The Comparison Process: Explananda, Pt. 2

La Chanson Sans Fin: The Comparison Process: Explananda, Pt. 2

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

21. In terms of the Comparison Process what are skills? From first hand experience in a number of fields, they are short cuts, algorithms, &/or methods will allow the user to function faster, more efficiently, more carefully and above all, more creatively in the field. Discovery hones the perceptivity, the COMP , because you are always searching for those events and ideas which will give you the answers. You get better and better at it, with the better methods built into your skills.

22. Let’s take counting pennies as a way of showing the various skills which can be developed and created by using the Comparison Process, showing the abundance of creative new ways we can do our tasks. Then understand how this example shows how, in its each unique way, the skills of all professional trades and professions can be developed.

We have many coins. So we see pennies, nickels, dimes, quarters and even a few half dollars. Using the Comparison Process, and previous learning of what coins are what, we can sort out the pennies from the rest. Sorting is a Comparison Process. Now we have to get the pennies into coin rolls. So, how do we do this? A direct approach is to simply count out 50 coins, 1 thru 50, and then drop them into the roll and seal it. But, let’s ask how a professional would do it. He’d may count them not one at a time but by 5’s, simply seeing the number by grouping 2 and 3 pennies. Then pile up the first groups into 10 penny stacks. Then count it up again and pile into the 2nd 10 penny stack, until there are 5 of them, and then putting them into the penny coin roll. Then the next. But there are other ways, thus showing the complexity of the skill and how it can be used in different ways to count pennies. He has to check and test at every point, to be sure of his count, too.

He has the first coin stack of 10 pennies. He notes that since all pennies are closely struck to be very much alike, any stack of 10 pennies is the same height. So using the 10 stacks he puts up 4 more without even counting. and by using the COMP, makes sure they are all the same height. He has counted the coins, without counting the coins!! Comparison Process, a Powerful tool. And so he does this again and again until the pennies are all counted & in rolls. & saves a LOT of time, again, the Least Energy Principle (LEP).

Other tools for coin counting would be plastic coin cylinders for 50 pennies, 100 dimes, 40 quarters, etc., each marked for the right heights of the different coins; or use a mechanical coin separator which does it lots more quickly, for those who must save lots of time, such as banks, supermarkets and large businesses.

23. In every case a skill can be improved using the Comparison Process to find faster ways, better, more efficient ways of doing a task. This is called, when more fully developed, having a skill, a profession, because the practitioner knows very much faster, better ways to do all the important tasks, having learned of these creative methods by teaching, or in many more cases, having created more himself, for their each unique way of performing the “skills upon skills” seen in skilled work of all types. Exactly how words are built up, exactly how language is created, exactly which underlies all the musical styles, and artistic work, too. Same process, endlessly repeated in education and training, and so on and so forth. Comparison Process. & there it is. Le Chanson Sans Fin.

24. Let’s take musical composition, for instance. Each composer has a set of methods, or skills, which he uses to create music. These determine his style of composition which we can easily hear. The composition of music uses the Comparison Process to create the lyricism, the flows of melody and rhythm which mark his style. Each major classical composer is at once recognized when listened to by a musician or experience amateur. The same is often true of popular music of all sorts. We use the COMP to do this, time and again. Beethoven’s music is often richly rhythmical, esp. in his 5th and 9th Symphonies. The music of Rachmaninoff has many richly lyrical and drifting melodies, esp. in his 2nd Symphony. He starts out the section just after the Scherzo with one of his most lovely and beautifully orchestrated melodies. It just drifts on and on, making one variation on the theme after another. The music of Ralph Vaughn Williams in his 3rd Symphony does much the same. And it’s a free association of one melodic variation after another, just like in the Rachmaninoff section. It just flows, a moving, streaming melody. A sort of stream of consciousness in melody.

And good writing is a lot like that. It flows from one idea to the next, cleanly seguing one segment to the next, triggering association after association, which can show one Comparison Process idea after another. Because if you know the COMP methods a composer uses, you can recreate his style of music, then if you know the writing styles, even Shakespeare can be recreated. Each style of music shows a uniquely individual way of writing music. The Styles of music, like the styles of writing, show the methods the author uses.

25. The style of our individual speaking and gait, our ways of walking, are often unique to each of us, and arise from this same use of varying kinds of algorithms which create these highly unique and thus identifiable, recognizable characteristics. So much so that we don’t often need to see the person, to ID him. In the same way, we don’t even have to know which piece it is of Chopin, to ID it’s him. The styles reflect their unique configuration of methods used to create or even play music, too. In art it’s a lot the same. We learn to recognize the drawings of Leonardo daVinci, of the impressionism of Monet, of the Picassos we see. Each reflects their methods and each set of methods gives them their styles. This is what the Comparison Process can show you, because it cannot only give you recognition, but show you patterns, associations, and other methods, too.

It’s the endless richness of the associations which creates the method of creation. The flow of associations called up by our Comparison Process from LTM. The COMP monitors everything, from language, diction, grammar and vocabulary, to position of our limbs when performing a skill, to the appropriate activities we do socially. It watches over our morals, our consciences, to keep us out of trouble.

26. The Comparison Process controls our focus of attention. It blocks out sensations irrelevant to current tasks. It orders the course of the stream of consciousness, too. It’s the main gate keeper of consciousness, and it’s probably active in the frontal and associative brain centers (parietal lobes), too. & thus creates our sense of consciousness as well as our conscience. This is no trivial task or observation.

But what happens when the Comparison Process goes awry? When the streams of associations get too loose, too sloppy, too fast, too socially unacceptable? That may be a characteristic of schizophrenia & mania. Not only does the flow of free associations called up get too fast, causing the pressure of speech, & the looseness of associations, but it becomes socially unacceptable, too. The COMP gets overwhelmed, the behaviors become inappropriate with yelling & screaming and so forth, and it’s flagrant psychosis, or perhaps mania.

The checker, the tester, the main controlling mechanism of the brain, the Comparison Process, has broken down,probably from too much dopamine D2 activation, & a speed up of the flow of information from the LTM and senses. This is associated with schizophrenia and the main dopamine receptor family. The anti-psychotics work, too, to control the disorder, by depressing the dopamine activity. This shows how powerful a tool, the Comparison Process can be in terms of understanding not only normal behaviors and creations, but abnormal psychology, too.

27. Again, a very simple system or the cortex, the Comparison Process can explain more about psychosis and mania, & the association between the two, telling us where the problem is, the cortex of the brain, and how to treat it. It’s known that in many persons, the same gene which causes bipolar disorder can create paranoid schizophrenia. And it’s simple to see how. mania can be a temporary psychotic state. When the control system for D2 overstimulation fails, we get psychosis or schizophrenia. When it’s only partial, we may get a bipolar disorder. Not only does this Comparison Process model show that mania and psychosis are two aspects of the same thing, but it also explains the depression often to the point of suicide, seen in psychoses. & probably indicates that psychosis also has a form of major fluctuation underlying the psychotic state, too, the hallmark of bipolar disorders,. That is, psychosis compared to a bipolar disorder, also has its up and down moods, somewhat camouflaged by the psychotic state. This is not a trivial observation, either. We know that the breakdown of the cortical Comparison Process is a part the problem and thus we know the schizophrenic gene’s abnormality is probably active in the cortex, itself.

28. We get a kick when we see something new. We get some modest excitement at novelty and discovering something new. That’s a bit of dopamine activation. When the brain gets too much excitement from dopamine activation, it can create a psychotic break. and that can be seen with PCP, amphetamines, and cocaine, also, any of which can create a permanent psychosis. The rush of activity in the free associations speeds up to much, the Comparison Process is disabled, and the system breaks down. The checker and tester lose control and the system stops working Pressure of speech, loose associations, inappropriate thinking, anti-social behaviors are all unleashed by this breakdown of the COMP .

29. This consciousness of ours is thus understandable in terms of the free associations called up from our LTM by our Comparison Process. The COMP sequences these to keep the flow under control. It’s what creates attention and inattention. When we sleep & dream, we dream of really silly things. We can fly, objects can appear and disappear, and on and on, but it’s not real. This may be an underlying free association of the brain called up by the Comparison Process from our LTM. & we know this because the cortex is activated during dreaming. When we are not dreaming we see slow activity in the cortex. When we see REM, the cortex changes to a higher rate of acitivity. When the checker is off, we get crazy dreams, but we can while having an awareness of dreams, tell it to stop and it does. Or even order the dream using lucid dreaming. The severely psychotic person is unable to stop this. The COMP is unable to work normally. The cortex has become deranged.

In the normal person, this stream of consciousness from our vision, sensations, memories, and so forth is controlled. In dreams, it’s not very well controlled, as we see during dreams a lot of impossible events, which once we realize it, can be controled using lucid dreaming techniques. Thus we see that the Comparison Process in the brain can not only create control of inappropriate behavior, but can as well, using the same comparison function, control dream states.

When this control breaks down, we can get mania and psychotic states, which can be largely restored by using judicious amounts of major/minor tranquilizers. Major tranquilizers if used early enough can completely control many psychotic breaks, and if used long enough 2-3 years, can even cure some psychosis, permanently.

30. Clearly, the Comparison Process is one “ruler of the brain”.It not only measures and tests by comparisons, but it can keep things under control. The COMP is seen to be important, general and widespread because it truly reflects existing cortical structure(s), which performs that action. It can control people from getting out of control, by other persons appealing to them. In the psychotic it can work too, but not as well, and occ. not at all. A child who is misbehaving, is taught discipline by the COMP, learning & then enforcing by internalization in the LTM. In cases of persons who have had a frontal lobe injury, we often see lack of social appropriateness, they get slovenly in appearance, they cuss, swear loudly and lack the social graces, to say the least. The frontal lobe has a cortex, and this area is where the Comparison Process in the frontal lobes works. If’ it’s damaged by some means, be it a genetic cause(Huntingdon’s), or trauma, or drugs or other cause, then the person becomes antisocial or even sociopathic. This is the power of the COMP function. It’s universal, it’s general, it applies to almost every major cortical function. and it governs our conscious activities like no other.

