in their own ways, piling up the advantages of efficient methods to create surplus energy & materials, and then using that to grow and reproduce. Most of the complexities of systems are built upon these principles, and the complex systems of the market place can easily be more understood as variations on these two themes of comparison process and LEP. The song without end: La Chanson.

Thus plants and animals are the biggest and oldest capitalists of all in terms of energy and resources and how they work!! Thus human markets simply are other forms, and extension of these far, far older systems for growth. Free markets, which permit the widest play of LEP production and methods work best. And are highly favored by the forces in our universe. Those factors which block innovation, and the creativity which create the newer, more capable goods, services & marketing methods, and for lesscosts are not favored. This, essentially, is why Marxism/Leninism failed, because it violated the LEP rules of the universe. And Why the USSR fell, because it was so incredibly inefficient compared to the market place. The Chinese, essentially under Deng Xiao Ping, understood this, and opened up the markets, even a new stock market in Shanghai, creating a massively growing economy, which now has become the world’s largest. Their growth rate is falling off at present, once again due to the Dictum of Whitehead. In order to grow more, they must innovate, reform, & create greater wealth by doing more with less and thus continue their phenomenal growth.

This is essentially why Walmart grew. Sam Walton created a far, far more efficient supply and distribution system. He knew what goods by computerized daily accountings were being sold and which were not. Those which fell below a certain sales level were removed from the shelves/displays and replaced by better selling items. He stored goods for sale for much shorter times, thus reducing substantially his warehouse costs, inventories and amounts of unsold or unsalable goods. Those left over items were then efficiently resold in bulk to recover their value, too..Only the items which sold, driven by efficient resupply systems, made him huge profits, which were then re-invested into the system, which continued to create the same kind of growth, exponentiation into the largest store system of its type.

Apple, under Steve Jobs did mostly the same thing, although he knew the key was high profits. To make more for less, thus creating more money & allowing more products to be developed for more sales. He created the mouse and the interactive touch screens apps, which gave fun to the users. His graphics were for years among the best in the world, and preferentially used by artists, printers and designers. This special Apple computer logo and marketing created a cadre of very loyal buyers and users. and with each additional product he expanded his sales, buyers who accepted higher costs for higher quality,. This boosted Apple’s profits to the highest every seen both in terms of percentages of sales and total billions in net profits. Then he created his Apple Stores, which sold on line easily deliverable programs (Apps, note the Apple ad pun as well, yet another creativity by comparison process) to enhance in virtually unlimited ways the use of his devices, and created yet another huge source of profits. What he did was basically creating programs as devices to sell. Thus shipping programs online instead of devices, he cut his costs hugely, and expanded his profit margins once again. This is how growth is created, constant innovation and careful marketing of highly useful and entertaining devices. Apple then integrated cell phones with computers to do more with less. At present a person can hold a telecommunication device in his hands, with more computer power than last year’s desk top PC, and can play music, while working, & while telecommunicating on the Net with persons and with other computer servers. These are but a few of the reasons why Apple is the worlds’ only trillion dollar company. Exponential growth via the LEP and comparison process creating creativity and the bases for ever more growth. “You ain’t seen nothing yet!”, as the CEO recently stated, confidently and likely truly.

This is why Demmings enormously effective methods worked in Japan, by increasing efficiencies of productions. He knew efficincies but NOt the LEP at its core and depths. This was how, once again, Andrew Carnegie’s introduction of the Bessemer converter system from England, far, far more efficient than any iron and steel making systems in the US, & created his wealth. & then he plowed that profit into a research team, which created more & more efficient methods, as well. Henry Ford used the same principles  for growth, essentially. This was how Edison’s research labs worked in Menlo Park, creating the electric light, which used highly efficient methods to convert night time into daylight and all the incredible increases in productivity that provided. This was how the telephone of Alexander Graham Bell also worked in the  same way. Instead of having to physically walk down to another place to do their business and get information, he introduced an easy to use, simple, inexpensive device, a telephone, to more efficiently & with far, far less energy than moving around people and horses and such, to take care of the business & necessary communications of daily lives. This saved time, energy, materials and is LEP. It created huge new means of alerting persons of dangers, allowing more business to be done, saving lives and time. This is why we use telegraphs, telephones, & radios etc. This is how most ALL growth, development and economic progress occur.

This LEP creates savings of time, money, energy and materials and thus can be plowed back into the same systems for exponential growth, which took place with telephones, & the steam engines in locomotives and steam boats. The internal combustion engine did the same in cars, trucks, buses, and in other vehicles, as well. This allowed humans to escape from the shackles and limits of sunlight and food productions creating the limited and slow moving energies of horses and humans. Replacing those traditional and ancient methods with endless supplies of water and coal to ADD to, and supplement far older forms of energy. It was modernization with a vengeance. It  was most all driven by LEP advantages which create growth. This is not limited to just in a single nation or a single continent, or on a single world, but universally, wherever the material and energy surpluses can act to create growth and development and evolution all across the galaxies and super galactic clusters, in fact. It’s observably universal..

The Gutenberg revolution was the same. The Copernican solar centered system was as well the same, a simplifying method. & that of Galileo the same, finally culminating in the Newtonian creation of his laws of motion, which are not only universal, but least energy methods too. We should all re-read Alexander Kuhn’s “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” to see how this comes about. More with less.

To extend this, we now are reaching another turning point, a crisis in human affairs. The scientific revolution as we know it is coming to an end, reaching the Whiteheadian limits to growth. Publications in even respected journals, the heart and core of scientific communication of new and useful findings, are 2/3 simply not confirmable, meaning 2/3 of the time, energy, material & talent are not being efficiently used for good ends. Billions of dollars, 10K’s years of talent, time and abilities are being wasted. One needs no special training to see such inefficiencies, such violations of physical laws cannot continue. Particle physics has run up against the exponential barriers of light speed, and the laws of diminishing returns are too expense. We cannot repeat the Higgs boson experiments because they cost too much with current methods. Thus these too, are simply unconfirmable.

The Quantum Mechanics wave equations still cannot be fully or in many cases even partly computed, either. Nor can QM understand life by developing life from its equations as it can develop a very great deal of physics, already. There are many places QM is simply untestable and cannot go.

The silicon chip revolution has reached the barriers of too small transistors and the quantum leakage of such small transistors means they don’t work much at all reliably. Again, the expon barriers, the tops of the S-curves are starkly, blatantly visible in our era.

Please review sections 6 thru 11.

But there is a better way. When we find the rule of diminishing returns operating, our comparison processes recognize this, and turn instead to other ways, using observations, trial and error, creativity and casting about for any alternative methods to find ways around those problems. The linear methods of our simple maths, our logical systems and such methods have reached that point of decreasing value and output.

These linear systems, which create our simplistic devices, our mere machines can give us small parts & pieces of answers, & yet while they create approximations to the complex systems, they are not the best answers. They cannot of themselves jump over the abyss of epistemology, logic and insights which are able to characterize, see and comprehend complex systems. They, like Moses can see the Promised Land, but they cannot enter it, any more than he could..

Neither can those linear methods produce enough of the points on the graph to give some useful idea of the curve’s truer shape. Nor can they of themselves connect the dots, see the connections, put it together. A higher ability to visualize and recognize far greater patterns, that of the comparison process must be used. If we are to survive we must transition to complex system models and how to best understand those, to make the progress we need to meet our desperate needs of over pollution and overpopulation. To do a LOT with a little, is the universal outcome of the LEP. It’s the way to continued growth without limit, and an end to poverty, disease and suffering.

The way now has opened into complex systems, which richly demonstrated by the weather, living systems, economic systems, and even the organizations of the brain itself, can each do a lot with a little. We have reached and end times, viewing the complicated, tightly compacted devices under the hoods of our cars, evidenced by the over specializations leading to incomprehensibilities, even among the same specialists and fields (the Tower of Babel problem), the fragmenting of knowledge, the high inefficiencies which signal the end of the machine age. This is clearly to be replaced by the non-linear, complex system methods, which can do a lot with a little. The tiny English Robin can create a molecular sized quantum magnetometer, whereas ours require liquid helium superconductors and a complicated machine the size of the very large closet costing millions, by comparison. This a billions to one functional and structural advantage which we must finds ways ot doing, ourselves. The Rhizobacter can fix nitrogen along with its other cousin bacteria, which fix nitrogen world wide in the land and seas, at ambient temperatures. Whereas we require 1200 degrees of heat and 100’s of atmospheres of pressure to do the same. More with less, is the complex system way. It’s LEP. It’s favored by the universe itself, to do the same.

