Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Comparison Process (COMP)

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Comparison Process (COMP)

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process/ COMP Theory/Model

Alan Turing’s test for Artificial Intelligence (AI) was simply that in talking to the AI machine, a person could not determine if he was talking to a machine, or a real person. This has not yet been achieved.

Computers are now used at a very hgh level in terms of automobile design. Let’s consider what they are used for and what they are capable of by describing in a general way what they do. The car must be designed as a massive integration of weight, chassis strength, power plant (engine), drive train, wheels and tires. It has to have electronics in it, too, for many purposes, and the usual options. If the car weighs too much for the engine, it won’t go fast enough. It the wheels/tires are too weak and not supportive, they could collapse under the weight or wear out too fast. If too large, they add too much weight to the car, overburdening the gas mileage limitations. We can see how the entire vehicle from an engineering standpoint is very complicated to build. Look under the hood of today’s car if you think it’s simple/easy to do. It’s a mass of complexity carefully fitted under the hood. Try creating that engine compartment manually with just drawing paper in your spare time so see the magnitude of the problem of design.

The computer can search thru a huge number of possible combinations, by trial and error, much, much faster than human minds can. Well programmed design computers do the work 1000’s of time faster than their human builders, alone. This allows a complex, highly integrated system, the car, with a carefully approximated, trial and error path to be followed to create the final model. Which when tested, tweaked and slightly refined, can be even better. This is why computer design of cars is used today, because it can do the job 1000’s of times faster than humans can. It can search thru the huge number of possible combinations of weights, tire/wheel, chassis strength, engine size/power and so forth and create a vehicle much better designed and more efficiently integrated than human could in the same time. The design computer has become a human prosthesis for matching/comparing the endless possibilites to create a viable, manufacturable, highly integrated machine. This is early AI, too, but 3D and very, very useful. And is probably the most complex form of design going on on the planet on a large scale basis, too.

Partial AI, however, HAS been achieved, and using the Comparison Process can be better understood in many of its subtleties. First, of all, the essential aspect of AI is recognition at all levels, be it voice and speaking, writing, and recognizing what images are. That’s what humans do, using the COMP. Understanding AI using the COMP can give some considerably greater insights than other methods, largely because very few people can well and in detail define/describe what goes on in the human brain during recognition/language. The COMP model states that recognition (cognition) is via the comparison process. That is, a person hears a word, compares that word to the Long Term Memory (verbal) & recognizes each word separately within the context of a sentence, then responds appropriately to that word string. The mind understands what the words mean by comparing them (in the LTM) to the standard usage of those words in much of their complexity.

Ask a, AI programmed computer this series of sentences.
“I Can do it.” The beans are in a Can.” I had to hit the Can.” “He saw the Can-can.”
No computer can figure out what those “cans” mean. Because the computer simulations do not compare words to each other in a sentence, they can only respond so far in pre-programmed ways. They cannot initiate real, creative understanding of word strings, nor create them. The COMP does both.

Because recognition requires that a word be known and stored in a working or long term memory(LTM) place(s) in the brain, the brain can hear a word, compare it to the heard word, and recognize it by a close match. That’s what word re-cognition means. It means when the heard word is processed, it can refer to the same/similar word in the memory, recognize it and all the details around the word, describing the word, giving it meaning, and then respond to it. Recognition is one of the basic cognitive task/process of the cortex, the basic function of the Comparison process. It’s how the brain Knows/Understands words and meanings. If the brain doesn’t know the word, it can be spoken about in terms of other related words the mind knows and then understands the meaning of a new word. A word’s definition is explained in terms of other words with related/associated words. Each new word is built upon the meanings of words learned earlier. No word is an island. No word stands alone. Definitions/explanations of words are given in terms of other words.

It’s the relationships among the many words based upon the Comparison process which creates language and understanding and knowing and comprehension. The COMP clearly shows the relationships/associations among words. That’s how we know words are related and can be used together. Once we understand that the COMP does this, tho we cannot YET understand the complex neurophysiology of the 6 layers of the usual cortex which do this work, and how this neurophysiology creates the COMP, we can still use the COMP as a model of the mind/brain interface. The COMP is a critical-to-understand complex system shortcut. And language is a complex system. The COMP is what verbal thinking does and is. The COMP has other tasks too, but verbal processing is part of what it does everyday, all day long.

Thinking and the COMP are often the same. This gives essential and useful insights in terms of understanding what we mean by “thinking”. If the COMP is being used, that is one kind of important, fairly common thinking process. We can see this when we go to find a word in a dictionary, or any other list or index. We are looking for the word, comparing and matching the other words until we find the entry we are looking for. This is one kind of Comparison Process of a multiplicity of types.

So far we have early AI on google. We put in a word and perhaps some of its modifiers into the box, hit the enter button, the massive google search engine compares/matches that word to those in its huge data base (machine LTM memory) and spits out all of the matches. There is very little thinking going on. In a very primitive way, google matches the word(or closely related spellings) and finds all the references to it and puts them up on the screen. That’s simple recognitiion, or matching, both COMP.

But to ask the machine to UNDERSTAND what the word means is something entirely different. So far, tho, If the machine can TALK/WRITE about the word using coherent meaningful sentences, which are sensible, and those can be pre-programmed into it, then it would give a superficial sense of meaning. However, if it were asked a not pre-programmed question, such as to describe “What you had to eat, today?” it’d stumble. Or if it were asked to describe the meaning of a phrase in more than 2-3 ways, it’d also stumble. Either that, or talk like a dictionary reads, which would be fairly obvious to most human listeners. This also has been achieved.

But to be able to talk and learn new words requires the ability to frame sentences, that is to create a string of meaningful, interelated/associated words Comparing to each other, which makes those relationships real and effective. And that requires creativity. and a lot of processing power, as well as a considerable memory, too. If such a question is asked, then it’d fail, and all machines today would fail. They cannot create language which is flexible enough to sound real. Neither can they describe an idea new to them, either. Because in order to do that, the machine would have to know meaning and be able to compare the words in a sentence to each other, to create meaning. And no computer can do that, yet.

Further, no machine can describe a simple image, either, let alone a mountain scene, and ID where it’s from, such as the Valley of the Yosemite. NO machine can see Half Dome and pick it out of a picture from one of its many seen angles and views. It can be pre-programmed to do so from a stock set of images, but it’d fail the task on something it didn’t know, when observed by a normal person. No computer systems yet can turn a complex image such as Half Dome around in its circuitry and recognize it as Half Dome from different directions. But humans do this and analogous processes all the time by using the Comparison Process.

In order to create real AI the programmer must first learn how to create language from the comparison process, which is how the human brain creates, learns, discovers and teaches/explains language. Until that time, by trial and error, there will be simulated and superficial AI, but not true AI which cannot easily be distinguished from a human source.

The AI computer will have to be able to recognize words and to talk about words. It will have to comprehend what those words mean in real, contextual terms, not just automatonic, pre-programmed responses, which are what goes for voice recogniition today. We can see those work. We simply state Linda Eder at the Youtube entry and it transliterates the spoken word (hopefully) into the words “Linda Eder”, then matches those with what it has and up pop all the Eder tunes/images associated with her. I’ve done this. It works, and it was not fooled by the “eider duck” form, either. It grasped that Linda Eder was pronounced the same as the duck,spelling, too. So some progress has been made, but not enough. Basically, it transliterates the spoken word into letters and then does the primitive matching work usually seen on the google box, just as it does when we write ” Linda Eder” into the box on the Goodle starting page. Sometimes you have to type it in, anyway!!

The ability to string words into a sentence which makes sense, is what humans do. No machine can create that string of words, yet. Because no machine is yet creative. True human creativity comes from the comparison process in our cortex, and that’s how we make new sentences. That’s how we discover and learn. The programmer must create an electronic analogue to the brain’s comparison process in order to speak, coherently. Otherwise it’s just all automatonic words coming out. That’s hard enough.

True speech and meaningful language require that AI understand most of the essential relationships among words/categories/classes of each word. Whether the word is living or not. Where it may be on a map. How the object is used. Whether it’s soft, hard, wet, dry, and much else. Until the AI computer can get/discover/learn these essential, meaningful relationship/associations, which are created by the Comparison Process at work in our cortices, then AI will not truly be able to satisfy Turing’s test.