In the language areas of association, it’s responsible for creating speech and learning. It underlies creating new words and descriptions to cover new events and new ideas. In the musical area, it watches over the playing of notes and the recognition of melodies and the very creation of music. In the spatial relationships function of the right parietal lobe, it observes events there, testing, controling, comparing, measuring. In the motor and sensory areas, it does the same. In the Visual cortex, it’s constantly working to compare input to analyze by some means how the visual data compares to its set and learned algorithms, to find meaningful shapes, and so forth. It sees motion by comparing the positions from time to time, and detects motion by comparing the changes in positions of similar events.

31. As an aside, most of the illusions we see result from the visual system Comparison Process getting fooled. For instance, when we watch a bicycle wheel & shiny spokes spinning. At a certain speed when its spin slows down, our visual cortex shows us the illusion that the spinning reflection may move clockwise, then paradoxically, as the spin slows down more, it moves the other way. If you measure the speeds of the wheel when this change takes place, in the middle of that change from rotating clockwise or counter, that measures the rate of the impulses going from the retina to the visual cortex. It’s a stroboscopic effect, which measures the rate that the retina send impulses to the cortex. No one has ever really explained that before. But as the stroboscopic system can, by certain measured, definite rates determine speeds, so do the rotating bicycle tire spokes measure by spinning rate, the retinal impulse frequency to the visual cortex. It’s a COMP .

32. But even more important, we know the important principle, that if an error is made (such as in the genes), it can often tell us something about the structure which is creating the error. It may tell us how normal function of that genetic structure works. We often learn more from metabolic errors, than studying normal functions, too. The Comparison Process gives us something more to compare to, and we find more about normal functioning. So, too, a careful study of all major kinds of visual illusions should reveal important clues as to how our visual cortex compares inputs to create realistic images, those same images which we see in our dreams. Understanding how the COMP works can give extremely fruitful insights into our visual system’s processes of nerve impulses from the retina. And given these, nearly without end, as the visual illusions can be created without end. A sensory illusion is based upon the same process, an error in the Comparison Process used in the sensory cortex.

In fact, this tendency to compare and try to find shapes/images can go wrong, too. The cortex is always using the COMP always trying to make sense of what’s around it. When it goes wrong, & creates an image, it’s called an hallucination. & we see this prominently in psychosis, too. The Checker is off duty to some extent. In the auditory cortex, which we know by physiological MRI is activated in schizophrenic auditory hallucinations, the same is seen. It calls up the sounds of remembered voices, and these are interpreted as real. In the same way, the calling up of images in dreams which can be manipulated and controlled in Lucid Dreaming states, probably by a system the Comparison Process influences, & then we have dreams.

You see the method. One association leads to another. One comparison with a normal state can be made to an abnormal state, to elucidate how the systems work. That’s a how much a very DAMN powerful tool, the COMP function can be. It opens up vast new areas of insights into both normal and abnormal psychologies.

33. The delusion is a false, persistently unsubstantiated belief/idea, which is strongly held (LTM) and which resists the facts and all reason. The checker isn’t working again. The control capability of the Comparison Process is turned down. It’s no accident that schizophrenias are associated with delusions, either. The gatekeeper of social morals, rules, beliefs and behaviors, the COMP is damaged. So the COMP can explain in part, where the problem is in the cortex, in those cortical cell columns, where the Comparison Process is created by the neurophysiology of the brain.

Delusional states outside of shizophrenia can also be created. In those, if not too long standing, pyschotherapy can often intervene and restore the balance. This was how and why psychoanalysis occasionally worked. The checker, the Comparison Process was still working well enough that it could be reconditioned by psychological methods & insights to restore control and get rid of the delusion. In other cases, medications are far more effective. But in many delusion states cannot be treated with meds. This is another problem entirely and will be addressed later with potentially curative methods in an article on “Brain Hardwiring”.

34. You see the power of the conception, the Comparison Process. A sign of a good, fruitful model is its wide explanatory power from a very simple process. How it shows how humor comes about. How it shows the source of creativity in the “Aha!” moment, when a comparison is made with the punch line of the joke. How the same “Aha’ is seen upon recognition, upon discovery, upon creation of something new and novel. The COMP brings so very much together. It’s a powerful tool, because not only can one use the Comparison Process , but it can be held aside, and other, high level, cortical functions can be compared to it. To learn more, such as what creates consciousness, the LTM, the COMP and the constant call up of data for checking, comparison and other functions, such as motor and speech output are invoked.

It’s very simple recursive system which creates the complexity in our brains, from language & to most all our skills. It creates our understanding and even creates creativity. Being recursive and self consistent, it can comprehend understanding. It’s a simple, but powerful method used by the cortex to develop personality, and everything else, including the control structures which create our consciousness and conscience. It’s broad, it’s general, it may well be universal in scope in humanity

It’s a powerful tool, it can be used again and again, and it very likely represents something very real and working in the Neurophysiology of our cortical cell columns. & you can see above, my method of creative writing, and the free association (comparing 1 idea to another) of one topic to another, also. It’s an inexhaustible source of new discovery, creation & understanding of complex systems. It gives us important insights into how our brain functions at the higher cortical levels. It’s virtually unlimitted. Everything in the universe can be compared to everything else. Everything in our sensory outputs and LTM can be compared to the others & a great deal can be learned in many cases. “Gnothi seauton”, indeed!!

It models the universe’ own recursivity with recursivity of its own. and it does it everywhere, and can do it everywhere in our universe, too. Isn’t that interesting?

35. In the immune system, we have found many of the same, basic components. But let’s think about more of this, creatively, using the Comparison Process function. Essentially, the immune system defends the body against foreign invaders, such as bacteria, virions, fungi, etc. But how, exactly does it do this? Very simply, it builds upon knowing, biochemically, what is self, and what is not self. Each of our cell surfaces have on them as do all other cells, the HLA protein/polysaccharide molecules on the cell surface in many places. The cells recognize each other by these. They are in constant biochemical communication with each other. They all have the same HLA surface features on the cell membranes.

Let’s give a real and existing example to compare to. A study has been reported some years ago where a small white and a small red sponge were each broken down mechanically into the cells which made up each sponge. Then those cells were mixed together & compared to what happened. They were observed over hours. The sponge cells organized themselves back again in clusters of white and red sponge cells and re-grew the sponge of each type. Biochemically, they knew which cell was self, and which was not self. So these HLA identifiers on our cell membraines are not new, as sponges go back to Precambrian times. This method of identification of self is very, very ancient and again, something which all living organisms have, even the protozoans. This common link connects all living cells from the smallest known to even our brains, and they way they were. They can ID biochemically, “the self” and know what is foreign. It the Comparison Process on a cellular level, you see.

36. And this is essentially THE main organizing characteristic of the immune system, of all immune systems. It, just like knowing the essential characteristics of plate tectonics, can be used to understand much more of the complexity of organization of living systems, perhaps even all systems. The Immune system has a biochemical ID method for self and not self. It does not attack self, except where the system goes wrong, that is the autoimmune diseases of Multiple sclerosis, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, Guillain-Barre, and others. It’s in the identifying part, i.e. the Comparison Process of the immune system where this goes wrong. Something which needs to be & is yet to be found.

But, let’s think carefully about how the immune system attacks foreign invaders. It first recognizes them as not self. When the lymphocytes, polymorphonuclears, phagocytes and others sense a complex chemical (even the chemical Urushiol, which is the contact allergen in poison oak),which is not self, it creates an antibody to it which attacks and isolates it and tries to expel it from the body. If it’s a bullet or shrapnel, it walls it off with scar tissue, removing it from immune system attack. If it’s bacteria such as Strep or Staph, it creates a walling off effect, immobilizes it and expels it by an abscess, which ruptures and the whole mess comes out, including any small foreign bodies carrying the bacteria.

The lymphocytes detect foreign compounds, which they “know” biochemically, by comparing it to their catalog of what is self. Then the lymphocytes move in, and create antibodies which then attach to that foreign body, bacteria, virus, etc., and THAT creates a massive cellular response which constrains, removes and destroys the invader.

37. But, using the Comparison Process , let’s look deeper and more creatively. What exactly happens biochemically when lymphocytes detect foreign chemicals? They must find, create and then massively re-create many, many specific, highly bonding antibodies, which will attach to the foreign molecule. But how does it find them? & That is where it gets interesting.

It must biochemically sort through trillions (quadrillions?) of possible antibodies, to find the one(s) which will permanently bond to the foreign compound, cell wall or membrane. And that complexity can take a LOT of time to sort through, again, a Comparison Process. If we tried in our labs to create & find those specific antibodies, which can best attach to such foreign molecules, sorting through the trillions or more of possible types, it’d take us millions of years, or more. The time it takes our immune system to solve this immense biochemical sorting problem is about 2-3 days. After that antibody production by the proliferation of lymphocytes all producing enough antibodies to attach and immobilize and target attacks on all the foreign molecules. We cannot do this in a finite time. Our computers cannot do this much sorting in a finite time. But look, the Comparison Process shows that our immune systems, worldwide, and in most of the higher animals, do this time and again, every day, for the last how many 100’s of millions of years? & it works. and that sorting & organizing process is, of course, a biochemical supercomputer method using the Comparison Process .

38. There is an immense computer, a sorter, built into our immune systems which solves this problem by some means. It uses the COMP and a whole bevy of extremely efficient, biochemical algorithms (or skills, sound familiar?) to do this. When this sorter is found in the immune system, then we will have found the biochemical supercomputer which creates our effective immune system. We know how it works, we will know where it works, and we can find it, too. That’s how the Comparison Process shows us what’s going on by organizing living systems using COMP structures. It’s universal. It’s general, It’s practical and it works.

Considering that our immune systems also know what has invaded before, and can attack those repeat strains of invaders, thus giving us lifetime immunity to many kinds/strains of viruses, etc., which is the basis of all vaccinations, then it must have a memory system of these previous invasions built into our immune system. A sort of LTM for creating antibodies, stored in the spleen, lymph nodes and other places, probably, possibly even stem cells.

This therefore should guide our study of the immune system, which can be seen as a Comparison Process working on the biochemical level, to ID self, and not self. Which is based upon simple ID system, based upon the COMP generator of a biochemical system within our white cells. From that simplicity, this enormous immune system complexity is built. & it’s capacities which exceed ours by at least trillions of times over.