My sildenafil method shown in the above URL in the beginning lines of this article, does much the same, making a Viagra 50 mg. tab last for 3 days & a surprising onset of action within 20-30′ as well. These are the ways of the future: Complex systems. Sure it takes longer and they are harder to figure out, but when they give long term, massive increases of efficiency of production for a lot less, then those will grow very fast. & it also explains why living systems are NOT machines. Those devices are too simple, to inefficient to compete with complex systems. There is the comparison point. Such systems allow us better to predict the future as well, for tracking moving objects, or for tracking time lines.

These very likely are our answers to the current problems which belabor us, tax us with suffering and hopelessness and which are inescapable using current, outdated, moribund methods, from which troubles complex systems thinking and devices can allow us unlimited ways to escape. We have but to open that door and step into the Promised Land of the Undiscovered Country, to see once again as did Daniel Boone saw Kentuckee, the vast ranges of mountains, trees and meadows of fertile land, nearly unlimited to his eyes, stretching out before him. And us.

Le Chanson Sans Fin: Table of Contents

1. The Comparison Process, Introduction, Pt. 1

2. The Comparison Process, Introduction, Pt. 2

3. The Comparison Process, Introduction, Pt. 3

4. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 1

5. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 2

6. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 3

7. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 4

8. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 5: Cosmology

9. AI and the Comparison Process

10. Optical and Sensory Illusions, Creativity and the Comparison Process (COMP)

11. The Emotional Continuum: Exploring Emotions with the Comparison Process

12. Depths within Depths: the Nested Great Mysteries

13. Language/Math, Description/Measurement, Least Energy Principle and AI

14. The Continua, Yin/Yang, Dualities; Creativity and Prediction

15. Empirical Introspection and the Comparison Process

16. The Spark of Life and the Soul of Wit

17. The Praxis: Use of Cortical Evoked Responses (CER), functional MRI (fMRI), Magnetic Electroencephalography (MEG), and Magnetic Stimulation of brain (MagStim) to investigate recognition, creativity and the Comparison Process

18. A Field Trip into the Mind

19. Complex Systems, Boundary Events and Hierarchies

20. The Relativity of the Cortex: The Mind/Brain Interface

21. How to Cure Diabetes (AODM type 2)

22. Dealing with Sociopaths, Terrorists and Riots

23. Beyond the Absolute: The Limits to Knowledge

24  Imaging the Conscience.

25. The Comparison Process: Creativity, and Linguistics. Analyzing a Movie

26. A Mother’s Wisdom

27. The Fox and the Hedgehog

28. Sequoias, Parkinson’s and Space Sickness.

29. Evolution, growth, & Development: A Deeper Understanding.

30. Explanandum 6: Understanding Complex Systems

31. The Promised Land of the Undiscovered Country: Towards Universal Understanding

32. The Power of Proliferation

33. A Field Trip into our Understanding

34.  Extensions & applications: Pts. 1 & 2.

35. A Hierarchical Turing Test for General AI




The Promised Land of the Undiscovered Country: Towards Universal Understanding

The Promised Land of the Undiscovered Country: Towards Universal Understanding:
By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Model; 14 Mar. 2014
“Invention is 10% inspiration and 90% perspiration.”–Thomas A. Edison

“Trial and Error is a method of comparisons of outcomes/outputs towards a specific purpose/goal.”

“There is no royal road to geometry.” (We have to do the work.) .
–Archimedes 3rd C. BC

“A rose may grow in the mud. A gem can be found in the dirt.”

“Every advance in physics is preceded by an epistemological advance.”
–A. Einstein

“Compound interest is the most powerful force in the universe.” –A. Einstein

“To see a world in a grain of sand and a heaven in a wild flower.”
–William. Blake

“In my Father’s house there are many mansions.” –Jeshua ben Joseph, 1st C. AD

” And would some Power give us the gift
To see ourselves as others see us!” –Robert Burns

“Do unto others as you would have others do unto you.” Hillel, 1st C. BC and Jeshua ben Joseph, 1st C. AD.

“Those who have eyes and do not see, ears that do not hear, and mouths that do not speak.” —Proverbial
1. Introduction
2. Comparison process creates laws, moral, scientific, legal, and the moral consciences, and reads and applies them.
3. Transitivity characteristic of the comparison of comparisons of comparisons and how this identifies comparison process words and cluster of words. Talking about talking, analysis of analysis, thinking about thinking (introspection); etc.
4. The endless repetitions possible with comparison process, La Chansons sans Fin.
4a. Comparison process the origin of most all descriptions and measurements.
5. Ordering, creating and then reading of dictionaries by comparison process
6. Method of comparison for scientific and related work, by Dr. Paul J. Stark
shows ubiquity of the process.
7. Characteristics of the comparison process; hierarchies, taxonomies, classifications, etc. result from. periodic table of the elements also organized by the same process
8. COMP arises from the cortical cell columns(CCC’s) directly mimicking the output/input feedback system of the neurophysiology.
9. Found by AI researchers Friston, Hinton, et. al.
10. Efficiencies, least energy principle and comparison process all related. Compound interest advantages created by comparison process methods.

11. Seizures as direct and clear result of these feedback lops in the cortex. Repetitions of same created by.
12. Origin of Alpha and beta waves and their evidence for the neurophysiology of the comparison process in cortex. Alpha is the comparitor at rest, siting it at 4th and 5th laminations of cortex within the pyramidal cells, there, the excitatory circuit. Beta activity is the controlling, inhibitory circuit/neurochemistry.
13,. Applications of this model to better understand the cognitive deficits of autism spectrum.
14., Balance between the dopamine, catecholamine and the serotonin, GABA inhibitory controls.
15. How and why the comparison process works to model events in existence & efficiently by LEP.

16. Unlimited (infinite) feedback loops & problems in cortex.
17. Habituation, boredom, ennui as manifestations of some feedback loop control (inhibition) methods.
18. OCD as unlimited loop control problem, clearly.
19. Anorexia as dopamine over activity effects.

20. Human consciousness as the result of these feedback loop systems in cortex creating consciousnesses of the many types, sensory, motor, visual, thinking, spatial relationships, etc.
21. Comparison process extension of behaviorism due to not only external reinforcement, but it also mirrors and is accounted for by the internal dopamine boost events which create most human behaviors, which was missed at first.
22. Dopamine enhancement of learning a key point.
23. Narcissistic characteristics are internal dopamine boost reinforcers, the origin of “egosyntonic” effects. Treatment implications.

24. The inherency of least energy principle (LEP) in brain outputs, and how it works.
25. Universality of the comparison process and LEP for translation, decoding of universal rules, etc. The joys, renewel of life and escape from the unlimitted feedback loops of mental illness and hopelessness into the daily joys, discoveries and creativity. It can create universal understanding and integration of customs, laws, languages and cultures.

1. Each of us has had those times in our lives, those mountaintop experiences, holding a newborn child which is yours. Seeing the Vale of the Yosemite at the peak of the spring Merced River runoff, with 3 of the world’s 10 greatest water falls at their maximum flow seen from Glacier Point, & watching water falling nearly a mile deep down the valley’s steep, granite walls, while the thundering voice of Yosemite booms loudly in the distance. That “Eureka” moment of Archimedes. The conversion of Saul of Tarsus to St. Paul on the road to Damascus. Buddha under the Bodi tree and his Enlightenment. & Aristotle’s, “the pleasures of philosophy.” Those times in history and in our own lives, when we thought we were just opening up a door to a small closet, and a whole new world opened up behind that single gateway. When we first learned of the roundness of the world and saw that bright Milky Way, unobscured by city lights and dust, that immeasurable vastness of space. When we learned that logic and math were extremely useful tools. Those times in our lives which changed our futures and the events which changed history before us.

As Daniel Boone arose that one morning just on the other side of the Cumberland Gap, and saw the whole new, undiscovered county of Kentuckee open up before him, with range after green treed hill after range of land as far as his eyes could see. & then Tennessee of the Cherokees and even up to the “Okie from Muskogee”. These are life changing events which make so much difference for each of us.