In “Le Chanson Sans Fin” articles, there are posted many examples of the comparison process which creates creativity from Darwin/Wallace, to Einstein thru Edison. Here’s another: “Peleset”, from Rameses 3’s mortuary pylon, Deir el Bahari, West Bank from El Luxor, shows the Peles-et reference, translating as Pelesi–Land of. Just as the ancient Kheman name for their capital, Uas-et translates as the Place of Power. Ramesses 3 stated he settled those people there, on Egyptian Mediterranean territories, tributary to him.

Trudie and Moshe (Moses) Dothan ( People of the Sea) , noted Philistine area archeologists, who excavated Ashkelon, among other Philistine cities, found the Achean/Mikunan stirrup jars, art motifs and Grey Minyan ware pottery at the lowest, foundational levels, there. Philistine is an anglicized version of the same word, Peleset. The area is also known from Roman times as Palestina, and from our time as Palestine, anglicized from Palestina. The Comparison Process shows that both the geographical areas, and names from 11th BC to present are the same word. This verbal/geographical/archeological comparison shows the creativity process at work, seeing that the words, places and peoples when carefully compared are of the same origins. It’s the comparison process at work.

But images? Recognition of images is what our brains do pretty well. And we can talk about them, recognize what we know and don’t know, too. AI and Machines cannot yet do that. A pciture is worth 1000 words, it requires enormous processing power to analyze images,even by our own visual cortex.

But what about a simple drawing of a banana in color? Some AI programs might be able to call it a banana, but just try to ask them what they’d do with one? Or how it tastes? The ability to discover, learn, then talk about a subject is uniquely human. Until, by trial and error and much creative work, AI computers are able to do these tasks using a system which imitates/models the comparison process of creativity, creating new sentences using the COMP to create the relationships among the words, which make sense, and learning, then we won’t see true, real AI. Because that’s what language can be shown to be, repeated use of the Comparison Process. That’s the key to true AI, which until recently has not been understood, or recognized, or discovered.

Now that the goal of AI can be defined using the COMP model, then they know where to go. And having some sense of direction to the goal, is often half the task done.

Most animals can recognize territories, prey/food, predators and other simple recognition tasks. The primates have very similar cortical cell columns to humans. Those of other mammals, popoises, dogs, birds and reptiles, probably use different sorts of Comparison Process neural structures to create recognition by comparison to learned/discovered LTM analogues of the same. Biochemical recognition by the lower forms of life, such as protozoans, bacteria, fungi, etc., probably qualify as analogous recognition structures. It’s been done before. It can be done by humans using AI. But as so often seen, when the problem can be more exactly defined, it’s easier to do. Otherwise, there’s a lot more of trial and error to work through and that can take a long time.

Now consider the value of a computer which processes at about 10 GHz, compared to the human brain’s parallel processing at about 10Hz. About 1 billion fold speed. If a computer can be made to model human COMP creativity, it could potentially find more useful, creative findings using the COMP by a factor of at least 1000 times. This could potentially result in a speed up of creativity by the same factor, that is, inventiveness. What would happen to progress and output of the arts and sciences when that happened? What could happen to programming when a computer was used to create possible approaches to solve real, significant computer programming problems? Imagine the possibilities. The computer as programming problem solving prosthesis for humans. Speeding up problem solving by 1000’s of times. Or far more. Awesome potential for solving all programming problems. And for solving our own very human, very serious problems of chemical and radiation pollutions.

Cosmology and the Comparison Process (COMP); Explananda 5

Cosmology and the Comparison Process.(COMP )
Explananda 5

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

In cosmology, let’s lay the groundwork, and then show the breakthroughs which have and can come from the COMP’s creative capabilities. Humason and Hubble did a great deal of work in the early to mid 20th C. observing many interstellar objects via the Mt. Wilson Telescope, then the largest and best in the world. They established that galaxies existed outside of our own, and Humason’s arduous work in obtaining detailed images and spectra of near and distant galaxies showed that the universe was expanding upon the basis of the red shift of the galaxies. This expansion of the universe based upon the massive COMPARISON of these red shifted galaxies, etc. makes their work a well established scientific fact, which cannot be rationally disputed by educated and carefully thinking people. Those galaxies which are more distant have a greater red shift, due to their increased velocity moving them away from the earth, as the fixed point of reference, i.e., in comparison (COMP) to the earth. The further away these galaxies are located, the emission lines in the spectra obtained from these galaxies move to the left, to the red end of the spectrum. And indeed many have been found which are so distant, by COMP, that those emission lines have been moved nearly into the infrared. and probably some DO lie in the IR, too. But these are harder to look for, because not only will they be dimmer, but will require a different kind of detector to find.

But the point is this, and it seems somehow to have been missed. When we look at the emission spectra of the elements on the earth, they are clearly very unique to each element, that is each atom of a specific atomic number. This is true because the emission lines are most commonly created by the excitation of electrons in their discrete stable, outer levels of the atom, and when they jump back to lower levels in their positions around the nucleus, which is unique to each element, they give off a highly specific & characteristic set of emission lines. These lines are the same for each element. They are the same for the elements in the sun and the planets. They are the same for the nearby stars, and the more distant ones in our own Orion spiral arm of our galaxy, both outwards and inwards to the 1600 LY (light years) distant Orion group of nebulae. In the next spiral arms over the emission lines are the same, and exactly so. In the most distant parts of our galaxy we can see using the COMP, about 80K LY distant, where the SagDEG (Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy) is now passing through/near to the disc edge of our galaxy opposite ours, The stars there have the same emission lines, as they do on the earth, and in ALL the stars/objects in the intervening distances. The stars of the quite separate and discrete and different history and origin of SagDEG also show the same emission lines as we see on the earth. The spectra of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, satellite galaxies at 120K LY and further from out our own Milky Way galaxy, ALSO have the same emission lines. That of the nearest large galaxy, the Andromeda also has the same elemental emission lines. Exactly. The same emission lines are seen in a smaller spiral galaxy satellite to the Andromeda, the M33 galaxy.

And so on and on so far out as we can look with our most advanced telescopes. Both on earth and in space, we see the same, exact frequencies of the elemental emission lines in all of the other closer, or more distant galaxies, even those at incredible distances. This is the important point. A linear model of the universe’ expansion (probably incorrect as the universe is a complex system and so not linear) and those redshifts, gives the most distant visible galaxies(ignoring IR shifted distant galaxies, at about 14 Billion light years (B LY) away. They are also 14 B years back in time, too. and even at those distances, and in all the intervening distances, the emission lines are the same by the Comparison Process. THAT is utterly Extraordinary. We have then visual proof that the same elemental electron levels peculiar and particular to each element are the same all over the universe. We know that the electron levels are built upon the nuclear structure of the elements, and thus those are all the same from here on earth to the most distant and most ancient times, all the same. Thus nuclear physics and chemistry and biochemistry here on earth and everywhere in our UNI-verse are all the same.

But there is more. Einstein postulated that a photon’s path would be bent by passing thru a strong enough gravitational field. and his theory of relativity was confirmed in this by finding that the light of a star passing near to the sun bent exactly as Einstein predicted it would in the 1920’s, and whenever rechecked(COMP), since. Further, when we look at distant galaxies, we can see their images also bent by photons from the galaxies, passing very near to very large stars, too. In addition, Einstein stated that if the light from a very, very distant galaxy were to have interposed another large galaxy between the more distant and closer galaxy, on the line of sight of the earth, we would see distorted images of that distant galaxy around the interposed one. And those images, the Einstein arcs and crosses of the light of such distant galaxies, have been found in enormous numbers. Even at distances of nearly 10-12 B LY. And this not only means that again, the laws of gravity as we understand them so far, are the same here on the earth and near to our sun, but also as distantly as we can see, and in all the myriads of places in between–both distant in the past, and up to the present, i.e. distant in space and time compared to the earth.

As an aside:
There is yet one more interesting inference we need to look at. If these Einstein crosses have been seen, clearly in the visible light spectra, and if there is a continuing red shift, then in a very old universe such as ours is, there may be reshifts into the infrared frequencies. And correspondingly there should be visible, real, but more faint Einstein crosses and arcs, similar to what we see in the visible spectrum, tho as the IR images would be far more distant, would be correspondingly fainter and hard to see. We have the IRAS satellite. Are we looking for those? Imagine the change in cosmology and our estimate of the age of the universe should a number of IR Einstein crosses and arcs be seen. And what of microwave Einstein arcs?