39. Find the ID’g biochemical system Comparison Process governing structures in the immune systems, and you find the core engine of immunity. Where the immunity is stored, how it creates new immunities (the creativity function, the COMP function, again). The immune system’s cells on patrol must constantly be comparing self to find non-self. That comparison engine drives the immune system. When it finds not self, it attacks. If a former infection, it finds the cells which create the antibodies anew and attacks so fast, the system doesn’t get sick again. If not, it creates by comparing trillions or more of antibodies against the foreign agent, until it finds those which effectively attack it. It probably has some very efficient search engnes to sort out that problem. It’s creative, tho. It creates a fever which speeds up this process enormously, a sort of metabolic overdrive. THAT is the reason fever is often associated with infection. It speeds up often by 2-4 times the immune system attack processes.

Also, It must be sure the attacking antibodies do NOT attack self, either. And THIS part of the immune system is what goes wrong in autoimmune diseases

41. There is a clue here and it’s a big one. It’s known that women who have multiple sclerosis have far fewer flare ups, that is antibody attacks against the myelin sheath, when they are pregnant. The mother doesn’t but rarely attack the baby, for some reason. The fetus/baby are immunologically privileged. How this comes about shows us how the body doesn’t attack self. also. Thinking Comparison Process, and creatively, those drugs which reduce or block flare ups of MS, such as prednisone type, or meds of the interferon beta 1a and 1b types, or glatiramer acetate, etc. These block the autoimmune reaction of the MS type, also. Simply create a glatiratimer or interferon 1a &1b, and find out by labelling those molecues, injecting them, to find where in the body immune system & lymphocytes it binds, THERE is the library of immunocytes, and THERE is where the immune system problem is. It will simplify the problem immensely, because we will know where to look for the autoimmune creating problem, simultaneously finding the immunity giving library. By using the Comparison Process, which both gives insights and explanations as well as creative methods to solve problems. QED

The Comparison Process: Explananda Pt. 1

The Comparison Process: Explananda, Pt. 1.
posted 28 feb. 2014

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

Sensory Illusions

1. The various sensory illusions, from optical, to movement and motion sickness, including space sickness are readily explainable in terms of the Comparison Process (COMP). Further, using a simple comparison, these illusions are easily shown to be illusions.

First, the lunar size illusion is fairly well known. The moon at the horizon when it’s rising looks larger, compared to the moon in ascent, well away from the horizon. Why is this? Because the horizon provides a large horizon line to which the visual cortex can compare it to. So it looks larger. When in the sky, there is nothing to compare it to, either, so our visusal cortex gives it a “default” size. How this can be shown is when the moon is rising over the lip of a large, long canyon, it also looks larger than when it’s higher in the sky. A large building edge behind which the moon is rising also creates this illusion. Simply by holding up a long enough measuring stick horizontally, & comparing that to the moon in the horizon versus the moon ascended shows it’s no larger in the sky than it is when rising. It dispels the illusion.

Another visual illusion is that of one which uses straight lines intersected by jagged boxlike white and black, or colored shapes. The lines look curved. By placing a clear plastic measuring ruler in the middle of it, it can be shown that the lines are in fact straight and the illusion disappears on either side of the measuring ruler’s edge. Most other optical illusions can be similarly shown to be illusions simply by comparing them to standard edges & so forth.

There is a movement illusion which is also related to optical illusions. When one is sitting in a car, and there’s a large truck on the right side, both stopped at a light, or intersection, if the larger truck begins to move the car driver has the illusion that his vehicle is moving backwards. Because the visual system is comparing the truck to the car, this creates that momentary illusion of backwards movement. This is quickly dispelled by comparing oneself to a fixed object on the road, which shows the truck is what’s moving, not the car. This illusion can also be produced when passenger rail cars are moving in opposite directions, stop at a station, and the one may move, giving the illusion of backwards movements, once again in the stationary car. Which can be dispelled by fixing on the stable platform one is next to.

Most other simple optical illusions can be shown to be a result of a comparison illusion created by the visual system. And this can be shown by using a dispelling comparison, which does that. The reason why such illusions are created is that the Comparison Process is being used by the visual cortex, when it creates images and shapes from the retinal data sent to it. It should, theoretically, allow us to understand how these illusions are being created by the visual cortex on a neurophysiological basis.

Suffice it to say, that if the Comparison Process can explain neatly, efficiently most every sensory illusion thrown at it, then it must be correct, a widespread cortical processing method, and recursive and highly important as well. That it is very widespread appearing in nearly every testable circumstance, shows that it’s real, cortical, stable and universal in humans, as well as other species which show the Comparison Process traits.

2. This comparison process should give us insights about how our visual cortex creates images and shapes. The problem further is that we cannot necessarily assume that our visual system uses Euclidean geometry and for this simple reason. We do NOT find geometric shapes in the natural world, at all. And our visual system was created 100,000’s of years before geometry. Therefore, in order to figure out how images/shapes are created from the raw data from the retina, we must understand what kind of geometry the visual cortex uses, which will be non-euclidean, very likely.

There is no necessity that our visual cortex be Euclidean. Look at the shapes of trees and boulders and such in the natural world. There are VERY few straight lines, boxes, squares, circles and other such. There is therefore no logical reason to believe that our brains use human geometries to construct the world, either. Right angles and such other boxy shapes which mark human buildings, structures, roads, etc., are not seen in the natural world. Exactly what kind of comparison process geometries our brains use to show curves, rounded edges and such is not clear, but the optical illusions of these types will probably show us a great deal more about how the visual cortex, using comparison process methods, creates visual images & what geometries it uses.

3. There are illusions involving colors, which are very large in number as well. We often call this camouflage. Simplest are the white coats of snow hares, ermins and foxes grown in the winter to disguise themselves against the snow. In the spring they grow again their summer camouflage coloring and revert back to the usual surface colorations they use most of the year. The polar bears’ everwhite fur is another prominent example.

Protective colorations of the insects are the most prominent of the same kind of illusions. A bug will make use ot its green color and hides among the green leaves. Some insects esp. in tropics will mimic leaves to avoid detection. Conversely some predators such as carnivorous larvae and preying matises will use the same to hide themselves from both their prey and predators.

Camou outfits worn by the military do much the same thing. Whether or not these work optimally in the widely varying natural environment is a matter of opinion. But at night, the skulkers dress in black to use the darkness as a way to hide, also.

These camouflage illusions can be readily dispeled by bright light and forcing, as in the above, the predators and prey to move, which is highly unlikely that leaves and twigs can do.

The Chameleon has a limited but significant ability to turn its skin to colors which can partially imitate the colors of its surroundings. We once in a biology lab put a purple sheet of paper under a chameleon. It took a while, but turned a sort of brown with some tingers of red, the closest it could get. Certain Mollusca of the squid and Octopi families have a very brilliant chromatophore system which can almost use every color in the rainbow from brilliant reds to blues. They use the same to camouflage themselves, and in the squid to show interest in mating as well as other signals to the other squid around them, a sort of color communication.

3a. There is mimicry, which is yet another illusion. The Viceroy butterfly looks a great deal like the Monarch butterfly, which is poisonous. The large eyes on some butterflies, some larvae and even the eyed Elater, a kind of large click beetle, have these to scare away predators. Syrphid flies look a great deal like yellow jacket wasps. These create illusions of being what they are not. And in doing so show that the Comparison Process is active not only in us, but in many of the other living animals and plants in existence.

Some plants’ flowers mimic insects to induce them to mate with them, thus spreading their pollen. Some flowers exude stench like smells in order to attract flies to. If it were not for the Comparison Process being active in insects, this would not occur. This gives yet another deep insight into how general and universal the COMP is, even tho the arthropods and birds are very likely not using our same neurophysiology to do the COMP, they are almost certainly using an analogous system.

4. The illusions of our sense of touch can be perceived when we touch pieces of metal in our pocket and it feels cool to the touch and for an instant, wet. Wet items evaporate water & can feel cooler because of that. But when we feel for water and a typical liquid sensation on our fingers, we feel hard metal and realize our comparing senses have, once again, by mistaking coolness for water, which further comparison testing with our fingers shows to be metal. Testing of this sort is also, like in other testing procedures, the COMP.

5. Likewise motion sickness of all sorts creates a real problem. Those found in amusement park rides are well known & Those occur while riding in cars, boats, planes & vehicles.. But why do these occur?

By understanding the basic nature of the balance system in our inner ears and our senses which tell us which way is down, that is, the gravity sense. Normally when we move our bodies and thus our heads, the fluids in our semicircular canals, by our ears, have, by inertia, a flow created in those canals. The flow gives the information which way the head is moving. That we have 3 of these canals, each at about right angles to the others, shows clearly the 3-dimensional nature of our universe & our balance system’s response to it. Each canal is oriented mainly to the X, Y and Z axes of a 3 dimensional space. From this architecture, the inner ear can detect the slightest movements in any direction, including up and down.

But resting, it does not detect anything, tho perhaps some gravity. It mainly detects change. This is a comparison process. It has very little to compare to, in and of itself. however, the eyes know and feed into the balance system their input. The eyes can see what is up and down and combining with the pressure sense on the bottoms of the feet, which are sensory cues also as to what is up and down and our body positions, can create a sense of what is down, and whether we are moving or not. This is a complex balance system and for this reason is not well understood.

But there is a gravity sense built into our feet and visual sensations & the Semicircular Canals, because of these simple facts. Put a person on a teeter totter & move him up and down on it. He will consistently orient himself vertically even tho the flat seat he’s on will change its angle comared to a flat surface as he goes up and down. In addition, when we walk on slanted surfaces such as hillsides, we immediately orient ourselves to down by changing the angles of our ankles & feet to match the hillside steepness as much as we can. We always know what’s down & up.

How this related to motion sickness is clear. When we move, the inner ear may give us signals we are moving, but if we have nothing very good to compare that to from the rest of our bodies, then we will get motion sickness. The system stops working temporarily, until the motion stops. This is what causes most motion sickness. We get dizzy, we have nothing to compare our movements to, because the feet are sending us no correcting signals, and the eyes can’t do it by themselves because of too rapid, changing movements, esp. when upside down.