2. As we compare our acts and those of others to our moral laws; as we compare events in the universe to a similarly created and ordered laws of physics and biology; as we similarly compare what we and other do to the complex legal laws of our societies; and even as we develop and use our moral consciences to compare our actions and those of others to the best outcome results, we see the comparison process acting strongly and omnipresently in our lives. Our customs, the rules of most all households, organizations, schools, companies and businesses, churches, and in most all places where people congregate, show the ubiquity of these rules, regulations, covenants, contracts, and so forth. The ubiquity of the comparison processes in governing and regulating human behaviors world wide.

3. The comparison process can compare a comparison, and compare the comparisons of that comparison to comparing a comparison of a comparison of a comparison, ad lib. As it is found in many comparison process words, the word cluster, such as understanding understanding, comprehending comprehension; remembering remembering, thinking about thinking, .(introspection); creating creativity; analyzing an analysis and then analyzing that analysis; modeling a model and then modeling that model; talking about talking, writing about writing, upwards of 100’s of such unique words. all of these as self consistent, sensible and self-recursive as the parent word. Hundreds of such words which make sense when they are used in this way. Compare this to swimming about swimming, or walking about walking, or driving about driving, which make no sense at all. But teaching about teaching, and learning about learning DO work and thus fall in to the comparison word cluster as well. This is not accident. The comparison process is essential to learning & education.

4. Nor are the many repetition words which we have, such as repeating a repetition and again and again repeating it; or “Play it Again Sam.” Or any of the thousands of words in our dictionaries which show that reiterative processes are very, very widespread in our language, wherein the language itself shows us the basic structures of how our thinking and processing information and even feel and learn.

4a. Comparison process is responsible for virtually all measurement and descriptions.

Further, look up in the dictionary for the endless number of words beginning with “re-“. Remember, consider and reconsider, do and redo, iterative, re-iterate and repeat, Etc., There are thousands of these in a single dictionary. Forever and ever, again and again, etc., etc., on and on, etc. These are nearly endless examples in our languages of the feedback loops and their endless use. And re-use!!

5. When we create and read our dictionaries we use the same comparison process of alphabetization to organize it and find words. When finding those words or even placing them in order, we use a trial and error approach, yet another comparison process method. We start with CO, and find the “C” section, and then the “CO and so forth moving down the word listings left to right to find the next letter, until we reach the comparing and the comparative words, and sneak “Comparison” in between. Thus increasing the order of the dictionary and organizing it, forcing a reduction in entropy and obeying at each step, the rule of thermodynamics. It takes energy to organize and order. And also we then want to look up comparison and so we read thru the pages to CO, once again and follow the same T&E rules until we get to “compression” and then we can define the definition of definition. And read about reading.
paragraph 2 et seq.

& in all the city and telephone directories of the world, as in the dictionaries of every language, the same basic process of T&E writing, creating the dictionaries and then reading them is done. & in the thesauri of the world, the similar characteristics, as in the dictionaries of every language, the same basic process of T&E writing, creating the dictionaries and then reading them is done. & in the thesauri of the world, the words matched comparison process by comparison process, and their antonyms by a similar process are both created and read and used. And in every index ever created and every book with chapters and pages, and every encyclopedia, the same process is done again and again. Each and every instance a single piece of evidence of the 100’s of millions of examples which make up those texts. Each solid evidence as our moral, physical, legal laws are evidence in each specific instance, of the use and ubiquitous existence of the comparison process.

And then the countless classifications and Taxonomies. the organized listings of the kingdom, phyla, class, order family, genera, species and varieties of each species. All of that created by the massive use of comparison process of one living system compared to others like it, more or less. Creating the hierarchies of understanding, of classifications, from the living species of the world, to the stars in the galaxies, to the relationship of each language to all known others, and on & on. Most All of it created by a single repeating principle in the human brain, which creates predictive control. Because we can FIND all of those events, organized predictable in those lists, indices, dictionaries, maps, and everything else, too. organized, highly related to with the relationship both specific and innate, and implied. This means better understanding, predictable, controllable and we can add ad lib, as we need and must. These are the massive, unlimited evidences for the use of the comparison process within our minds/brains in our daily lives

Hostadter wrote of analogy as an important part of how we think. However, how is the analogy read, interpreted and created? The analogy word cluster of metaphor, parable, fable, story, Koan, simile, anecdote, story, etc., is a vaster piece of the same evidence. but this is what has been missed. We create and read each of those instances, from the analogies and metaphors of teaching, poetry and language, to the parables of Jeshua to the fabled stories of Aesop and even the instructive myths of the ancient Greeks, which explain to us how we should act and how events work. & most all of them work by the comparison process. Those higher abstractions which guide our moral lives, and guide our scientific methods and the life saving applications in the medical science and specialties, too. This is the ubiquity of the comparison process.

6. Here is a detailed, well established system showing the outcomes of the comparison processes, the method of comparison. Stark shows a massive and highly important aspect of it, as solid, established, substantiated evidence of its omnipresence in our lives, and why the sciences can do what they do. This article shows how it works and “The Promised land…” shows how it’s a basic part of a much larger brain system, our very mental processes, themselves..

Previously have written of the comparison process as being the origin/source of the feedback, output/input cycles. Of positive feedback which creates growth and of negative feedback which creates control to self organize our brain/minds.
“Empirical Introspection”; see section 16.
Peruse please sections 10 thru 12.

7. Now, the comparison process can be seen as the mind/brain interface, as written above. It has many characteristics as its the output of the complex system of neurophysiology arising from the 100,000’s cortical cell columns. These characteristics are self reflexiveness, recursivity, self-consistency and repetitive. And from that too, a kind of consistency which underlies our systems of thinking. The comparison process models the universe of events, which also contain consistent, recursive, repetitive events, such as trees, rocks, clouds, the moon, stars and planets, the leaves of grass and of trees and the needles and complex leaves of the conifers, etc. complexity without limit, but with an underlying reiterative, recursive nature.. Where ever we look, even in our own buildings, blocks of housing and businesses, we see the repetitive, re-iterative, recurrences of electrons and protons, atoms, molecules, which the comparison processes in our brains have evolved to carefully model. This very close symmetry between the repetitive, recursive nature of events in our universe also has shaped this outcome of our cortices, the comparison process, yielding recognitions, pattern recognition, outcomes comparisons, trial and error which compares outcomes of methods used to our goals, & which we use most every day, and so forth. Even in the sciences these same universal elements are especially seen.

Taking the periodic table of the elements, we can see the comparison process once again, massively repeatedly at work. Mendeleev found that there were certain common characteristics, consistencies of the elements. He found the alkali metals group of Li, Na, K, Cs, and then postulated a new element eka-Cesium where rubidium and further, francium were eventually found. He saw the noble gases, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and because such models are fruitful as it is their nature to be, then xenon and radon were found. In the halogen series, he ordered a linear column of fluorine, bromine, iodine, etc. Then the ferrous group metals, the platinum group, the rare earths, and the uranides and transuranides. It was massive comparison processing of the data creating relationships of types, kinds and categories, which we call pattern recognition. All arising from a simple, repeating process in the cortex called the comparison process.

8. But there is more, far, far more and this is the fruitfulness of the comparison process and its creativity. The comparison process very likely mimics and simulates the underlying cortical cell column, neuronal feedback loop system, which takes information, be it ideas/words or sensory, mostly visual inputs, compares it to others to create a primary recognition by calls to Long Term Memory(LTM) & or working memory. & then feeds back that into the processor to find higher and higher levels of organization and order. In doing so it simplifies and organizes events in existence by thermodynamic efficiency of the Least Energy Principle. It also creates predictive control, and so is multiply useful and active.

This is what creates the hierarchies and classifications as well, as allows us to navigate among those same classification models. & because it’s a least energy principle (LEP), it’s also favored by its simplifications and powers of organization to describe a very great deal, with just a little. & stabler besides as LEP methods create that, too.

9. In a “Mother’s Wisdom”

shows 3 more comparison methods of the Least Energy Principle being used and then fed back to create a generalized rule for using LEP with Trial &Error methods working. Then a 3rd more generalized rule which if the system is used more often will give more and faster long term benefit. It’s fruitful, self propagating because of those high, competitive advantages, including most importantly, predictive control, a la Hinton and Friston.