If we don’t look, we won’t find. The Low Surface Brightness galaxies of David Malin’s astute observation, were found in huge size and numbers of very faint galaxies, whose existence had not even been expected by just this same COMP driven creativity. The existence of the very distant satellites of our sun, at highly eccentric orbits, were simply missed because no one would spend the time and money to look for weeks at a field of stars to see if those planetoids beyond Neptune could be found. But when astronomers looked, they found them by the 100’s, upwards of 3200 km. diameter bodies, too.

Do the cosmologists and astronomers dare to look for IR and Microwave Einstein arcs and crosses? And if not, why not? This would further find more highly relevant data to compare to what we know and confirm, or disconfirm current estimates of the universe’ age. These questions show once again, the creativity of the COMP.

This shows the power of the COMP. It can take known, real proven facts and then extend them, showing once again the creativity of the COMP and where creativity comes from. The Comparison Process, everywhere, immanent, working.

This is confirmation of the enormous structural integrity, constancy and stability of our universe, to have lasted at least 14 Billion years (BY) and even at the greatest known distances, in all directions of at least 14 B LY (probably longer and more distant, too). The fact that our universe appears to be accelerating its expansion, indicates its non-linear nature and if so, indicates our universe is far, far older than the linear model implies, upwards of 15-20 B years old. This then has protean implications. Because we know that life as we know it took about 4.5 BY to develop on earth, even tho early life was created a few billion years after the earth’s creation, that given the right conditions at any time and any place in our universe that can exist like ours. and further that these laws of nature will continue for billions of years into the future. Life could and probably has come about by evolution, not once, but unlimited numbers of times inside our galaxy alone. We are not alone in the universe. This is proved beyond all reasonable doubt, by the findings of Hubble and Humason, and the observations of the gravitational effects at similar huge distances in space & time. Therefore it’s wise to look for other life out there. and we have come 15 Billion Yrs. and VERY late to the game.

In addition, not only can we live here on the earth with the proper conditions, but we can live ANYWHERE and ANYWHEN in our universe, as well, thru all spaces and all times. The physics and the chemistry are the same, everywhere, every part of it. We do indeed live in one UNI-verse.

But there is more, much more to this COMP of the distances and times of the emission spectra seen. How does the universe know and stay to be the same, in all times and all spaces? That is a weighty question. How does this function of everywhere in all spaces and all times, having the same physics and chemistry and gravity come about, too? Occam’s Razor, a form of the least energy principle(a complex system characteristic which rules our universe), states that the simplest explanation accounting for the salient facts, is usually the correct one.

And this is the most likely the simplest answer: The universe and all of its parts are the same because at the most fundamental and deepest quantum level, they are all in touch with other parts of the universe instantaneously. That means, in other words, every part of our universe is in constant and immediate contact with every other part, at the level which is very microscopic and small, where quantum level events take place. It means the observations of those laws of chemistry, physics and gravity, including relativity effects and rules, all come from the deepest quantum effects and laws from which our universe arises.

Well, that’s all very well and good, but do we have any other physical evidence for instantaneity in our universe? The answer is we have more solidly based evidences. First of all, Einstein’s thought experiment about what happened to a rider on a light beam. If we rode on it, we’d see that no time passed, because all time slows down more and more if one speeds up matter faster and faster against a relatively fixed position. At that point everything around the photon seems to happen instantaneously, while no time at all passes for the photon. Einstein’s creative COMP, you see, once again. When one hits light speed, all time stops for the photon. The twin never ages at all. And this is instantaneity. There is no time. For the photon everything outside of it happens all at once. There is no time for the photon.

Another well known example is that of the EPR paradox. Einstein, Rosen and Podolsky postulated that if one were to entangle a particle or photon with another, and then separated them, if the spin of one of the pair were measured, it’d instantly fix the spin of the other of the pair. Several years ago, Bell described a way to theoretically test this. and his Bell test has now confirmed, that indeed, the spin of the opposite particle is instantly created. Not at light speed. Not at more than light speed, but INSTANTANEOUSLY, to the point where the current measurement of the transfer of spin information between two particles is above the lower limit of 40,000 (!!!)) times Cee, the speed of light. which is about 6 digits of 99+% instantaneous speed. That’s convincing evidence of universality of instantaneity, too. It’s predicted to be so by Quantum mechanics. and it’s real and true.

Because it doesn’t matter how FAR the two particles are separated, the opposite spin will be instantaneously created in the other one, even if it is on the other side of the universe. and in all space and times distant, too. & if it can join two entangled particles together, then it can join everything else, too. It’s all tied together, you see, at the deepest quantum levels of our universe.

There is yet another evidence of this. We know that in a gravitational fields time slows down compared to a lower field. The higher the gravitational field strength, the slower the time goes. The lower the field strength, the faster events go compared to a standard reference clock. Events on the earth proceed, even at earth’s tiny gravity, slightly slower than do similar, highly synchronized atomic clocks orbiting the earth.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitational_time_dilation

Now consider this further. What happens if we continue to reduce gravitational fields? Not only locally, but at great distances, say in the areas of the universe where there are great voids left in space? In those areas, 100’s of millions to billions of light years across, we should see a substantial increase in speeds of measurable events. Taking this further in a thought problem, if we should cut out all gravity altogether in some way, in such a way that there was NO mass and thus no gravity in the universe, what happens?

We would have instantaneity. So we can see by this careful reasoning from real events, that mass/gravity not only created time by slowing down an innate instantaneity, but in creating time, has created all space as well.

We see an expanding universe. This means that the density of mass/gravity fields is steadily decreasing. Mass & energy cannot be either created or destroyed totally in this universe. It can be converted to energy, but it still exists. This means that in the very long run, what we are now seeing might be the same kind of illusion, comparing (COMP ) the apparent flatness of a very large round globe, which missed the actual curvature, because we haven’t observed over time long enough. A very real decline in mass/energy density, which misses local time speeding up, observable only over millions-billions of years could be the same kind of illusion. We can’t yet see this because we haven’t observed long enough. Nor have we looked for it, either. Just like the trans-Neptune objects were not seen, because they weren’t looked for.

If one puts a neutron into a nucleus, it becomes more stable. If it’s ejected by a nucleus, it will decay in 15 minutes or so. So are to we assume that that the nucleus changes the decay rate of the neutron? Yes, because the locally ultra high gravitational density of the nucleus slows down time to such an extent, that the neutron’s lifespan is greatly prolonged.

Now consider well into the universe’ future, comparing the present epoch to where gravity/mass density has decreased to 1/10 of that found now The speed of neutron decay will increase inside and Outside of the nucleus.. The mass density decline will trigger instabilities in the neutron and thus in the isotopes of the elements. This will first affect very likely the higher atomic numbers as well. So there will be a shift from stability in the formerly not radioactive atoms, to becoming radioactive and decaying. This is where radioactive decay comes from. It explains neatly and clearly why it exists. It’s likely to be true by Occam’s Razor. Steadily over time with expansion of the universe, the largest and heaviest elements will begin to decay faster and faster, until the periodic table of stable elements is substantially smaller than it is now.

Again, massive use of the COMP, its power and creativity to explain and predict previously unknown and unsuspected phenomena in our complex system universe. In the huge voids in our universe, we should see this happening. Increasing instability of matter (Again the complex systems characteristics of stability/instability, endlessly observed and real and used for explanations by the COMP.). Extending this logically, over time, when the density of the universe thru exponentiating expansion comes about over 10’s of billions of years, we’ll see matter coming apart at the high atomic numbered element end. and eventually, all matter will come apart, perhaps even the proton and electron. At those points, according to E=MCexp2, tremendous amounts of energy will be released involving masses beyond comprehension as even the 10 more massive than visible mass, dark matter, converts to energy.

There may be another tremendous explosion at that point. Comparing this to the Big Bang by the size of it.

This show the power of the COMP. It can take known, real proven facts and then extend them, showing once again the creativity of the COMP and where creativity comes from. The Comparison Process, everywhere, immanent, working. e have then the potentiality for the creation of another universe, do we not? A cyclical system of the creation & eventually destruction of one universe, leading to the creation of another. Almost Hindu.