Simply by fixing on an arbitrary not moving part of our vision, the disorientation can be partially abated. That is, we compare a fixed object or space in our vision & the illusion is dispelled. If not, then we can become rather ill.

6. This is seasickness also. If we fix our eyes on the horizon, then we can limit seasickness to a great extent. If nothing is there to fix our eyes on, such as on a foggy day, then we have to learn a new system, which is called “getting your sea legs” and so it’s abolished that way. We simply adopt another comparison method to avoid being seasick when the ship is rolling. Modern cruise ships use very large, long lengths of the boats to make them far less likely to rock and roll on the waves, thus minimizing the rolling of the ship with the waves.

It should be possible in smaller vessels, to create an electronic light bar based upon the plumb bob effect, which always points down, a sort of artificial horizon which if bright & large enough & easy enough to see, could compensate for the rolling of smaller ships and thus, visually help correct seasickness. The same would be true for aircraft and vehicles of all sorts.

7. Space sickness is yet another problem which results from a total lack of gravity, which our inner ears have some response to even in normal gravity. However, all visual cues are gone, the balance system has NOTHING to compare to, as gravity and sensory cues are gone, and so medicines such as promethazines are about all that work because they sedate the inner ear & brainstem.

But the Comparison Process shows us a way around this too. Give the space sick person something to compare with their visual part of the balance system. If 4 long, wide yellow lines were to be painted or somehow affixed evenly & symmetrically to the floor, ceiling and both right & left walls, the eyes could then have something to which could help the balance system orient itself. and the space sickness would abate ever faster than simply waiting for the brain to adopt these visual cues using arbitrary objects, walls & other shapes in the space cabins, themselves. Again the utility of the Comparison Process. It neatly and easily explains motion sickness of all kinds, and suggests ways to abate it.

8. The Comparison Process is self-organizing. Recall that the entire classification of living organisms, plants, animals, protozoa, bacteria, even including the viruses have been and are still being organized into a comprehensive whole, i.e., millions of species, by the COMP . This shows the power, widespread use, and the flexibility as well as the practicality of the system, as does the same for all known stars, the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The Comparison Process has organized into a comprehensive whole almost the whole of everything that existed and has existed, so far as is known. This is not a trivial task nor a trifling achievement. It’s clear, empirical testimony to the efficiency and ubiquitous presence of the COMP system.

9. Essentially, we use words to communicate with others, not ourselves.. It’s a social activity. The words created and then learned are then stored in the LTM, which creates a stable, recallable, recognizable entity, a word, which corresponds to a concept/idea/image or event in existence. These are models for events in existence and is the way our higher cortical functions in our brains are organized. It is nothing less than the fundamental way we process information, i.e., think.

This may well mean that in practice, language is a complex system. With literally 100,000’s of words in most technical and advanced languages, the interactions of these words with other words in sentences, often creating new meanings and new discoveries, very likely shows this.

10. The dialects of the major languages all show that there is NO single, universal standard for speaking. We use the standard midwestern American English against which the other dialects are compared. We can hear the other dialects of all English speakers, from Scotland, to London, from Capetown to Canberra and Auckland, all of which use slightly different pronunciations to mark their forms of English. Because the LTM (Long Term Memory) of words is a bit flexible (& all people die), the language can and will change over time, creating new words, new pronunciations, and so forth, altho the written word tends to create more stability or pronunciation than used to exist. We simply compare what we hear in English to ID the locale from which the other dialect occurs, be it Delhi, or Dover. There is NO absolute dialect in English, any more than there is absolute space or time, or measurements. However all speakers require the COMP to create meaning and understanding. It’s very simple & widely applicable in language, daily.

11. Let us consider time. Time is not absolute. We base all of our time measurements upon an arbitrary standard against which we compare and create those standards. Our year arbitrarily begins on 1 Jan., based upon the Roman Calendar, their year based upon the date when Rome was established according to their beliefs. We base the Western calendar upon year 1 AD. The ancient Egyptian year began on the heliacal rise of the star Sirius, which they identified with Aset (Isis). That usually marked the beginning of the inundation of the Nile within a few days, and when everything agricultural came to a halt until the flooding was over.

For every day we begin and center the day on noontime, or high noon, when the sun is at its maximum height. That’s why noon is 12 PM, and its counterpart, midnight is 12 AM. That’s the standard. It can be checked because it’s the center of most days in the center of each time zone. There is some wandering from that point, but it’s the standard upon which all the rest of the clock is based.

& again, in every case we see the usual repetition of elements, the second, of which 60 make a minute, of which 60 make an hour, of which 24 make a day, and of which about 30 make a month of the 12 months each year. Showing again, just like DNA structure, protein structure, atomic structure, they are created from repeating elements.

Every time we look at a clock, we make a comparison of that instant with the time, compared to our standard. The Comparison Process is an organizing, ordering process, and creates our time tables, schedules, plans and so forth, all based upon that creative process, the COMP. The COMP keeps us on schedule, and makes orderly production and work possible. Time keeping is little more than the Comparison Process at its deepest, most fundamental level.

Synchronizing our clocks is 3 times over COMP. First, we must have that standard time, which is kept based upon & compared to Noon. Second, there must be a clock which compares exactly to the UTI. And thirdly, there must be the two time pieces or more which are to be synchronized, that is, they must keep exactly the same time on both of them. This is achieved by using at every point, Comparison Process. This demonstrates yet again how basic and fundamental the COMP is in time alone.

12. Any kind of error, be it a genetic error creating a disorder, or other conditions, creates a new opportunity to compare that genetic disorder to the normal. Any new finding which can be compared to normals or other conditions, can create new insights, simply because it allows the Comparison Process to be used again. Is some mouse models, researchers are using mutagens to create genetic changes. Then they back cross the offspring of that mouse to bring out the recessives created by the process. This often results in interesting findings, by this method of genetic error creation, which is little more than one more of the myriads of types of COMP. Any difference from what we see normally, any finding which is unusual can be of this value, simply because it permits the COMP to be used on one more event, one more situation, to enlighten us.

13. In the legal and moral laws, the same is the case. One obeys the laws. One compares the laws regarding social behaviors to one’s own and other’s actions. The process of internalization and memory of these laws is in our LTM, largely frontal lobes. This is the source of our conscience. How we know what to do and what not to do. It’s in almost every case, a Comparison Process, by which we compare ours and others’ actions for social, legal, and moral propriety and acceptability..

Where is this tester for the socially appropriate, the COMP checker, which is in the brain? In our frontal lobes, because we know when a person’s frontal lobes are damaged, they lose social propriety, may become slovenly, without manners and moral/legal behaviors. And this is found in the cortex of the frontal lobes.

14. The universe can also be modelled by a similar system of laws, observed and confirmed, which shows us the behaviors, characteristics and various stable parts and processes in the universe. We compare & refer (another COMP based word) new events to those which we find and find that they are indeed consistent with, ie, they compare closely with the gravitation, or laws of motion and so forth. It’s the same system of organization.

So it’s very clear that almost all higher cortical brain organization and systems are bound by the Comparison Process , from start to finish.

15. In each case, the Comparison Process is used by a complementary method to recreate life. This kind of complementary DNA reading is very basic because it’s yet another form of the COMP. It creates a chemical structure which can be Identified for what it is by the cell, and the cell knows how to use it, biochemically. It’s biochemical recognition, again the COMP. This shows how basic the entire process is to life as we know it, and shows how once again, the entire life processes from the most very basic parts, are built up by a COMP . From a simple system of 4 base pairs & 20 some amino acids, is created the complexity of the cell.

But all of these DNA, RNA and protein/polypeptide creations use energy. And this is the process by which everything is created in the cell. Creation of life is done by this process, essentially, applied again and again. It’s recursive, just like the Comparison Process is recursive and models the processes very clearly. It’s how living systems create more order from chaos. It’s how all life is created & reproduces. It’s the way the biological world works. The COMP is how non-living matter and energy are turned into growing, living cells, driven by the COMP , manifested in terms of biochemicals & rules.

16. It can all be modeled using the Comparison Process which creates language and mathematics and models life itself. It’s modelled by the COMP, which is itself a creative principle, too. The Comparison Process is the way our cortex organizes the world around us. It uses many other spin off, related principles to do this the same way, such as the Least Energy Principle, which is of itself a Comparison Process. The laws of thermodynamics are also used, as guidelines as to how this all works, again based upon the COMP , because these laws compare to the all known chemical and physical processes, mapping them very exactly.

17. It’s easy to think that words, languages and math and related brain functions are the way in which the world works. But it’s not so. Our mental methods created by our cortices use this method, but it’s not THE method by which it’s done. It describes what’s done, building up a model, but these are not the events themselves. Those mental methods are the underlying neurophysiological structures & functions.

As Korzybski, the founder of general semantics theory, wrote, “The word is not the thing.” in other words, more generally, the /idea/word/image is not the event in existence to which it refers. The former are the structural means by which the Comparison Process in our brains creates a model of the world, but it’s not the world itself. Those events in existence exist outside the nervous system. Every structure has its limits and capabilities. So does the COMP . Those are the exponential barriers such as light speed, absolute zero, particle physics creating higher and higher energies, until it’s too costly to go further, climbing that greased, steep slide of the exponentially rising curve, until we must fall back. When we find those, we turn back and create new means to overcome those limits, via the Comparison Process.

Brains can create many fictions, easily, myths, gods & goddesses, demons and such, but these don’t compare to anything in reality which we can test and measure. We must make careful distinction between our brain modeling structures and those events outside of our brains which we have in common with everyone else. Confirmation of findings in scientific studies and reliable accounts create that commonality and excludes brain fictions. If we do not then we confuse, consistently, fictions and reality, events in existence with our abstractions, and commit the error so well described by Lord North, Alfred Whitehead, co-author of the “Principia Mathematica” with Bertrand Rusell, revolutionizing mathematics, “the fallacy of misplaced concretism.” Nonexisting abstracts get reified, when they are not real. Pi gets to be thought of as real, tho it’s an abstraction from the comparison of the ideal circle’s circumference with its ideal diameter, as a straight, ideal line. Good tools, but no perfect circle nor perfectly straight line can ever be measured, or exist.