Please peruse paragraph 5 for the meat of the issue “…the repeating principle in brain which creates predictive control”. That is the crux of the issue detailed and explicated in a “Mother’s Wisdom” by 3 three examples above, of unlimited such examples, once again.

Clearly, repeating, efficient methods, which are used the most often, should be the most efficient to maximize benefit. Thus if we use it only once per month, increasing the efficiency is not as useful and cost saving, as a method we use a number of times per day. So once more up and up we go in the hierarchies of creativity, organization, order and thus, knowledge and understanding. How most everything relates to most everything else. What we call knowledge, and can lead to a higher order, moral wisdom and the technologies, too. the outputs, the applications of knowledge.

& a fourth and ever deeper point, is that of the rule of 72 & compound interest. If we gain for example, a 10% benefit compared to another method each time we preferentially use that method, then the benefit compounds according to the rule of 72. Using it a lot is far more beneficial than using it a little bit, because when we compare the two, we get more from more usage of it. This is the major force driving evolution. Previously, it has been though to be survival of the fittest via competition and being more capable of competing and reproducing.

10. In fact, that’s not the only deep analysis. Take for instance a metabolic system which creates energy, such as the chlorophyll cycle in the chloroplast. Those vary in efficiencies according to species. Those which can convert more sunlight into sugars and starches can be compared. And if such a system is working more efficiency, viz., has a higher output over time in a single species, or a variety of a species, when compared, then it will confer a compound interest advantage by that means alone. Further, if there are ANY other metabolic efficiencies in any species compared to its own species or others, that efficiency will compound over the centuries, as well.

The same is true not just of cellular metabolism but the efficiencies of the organs working together, and of the behaviors of the plant, or animal in how it interacts with its environment. A more efficient method of reproduction will result in compound interest growth, which is the insects’ primary means of success and survival. A more efficient method of finding food by ants, such as the travelling salesman problem using pheromones, or in bees using memory systems for finding and harvesting nectar & pollen, will also be such a compound interest effect. Thus in fact, the LEP drives cellular as well as structural & multicellular behaviors in the same way. And those can be measured and compared.

And finally, in the same way, modeling & decoding the universe using a comparison process operating repeatedly in our cortices, which creates predictive control, ALSO creates a compound interest advantage in whatever primate species uses it. So, this accounts for the brains of humans, which can vastly manipulate our environment using our minds, compared to the other animals. And such advantages are clearly apparent in the way we move all others out of their niches and put our own domesticated animals & plants there instead. The comparison processing of our brains, the repeated input of outputs, and inputs yielding outputs, and then re-iterating that input/output cycle, without limit. It acts as a compound interest generator of control and output. This not only drives our evolution, but most all developments of our cultures, our sciences, economics and most everything else, including languages. Thus evolution proceeds in terms of least energy principles. Those favored by compound interest advantages conferred. the western nations successes in physical as well as cultural conquest of the rest of the world because their methods/technologist were a lot better (efficient) due to cultural behaviors. The USA won out with the largest economy in the world by the 1920’s because of the same process of high, efficient utilizing of resources compared to the others.

In the California gold rush, this was very clear. The Latin cultures there of Spain and Mexico KNEW of the gold, but largely ignored it. The English/German cultures of the east coast, south and midwest, took advantage of that vast resource, and built the state of California on the 100’s of millions ounces gold which the Latins had ignored. This created the financial basis of wealth to build California in terms of massive population growth and money to build further, funding the railroads and cities which further expanded the wealth.

Similarly western cultures took coal and oil and developed more efficient and indeed solar independent, efficient systems to economically expand all over the planet, acquiring in time every single nations except for Thailand, which the Japanese first conquered using adopted, western methods. Thus the LEP is very likely the driving force not only for evolution but of cultures and economics and even languages. The most efficient, over the long run, win. Least Energy Rules.

Very likely, as a corollary of the 2nd law that system tend towards maximal energy release & entropy, the LEP should be ensconced as the FOURTH law of thermodynamics because it’s so very important in processes operating in our universe.
This article develops these LEP in ever more detail.

Sadly, most of us were never taught this rule of least energy, and had to figure it out ourselves even though it’s mentioned in the “McGraw/Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology”. Just why that hugely important omission occurred boggles the mind, because it lies so very deeply at the root of human understanding & is so very important in understanding our world, and beyond. It can very likely create systems of universal understanding.

So we have established then least energy principle, complex systems principles(in previous articles) & the comparison process. Now we need to discuss the deeper & deepest implications of the input/output feedback cycles in the cortex from which the comparison process arises.

The self sustaining feedback, input—>output loops of the cortex. Input >COMP> output, the middle symbol being the comparison process.

It’s been stated that the feedback system model can easily be created by the comparison process.
“A Field Trip into the Mind” see section 16

But in fact, the comparison process is a simulation, an emergent phenomenon which reflects the underlying neurophysiology. That physiology is a complex feedback loop, self-sustaining and found ubiquitously in the cortical cell columns. this at once explains and has enormously important consequences and once again explains a lot with a little.

The application of this method to the behaviorist model is at once obvious. Stimulus yields response, a form of the cause yield effects, structure/function relationship, and all endlessly repeating as they are created by the endless comparison processes. This creates depths within depths, the hierarchies, the endless reiterations of the babushkas nested 1 within each other, the reductionist model hierarchies, the nested Chinese boxes & even the nested shrines of Amentutankh (King Tut), nested from the outer canopies to the inner large sarcophagus, the one of gold, & then the next level down, the mask and finally the mummy wrapping, as all nested within each other. Universal methods of comparison processing.

11. Seizures are explained by this method as an unlimited feedback, input/output event as well. It’s long been noted that the tonic-clonic seizures we see arise largely from the cortex which has been damaged in some ways. One spike starts, then begins to entrain those neurons nearby and the classical Jacksonian seizure spreads until very often a tonic/clonic, grand mal seizure is seen. This is at once obviously created by the endless feedback loops of the cortical cell columns which generate the comparison process, without limit. It’s a set up for the regular spiking which is seen there and spreads taking over the cortex for several minutes to quite some time. The basic seizure of spike, spike, spike is simply the endless feedback loops of electrical activity moving through the cortical cell columns, gone dreadfully wrong and creating the repetitive tonic/clonic movements. It’s the natural outcome of the built in cortical feedback loops. and thus TELLS us, giving more solid evidence for the feedback cortical loops within our cortex. It’s yet another manifestation of what gives rise to the comparison process, and this time very dangerous and badly gone wrong. It’s a very subtle, but omnipresent hint about what’s going on in our cortices.

Not only the cortex but other areas of the brain can create seizures, too. And these must naturally be considered MORE built in feedback neuronal connections which create them. Clearly, the model works.

Then comes the spike/wave of petit mal seizures, regular repetitions imitating the regularity created by these feedback systems in our cortical cell columns which creates the endless inputs yielding outputs, again and again. But as these occur in smaller children, it indicates a more immature and earlier form of the feedback loops,which do not find their maturity until ages 12-14, at which time fewer and fewer petit mal/absence attacks are seen. At that time, accordion to Piaget, the child begins to reason logically. In other words the cortex begins to be more able to feed back outcomes of recognition into the CCC’s and created the depths within depths of deeper and deeper understanding, abstraction, logical thinking and the deeper connections and greater power of such abstractions. Thus, once again the petit mal evidences a more immature cortex, & thus mostly disappears when the cortex matures to a higher level of feedback recognitions, creating the understandings of morality, the law, the reasoning & more rational processes maturing within the brain. The emergent quality of higher reasoning, which Piaget has found coming about at the 12-14 y/o time. More in ” Ages of the Brain, Brain Hardwiring” article.

And we see seizures in dogs and other animals as well. Which means they have similar cortical feedback loops of recognitions, which are also susceptible to repeating seizures very similar to ours. These similarities of comparison outcomes explain a LOT with a little, you see?