These instantaneity findings postulate the existence of an underlying bosonic quantum level of which is instantaneity is a part. Where there is matter, in large enough amounts, then space/time can be created because it slows down this instantaneity and creates a universe. From this underlying bosonic ylem, we see in our own material universe, the Casimir effect, where the gravitational/mass effects not only sustain mass/gravity and space and time, but spontaneously are creating virtual particles all the time, thus continuing the mass/gravitational fields. From a massive quantum fluctuation of this underlying instantaneity condition, arose our universe and to it, it may eventually return, as mass/gravitational fields lose their strength from the expansion of the universe, and matter falls apart.

It may be that the Casimir effect shows this constant, low level creation of virtual particles, which is this interconnection of all with everything else. It must take place by some means, this constant interactivity with the underlying postulated bosonic ylem, but entanglement seems to be one way. There are probably other evidences, too.

This shows the power of the COMP. It can take known, real proven facts and then extend them, showing once again the creativity of the COMP and where creativity comes from. The Comparison Process, everywhere, immanent, working.

Where does the electron and other particles/photons go when it’s QT’ing? Or any other particle for that matter? Via the instantaneous bosonic ylem of the universe, very likely.

There are probably others examples of instantaneity, but it’s probable that the entire universe is connected instantaneously with the rest of the universe by this underlying bosonic, instantaneous quantum level. Again, by COMP of the exactitude of the laws of physics over all the billions of LY and years, and the fact that for the photons all the universe happens all at once, and for the results of the Bell test. When particles become entangled, they may partake of this instantaneity. When quantum tunneling occurs, they may briefly pass thru this bosonic ylem of the quantum level which generated/generates our universe.

And it might also explain the probable existence of faster than light(FTL) events on the quantum level. In 1955 Wigner, who later won the Nobel Prize in physics, showed that alpha particles emitted in the radioactive decay of an isotope, occ. moved FTL. Hawking radiation from the probable evaporation of black holes (And by the COMP, of neutron stars to white dwarf matter) is consistent with Quantum Mechanics. The too early arrival of neutrinos even before the light reaches us from a supernova explosion, may be yet another example. Quantum mechanics does not prohibit FTL speeds. If true, and it seems likely, then the QT events seen in our enzymes which perform biochemical transformations, may also do FTL QT, because that is the ultimate in least energy/time production of such events. Again, by picking up the instantaneity velocity of travelling thru the underlying instantaneous bosonic ylem.

Bose-Einstein condensates may also show some of this instantaneity, when a mass of matter cooled to very near absolute zero becomes a single quantum state. and very nearly bosonic in nature, too. Even potentially transparent to mass passing thru it, which is a bosonic trait, not that of a fermion.

Let’s look at a simple process, to give some idea of this recursive, yet simple observation can give insights into the origin of our universe. what happens when a single high energy gamma ray is converted to an electron/positron pair? These have opposite charges and mass. The gamma ray has no charge and no mass as it’s a boson. The e–/e+ pair have mass, and are fermions, not bosons. From a boson, mass has been created in the fields of our universe, as well as anti-matter and charge. How this comes about is yet another mystery of the complex system of our universe. But it’s altogether real and true.

Bosons giving rise to matter/antimatter pairs. COMP shows that’s what may have happened at the big Bang, too. Some kind of quantum fluctuation occurred in the underlying boson ylem and there was the big bang. The asymmetry of particles, seems to have created more anti-matter than matter, which is why matter predominates in our universe.

But lets look further. When the gamma ray converts to the e-/e+ pair & energy, its energy is roughly halved. The e- goes on but if the e+ collides with another e-, they will annihilate either other, and an X-ray wil be given off. The energy of the individual particles is declining. The ene4rgy is spreading out. The X-ray may be absorbed by an electron and then it will emit a lower energy photon, again. and so on and on until just IR is scattered around.

COMP shows us this is exactly governed by the Laws of Thermodynamics. The energy/mass will diffuse outwards, and the energies of the pair and so on, will steadily decline. This is entropy, the so called heat death of the universe principle. That is the way things go in our universe. From higher energies to lower. From more mass to less as hydrogen is converted to photons of energy in the stars, and then it spreads itself out, again. This is, in short the arrow of time, and it’s thermodynamic physics on the quantum level, on average, which creates this arrow of time. process of this sort do not reverse. It’s created again and again, in lots of other ways. It’s the second law of thermodynamics which creates the arrow of time, in our macroscopic universe, as well as at the quantum level, tho in the latters, it’s a probability which when summed up over 10 exp 23 times, shows us the laws of thermodynamics. Time moves in the direction it does by the laws of thermodynamics. The arrow of time IS the 2nd law of thermodynamics and the two are equivalent by the COMP.

The expansion of the universe is driven by the 2nd law. Energy tends to diffuse. Matter tends to spread out using energy. The mass/density of the universe tends to decline over eons. This is no accident, but lies at the core of the bosonic ylem which underlies our universe. Therefore, by the MofC, if the universe is expanding faster and faster, tho the expansion speed up is slight, we should see in this same way, the gamma ray converting into a e-/e+ pair, faster and faster, too, over the long haul. Just as we should see the neutron & isotopes decaying faster.

Why is the speed of light 300 K km/sec.? Current physics gives us no answer. But now we know that matter exists between no time and instantaneity, which are the same thing, their dual nature of the same event. In the early universe, with very high gravity, light was a lot slower. As the mass/density of the universe decreased to our epoch, Cee is what it is. On the way to instantaneity, light velocity may steadily speed up. We have not yet checked the speed of light off our earth to any great or accurate degree. In a much lower gravity, light should move faster than it does on the earth, too. We can’t do that experiment very well yet, because we are not living off the earth or very far from the sun. But when we do……. (grin)

end of cosmology section

The Comparison Process (COMP): Explananda 4

The Comparison Process (COMP): Explananda 4

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

Contents
1. Neurophysiology of the Comparison Process, anatomic location in brain.
2. Use of the COMP in dictionary reading/creation of dictionary order; phone book listings the same; street addressing using a map to create the addresses and to find/read them; most all maps as COMP.
3. Creation by the COMP of the taxonomies of all known genus/species, the Tree of Life; creation of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of all known stars types;
4, Organization/creation of the Periodic Table of the Elements/isotopes by use of the COMP; the classification of the known sub-atomic particles, also by the same means, the COMP; IUPAC listing of known chemical compounds organized by same comparison processes.
5. Mathematics as a comparison process creation; how does each number compare to the others, generates basic arithmetic; algebra, geometries, plane and spherical, as well as trigonometry.
6. Language as a creation by COMP; Discovery as a COMP function.
7. The major function of the COMP is re-cognition using the LTM as a stable platform upon which to build up the complexity. underlies all learning, informal and formal learning, called education. COMP is active in trying to make sense of what is being sensed.
8. Humor/jokes arise as creations and being understood by using the COMP; the dopamine kick in humor, discovery, curiosity, and creativity which re-inforces the success of each performance; building design uses the COMP as well as construction.
9. Recognition as a common biological trait seen in most all animals; neurophysiology of animal COMP like ours in higher primates, analogous in mammals, and birds/reptiles, down through the fish and more primitive forms.
10. Koko’s ability to use Ameslan (American Sign Language) as a demonstration of higher primates’ similar cortical neurophysciology to ours.
11. Porpoise intelligence/communication as a form of mammalian recognition showing COMP
12. Recognition in sponges and other similar early forms of life.
13. DNA as a biochemical form of comparison process at a biochemical level; complementarity and copying are forms of the COMP; ancient origin of DNA and biochemical recognition.
14. The COMP in decipherment of lost languages, a sort of decoding system, a Rosetta stone in and of itself; cryptography and the COMP.
15. Creativity and the COMP
16. Medical examinations, differential diagnoses, treatments and therapies as forms of the comparison process.
17. Art as a form of the COMP be it visual, musical, dance, etc.