18, Consider when we build a structure such as a house. We have blueprints and related designs, now mostly computerized due to an efficiency rule, the LEP. We constantly compare to the designs to make sure we build it properly. COMP at every step and stage. We have the basic building blocks, the wood, the concrete, the bricks and steel/metal frames, if necessary and the piping and wiring, not to mention the roof materials. The structure is built and ordered according to the COMP and the skills and tools we use based upon that cortical method. We can build a large, grand house, or a smaller, simpler home. There are no limits to what we can build using this method and enough resources. It’s the Comparison Process .

Just why this has not been stated before and explored for the very important observation which it is, is curious. . So many things can go unrecognized, even tho common, for a very great, long time, esp. if of the idealistic mindset, which tends to ignore real,existing events, in favor of brain ideas, words and concepts, which of course, do not exist outside the brain.

19. When you are out on a field trip, you make discoveries of new kinds of plants, trees, insects, birds and so forth, many of which you’ve never seen before. In a very practical sense, I saw a great many things uknown to me and this created discovery, Others do, too. The Comparison Process ran through my memory, & didn’t recognize at first, each new event, and then I learned what it was by comparing to that information from a person who had, i.e, books. This was repeated many times, adding new insects and trees and birds & stars, etc., to my memory, which eventually went into LTM (long term memory). The more you learn, the more you can compare together and find them, again and again.

Discovery is a form of creativity. It adds to your creative powers. & if you find enough, then it adds to your ability to learn more, too. The Comparison Process makes this discovery possible, repeatedly, and then adds to it in a recursive and growing way. It adds again and again to your skills of discovery by comparing the way you do things, and then improving upon them. The more you know, the more you can find, Again, the Comparison Process and the more you can compare with what you have already found. such as butterflies, likes and dislikes, and so forth. It creates a library of events which you can reference from your LTM. and the more you can compare, the more you can learn. Because each new creation adds to the creations you can make, because it’s one more item to compare to, it builds up quickly in biology. So discovery is one form of creativity.

I recall being with family at a lake, when about 10 PM, suddenly the sky and land lit up with a brilliant light to our NE. We had no idea what it was at the time, maybe an exploding plane or something, until we read the next day, that a large, brilliant bolide, a meteor, had entered earth’s atmosphere a few hundred miles to the east of us, and the perception became the discovery. & it was ordered into the category of meteor, and made sense, then. Discovery then is compared to pre-existing idea/word/ images and becomes knowledge and order.

20. Creativity is more than just discovery, it’s also the comparison of two or more idea/concepts/images from our memory of events, or may occur in the presence of events,

21. In terms of the Comparison Process what are skills? From first hand experience in a number of fields, they are short cuts, algorithms, &/or methods will allow the user to function faster, more efficiently, more carefully and above all, more creatively in the field. Discovery hones the perceptivity, the COMP , because you are always searching for those events and ideas which will give you the answers. You get better and better at it, with the better methods built into your skills.

End of pt. 1.

Le Chanson Sans Fin: the Comparison Process, Pt. 3

Le Chanson Sans Fin, the Comparison Process,
Introduction, Part 3

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

When the average person daily deciphers cryptograms on the puzzle pages he uses the same COMP . He uses a similar process for word finding puzzles, sudokus, crosswords, and picture puzzles. When we decode simple or complex codes, we use the same COMP .

When we translate one language into another, we use, again, massively, the COMP to make a useful translation. & most interestingly, when we contact over the next 1000’s of years another space faring species, we will use the COMP to build up our model of their language as they will ours, simply by the COMP. We will point to those things we have in common, stars, rocks, elements, compounds, persons, etc., and give them their names in our language and writing and they will, regardless of what system they use, can give us theirs, words/ideas/images for the same. This is how powerful the COMP is. It will be much the same for any language anywhere in our universe, very likely.

When we make copies, those must built, created & compare very closely to the originals, must they not? Otherwise, how would it be of much value? We can copy a copy and we can compare a copy with another, for fidelity. Again, more words which contain the COMP within them. Every copy from the faxes, to the copiers, to the copy and paste function, all share at their origin, the COMP . It’s how and why copying is possible.

The copying of all written texts including our most sacred texts occurred by using the COMP massively. It’s ancient as the earliest forms of scripts. It’s universal from Mesopotamia, to Egypt, to Aryan cultures and throughoutt East Asia. This is no accident.

But there is far, far more. When the DNA molecule is unzipped in the chromosomes of our cells for cell division & reproduction, the DNA polymerase compares each Adenine to its counterpart, Thymidine, and builds up the other two DNA chains necessary for cell division, based upon the COMP. For every A it creates a T on the complementary double helix chain and vice versa. For every Guanidine it adds a complementary Cytosine and vice versa. and when it’s done with that, it manufactures the proteins from the messenger RNA by creating that strip of RNA, using the same COMP, complementary synthesis to create more proteins to build the rest of the dividing cell.

Cell division is COMP on a biochemical scale, just as copying is. Reproductions of all of the species from the bacteria and the virions, through ALL species on our planet is COMP . Thus we see that our very existence is not only comprehended and understood and talked about using COMP, but our very selves arrived and are created by a similar, analogous, simple biochemical system. Duplication, replication, copying, reproduction can all be COMP dependent tasks.

There are huge numbers of words associated with the COMP. Ratios, relationships, associations, pattern finding/recognition, definitions, etc. Literally, 100’s of words can be found and ID’d which within them at their origins, we find the COMP . This shows it’s tremendously widespread characteristic as well as its enormous importance, too.

In this we & all the plants and animals and others in our world are united. There is one unifying principle, as the COMP unifies most all higher brains’ functionings, it also unifies us with all other life. This grand principle, the COMP , which creates the analogy, the poets’ metaphors, the similes, the anecdotes of Lincoln, the fables of Aesop and the Parables of Jeshua Ben Joseph, to the Zen koans, & the surahs of Mohammed, unifies us all in a totally unexpected way. From the simple to the complex, it shows the power of the COMP , an essential comparison function of our cortex, which appears to be far, far more important than anything else in our brains, the predominant, higher cortical function. & it’s universal.

In the scientific method of logical empiricism we find the COMP at every level. Because science so depends upon measurement, which is a COMP process, therefore this is one. We take a ruler or measuring tape, or any of the many methods and compare those lengths against what we measure. It’s all COMP. When we measure frequencies of light we use the COMP. When we count in our vast censuses, again the COMP. All of our odometers and special travel odometers do the same. They measure, even the most precise micrometers and light interference & quantum devices to measure the tiniest lengths & time intervals, and the parallax methods to determine vast distances. And so on, and on, and limitlessly on.

Measurement in turn depends upon Mathematics, which can be simply defined as the relationships of the numbers. 4 is related to 2 by being twice 4. 12 is related to 4 by being 3 times 4 and 1 & 1/2 of 8. Every number can be related to every other number by the COMP , using words and language. These relationships are adding, subtracting, division and multiplication. Basic arithmetic is all COMP.

In geometry, literally, “land measuring” we find many different kinds of lines, shapes, quadrangles, squares, circles, arcs, chords, ovals, etc. Suffice it to prove the point, is that Pi is the numeric comparison of an ideal circle’s circumference to its diameter and radius. The area of the circle is found by comparing the square of the radius times Pi. Trigonometry is the comparison of right angle triangles’ two sides to one another, which creates the trig functions, sine, cosine, tangent, etc. It’s the way the sides of a right triangle compare to each other, simply. The algebra of ratios and proportions are simply COMP. And on and on.

So the sciences formally measure using the COMP , which is so built-in we scarcely see it. A scientist gets an idea, that perhaps, since all the finches on the Galapagos most closely resemble each other, then possibly they are all related and came from a common ancestor, which on that remote island steadily speciated into the various kinds of finches there. THAT is the point at which Darwin came up with the evolutionary model. By comparing finches, and spending his lifetime finding and confirming with the millions of species both living and extinct which he and we have found since. Wallace found the same speciating patterns in the Indonesian isles, essentially another version of the same thing found by Darwin years earlier. That was the moment of discovery, the comparison of the plants and animals on isolated islands, which showed the way. The COMP.

When Einstein asked the question, what is is like to ride on a light photon?, he was given an insight which lead to a piece of relativity. When he realized that ALL time and space was not absolute, but must be compared to a fixed spot to be measured, THAT was another part. When he realized that time slowed down when objects were sped up relative to a fixed site on the earth, and when he realized that acceleration was equivalent to being in a gravitational field of the same meters/sec.squared value, then he came up with even more. Each of these insights by Einstein were the COMP. That ancient method which orders and creates creativity. Finally, when he realized that time was not a constant, he found that in a higher gravitational field, compared to a less intense field, time slowed down, he had his relativity basics, and created his noted Invariance Theory, which was eventually renamed the Theory of Relativity.

All time and space measurements must be compared to another for meaning.

From these and other determinations where it’s possible to identify the point and thinking of the creative scientist, it’s fairly clear, from Kepler’s realization that planetary orbits were not circular and the ancients were wrong, that the earth was NOT the center of the solar system (there was NO privileged point in the solar system) ; & Edison’s work through massive trial and error kind of discovery, shows that the COMP was in use when those creative revelations were present.

The scientist tests his hypotheses reached by the COMP by using double blind, controlled studies, which rule out much bias and interfering noise. This kind of testing ( & ALL testing is COMP, too), creates a finding, or outcome which may confirm, partially confirm/disconfirm or not confirm his hypothesis. If it does confirm it, that is, to a high degree of probability 95% or more, then it’s publishable. If others can confirm it, usually 2 times more, it’s likely correct, using the same COMP which underlies all testing and all measuring. This reference shows it in more detail. It was found weeks after the original discovery was posted in January 2014. It’s not the Basic COMP of the cortex, but simply one of the many ways & methods the COMP can be developed to be used in the sciences, thus confirming again, its deepest value.

The confirmation by other, independent persons and labs and sites of a scientific finding, shows that what has been found is indeed real and existing outside of our brains. It means it is a finding which is true under the fixed conditions on earth, when the test was performed can be found anywhere else on earth. And perhaps, even anywhere else in the universe if a physical finding. The universe is what each of us have in common, existing independently and outside of us.