That photic stimuli create seizures and entrain those susceptible neurons, just like the grand mall/petit mal do as well. and creates with higher rates of stimuli, the grand mal seizures and often only short term spikes and spike waves, which do not always proceed to visible or detectable seizures. The very structure of the cortex feedback, input output loops reflect the nature of the comparison process from which it arises as the lowest common denominator of the brain. And the entrainment of the neurons in cortical evoked responses, VER’s, BAER’s, and P-300 are just more of the same underlying feedback loops.

Thus the comparison process develops at & from the mind brain interface (The Relativity of the Cortex, the Mind Brain Interface article here). of the CCC’s.

This is the point, the comparison process itself mimics, reflects, models and simulates the complex underlying neurophysiology of the feedback systems of the cortex, which creates the similarly input/output work of the comparison processes. It’s not only evidence of it, it arises directly from that. And this allows us to understand further how it comes about and identify ever more specifically what’s going on in the 6 laminar columns of the cortices.

12. The Alpha waves arise in the cortex as resting phenomena all over the cortex of the awake brain. When we think and use our comparison processes by extension, the alpha disappears into complex wave form outputs. Then it once again appears as those areas of cortex rest. This clear cut, 1:1 correspondence between thought and alpha waves shows us where the neurophysiological comparitor very likely is: in the pyramidal layers 4 and 5 of the cortex, wherein the alpha waves also arise. This is where to look for the recognitions and unlimited feedback loops of the comparison processes.

The thalamus creates a generator which drives the alpha waves in the cortex. How does this come about and why does it exist? It’s very clear. The alpha generator of the thalamus is a sort of synchronizing clock which keeps the brain working all together. Thus most all processes in brain are synchronized and can work together.

It’s highly suggested by these evidences that the alpha activity are these feedback loops on idle. And as soon as they are used the alpha is replaced by complex cortical waves which reflect this. In fact the P-300 is consistent with an easy 2-3 alpha wave summation time, too.

But then we just ask, if the alpha waves reflect the comparison process on idle and these circuits of feedback loops when they do work, then what are the beta waves on the EEG? & this is rather easy. In every nervous system there are the inhibitory and the excitatory neurons & their neurochemicals & receptors which modulate and mediate these. Dopamine and the catecholamines, adrenaline & noradrenaline, promote activation. Too much of these can create seizures, which is a critical point. GABA and serotonin calm down these electrical activities. So do the sedatives which create very obvious changes in the EEG. When barbiturates & other soporifics, or indeed ANY kind of sedatives are used, the BETA waves increase in amplitudes, that is, their activity is enhanced, and the person is sedated. This means that beta is likely a reflection of the inhibitory controls meant to keep the alpha and excitatory systems under careful control, too. & indeed, in seizures, GABApentin does exactly that, blocks seizures, again, arising from the over excitability of the cortex. This is no accident & is a critical insight into cortical functions. Thus the EEG reflects not only the comparison process and cortical evoked potentials at work in creating recognitions and pattern recognitions of the hierarchies, but also the beta which demarcates the strength of the controlling, inhibitory influences of GABA, serotonin and likely other endogenous neurochemicals, too. Thus the comparison process arises from the innately structured, 6 laminar levels in the cortex, as the alpha circuits, & is controlled by the systems which create the beta activity to modulate it. This explains very neatly the underlying electrophysiology of the cortex. Again, least energy principle form of the comparison process.

This further shows us where the comparitor in the brain is located, the origin of the comparison process, it’s anatomic center. In levels 4 and 5 of the cortex we find large pyramidal cells, with huge numbers of synaptic connections. That is where the alpha waves are seen, and that is where our thinking is done. Thus, the comparitor structure of the cortex is mostly at levels 4 & 5, and around that site the basic comparison processes are located. Once we figure out what’s going on in the cortex using comparison process thinking, then we can figure out the overall structure/function of the cortex, without having to know the complex neurophysiology and all of the impossible to comprehend complexities of 50-60K neurons in each CCC, all interacting with the others, which create the comparison process. It cuts through the complexity and allows us a simplifying, easy to understand route to what’s going in the cortex. It cuts the Gordian knot of the cortical complexity problem and gives us useful answers. Not only do we then understand the complicated input/output circuits which create the comparison process, which mimics out/input, but also seizures of at least two kinds and more, plus what the alpha and beta waves on EEG’s very likely represent.

13. Let’s apply this briefly to autism. We know that the more severely affected autistic children have severe recognition and cognitive problems. Those by the facts shown above give us part of the answers to the problems of autism. Their cortical cell columns are not normal. This is a fact of neuropathology and is well known. Where levels 4 & 5 are damaged, or the laminar architecture is abnormal there will be severe cognitive deficits, which will severely limit language, social interactions and much else besides, esp. the higher abstractions.

But we know that autistic children can present with a whole spectrum of severity from very severe, to only moderate forms. A simple MRI will show this cortical damage, if done carefully, and further show spottiness of the damage as well. In those cortical areas which have more normal size and cortical structure there will be a relative sparing of abstractive, cognitive deficits. Thus this comparison process model even can help us with autism, how to evaluate it and tell us specifically what to look for AND who is likely to benefit from early therapy and who will not so much. Most of the crucial answers to the likely many origins of autisms lie in the cortex, probably.

14. In a future article, “The Balanced Brain” several examples of this balance between dopamine and serotonin in many normal as well as pathological conditions will be shown and further explicated. It’s a very deep understanding of how the cortex works, as well, and greatly simplifies our understanding of the complex neurochemistry & neurophysiology of the cortex, which likely arise NOT upon the absolute levels of neurochemicals, but upon the comparative Balance of those activities of neurochemicals & receptors. Thus, the “Balanced Brain”.

15. Comparison process works because it takes and finds from inputs those identical, matching, very similar events, and puts them together as a recognition. Finding several events which have thus been tied together simplifies the model. Much is ordered and understood with less. So the model is least energy, saves time, energy, and resources and thus is LEP, more stable and capable of greater simplicity and power than other methods. & this advantage compounds both additively & as simple interest, creating a growth advantage by compound interest, and thus is also stabler too, because it’s more efficient. This then gives a deeper explanation of how the comparison process succeeds and works so well.

In addition since the universe is very likely all connected at the deepest quantum level, (Depths within Depths),

The comparison process models and tries to find those connections to once again simplify down most everything. & it succeeds incredibly well. It defrags the system, taking the various pieces of common methods, processes, & events, then links them together, and thus comprehends the whole much better. Just like a defragging program on a hard disc restructures the hard disc to greater and faster and higher efficiency of use, & takes far, far less time to run, too.

The comparison process is thus an immense simplifier of huge amounts of data by its very nature and is LEP as well. Again, it matches the repetitive occurrence of similar events by putting them together, clouds, trees, grasses, leaves, storms, stars, etc., in the end creating a LEP organization and hierarchies of understanding. This is how the complex self-sustaining, feedback loops of the cortex becomes mind, by inputs of the output to find the regularities & stabilities, the pattern recognitions, the associations & the relationships of events. & is the relativity of the cortex. Simple, yet complex. Simple yet very, very deep and without limits as far as we humans are concerned. That single, repeating process in the cortex which creates understanding via recognition of similarities and matches. The Comparison Process, which arises at the interface of the cortical cell columns and the mind.

16. Let us look further at more brain pathologies and find yet again, these input/output loops in the cortex. From our work with computers we know that those processing systems can get into unlimited feedback loops which can shut down the system. Programmers know this, and often have ways to prevent these loops from arising. Human seizures are also very likely such loops, as those are shut down by GABA and serotonin, and perhaps other systems. & then the person goes to sleep afterwards in the post-ictal state, due to over driving of the cortical cell columns and depletion of dopamine, plus much higher inhibitory neurochemical activities, which usual take about 20′ or so to restore to normal levels, very likely also. & the person wakes up after the seizure. But are there other evidence of these unlimited feedback loops in the brain going awry?

We know the human brain can prevent such unlimited loops from arising using inhibitory circuits, their biochemistries. We see perseverations in the manias, dementias, etc. This once again, is an unlimited loop arising & creating pathological consequences. Perseverations are repetitions of behavior such as words, actions, and so forth, which occur again and again. We also see these in rocking of the mentally ill, and the displacement activities of the habits of personality disorders. So there they are again. They are NOT least energy, as they are meaningless & worthless to the survival of the organism. So those are similarly depressed in normal people, too.