Die Gotterfunken
18. “Ode to Joy” by Schiller; use of “Joy” inspiring Beethoven’s 9th Symphony, Scherzo and Choral finale, especially; inspiration as the COMP capability.
19. Religion unlocks the feeling of the Gotterfunken; the effect of increased dopamine in creating Die Gotterfunken.
20. The similarity of psychosis and mania, being high levels of dopamine activity of the Dopamine 2 receptors, which impair cortical functioning, creating
21. Relationship between madness and creativity solved–dopamine 2 receptor site overactivity.; music releases the dopamine via COMP
22. Love and dopamine/COMP relationship. Re-infroces love; Power of dopamine release mediated by COMP.
23. Heightened feelings of increased dopamine 2 receptor site stimulation.
24. Dopamine release as the basis for great movements of all sorts, including religions, political movements (Marxism/National Socialism) ;
Dopamine can be very damaging if not properly controlled.
25. All the good and bad of the COMP coupled with dopamine effects shows the huge capabilities, the vast multiplicities built into the COMP either with or without dopamine release effects. Die Gotterfunken.

The Comparison Process(COMP) is a high level function largely located in the 100,000’s of cortical cell columns in the human brain, which anatomically make up the gyri of the brain, and where speech/language, creativity, visual imaging/processing, sensorimotor functions, musical functions, etc., including most high level memories are stored.

Because each of these cortical cell columns are very much alike, this explains how the same, single function, the COMP can account for in multiplicit ways, neatly, parsimoniously most all high level processes. The COMP generates language, math, movement, sensation, visual images, hearing and music, and a great many other functions using the Comparison Process.

The Comparison Process can be very simply demonstrated by taking out a dictionary and looking up the word, Comparison. The brain organizes the search, again the comparison process, and we look for the C section in the dictionary, usually finding it by trial and error. But when we find ourselves in the “C’s”, we look for “com”. Finding that, we continue to move down, comparing each letter, one after the other, until we get to the “COMPA-” and then finally find Comparison.. We compare what we find, to what we search for, find the match, and we’ve found the word. Comparison is then given meaning by strings of words which explain/define “comparison”. Words are defined in terms of other words, esp. high level abstractions. In other instances, they can be compared to images of the word’s spelling, or as an image for “bird” for example (comparison). But overall, it’s the comparison process which is being used to both find, and well as build up the dictionary of words, one at a time. By using the same comparison process. the writers using the COMP have created the dictionary’s order. The COMP creates order from disorder, also. Look at a Thesaurus. It’s also organized by finding how words are similar, or different, i.e., the synonyms and the antonyms. Then there are the homonyms, which sound alike, by using our comparison processors, and can be the source of many puns, jokes and double entendres. Humor is also created by the comparison process, just as language is.

Look at the listing of the entire phone book, which order is created again by the COMP, listed by names in alphabetical order. It’s created by the COMP and it’s read and used millions of times a day by all of us, using the same Comparison Process. Doing the same task over and over, listing the names and numbers to create the phone book, and then using the same COMP to read it. The same is true fo ALL dictionaries and phone books and indices in any book and in any language.

Look at our street addressing methods. Same system, numbers in sequence followed by street names. We find the place we’re looking for by finding out where it is on a map, which has been created by finding & writing down all of the corresponding streets/features and how they are related to each other on a geometric grid. You read the map and find the street and street number. This is yet another form of index, created by the COMP. All the same processes, looking for and finding street addresses as the system of COMP we used to find words, etc in the dictionaries, thesauri, encyclopedias and most referent texts and others with indices at the end. Then there are the gazeteers which listing alphobetically where the names for places are, same system. The COMP.

The same is true of the how the extensive lists/descriptions of all of the known forms of life on our planet, called the taxonomy by genus and species. Each belongs to families, then orders, then phyla, then plant, animal, bacterial and other forms, such as viruses. All are related to each other because all of been compared to each other, and those which are very similar, such as the beetles, representing millions of species alone, have been organized to create this vast, compendium, the “Book of Life”. It’s all put together by one single process, the Comparison Process, which has compared and found which species are alike and put them toegether based upon appearances, functions, sizes, genetics and many other factors. All the same, simple function, the COMP.

The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram in astronomy organizes into an interrelated whole all of the known star types, both seen and as yet undiscovered, which can be assigned a place on the HRD. The COMP has by itself organized and ordered into a comprehensive whole, by comparing every single star to the others to create a chart of the natural development of stars during their lifetimes,the main sequence, and finding out where each fits. That’s the COMP. It’s read the same way any dictionary is read, by the COMP. Untold, unlimitted numbers of stars can fit into the HRD, each placed there by the COMP.

In the periodic table of the elements/isotopes all the known elements, both naturally occurring and synthetic are listed, and in groups of associated families with similar characteristics: the noble gasses, which are largely inert, the halogens such as Fl, Cl, Iodine, Astatine, etc., and the alkali metals such as Li, Na, Cs., etc.; the ferrous metals, such as Co, Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo, and related metals. The lanthanide series of rare earths, the the Uranium group, and the gold, silver, Platinum group metals, too. All showing their relationships by the COMP which has created the order in terms of number of protons, which creates atomic number, average weight of the elements found on earth, and imploying the electron levels which determine the bonding chemistries of each element and group. All by the COMP.

There are 4 stable known particles, the proton, the electron, the neutron, created by the combination of 1 proton and electron, and the neutrinos. The first 3 make up all of the atoms known. This is the COMP at work, and has also created the entire classification of all the known elementary particles, most of which are unstable, and break down into electons and neutrinos, and occ. protons. All organized and created by the COMP

Then we have the Int. Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry which lists in a huge compendium all of the known inorganic chemicals/organic compounds, over 32 million by last count. Same comparison process, which organizes and orders the whole, endlessly repeated and referred to. the COMP. The COMP is ubiquitous and has so many complex forms, it’s been disguised for quiite some time, & hard to realize that this vast complexity can be created out of one simple process, but it’s there, if you know how to see it and what to look for. And it’s created in our cortices.

In all databases, in all known pagination systems, in acts and plays organized by acts/scenes, the Opus numbers of musical compositions, and on and on, without end. All the myriad ways. The Bible is organized chronologically by books, and then by chapters and verses, in the same way. The Koran by the surahs. The Bhagavad Gita also into chapters and verses. This is no accident. It allows any person to read any part they want to find, simply by any method of pagination/’indexing.

Mathematics is the comparison process. It’s simply arithmetic, that is, how all numbers are related/compared to each other. 4 is related to 12 by being 8 less, and 12 by being 3 times 4. Adding is the comparison process. When you compare things, you have to have at least 2 to compare to. So comparing items/words, etc., puts them together in combination. Recombination is yet another face of the COMP. Even numbers are all divisable by 2. Squares, cubes adn so forth, all have the same relationship. The same with the reverse, the square root. Algebra is essentially ratios/proportions. Geometry is very similar using shapes. Pi is the ratio of how a circumference compares to the diameter. Trigonometry is how right triangles’ 2 legs compare to each other, with the angle between, which creates the other leg’s length. Simply, the COMP. More complex math is more of the same. It starts out simply and becomes very complex and large, but that’s what the COMP does. and by making it so large and complicated, it hides the extremely simple, capable process, the COMP, which underlies a the foundation of language, math, geometry and much else.

Living systems classifications are based upon the same processes exactly. As all living systems can be organized and understood, at least in part, based upon the COMP, then their basic functions are also built upon it. The biochemical reactions, the structure of the cells, our understanding of it is created by the COMP.

In Language, the child is taught basic words, and how these are compared to each other. In teaching the child we use imitation, mimicry, & other comparison methods all to teach it. When we understand the words, it’s by definitions and showing how the words compare to each other and gives meaning. When we perceive a new word, it’s a discovery for us and we get a bit of a rush. When a child finds something new, he may say, “Daddy! Look what I found!!” The thrill of finding something new, which he knows is new because it’s not like anything he’s seen before. It dosen’t fit with repeated COMPs. It’s new, it’s novel.

Recognition is all the COMP. it means literally, re-known, and that is what the COMP does. When a word has been seen again and again, it’s stored in Long Term Memory. When it’s seen again, it’s re-cognized and what it means also tumbles out of the memory cache in the cortices, often stored in more than one place. Thus Long Term Memory creates the basic stable platform for all of our ideas/words/images. When we find something new, we’ve done a COMP search and not found it. So we find out what it is by observing it, reading about it, asking about it, and getting taught about it. This is education/learning. The COMP processes therefore underlie all critical parts of learning and education of all kinds. It’s all the same process of recognition, or not recognizing it. When we recognize something, we Re-Cognize” it. It’s something we’ve seen/heard, recorded before and it’s alike or the same, or a similar sort of. That’s what creates recognition. We might get a kick of dopamine from it too. Kids are curious because when they find something new, they get that novelty rush, dopamine release, mediated by the COMP in their cortices. So the COMP reinforces learning and doing acts again, such as learning.