But the secrets of the sciences are these. If you bow to the universe by testing it as the arbiter of what is going on, then that finding can often be used again and again to create a technology based upon it, such as the transistor, and literally millions of other findings do the same. Because the universe is very likely the same everywhere, those events are backed up by the universe everywhere, and just like the existence of the natural laws and the protons/electrons/neutrinos of atoms/mass are stable, so is that finding. That constancy/stability of the universe, and the facts that careful scientific investigation give us empirical truths about, may often mean it’s a universal truth, and can be used by anyone or any intelligence in our local region and possibly very many billions of light years away, too. The findings of the sciences when truly established as real and existing, give the sciences and the technologies the very power of the universe itself. and they are backed up by the very laws of the universe, also. That is not a trival technology or method. & it’s one of the secrets and powerful methods which the scientific method can create.

From the child to the adult, that COMP creates the discoveries which allow us to learn & grow & develop. In the sciences and very likely in the arts, that COMP event creates much of what we call creativity. From Archimedes, to Newton, to Kepler and Einstein and many others, the COMP can be simply seen as the way discoveries are made. It’s the underpinning of creativity. When Edison through the same trial and error experiments found the electric light, he at last realized it with the carbon filament. He had the idea that running electricity thru the right substance would create a usable electric light. THAT was the COMP event. and from that same emotional charging up of the cortex, all the rest of what he found, too.

The COMP is an active process in the cortex always working to create understanding and make sense of events around it. In the event called Pareidolia, the brain can find animals and other common shapes in clouds. It can find the Old Man in the Mtn. in a granite stone formation in Vermont. It can find the Camelback shape of the Mountain in north Phoenix, AZ, and there are literally many 1000’s of such events, which the brain creates using the MofC. It’s working to associate, recognize and create patterns, actively when we are awake. Thiis is how it understands meanings in speech and words, and makes sense of much which is not understood. the COMP is an active function in our cortices. The COMP easily explains pareidolia.

COMP is how to create creativity. How the COMP understands understanding and comprehends comprehension. How we can talk about talking and think about thinking. How we can model a model. How we can think about language. Again, the same transitive, recursive processes, all underlain by the COMP . This is no accident of speech, as it shows the COMP relationships in the words which themselves use the COMP , & depend upon it to work.

Much work in Artificial Intelligence has finally been able to achieve basic, voice activated programs. The implications are endless. Voice activation means a computer is able to detect human words, compare them to a library it can create or already has of such sounds and perform the corresponding simple task. This is through and through machine COMP . The problem has been the AI professionals did not know what they had to do. They simply proceeded from trial and error, as do we all when being creative, to find a way to get the computer to recognize (COMP ) vocalizations we call words.

But to create creativity? It’s COMP as well, When computers can model human COMP for thinking and visual recognition, then they will be truly AI. and when they can create creativity thru the COMP algorithms, and humor, as well via the same COMP skills, then full AI will have been achieved. COMP is the one, very simple process which has been missed. & had we thought of it sooner, it could have been done years ago. But we did NOT know enough of what simple language and words and thinking and creativity were, and what their origins were, until recently.

Imagine the capabilities of a truly COMP creative computer, which at 10 GHz can find thousands of creative breakthroughs in a few minutes, compared to our 100-200 ms. brain processing speed. (The evoked potential, a cortical latency of recognition). With that massive increase in creativity AI could make progress and breakthroughs on a massive basis, not just for the programmers, but for all. And combined with a QC?

“Oh brave new world, that hath such people in it!”

For these reasons the COMP can be metaphorically termed Le Chanson Sans Fin, the Endless Song. & it might well be Le Chanson de la Terre et Le Chanson Universel, as well. It’s real. It’s confirmed billions of times a day, and it must be considered, studied, and extended, and then used to create better lives by the COMP creativity algorithm, which the next section will discuss further.

COMP creates creativity. It also creates humor. It also creates optical and sensory illusions via our visual cortex which works by comparing the images and shapes it perceives. The applications are as endless as the COMP can be repeatedly used. There is no limit to the application of the COMP . That is its power and its capability. Anything, be it internal events in our minds, or external events in existence can be compared to everything else.

Because this endless recursivity, the COMP models the universe, which is also endlessly recursive. Our universe is built of protons/electrons, neutrons (combining 1 each of the former) and neutrinos, the stable particles of the universe. and from each of these used together in all the myriad ways are created; the atoms, elements and isotopes from which mass in our universe is created. From those atoms came all the molecules of chemicals and biochemicals from which life itself is made. (10’s of millions of chemicals which have been EACH classified by the COMP .) Endlessly complex, based upon simple atoms and simple nucleons. Just as DNA is based upon 4 base pairs; just as proteins are based upon 3 codon segments for each amino acid, building up the complexity of cell membranes, ribosomes, chromosomes, the mitochondria that give energy to run the cells & the enzymes which do all the biochemical work of the cells. This enormously stable simplicity of the universe is unlimitted(from a human standpint), compared & described by the COMP . It models piece by piece, system by system, also. and has for 100’s of millions of years on this earth, too. and can for all places and times in our universe for the last 15-20 billions of years and for an equal time, very likely into the future.

When we understand how the COMP works to create language, order, and rules, even creativity, we find one thing. Every time we hear a joke and “get” the punch line, we have done a self-rewarding task. We get a bit of dopamine kick which the novelty gives us. We smile and may laugh. It’s self-reinforcing, so we like jokes, and we repeat them to see others get the same “kick” and experience that dopamine boost ourselves once again. When a child comes in from outside, and has found a new kind of bug or animal, he may say “Daddy!! Daddy!! Look what I found!”. How often have we heard that? That’s the kick of discovery, that momentary reward for finding something new, the thrill of novelty..

When Archimedes got into his bath, saw the water displaced by his body, and realized in that COMP moment, that displacement of water could be used to measure density, he cried out “Eureka, I have found it!”. Again, the dopamine, self reinforcing process, which each of us may feel when we reach that moment of understanding and discovery. The “pleasures of philosophy” which Aristotle wrote of when investigating the world by his methods. The COMP reinforces itself, and is probably responsible for our curiosity as well. & that of the other animals, too. Exploration is a survival tactic. If it’s rewarded, it will be done again. The dopamine kick of the COMP.

How vast and truly omnipresent and ubiquitous this COMP is, is therefore clear. And that it can create copies of itself, and proliferate by creating new order and new ways of understanding, is also clear. It’s plain that the COMP scan simplify down an huge amount of information. What was once dark and confusion, suddenly becomes lit by that bright bolide in the darkness, illuminating the skies of our clear reason to much of what was unknown before, but that light does not fade.

The COMP is endless and limitless. For every new word the child has, he can compare that to others. For every new idea the creativity of the COMP gives us it can compare those with all the others, to create more insights. And the more it creates, the more it proliferates, exponentiating to a much larger size. The math fomula is “X!”, one of the fastest expanding math series known. This is a secret hiding within the COMP. This is its power. A method which can potentially decode the universe, using a self-reinforcing dopamine kick to keep itself going and it can be performed endlessly to help us understand better and better, again and again, in endless reiterations, that complex universe outside of us, and that vast, biological complexity inside of us. Truly, it is “Ignothi Seauton.”

It may eventually form the basic of a unified understanding of almost everything, which it has already partly classified and partially understood. Le Chanson Universel, Sans Fin, de La Terre:The Comparison Process. The followng sections will extend further the creativity function of the COMP and many other observations and confirming substantiations.

End of Introduction: Le Chanson Sans Fin

Le Chanson Sans Fin, the Comparison Process, Pt. 2

Le Chanson Sans Fin, the Comparison Process

Part 2

 This mapping by COMP functions is present in most of the higher animals, as well, from elephants, to wildebeests, to birds, and in all species which are territorial, which is a great many of them, which set up their recognition of what is theirs, using the comparison process/function. This does not necessarily mean that the same brain structures in humans are the same which are used in other animals, but in the cases of the primates, it’s very likely very, very similar structurally, in our corresponding cortical cells columns and areas of the brain. 

 When we look at our time pieces, we compare what is going on, to what we see there. We tell time by the COMP. How often is this done by normal working people, each day? We compare local time to UTI in Greenwich, as well. The COMP is widespread, it’s general, it’s universal for our species.  

 It has created languages in the same way, using different rules in many cases, different sounds and tonalities, but each language in its own way is a self consistent system  created by the COMP, created steadily from the very simple in our infancies, to the complex and markedly flexible and capable vocabularies we use professionally in most major fields. It’s the COMP.

 When we want to understand something, we say it in words, and each of these is ONLY meaningful in the context of other words. When we comprehend some event, it’s the same thing. We can talk about talking. We can think about thinking, we can create creativity, & we can understand understanding. & we can compare a comparison, we can explain understanding. We can model modeling. It’s all self-consistent, unlimitted in the number of times we can do it, and self-reflexive as well.  When we are aware of something, we can think & talk about it. The baby’s awareness is minimal at birth but rapidly grows as it begins to talk, learn and compare words to events around it. The words act as stable platforms upon which more words can be added, each meaningful in terms of other words. Each defined by other already existing words.

 Analysis is simply COMP written large in various different ways. To be aware or conscious of something, means it fits into our model of the world around us, built up by ideas/words/images, from our sensory impressions. It’s predominatly the COMP which does all of this. 

 When there are these many 100’s of millions of COMP examples, this is confirmation on a grand scale, that the COMP is real and working in our cortex. Why something this simple, this basic has been ignored for so long is remarkable, but then again, so was air ignored by our species for 1000’s of years, too, until about the 1700’s. & if air can be ignored, so omnipresent and common, then so can the COMP, too. It’s there, it’s real and it’s always at work. 

 Our laws of morality are based upon a COMP. This system tells us how to relate to others, and how to behave. If we steal, or lie, or are dishonest or cheat, we can in every case compare this to the rules we are taught by language and comparing to real events, to judge if we are wrong or not. This cortical function of the conscience, to which lawful behaviors and rules also apply, is in the frontal lobes of the brain. If the frontal lobes are damaged, then lawful/moral behaviors decline to slovenly appearances, no respect for others or oursevles & asocial often antisocial behaviors & so forth, little short of sociopathy. Again, a cortical function with a cortical origin using  the COMP. 