17. Consider habituation, a well known mental condition where we get bored with the same inputs and begin to ignore them and turn our attentions to other activities. Habituation is thus, very likely, yet another inhibitory circuitry/neurochemical event in brain meant to prevent those unlimited loops from arising. Boredom, ennui, and this kind of of “I need to do something else” are very likely evidences of this sort of brain mechanism to prevent the occurrences of unlimited loops, again by using inhibitory neurochemicals & physiology.

In the manias and psychoses, however we see that habituation is not there enough. Those so afflicted simply cannot easily get used to inputs, and so cannot habituate. But when GABA is increased, the lack of habituations stop due to the inhibitory effects of same. The sedations of the dopamine blockers also do this, tool. And as has been recently found, a faulty & weakened GABA inhibition found genetically in the manias and psychoses, creates this very problem. Complex system outputs, again. The inability to habituate & block repetitive, unlimited loops indicates faulty inhibitory circuitry.

OCD’s are much the same. In these conditions we see repetitive, very injurious and worthless repeats of the same behaviors. open and closing doors, sprucing before a mirror, endlessly, saying the same phrases over and over again, and so forth. These repeated complex behaviors are, not surprisingly, controlled fairly well using the SSRI’s which increase serotonin, which again, inhibits the dopamine circuitry which drive these repetitive acts. It blocks the unlimited feedback loops the OCD;’s get into. And indeed OCD patients often complain about those “Loops” they get into. This again showing deeper self insights into the cortical cell columns’ predisposition to get into those same input/output feedback loops which normally create recognitions, but in pathological conditions create worthless, repeated behaviors. So, once again, the input/output model of cortical cell functions gives greater understanding not only of normal processes, but seizures, perseveration, obsessive compulsive disorders and very likely much, much more, too.

19, Anorexia can also be more easily and better understood using this model. Essentially, we know that nicotine, dopamine and the catecholamines and their analogs pharmacologically decrease appetite to eat. Anorexia is simply a highly pathological excess of dopamine, being repeatedly created by LTM sustained behaviors. Nausea at the thought of eating is simply related to dopamine reinforcement, because the catecholamines can create nausea, until this becomes a learned behavior, thus promoting and sustaining the behavior. DA blockers can thus be used to stop much of the nausea, as they are powerful anti-nauseants, and thus limit the excess DA boost these behaviors induce. Then repeated rerouting of pathological memory tracings and habits by desensitizing training of the synaptically enhanced pathways can steadily reduce such bad actions. But understanding that anorexia is a self reinforcing, DA mediated in part, plus synaptically stabilized is going on, will go far in terms of actual treatment of the anorexias, too. More in “Ages of the Brain….”.

20. It’s very tempting at this point to bring in the idea of what human consciousness may consist of using this model. We know via carbon monoxide poisoning, which in some cases only damages the cortex, but leaves most of the rest of the brain intact, that those persons are simply gone in terms of personality, language, thinking, memory, and often have cortical blindness and the inability to move or sense what’s going on except for spinal reflexes. Essentially, when the cortex is damaged by hypoxia, the consciousness is gone. This clearly establishes the consciousness of personalities, abstractive functions, many emotions, and well as the sensations, etc., in the final common pathways of the cortex. The rest of the brain may be nearly normal, but the person is not there any more.

So this established to a good degree of likelihood, we can state that the feedback loops of the cortex are where the many functions of consciousness come from. And that thus, the collective CCC’s are the seat of working, practical awareness, language, indeed most of those traits of consciousness we evaluate and measure by clinical examination and which are necessary for normal human mental functions. The feedback loops of consciousness and the mental processes are in the cortex, as is the comparitor in the CCC’s which gives rise to the comparison process and the outputs of consciousness.

21. Let us further consider how this applies and extends the behaviorist approaches to human mental functions, i.e., outputs. Essentially, they use classical conditioning and operant conditioning to explain behaviors, education & learning. Wisely, they considered 90 years ago the brain as a “black box” which was then largely impervious to understanding. But our more modern discoveries and methods of investigation using fMRI, MEG, and related tools, plus the findings of advanced neurophysiology have rolled back & made moot quite a lot of this “black box” problem.

In addition their stimulus yields response tool is used. And the reinforcing of behaviors until they become learned are critical. But let us extend the behaviorist model. Previously they believed that it was only external reinforcements which created learning and such. The reinforcement of food, and other positive reinforcements promoted behaviors. We know that drugs such as amphetamines, opiates, cocaine, even nicotine and the dimethylxanthines (caffeine, etc.)can create dopamine induced reinforcements of behaviors, called addictions, although they are often associated with serious systemic effects and even death.

But the external reinforcement of drugs alone, shows us something ever more deeply. As has been shown in “The Emotional continuum”,

and in “The Spark of Life….”

there exists a very significant INTERNAL reinforcement which is creating and sustaining behaviors, as well. & it IS the dopamine boost, which has been explored in quite some details by the above articles, among others. The dopamine boost self-reinforces learning activities by applying positive reinforcement of dopamine & good feelings to drive learning, curiosity, the emotions, even love, humor, and other behaviors. This internally arising dopamine boost from the cortex was simply missed by the behaviorist movement, because it ignored the black box’s internal activities. But with all due respect, they got the idea of reinforcements correct. Those are ALSO working inside the cortex as the dopamine boost!! And when combined with the dopamine boost, which is at the heart of reinforcing behaviors from both internal and external sources, the behaviorist model is both extended and becomes a more powerful instrument in understanding human motivations, behaviors, learning and so forth.

21. Dopamine even enhances learning as can easily be shown. Whenever we have one of those threatening or even mountaintop experiences, there is a huge amount of dopamine given off. Can recall to this day what happened 50 years ago when a young woman hit my car’s left fender in a parking lot. The flight or fight response of adrenal release of adrenaline, cortisol and dopamine produced that heightened awareness and “slow down” so often felt and experienced. That thrill, and the episodes was many times reinforced until synaptic lay down of protein occurred and the long term memory was created of that event. I can’t forget that single episode even to this day. But all the other events around it that day, have long since fled from my LTM, in contrast. The same boost effect was the case with a visit to Yosemite for the first time at Glacier Point. This was the time of the spring melt off of snow, increasing water runoff to power the many marvelous waterfalls in the valley, as noted in the first part of this article. Those episodes are burned into our LTM by the dopamine release which clearly, observably & actually enhances memory and recall of such events.

Thus by incorporating the dopamine boost and reinforcements into our methods of understanding behaviors, we extend them and learn ever more about what is going on. The external reinforcers are but reflections of that deeper, internalized dopamine system operating/created by our cortical cell columns which create our creativity, our learning, and the self reinforcements of repeated dopamine boosts which continue to create stable personality behaviors such as love, hatreds, likes and dislikes and most of the rest. This is a natural extensions of behaviorism, which got it right, but as most of our models do, was not complete. & these small additions simply acknowledge the essential correctness of the behaviorist model by extending it much further and deeper in many respects. using the internalized dopamine boost as the method.

Memory traces of the cortex first found by wilder Penfield are the evidences of sustained, brain hardwired feedback cycles occurring widely in brain. Memories, habits, behaviors. the positive feedback cycle of feeling good with increased even too much dopamine, which is the additive potential of cocaine, amphetamine, opiates, etc., are also solid evidences of it.

23. Let us consider narcissism, which is generally what we used to call “spoiled brats”, who behave with a stable personality structure which is very self centered, often exploitation, and often an essential part of sociopathic behaviors, where they cannot understand much at all how other people feel. They are obvious to the damage and insults they give to others as well. Such behaviors are called “egosyntonic”, which means they tend to reinforce themselves and are very, very hard to unlearn, much less have the person develop insights about those disorders. And how does this disorder come about? Because of the dopamine boost they get whenever they are sarcastic, rude, facetious, and highly critical of others. They get a superior sense of self-worth from the boost by doing such internal, mental processes. The dopamine boost is thus likely the origin of the self sustaining, egocentric, egosyntonic activities, and how these drive the narcissistic person to ignore and be highly critical of others by using such methods.