Our Cortical cell columns actively are seeking to make sense of and understand what we sense around us all of the time. The COMP is actively seeking to make sense of words it hears, events around us all the time. It seeks connections, it seeks understanding in terms of what it already knows and is fully capable of finding new events, observing them, descriving them in terms of words already known and then adding that new event to what it already knows, so the cache of understood terms/ideas/images grows.

Humor is of the same type. We get a dopamine release from wit, jokes, humor of all kinds, including puns. At the core of each of these is the recognition of novelty, of the word which means two things, or a slightly ribald, unexpected discovery of something new in the joke. All humor is the COMP with that dopamine kick. Same with discovery.

The same is true of creativity. When we create something new, or find something new, we get that same kick, that same re-inforcing jolt of dopamine, depending a good deal upon circumstances. It’s contextual. If the comedian has “warmed up” the audience they are more likely to laugh by the reinforcing done before hand. The COMP can be reinforcing, with discovery, humor, creativity, or seeing or hearing something awe-inspiring. The COMP is self-reinforcing and that’s what created curiosity, too.

So we have it here, from a very simple cortical cell column function, the Comparison Process, We have developed great complexity and a huge number of more complicated functions, building up from parts a whole, just as the cells build up a larger organism.

That is no accident. Recognition is a biological trait which is not comfined to humans and our cortical cell columns. It’s a natural process with many other forms, from animals recognizing each other, their mates, to landmarks and territories, to nesting & food and predators. All recognition means is they have seen, heard, smelt, detected an event before, stored it in their LTM and when they detect it again, it triggers the recognition by means of an analogous COMP.

When we design buildings, we use the COMP and then closely compare all thru building against those master plans, to make sure it’s done right, it’s done to specifications in the master plan. When we design anything to serve as a master plan, we use the COMP, be it buildings, manufactured items, automobiles, or even our legal and moral systems. It’s all the COMP.

Animals may use different neurophysiology than we in many cases, but in the higher primates, our cortical cell columns are very, very much alike. But in that COMP we are all alike, regardless of it being an ant who knows her sister by touching antennae, as they do along ant trails to food,toand from the nest;; of wolves who smell each other (as do all dogs); or cats; or birds who hear calls, etc., etc., etc. It’s all the COMP

Let’s look at Koko, the gorilla who was taught American Sign Language. Does she have the capability, neurophysiologically of learning language? Yes. She has very nearly the same learning capacities of a 2-3 year old child, and also very similar cortical cell columns, which she used to learn and also used, by imitation, mimicry and reinforcement methods. And she was even able to expand her vocabulary by creating new signs/words by putting them together in novel ways. Creativity is a function of the COMP. She had it so she used it to learn how to communicate with her trainers. Why is this so hard for so many to figure out and accept? Clearly, the gorilla has functioning COMP, a cortex, which can learn how to communicate, where NO WORDS AT ALL existed before. Very similar to our multiplicit, highly capable, highly flexible Cortical Cell Columns which can do so much, too, with so very little.

In porpoises also, the COMP has been used to find porpoise language, by which single whistles, when compared each to each invididual in the porpoise pod responds to it, we can see the recognition by the individual of his own name by the COMP. The porpoise brain is intelligent and it, too, works by the COMP.
This is no accident. It’s the power, the unlimitted recursivity, creativity, repeatabilty of the COMP. Le Chanson Sans Fin,, the endless variations of the single theme, the comparison process.

If you take a red sponge and a white sponge, and separate out gently the individuals cells making up each sponge, mix them and then wait while they sit in a seawater, they simply re-assort themselves into two clumps, one white sponge, the other Red. They have a comparison Process which they use to know self and others. Songes are among the oldest living animals on the earth, going back at least 600 millions of years. They can recognize self and others, biochemically. That is the COMP we see in ants, we see in birds, and we see in humans, uniting ALL living species we have so far found in a great chain of life.

Take the DNA molecule which is the genetic basis of all known life forms. It’s found in all living things in slightly varying, but essentially very similar forms. The DNA polymerase which duplicates the DNA for reproduction in ALL living cells, first identifies the DNA strand to be duplicated, biochemically, then when it detects, that is recognizes, a Thymidine (T), it joins it to a Adenine DNA nucleotide, or vice versa, and when it finds a Cytosine nucletide, adds to it a Guanosine, or vice versa. Then it builds up the entire duplicate DNA strand, very very quickly and accurately, using this biochemical COMP. All reproduction in plants and animals is done this same way, using a biochemical form of the comparison process. ALL of them, from the most recently developed strains of varieties of plants and animals we have domesticated, to the algal stromatolites which date back 3.5 Billions yrs, or more, and today still live in the oceans now as they did then. it’s an extra-ordinary system, to have survived all of this time, because it’s also highly capable and efficient, doing so very much with so very little.

These facts show, again and again, how the COMP in molecular or sensory recognition forms are all very similar, universal and part of living systems. The COMP either biochemical or sensory, or neurophysiological, or of the immune systems, are found in all living systems and cells, regardless of how simple they are or how complex. It’s an endless form of the same process.Each is one more variety of the variations like a theme found in music, among most all the variations of forms found in species and kinds of life. It’s a unifying concept and biochemical process. It exists everywhere on the earth.

The COMP has been shown to be able to decipher the Rosetta Stone by comparing words in known Hellenistic Greek in the bottom section to unknown Ptolemaic hieroglyphics in the top line, by trial and error creating a reconstruction of the written and oral language of the ancient Eygption by Champollion and Young. Much of this creatitivy, learning, education, giving meaning, and translation can be seen in the movie, “Stargate, which brilliantly shows Rolland Emmerich’s craft, understanding and skills in movie making. The COMP can create translations from one language to another, simply by the comparison process. This is an existing and almost trivial and daily repeated activity. It can recreate dead language such as Hittite, cunieiform Sumerian and Babylonian, to the very difficult Linear B translation of ancient, Mikunan Greek into English.

When we do cryptograms, we use the same, trial and error, Comparison Process to decipher them. As we do ANY code. We have built up the laws of the universe by using the COMP in the sciences, which are massive testing, checking, numericity using, measuring, comparison methods, too. We have begun successfully to decode the universe, using the COMP and with no end in sight as the COMP creates creativity as well. With the COMP it seems likely that most all things in time will be shown to us.

That creativity is due to the COMP has been already established beyond all reasonable doubt in previous explananda and Le Chanson. There are literally 100’s of millions of specific instance of it, virtually daily, confirming its existence. For each newly created method/idea/word from the COMP, others can be created. Comparing the COMP functions to everything else which it can be compared to has shown all of this. But there is yet more, far, far more.

When medical professionals do their physical examinations, they know what to look for and what those physical findings mean, by comparing to their large body of knowledge. It creates the differential diagnoses which allow medical practitioners to recognize all known medical conditions. It’s essential to diagnosis. It is responsbile for all measuring and testing and thus underlies those diagnostic tests, as well. It underlies treatments and therapies, and the creation of new methods to treat diseases. It underlies the very methods of the sciences, as well. & it;’s also capable to recognizing previously unknown conditions, studying them and figuring out what they are caused by and how to treat them. It’s more of the same, just another of the endless varieties of the comparison process template. It’s very easy to show

When art is created, be it movies, paintings, music, or any of the other forms, the COMP is there in full panoply, creating complexity from great simplicity. The arts at their very fundamentals are the COMP. Thus the science & the arts and all language, and all cultures are at a very fundamental source, created, sustained, and built up by the COMP in our cortices. This is a grand unifying process. It unites us all. It unites us with all of the other life on our planet. It unites us at the deepest levels to our universe itself and shows us how most everything is related to the rest.