 Our large structures of legal laws are built upon the same process of comparison, endlessly, be it the English, American, or Napoleonic codes. When a cop stops someone for breaking the red light law, he recognizes this breach by the COMP, and tickets him & that’s COMP. COMP can rule and govern and enforce, too. The method of enforcement of the laws is implicit in the COMP. And so on and on. It organizes society by these legal and moral injunctions, by the COMP . And this is in every case. using the COMP creates a body of laws and induces people to understand them and use them. We compare what others do and find/realize whether they are behaving, or not. These examples all come from and have in common, the COMP for their creation, structuring and compliance and existence. This is no accident. Again this tester for the socially appropriate, the COMP checker,  is in our frontal lobes by clinical evidence. Further, in normal people we can appeal in social ways that they “keep on the straight and narrow”. And so these individuals correct their behaviors, accordingly. The COMP can enforce and control this order. It can actually GOVERN behaviors, as anyone who has corrected a child can immediately see. The COMP is a governor of the brain as well. not only does it create the order of the higher cortical functions, but it has checking and testing functions, also, which can internalize socially appropriate behaviors, diction and grammar in language, and watch skills as they are being performed, correcting each & every one of them, too. The COMP acting out of our cortex serves to order, organize and create higher functions and it can also govern and correct them in process, as well. 

 The universe can also be modelled by a similar system of laws, observed and confirmed, which shows us the behaviors, characteristics and various stable parts and processes in the universe. We compare & refer to (another COMP based word) new events to those which we find and find that they are indeed consistent with, ie, they compare closely with the gravitation, or laws of motion and so forth. It’s the same system of organization. So it’s very clear that cortical brain organization and systems are bound by the COMP, from start to finish. 

 The key to understanding the COMP is that it’s a process, not an event or thing. It compares ideas, words, images, events, etc. In doing so it expends energy in our cortex where the comparison work is being done. In doing so, it can order thoughts, and that is the anti-entropic event which a process which creates order must be able to do. It creates order. By creating methods of classification by comparison. By creating indices to organize books and other related systems. By expending energy it creates order, and is anti-entropic. This is the key to creativitiy. This is the key to organizing and controling and governing. It reverses entropy by doing the work of comparison in the cortex. & more energy is required to write out the laws, and disseminate them. Quite within the laws of Thermodynamics and physics. 

 We know this COMP occurs in the cortex of the brain. We can easily Identify  many of the places which specific functions are going on such as speech, visual image processing, hearing of music, sensation, motor control and so forth. Specifically where this occurs within the 5 layer, neuronal/physiological structure of the cortex is not known. But now we know where and what to look for. A system of neural connections, which cannot only store memories, but which can compare them, considering them at least 2 at a time or more. At present time we do not know  how the cortex works. But we know NOW where to look and what to look for, so the job is half done. We have to means now to idnetify the exact neurophysiology of the COMP and by extension, thinking and analysis and the very roots of cortical consciousness. That’s no mean redirection of investigation. 

 The COMP is therefore seen as a great unifying process going on in our brains, which creates most of these grand schemes in all of their flexibility & complexity, based upon comparing real events, images & perceptions and categories of events in the brain. From the simplicity of the  COMP, comes the complexities of the mind and brain. Let us consider the thermodynamics of this method, which can take a basic function, the COMP from the widespread usage of it in doing much of our high level processing.

 Essentially, the COMP  creates order from chaos. It can order the universe for us by its endless capacity to be repeated. In order to create order by the laws of thermodynamics, there must be in energy input. At that point where the COMP makes the comparison, which allows the dictionary, or encyclopedia or book index to be ordered by the alphabetization rules, the cortex does the COMP. THAT is the process using energy which creates the decreased disorder. This should be measurable in the brain cortex. Creating order costs energy and the brain’s physiology uses this energy to create a new word, a new concept, or even a sentence, but the process uses energy and the active process of the COMP is the key to understanding what does it. 

 Shannon’s information theory stated that essentially, the entropy of information is directly related to how much it restricts a description of an event in existence. In other words, order is increased by using the COMP, which acts according to and within the known laws of thermodynamics in our cortex. Nothing unlawful is going on here. In fact, it’s what we’d expect to happen. All of the neurophysiology is there to do it and order is created. It’s possible to use this massive order creating process to create order in books. That indexing capacity can be given a thermodynamic value, also. & it can be measured and studied. This is all very real, you see. Recognition of the COMP and how it works allows us to trace drerctly from speech and language to the exact places in the cortex where the COMP is working. And then to trace throughout the brain where similar COMP is ongoing. 

 In other animals from the arthropods, to fish to the higher mammals, we recognize that they set up territories . They know the landmarks from their sensory inputs of their environment and they know what is theirs. They know(COMP) because they recognize their territories. They recognize mates, predators, food, and so forth. In each case, the dog knows his master’s sound, his footsteps, his smell, his voice. and he compares these to his LTM and he recognizes his master and family. All of the animals can do this recognition in some way, from the at least the arthropods & fish on up. So it’s a VERY widespread COMP. and it unifies us all in that basic respect. In the arthropods, we know we have seen territoriality in the crabs and other crustaceans. These are 100’s of millions of years old. Even the sea anemones and corals will limit their competition by attacking their non-self neighbors, establishing territoriality. By whatever means, they recognize self, from non-self, and maintain their piece of intertidal zone or coral reef. Recognition means COMP in some form is operating  This dates the COMP capability, in whatever biochemical/neural form it was created for each species, back to at least 600 million years ago in the Pre-Cambrian period. This kind of ancient evidence for its existence is not trivial. Essentially, it’s always been with life on earth at least in the multicellular form. 

 But there is more, far, far more. When the Rosetta stone was found, it carried the same message in 3 symbolic languages. The top was Ptolemaic Egyptian hieroglyphs. The middle, Egyptian demotic, a sort of cursive writing for legal and common events, and the last was Hellenistic Greek which was known.  Champollion and Young deciphered the hieroglyphics and the demotic by the COMP and trial and error, which is the same thing. They compared pharoah’s names in the cartouches to the names they knew in the lower Greek section  and confirmed all of it, Slowly, carefully over the years, they were able to develop from very simple words and letters the complex language of the ancient Egyptians which had been lost. Does this sound familiar to how babies learn language? It’s not a coincidence. T

 he lost languages of the Hittites, Sumerian, cuneiform systems and even Linear B have been decoded using the COMP in the same way, steadily building up the language. Recapping the same way we have all learned language as children. The endless comparing, the trials and errors, the eventually creating of a consistent system for the Egyptian language. COMP all through. 

 It’s been found recently that bottlenosed porpoises, Tursiops truncatus (as they are classified), also uses language. This was found, not surprisingly, using trial and error and the COMP. When animal ethologists were observing and recording porpoise whistles, they heard a series of repeated whistles. When they recorded and then played each of them back, the whistles alerted & corresponded(COMP) to some individuals, specifically. That is they compared what happened to the porpoises when their suspected names were played back and found they responded to them. The findings were well past highly significant. The dolphins use the COMP as do we. They have names which compare to individuals. and when we begin to learn their porpoise language, we will find the COMP as central to their use and development of language as do we. This is not a coincidence. This is the power of a most ancient and capable COMP system. Which even the brightest animals have, including our primate cousins. And the whales and dolphins are far, far older than we are.

Le Chanson Sans Fin: The Comparison Process–Introduction, Pt. 1

 Le Chanson Sans Fin: The Comparison Process–Introduction, Pt. 1 

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

 “Every fundamental advance in physics was preceded by an epistemological advance.”–Albert Einstein

  “Almost anything which jogs us out of our current abstractions, is a good thing.”–Lord North, Alfred Whitehead, co-author of the Principia Mathematica.

  “Ignothi seauton.” Know yourself.–Socrates, 5th C. BC

  “There is no royal road to understanding. You have to do the work.”–Anon.   

Part 1: 

The Comparison Process (COMP) is likely to be the predominant,  high level, cortical function/process of the brain, which subsumes language, thinking, creativity, visual perceptions, associations, and perceptions of laws, morality, music, creativity and many other high level cortical functions. It lies directly on the neurophysiology/cortex interface between brain & mind. 

The COMP is very simple. From this simple process, languages of any kind can be created. Education, teaching, learning, discovery and creativity can arise from COMP. It is basically a strategic, active process used in the cortices of the brain to do everything from operation of the motor and sensory cortex, to consciousness & the conscience and much else besides. The COMP does not create the emotions, altho the cortex clearly modulates and can control them. It’s a very simple process, recursive & reiterative, not a thing or object, but an active function, and from this simplicity all the rest can be built.  

Einstein wrote that no time nor space was absolute. In order to measure time and space we must start with a fixed reference point, a point relative to which we measure, a point which is arbitrary and then measure from there. In the same way, our cortex starts with the sensory inputs and compares them with each other to create our consciousness, language, and much else. For instance, when we use words we use the COMP, largely. We hear sounds as babies, and begin to imitate them as our mothers teach us to talk. She corrects & develops our language from the simple words, to the more complex by example, correction and addition of words. By the time we are in our teens we have a good command of the language, and can create and add to it on our own. As ontogeny recaps philogeny in our bodies’ development from infant to adult, so do our basic language skills develop by adding more and more words, and more and more language skills, from the simple, to the complex vocabuaries of language.  

The COMP is there from the first in the cortex and is the built in structural process of all languages, which is why babies from any race/locale can learn any language. The method is built into the cortex and is the COMP. When we hear  words we compare those to words in our verbal Long Term Memory (LTM) and we understand what a word means by comparing it to those already there.  If not, then we ask the person to tell us what the word means, by using other words with which we are already familiar. i.e., we compare the words we already know for a definition of the new word. Definition is COMP. No word is an island. No word stands alone, to paraphrase John Donne. Each word is given meaning by other words, and each word is & can be defined by other words. Each word must be compared to other words for meaning, otherwise there is no meaning. Words are highly contextual for this reason. A language is probably a complex system of related words. 

 For instance, take a noun, a verb and the object following the verb, the usual grammatical sentence.  

The Tree stop orange. 