If they become aware by some method which creates insight, that they are doing such acts, then those can be largely prevented. If dopamine blockers are also used, these will also tend to decrease the boost’s effects and over time may abolish the behaviors. But since those are synaptically created and enhanced in LTM, they are unlikely to be easily changed, unless those synaptic connections are also rerouted, disconnected or disrupted by some means. More on this kind of treatment for such stable personality disorders will be found in the coming article on “Ages of the Brain; the Synaptic Hardwiring of the Brain”.

But it’s clear that this model of the internalized dopamine boost which reinforces drug seeking behaviors, & repeated narcissistic behaviors can be specifically identified and treated, which can result in improvements, though not as complete in many ways as we’d like. These insights are comparison process mediated both in discovering how these disorders specifically work in each individual and by identifying them can create the means to break down those behaviors over time, esp. if in young children. There are other ways of doing it, by inducing the boost for more mature and self-effacing methods, but those are also covered in the “Ages of the Brain….”.

24. To bring this article to a close, it’s necessary to once more revisit the multiplicit capabilities of the comparison process and its also universally applicable method, the Least Energy Principle. The comparison process can be used to compare almost everything against most everything else. It’s thus a universal tool, a kind of universal mental process or logic to be used to understand, decode, translate and widely simplify, above all, making sense of events not only within us, but outside of us. It helps us understand how mind arises from the cortical neurophysiology. It also shows us how the universe outside of us operates to a very high degree of comprehension.That the comparison process can provide this kind of universal understanding, both within us and outside of us, is unprecedented, as well. The Logic of it is clear.

25. The LEP can also be applied to customs, language, laws, indeed most all of our methods to see which methods work best, doing the most with the least in terms of our goals. Thus, all languages are translated via the comparison process, and it creates universal understandings, too. Even when we meet as we must in time likely do, other space faring species or intelligences, we can use comparison of events in existence to build up a common translation of our languages or representational systems into the other’s. Thus literally, it creates methods of universal understanding, not only for comprehending the many species of our world, but of all worlds, universe wide. “Depths within Depths” shows this extra-ordinary commonality of our universe, because the laws of chemistry, physics and gravity/mass, & space/time are observed everywhere to be the same.

These are the ways out of the endless loops of mental illnesses, delusions, and traps of body and spirit. This marks the Exit” sign of red and white from the mind traps of the idealisms, the external addictions of drugs, videos and sex, the meaningless and emptinesses of boredom and even ennui, and loss of Joie de Vivre. It shows how to end both the internalized, addictions, the endless feedback loops of the mind traps, This points the way to endless joy and the Spark of Life and Soul of Wit. It shows how every day can be another day of joy and wonderment, of discovery and creation. Indeed it’s the wellspring of Joy and creativity, the inspiring dopamine boost.

For those trapped in the endless wheels, repetitions and circles of life so widely noted in Sanskrit, These are the ways out of poverty, meaninglessness and emptiness. Here are the doors to the way out, to unlimited creativity, discovery, and joys. Everyday reinforcing itself, self sustaining life and the pleasure of philosophy, as well. As we interact each day with other persons & events in the universe, we learn more, discover, and derive pleasure from our interactions, constantly renewing that which is built into our very brains/minds, and then learning more, which then repeats the dopamine boosts and inspirations and goodness throughout our lives.

Thus the adoption of the comparison process models and methods can potentially create not only universal and unifying understanding upon our own planet, but ever more with most all intelligences and races everywhere in this universe. This is the ultimate and unlimited Promised Land of the Undiscovered Country, the comparison process of unlimited methods & complex system methods create unlimited comprehensions and decoding methods, which can create universal understanding wherever properly and intelligently & wisely used.

Thus, “La Chanson sans Fin, Universelle”.

Explanandum 6: Understanding Complex Systems

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014

Complex systems are by their very nature, well, complex!! This means that from the large number of interactions which create complex systems, a very great many outputs may arise. As such, it’s necessary to detail the relevant parts of that to create more understanding of the whole. Surely, for those not familiar with complex systems it’s hard to understand. But once we understand that the word cluster of “comprehension, understanding, figuring it out, “seeing” it, connecting the dots, making the connections” and so forth, are but forms of a larger word cluster (an expanded form of the older, parent term, “synonym”) including visualizing events, and insights into events, the very multiplicity of complex systems is better seen, characterized and thus understood.

Please understand, what some may term digressions are in fact further evidences and explications of what is being stated. They are in fact quite relevant in a direct way as are other related writing forms, which DO provide “evidence based” substantiations to what is being written. It’s evidentiary thinking and explication.

For instance, the dopamine neurochemical system has 9-10 receptor sites, and probably more subtypes. This is a way in which linear systems point by point, receptor site by site, can create a complex system. Where we find multiple receptor sites, we are also looking at a complex system, you see? One compound, dopamine (DA), the parent catecholamine, from which epinephrine(Adrenalin) and norepinephrine are created, has many, many diverse, but related functions. So, yes, It’s not easy to comprehend. But this expansive style of writing is necessary to combine many of the other important aspects of the same complex system. So while it’s harder to read, in one sense, it’s the only practical way to bring together many of the diverse ways in which complex systems work. & to more fully characterize the whole system.

In another instance, Insulin is a polypeptide, and the usual common, linear, simple belief is that it reduces blood sugar. That’s part of it. Insulin is a complex polypeptide, it drops blood sugar by attaching to a cell’s receptor site and making it take in glucose molecules. So in time it does drop blood sugar. But that’s NOT all it does, by any means. It also drops K+ (potassium) levels as anyone who’s given insulin knows, because we must replete the K+ as the glucose levels drop.

Insulin ALSO builds muscle. Bodybuilders would like to do this, but insulin will create hypoglycemia in normal person so it can’t be used. They use ILGF (insulin like growth factor) which is not such a potent glucose reducer in blood, but Also makes muscles grow, too. It competes at similar insulin receptor sites and the muscle building athletes do use this as well.

Insulin has complex activities, and it will also effectively block keto-acidosis esp. in those who have too low insulin levels. So it has a LOT of effects. In type 2 diabetes, AODM-2, the extra insulin creates hypglycemia and the serious symptoms from that as well when blood glucose drops, too. But it’s not well known that there is a cure for diabetes, tho while draconian and with serious side effects from the surgery, it does work and well. If the distal 2/3 of the stomach is cut out by a gastric sleeve, or partial or full gastrectomies, the AODM-2 goes away within several weeks, almost entirely.

No more treatment with insulin or other meds are needed, in most cases. Why does this happen? No one knows. But as the AODM-2 is insulin resistance, meaning more insulin than usual is required to reduce glucose, there must be something blocking insulin effects, which is being produced by the stomach.

There are multiple ways of raising blood sugar, in order to regulate it. Release of corticosteroids from the adrenals, and epinephrine, which gives many of the side effects of low blood sugar. The creation of glucose from proteins by the liver, or release of sugar from glycogen in the muscles and body. A considerable hunger can also be produced, which when starches and sugars are taken, the blood sugar rises.

Similarly, there are ways of controlling too high or too low insulin levels. and one of these is probably the problem from the stomach’s many, many scores of polypeptides it creates. One or so of them is probably tying up an insulin receptor site and this is what’s creating the insulin resistance and diabetes. Used normally to decrease and control insulin from getting too much activity, it goes wrong in AODM-2. Just why there is so many persons with the diabetes/diabetic gene, which can be lethal (30% of the population or so and much higher at 85% in the Pima Indians where there is starvation due to desert climate and thus more famine) is obvious. This has been further discussed in the “How to Get a Nobel Prize ” series in “How to Cure Diabetes”
We can’t fully describe complex systems using linear methods, you see. Those can somewhat approximate, but can’t completely describe them. Much as Moses couldn’t reach the “Promised Land”, linear methods can’t either get there. But as my forthcoming article, “The Promised Land of the Undiscovered Country”, will show the ways of getting over that abyss separating linear methods dominant now, compared to the coming complex system methods, to show us the enormous “Undiscovered (by linear systems) Country” of complex systems. We are a machine culture, where pushing a button does one thing only, or using a key to unlock a door. Complex systems are very different from machines and are not linear, doing many tasks, as with the DA and Insulin systems, with single inputs resulting in many, many outcomes. They are far, far more efficient because those do a lot more with a lot less, and are how most systems work and arise.