We’ve seen Paranoid shizophrenia and how it and bipolar disorder are related, genetically and by the COMP. Psychosis is the same as the mania in bipolar disorder, clearly. Fanaticism, religious conversions, visions of the saints, and all those similar hallucinations, including both the aural and visual of dream states, are created by the COMP. This is no coincidence. The COMP lies at the foundation of all higher level brain functions. Paranoid schizophrenia is due to a Dopamine 2 receptor site being overstimulated. The same can be seen with PCP, amphetamines and cocaine and other manic states. When the D2 receptor is blocked by using haloperidol or any of the other major transqulizers, the delusions, the paranoias, and the rest of it often go away. All of it features of the COMP gone awry.

When we hear the stirring music of Ravel, or Linda Eder, and many other great singers, such as Oum Calthoum of Egypt, who can induce a state of great pleasure. When we are in love, we get a very similar emotion. When St. Paul underwent his conversion on the Road to Damascus. When we read of the ancient Saturnalias, the Bacchanalis, the mystery religions, we see the same thing.

Der Gotterfunken

“Ode to Joy” by Friedrich Schiller, set to music by Beethoven in the last, great choral movement of his 9th Symphony

“Daphne et Chloe Suite”
— Maurice Ravel

“Do unto others as you your have others do to you.”
— Rabbi Hillel 1st C. BC.
— Jeshua Ben Joseph, 1st C. AD.

“There is faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love.”
–1st Corinthians

The COMP arises from inspiration, and can be a cause of inspiration, also. All the great religions, from the ATMAN, the oneness with the universe, to the ecstasies of the mystery religions of the Greeks, to St. Paul on the road to Damascus, and the proselytizing fervor of the religious zealots. All of these have the COMP as the means by which these emotional states can be created. Be it humor or comedy, or awe-inspiring music, or great writing and poetry.

When we see Buddha under the Bodhi tree, where he was enlightened to great joy. When we read of the All in the Atman. When we see the proselytizing of the Christians snd Muslims. When we see the cults which create the same, awe-inspring, great relgious feelings, both ancient and modern. Then we seen the COMP with it’s dopamine releasing potential. It’s all very much the same, all the myriad ways, all the endless variations of the COMP major theme, which can unite all humans, and all plants and animals known from the very deepest biochemical levels of reproduction of self, to the brilliancies and inspirational moments of arts and religions. The comparison process enlightens us about the richest complexities inside ourselves and other life, and to the richest complexities of everything outside of us. It’s all related, you see. It’s mostly the same source. The comparison process.

We’ve seen Paranoid schizophrenia and how it and bipolar disorder are related, genetically and by the COMP. Psychosis is the much same as the mania in bipolar disorder, clearly. Fanaticism, religious conversions, visions of the saints, and all those similar hallucinations, including both the aural and visual of dreams states, are created by the COMP. This is no coincidence. The COMP lies at the foundation of most all higher level brain functions. Paranoid schizophrenia is due to a Dopamine 2 receptor site overstimulation. The same is true of PCP, amphetamine, cocaine and other manic states. When the D2 receptor is blocked by using haloperidol or any of the other major transqulizers, the delusions, the paranoias, and the rest of it often go away. All if it features of the COMP gone awry.

There is a relationship between madness and creativity, and it’s the COMP. There is a relationship between the overactivity of the D2 receptors of the Cortex and Schizophrenia and mania. The same is true during religious conversions, visions, and so forth. We get a dopamine kick from jokes, from discoveries, great music, good comedy. great art, outstandingingly awe inspiring scenes such as the Yosemite Valley and Falls during the maximum spring run off, with 3 of the world’s highest waterfalls, among 12 others. These are creations of the COMP.

When we hear the stirring music of Ravel, or Linda Eder, and the other great singers, such as Oum Calthoum of Egypt, who can induce a state of great feeling, the “tarab”; When we are in love, we get a similar, deep feeling. When St. Paul underwent his conversion on the Road to Damascus. When we read of the ancient Saturnalias, the Bacchanalis, the ecstasies of the great mystery religions, we see the same thing.

But whence comes love? Be it agape, eros, philias, maternitas(mother’s love for a child), love of country, love of a man for a good woman, which can be the best and most enduring form of love, tho rare. Where does love come from? It’s dopamine in origin, and comes from recognition of a loved one. That good feeling we get when we are around them. That sense of emptiness which arises upon absence or death, and its withdrawal effects, and in the latter, the grief which it can create, which can cause a person to die, too.

What of the martyrs for Christ, who would give up their very lives thru the most cruelest tortures and deaths for their faith? Of the men who would die for their country? What of the enormous power of the Jihad, which is a similar thing? What of the charismatic leaders who can create devotion and followers, which great persuaders can stir the emotions against all reason, such as Lincoln, FDR, and more recently, Steve Jobs, with his reality field distortion persuasions?

These show the capabilities of what can be released using the COMP. And they are all related, too. It can be used for good, or for bad. The Buddha under the Bodhi tree, and flood of sensations created by his “Enlightenment”. How Christians feel when they are converted and go on to proselytize others. The great religious impulses and feelings. All, the COMP, the dopamine agonist responses, too. Recognition of a lover, can create the emotion of love, which is dopamine related. Creation of new ideas, or a new, great song can do the same. The power of humor, also. Each of these recognitions, discoveries, creations, can give rise to this sensation. The Awe inspiring sensation which Einstein most respected, which can give rise to great creations, such as Beethoven’s 9th.

Standing on the edge of Glacier Point for the 1st time, gazing out over the entire Yosemite Valley’s magnificent scenery, seeing the spring runoff at its maximum, from 3 of the world’s greatest waterfalls in full glory, among the other 12 there, too. Hearing that great roar of the voice of Yosemita Falls. & how many other scenes, situations? That sense of Awe as Einstein wrote it. The Pleasures of Philosophy written of by Aristotle. The sense of the Gotterfunken of the major religions and that Oneness with God. It all is connected too, and can be created by the COMP.

The inspiration of the great leaders, Churchill, Alexander the Great, Jesus, Mohammed, the Buddha, and many, many others, including Frederick the Great.
All of these are related to the COMP, because the COMP can release them.

Seeing that bright bollide which illuminates the clear skies of our reason, creating enlightenment from what was once confusion and darkness. But that light does not fade.

This may be what starts many great movements and religions, be they good or bad, from Christianity to cults; from the Reformation, to the National Socialists; from the fight/right for Revolutionary freedom in the US and France, to the ignominious start in Petrograd from 1917, to 1991 end of the USSR. There is a commonality in our minds/brains. The inspiration to greatness or the worst. That creativity/inspiration built into all of us.

Religious and political zealots and fanatics can also come from the dopamine release which can be created by the COMP. The Kamakazis, the hashish manias which created the assassins, the mania of the Terrorist suicide bombers. The Creators of religious cults know how to create this feeling. and because it’s dopamine related, we can figure out how to block it. Dopamine inhibitors like haloperidol, and the other dopamine blockers can stop it, because the mania/psychosis we see is related to the same thing. Combined with an environmental template surrounding the one so allficted, it can be controlled, then generally ablated if it’s not too well fixed and the person is not too old. This is generally called de-programming.

from madness and creativity and some of the highest values of inspiration can come from the same source. We cannot have the one without the other. They are all parts, uniquely created inside of each of us, old far beyond the ancient and highly capable, from the complex neurophysiology which gives rise to the COMP. Every person carries the COMP neurophysiology. Everyone is capable of creativity, as our common use of all languages shows every day. It unifies us, it holds us together. It’s that divine piece of God inside of all of us. That capacity to create, to know, to love, to inspire and be inspired to greater achievements and goals. Those deepest feelings of awe and mystical experiences: The Gotterfunken, built inside of all of us, which draws all together at the most deepest fundamental levels with our fellow humans, and all the other life on the earth and outwards to all which is in our universe, the Spark of God.

Optical/Sensory ILLusions, Creativity and the COMP

Optical and Sensory Illusions, Creativity and the Comparison Process (COMP )

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

Optical illusions are “glitches” or errors, in our visual system’s processing of retinal images. This can potentially give important insights into just how our visual cortex processes images from the retina. In the same way that a genetic error can give insights into how normal gene products function, by providing a comparison to normal, so these visual processing errors can also provide insights.

Several of these optical illusions have been presented before, but will go over them once again to provide the foundation for new insights into visual cortical processing. First, the lunar illusion is seen when a full or nearly full moon is just above the horizon, It appears to be larger than when it’s in the sky. The dispelling, correcting, or comparing step is easy to do in this case. Hold up a meter rod, or something similar to it which is graded, and measure the maximum width of the moon above the horizon and then when it’s up in the sky. This will provide a comparison method which will show that it’s an illusion.