 It makes no sense at all. Still the grammar is there, a noun subject, a verb, and an object. But it makes no sense despite that proper grammatical construction. Now why? Because none of the words relate to each other at all. Without these relationships the words are meaningless in this case. Change the sentence to “The orange tree stopped growing.” and anyone can see the line is understandable. All the relationships are there. It’s a tree, an orange tree. Living trees can stop growing for many reasons. It makes sense now because the words can all be “compared” to each other using the COMP very quickly, and we have a normal, comprehendable sentence. We created the sense by arranging a set of words which allowed those “meaningful” relationships to be read and understood. 

 Grammar does NOT necessarily create meaning. That’s the point here. It’s the relationships among the words which do that. Whatever creates a meaningful sentence must create a meaningful relationship among the words. No one can talk about “steely” when talking about tree bark. But about a person’s eyes? Again, highly contextual, created by the COMP creating relationships among the words to give meaning. 

 In “Jabberwocky”  by Lewis Carroll, we read the words:

 “Twas brillig and the slithy toves did gyre and gimble in the wabe. All Mimsy were the borogoves and the mome raths outgrabe.” 

Again, all of the grammar is correct, but there is absolutely no meaning. It has form, but like in the first sentence, no meaning. Grammar does NOT create meaning. and this has been the crowbar in the metal gears for trying to understanding language. Get rid of the sole “grammar” requirement, and everything starts to make sense.

  Contextuality is the capacity of words to have many meanings depending upon their context, i.e,, the words around them which they can be compared to. 

CF.: “I CAN do it.”;  The beans were in the CAN.”;  (Another, but rather rude phrase “CAN” related to the WC); and lastly, “He saw the Can-can.” 

There it is. Understanding of language is based upon the relationships among the words for meaning and context. The grammar is a red herring, a false lead, a distraction. 

 When my beloved g’ma had a stroke affecting her speech output area, Broca’s, she could still talk. She’d say something like ” I go sit.” meaning she wanted to sit down. The grammar is bad, but the meaning was still intact. These instances show that it’s the relationships of the words which give meaning, NOT grammar, which can give form, but not meaning, necessarily. 

 When one uses the COMP all of this becomes clear, as well. When we speak we are constantly comparing the words to each other to make sense. That means the active process of the COMP is being used all the time to imbue the string of words with meaning. And if the right words are used, then meaning will result from the relationships among them which are possible despite the bad grammar. 

 Take a look at our dictionaries. They use words to define words. They define each word by comparing it to others of known meaning. The dictionaries provide Synonyms, the words which mean much the same, with their mostly connotated differences, The large books called Thesauri are made up of whole collections of these Synonyms, all based upon the COMP. The Antonyms, which are opposites, again COMP. & then there are the Homonyms, pun forming, sound alike words/combinations, which can create the double entendre and are the source of much humor. Again, another instance of an unsuspected new kind of word, wherein the words create far more than was in them from the beginning. 

 The dictionary is organized by alphabetical means. This means a word starting with a “c” is compared & located to the 3rd section beginning with all such words. The next letter is found, an ‘o” and then one turns to the “c” words followed with an “o” after the “C”. The next letter, is searched for, comparing the words until one gets to “com”, and so on until one gets to “comparison”

 The method is self-consistent and reflexive. Comparisons can be compared, endlessly. It’s very self organizing. Because there is no absolute meaning, and all words must be compared to other words for their meaning, it makes complete sense. No word is an island. No word stands alone.. Meaning is best gained by comparison of words to others, i.e., definitions. In the same way we derive distance, speed & time by comparing to fixed, but arbitrary standards, so do the meanings of words rely upon other words. We define words by other words, comparing the meanings of the phrases to create the definitions. No word can possibly stand alone. What would it mean? Meaning is created by comparing to other words with meanings.

 And so the list of words grows & grows as more and more categories are recognized, filled with words which fit into each category. Overall, this is COMP. It creates words by showing us new events/new relationships, and so forth. It builds new words by discoveries of new events, new meanings, and so forth. The structure function- relationship is itself a comparison. Definitions are comparisons. Contrasting and differences in meaning are established by comparison. 

 Essentially, we use words to communicate with others, not ourselves.. It’s a social activity. The words created and learned are then stored in the LTM, which creates a stable, recallable, recognizable entity, a word, which reflects a concept/idea/image or event in existence. These are models for events in existence and is the way our higher cortical functions in our brains are organized. It is nothing less than the fundamental way we process information, i.e., think. This may well mean that in practice, language is a complex system. With literally 100,000’s of words in most technical and advanced languages, the complex interactions of these words with other words in sentences, often creating new meanings and new discoveries, very likely shows this. 

 When we recall words wrongly, wanting to say cryolite and instead say rhyolite, These errors show us how words are stored in our verbal memories. When trying to recall words, we often get words which are near to it, but not it. Koskiusko, or tabasco or something similar for “capsaicin” the active ingredient in chiles. Note that this means that most words are stored by sound. They may rhyme, or sound similiarly, and so when reaching for a word we want from verbal memory, we refer to a storage cache of similar words, and get the wrong one, time to time. The words can be stored in many different ways and categories, too. Thinking of States in the South, we get a different word storage cache from States on the east coast. All of these associations of words that we know and the ideas behind them are likely mostly stored this way. 

 Any kind of error, be it a genetic error creating a disorder, or other conditions, creates a new opportunity to compare that genetic disorder to the normal. Any new finding which can be compared to normals or other conditions, can create new insights, simply because it allows the COMP to be used again in a new way. In some mouse models, researchers use mutagens to create genetic changes. Then they back cross the offspring of that mouse to bring out the recessives created by the mutagens. This often results in interesting findings, by this method of genetic error creation, which is little more than one more of the myriads of types of COMP. Any difference from what we see normally, any finding which is unusual can be of this value, simply because it permits the COMP to be used on one more event, one more situation, to enlighten us. 

 Encyclopedias are organized the same way as dictionaries. This is not a trivial example of the COMP, either. When we speak, we find words in our LTM (Long Term Memory) which we use to express our thoughts. The words give language via our LTM a stable platform from which it can grow. When we view the dictionary, when we listen, the same process goes on. We hear words, compare them to those we know and derive meaning from the multiple, fluent, automatic comparisons we make. When we read, we see letters/symbols which phonetically correspond, ie. compare, to words we already know. When we write, we reverse this process, finding words in the verbal LTM which we then write down and create writing. From start to finish when we speak and think and hear using language, we are constantly comparing each word to other words & their meanings AND relationships, which we already know.

  When we see something familiar, it’s familiar because we have a LTM item which allows us to recognize it. Recognition is a COMP. Whenever recognition is seen, it’s COMP in every testable case. Everyone uses the COMP 1000’s of times daily in these instances. When we see a face, we compare it to our library of faces in the right inferior temporal cortex where those are found. If this area is damaged badly, we will not be able to recognize faces. If verbal memory is damaged by strokes or other injuries we lose parts or all of speech. If visual cortex is damaged we can no longer do the comparison processing of the images to see. If motor/sensory cortex is damaged we can no long move or feel on the affected side relative to the brain injury. If the right hemispheric sensory strip is damaged, we might not even realize we HAVE a left side at all!!  

  In every case there is a structure/function relationship between the COMP to cortical functions in the brain. If there is a function, such as sight, or sensation, or movement of a body part, or smell, or hearing, there exists a corresponding part of our cortex which subsumes these higher functions.  In this way, by comparing those persons with damage in specific areas of the brain, we have found this to be an inviolable rule. For every function of the brain we can detect, there is a corresponding area(s) which create that function. Therefore we can be sure that the COMP resides in the cortices of the brain, and that it operates there wherever there is intact, functional cortex.

 From this simple COMP, operating in many different ways, all based upon the simple 100’s of 1000’s of cortical cell columns, again, massively reduplicated, we find higher level cortical functions, such as speech, hearing, music, memory, motor/sensory functions, thinking and processing of information of all sorts. In most every case, it’s COMP or a variant of it. For instance, when we classify all species of living forms, we have created an immensely complicated classification system, based upon the COMP. Every organism we see, unless it’s a new one, can be classified by observing it, noting its size, shape, color and other major characteristics, including genetics, and then refer by COMP to the classification of all biological forms, and find it. Each part of this immense, organized, well ordered system was built up by using the COMP on a massive scale. Every single known species has been observed, studied, and compared to many others, to find out where it fits. This is massive COMP. As there are millions of such bacteria, plants, microrganisms, and animals, this is millions of instances of confirmations of the use of the COMP. It shows that from the simple COMP a huge, orderly classification scheme can be organized & ordered/created from disorder.

 COMP creates order from chaos. It shows how categories are created by the COMP to hold vast numbers of events within each of them. From trees to bacteria to the huge numbers of millions of insects, mostly beetles, the Coleoptera. All this vast order, like language, has been created simply by comparing each form of life to the others. It can be repeated and referred to endlessly. It can be made to include extinct life forms as well. It can be done without limit, just like our words and number systems, also created by the COMP without limit. The COMP has created our entire system of classification of all living things simply by the COMP used again and again. This is not a trivial proof. 

 In the Hertzsprung Russell Diagram of the stars, literally 10,000’s of stars have been compared to each other to establish the Main Sequence of stars and upon this scheme almost all stars can be fitted. A similar system exists for the galaxies and all those other event such as planets, comets, nebulae, nova/supernoava remnants, etc. Literally, the COMP can be used to catalog and organize everything we can observe, and it has & continues to do so. Inside All of us, Everywhere.

  The elements and chemical compounds based upon them are compared and classified extensively by the rules of the IUPAC system. The Periodic table of the elements and isotopes is the result of this.  Many of the elements, such as the noble gases, the halides, the highly reactive gases such as flourine, chlorine, iodine, and the ferrous metals, to name just a few, have close relationships to the other similar elements. This is 10’s of millions more  confirmations from each chemical found and so classified by comparing it to the rules & structures in chemistry.  

The COMP underlies our creation of & reading of maps, which are set up to compare to physical landmarks & guide us about. For every landmark, address, or other characteristic, there has been this COMP  function used. and when we use/read the map, we look to the physical references we see around us and then compare them to the map to see which way to go. Using a compass is much the same thing.