We cannot understand complex systems very well with current math, linear thinking, logics, and methods. But the comparison process can explore these better by recognizing many of their characteristics and going from there. The visual plate tectonic model is a complex system created from these recognitions, relationships and characteristics, using concepts of plates interacting with each other, such as subduction, volcanoes arising from that geological process, and earthquake faults. Or sea floor upwelling & spreading creating the spreading zones, highly active in the north and south Atlantic. This is also seen on land in a rift zone north and south of the Afar triangle, an area stretching as far north as the Dead Sea, and then well south thru the Red Sea into the Afar. It then creates a spreading zone of the East African rift, which is 1000’s of miles long. Also sea floor Hot spots are a major aspect of this plate characteristic. All plates are moving with respect to other plates in a complex, unpredictable in the long term way. This cannot be apprehended by anything but comparison processing and visual systems. We’ve seen the cartooning which shows Pangaea breaking up, over the 100’s of millions of years, leading at present to our world of continents, mountain ranges, etc. But this cannot be extended very far, because it’s an N-body problem of multiple plates interacting which creates the complex system of the earth’s surface. Thus plate tectonics is a complex system.

To explain the comparison process and complex systems requires a divergent style of writing, & must be expansive enough to bring in a much wider understanding of how complex systems work, within each case of a complex system. Yes, it’s tough to comprehend and see what’s going on. But that’s the way they are. And a comprehensive writing style such as I use, is necessary to more fully express the myriads of ways these systems work. There is no “Royal Road” to understanding geometry. We have to do the work to learn it. In the same way, we have to do the plodding work to understand complex systems, too. I’ve been working 40 years on this, and just now am beginning to get the results and insights needed to understand complex systems a lot better.

Tightening up the style means “simplifying to a more linear style”. That can’t be done when describing complex systems to any major degree. Otherwise we end up creating a least mean squares line, which ignores the multiple points which do in fact exist, & tries to ignore the patterns of complex events which are going on. James Gleich writes about this in “Chaos” and fractals are but a part of what’s going on.

Let’s use a clear, medical application of complex systems thinking. In medications, or drugs, Each of these has a major effect we are looking for, for example, blood pressure control. There are what are commonly termed, “side effects”, because we want to ignore these events, which are more properly understood as “complex system effects”. Thus we, by this simple process of re-thinking about “side effects”, now understand those are much more likely to be in fact, the signs, effects and functions of complex systems. We stop ignoring events, and gain more insights into what’s going on. Just exactly like the dopamine has not ONE linear effect, but in fact creates both Motion in our motor systems, PLUS the multiplicities of Emotions as well!! It does a LOT with a little, with not ONE receptor site but 9-10 plus sites..

Using this method of complex systems thinking, coming from many angles instead of the linear, simplistic, “take the pill”, we can create a usable method to make Viagra last for 3 days from a 50 mg. tablet. This should only be used under a medical professional’s prescription. We use methods which examine how the drug is broken down by the liver, and then block that. We use a method to potentiate its effects & absorption in 3 different ways. We combine it with chocolate powder drink PLUS a cola. And the tablet is chewed up to make the absorption much faster (surface area effects maximized), and more completely, too. And so within 20′ of taking the 50 mg. tab, there is the desired effect. Which is boosted to a higher level and has not only a far, far greater success rate than the “take the pill” linear method, but which makes it act faster, and last far, far longer, almost as long as Cialis, in fact. This is the new pharmacology coming. But this has in a small way been done with some combination, dual meds before, but NEVER in the above more comprehensive, complex system ways. THAT is where we are going in the sciences, and the larger world beyond. Unlimited capabilities of doing a LOT more with a lot less, you see. This drug, sildenafil, should be used under a doctor’s prescription.

In addition new drugs are now being made which pharmacologically have not one “desired” effect, but in fact, are multiplicit, deliberately, so we can better treat complex illnesses with less & better. We are taking the “side effects” understanding them and not ignoring them any more, and turning them into improved, multiple, better working treatment effects.

So my digressions as some call them, are in fact showing the multiplicity of the complex systems which do a lot with a little. Some feel this approach is confusing. In fact, these methods enlighten, explicate, & further characterize the complex system functions more in their full glory and capabilities. “A” does Not yield only B, as in linear systems, but in complex systems also may yield C, D, F, G’, alpha, eta, and gamma/beta double prime, etc., do you see? It’s not just A or not A, which is the false dichotomy & a limit of logic, but a multiplicity of possible outcomes. & thus the receptor sites models which have this complex system form. We take the shades of gray between Not black and white, only, and thus gain in description & thus better control.

There is no “Royal Road” to understanding complex systems and the mind/brain and how it understands & functions. We MUST do the work, just as we must do to learn Archimedes’ geometry. The work means we re-organize our brains to deeper understandings made possible by the new thinking and new approaches & methods in complex systems, well beyond what’s done in linear, mathematical, logical thinking.

This is what’s going on. We cannot grow much more using linear methods to most fully comprehend our complex system living systems and the much larger universe either by IGNORING the “side effects”. The methods of machines cannot be used to understand living systems, which are NOT At ALL machines!! They are complex systems. The same is true for our emotions and personalities and the cells. The same is true for social systems, economics, markets and ecologies, even planetary systems. We must comprehend with words and visualize with events that our linear methods no longer work very well. & in order to more fully understand what’s going on, and in fact, realize that linearity leaves out a very great deal of events in the universe. Most of it, very likely. So we embrace the complexity for a vastly greater understanding of what’s going on.

A sea change is taking place in the sciences. We are shifting from linear methods of logic, simple maths, and such, to a new paradigm, a la Alex. Kuhn’s marvelous & landmark “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions”, from which we are still mining more and more information than even he expected. Complex system departments are opening up everywhere within universities and corporations. This is not an accident, but is a massive, very useful change in our epistemologies of “how we know what we know”. The linear methods have reached a point of diminishing returns. Overspecialization is blocking progress and creating a Tower of Babel. We must regain growth by simplifying the complexity using these new methods, so we can once again begin to grow. What we lose by a more complicated writing style and considerations, we gain enormously in understanding of how to do a LOT more with a lot less, which is quite another way of stating the Least Energy Principle. Or the least free energy rule, or the minimalist principles, or the rest of the thermodynamic, mathematical ways of stating much the same process, which has multiple characteristics.

General systems theory, process thinking and structuralism have been developing since about 1910, or so. So this is not really very new, but has been hard to develop given the complexity of the issues. Using linear methods to define what’s going on takes a LOT of time. We take a series of points a linear method created, and now can SEE more of the entire curve with complex system thinking in 3-D. This is a fair analogy of what we are doing, now. In other words, using the circles of Ptolemy gave a fair model but good enough, to which they added the many, many epicycles, which made it very, very complicated. Converting complicated circles to an ellipse got rid of the complexity, & created a far, far better & simpler model and which was easier to use, as Newton equations of planetary bodies where N=2, show. It’s also least energy, and thus favored in this universe!!

Please understand, am NOT writing this way to be opaque or difficult, but to more completely characterize the vastness of the capabilities of complex system approaches. As Stanislas Ulam stated while working with Fermi on complex systems & experimental maths in the 1950’s, “Calling the universe non-linear, is like calling biology the study of all non-elephants.” That simple koan, metaphor, analogy, description, etc. is what’s going on now. The universe is 99.99+% complex systems, NOT linear much at all, which only gets a piece of the elephant like the 4 blindfolded wise men, or misses the forest for the trees. & our universe is unlikely to be understood using linear methods.

This is what’s happening and thus my style of writing. Each statement adds to and explicates more of what’s going on. Sure it’s complicated, but that’s the way the world is and we must adapt or come to an end of growth.

We have reached the Promised Land, and many of us have been there and it IS a land “flowing with milk and honey”. My extension of Einstein’s epistemology as an aspect of the comparison process, and the application of the Least Energy Principle to more completely show what drives not only evolution, but models most all growth, is part of this. It even explains the memes of Richard Dawkins, why things go viral on the internet, what creates humor, fads, and fashions, political and religious movements, and the Jihad, and all very simply, too. The Dopamine boost!! Simple yet complex, A LEP method which describes a very great deal with a little. Fruitful and unlimited in application. It is essentially the wellsprings of creativity which have been found. Consider the consequences of that upon human societies.

All we ask is that those interested join us in this great new adventure of discovery.