Second, there is an illusion which is created when several regular off centered boxes are interposed between straight lines. It creates the illusion that the lines are not straight. Simply laying down a clear plastic straight edge on a printout of the illusion will by Comparison show that at least 2 of the lines are straight, dispelling & correcting this illusion.

http://brainden.com/optical-illusions.htm
Go down the list to the one just under “Jesus illusions”, called “Line illusions”. The one you see is referred to here.

A motion illusion is created when sitting stopped at a light, while in a car, next to a large truck or bus. If the large vehicle begins to move forward, we get a motion illusion that the car is moving backwards. By comparing this illusion to a street sign or something fixed next to the road, the illusion at once is dispelled by the correcting comparison.

If we have a bit of metal in our pocket on a cooler day, & we reach into the pocket and touch part of the metal, we can get an illusion of wetness. Only by feeling around for wetness/liquid and finding none, and feeling the metal’s shape, such as a coin, is the illusion dispelled by this correcting comparison.

If we hear an echo and we move towards it, we can dispel the echo by finding out the actual source of it, the correcting comparison.

Another interesting illusion is that called the Checkerboard illusion, of a green(or gray), stubby cylinder resting on a shaded checkerboard square.

http://www.slate.com/blogs/bad_astronomy/2013/12/07/optical_illusion_shades _of_grey.html (Phil Plait’s great website.)

Scroll down to this one and the one above, which ALSO, the Cornsweet Illusion, shows the correcting comparison, which, as predicted by the COMP model, corrects it.

In the Checkerboard ILLusion two of the squares, one inside and one outside of the shade from the cylinder, look to be different gray shades. The correcting comparison is created by joining the two squares with the same shade of gray, thus showing they are the same. The comparison derangement is created by each square being simultaneously compared to a different shade of gray, the one being in the shade, the other outside of it. This very Clearly demonstrates the comparison process which has gone awry, and why it’s a very good demonstration of the COMP going on the visual cortex, where all optical illusions are imaged.

All illusions, be they visual, hearing, touching and so forth, are capable of being dispelled by a simple comparison test. Sometimes there is more than one kind of correcting comparison which will work. All visual illusions are created by the comparison process operating in the visual cortex, even if it arises in the retina, in the case of looking at opposite colors, such as purple and yellow objects which are persistently gazed at, and the gaze at once shifts to a white paper target. Simply by waiting for the rhodopsin color pigments of the retina to normalize, the illusion just fades away. Again, the correcting comparison.

The comparison process creates these sensory illusions and can correct them, too. Each illusion can be categorized simply by the kind of illusion it is, and the way in which the illusion is comparison corrected. Once the comparison correction and its corresponding illusion type are categorized, broadly, pattern recognition, will be created by our cortical comparison processors. & then we will begin to understand more and more about how images of all types arise, i.e., edges, lines, shapes, colors, shading, etc. & will give us very likely a much deeper understanding of what kinds of processes are going on in the visual cortex which create the images we see.

Literally, tho, an unlimited number of visual illusions can be created, just because the comparison process is capable of working in an unlimited way every time we see something. This has created a huge number of illusions to work through, but by using this process of illusion/correcting comparison method we should begin to see patterns, and then be able to understand more.

Once we understand visual comparison processes, then we will be given insights into all sorts of cortical comparison processes, such as language, hearing, creativity, memory organization, and so forth, endlessly. That is because the human cortical cell columns, with the exception 2 changes in the motor cortex, are all fundamentally very similar in origin and structure, created out of 5 layers of complex neuronal connections and kinds. This organization must relate directly to function in some way, a structure/function relationship, a COMP. This will allow us to further investigate the exacting neurophysiological processes and connections going on the cortical cell layers of the visual cortex. And that will give us insights into the functioning of the slightly different cortices for the major, functioning areas of the brain. This will give us the structure function relationship between the neurophysiology and how it’s converted to what we see. That is, it will begin to enlighten us specifically as to how the mind works from a neurophysiological basis. This will further permit a good, scientifically valid and reliable understanding of the mind/brain interface. That is the power of the comparison process.

Our cortical cell columns (and similar ones in the great apes and dolphins) exist in 100,000’s of numbers in the gyri of our brain, doing basically one process, the COMP, but with many different variations which can lead to hearing musical notes, or speaking or understanding language, reading (where dyslexia is the key to understanding reading COMPs, again the error of dyslexia can show us the way to understanding normal reading processing by the COMP), our sense of conscience, our consciousness insofar as that uses the Comparison Process.
It will be a LOT of work, trial and error, but that’s how our brain works, and with a better understanding of comprehension, will come many good things in education and medical applications.

Creativity and the COMP

Where does creativity come from? What exactly is the mental process which creates it? The Comparison Process can provide some very good insights. First, consider Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, which includes the COMP in it. Einstein held and proved that all distance and time measurements had to arise from having a single, arbitrary point from which we measured distance and time. There was no absolute space or time. When we measure distance, we start at a specific spot in space, and measure from that. Using a ruler, we set it down next to what we want to measure, and COMPARE the length of the object we are measuring against the ruler. It’s a comparison process. With the tape measure we can measure longer distances by making the same comparison against the tape. With an odometer we can also measure this by subtracting the starting distance from the ending distance of the trip. Using a trip odometer, we simply push the button to zero it, thus establishing our starting point from which we compare the distance. In most all cases, measurement is a comparison process, a COMP.

Relativity is called relativity because we measure relative to a fixed point, either in space, or time. Time is a COMP, also, and has been addressed in the Intro of “Le Chanson Sans Fin” Part 1″, already. Relativity is thus a Comparison Process.

When Einstein realized that all measures of distance and time were related to a fixed arbitrary site he got rid of Newton’s absolute space and time postulate. That was his first creative insight & creative leap. It was his first major creative breakthrough. From there things began to get interesting. In “Cosmos” by Carl Sagan, we were taken through Einstein’s thought experiment of what things look like riding on a photon, compared to a normal spot on the earth. He showed that the Lorentz-Fitzgerald equations were in fact what happened when one moved faster and faster close to the speed of light. Time slows down relative to the earth. The Twin paradox was found to be the case. This was based upon a Comparison between time and events on earth compared to speeding up to near light speed.. Again, the comparison of the two created his understanding of a real, physical process.

Then he realized that being in a gravitational field of 9.8 m./Sec.Sq. was the equivalent to accelerating in any vehicle at 9.8 m./sec.Squared. He compared the two and realized it was the same. Again, the COMP. & from that came the rest of his Relativity model. When one is on the surface of the earth, processes operate at a set, fixed time compared to a standard clock. When one is on a high earth orbit, gravity is lessened, and time speeds up, compared to that on earth. Again, the Comparison Process.

Now look, is this a coincidence, that most all measurement is a COMP, that comparing time/mass effects at great speed compared to those on earth, another COMP, and that gravitational forces/acceleration are equivalent, yet ANOTHER COMP, and that time goes faster in a lower gravitational field when compared to a higher gravitational field, yet another COMP? Of course not. Einstein’s creativity rested upon the realization of the importance of 4 basic findings, each of them arising when he made just the right COMP, to create his Relativity. Therefore, Einstein’s creativity which led to Relativity is based upon use of the COMP.

When Charles Darwin on the Galapagos Isles, by his own writing, said that he saw the Finches there, which when he compared them to each other, were very clearly related and in thinking about it, had clearly come from the same, initial species, it was when he had his Eureka moment, just like Einstein. Again, the Comparison Process created the insight. Wallace, who created his version of Evolutionary model from his observations on the isolated isles of Indonesia, found the same thing. By comparing many different species of plants and animals and finding that they too, had common anatomy and forms, and this meant common ancestors. Again, the COMP.

When Archimedes eluded death from the king of Syracuse, who believed his goldsmith had adulterated the gold in his newly made crown, it was again, clearly the COMP. He was threatened with death if he couldn’t prove the crown was adulterated gold or not, the goldsmith having stolen the difference. When he sat down into his bath, his body displaced a volume of water. He at once realized that all materials have volume, and that by measuring (COMP) the volume displaced by water, he could determine a new quantity, called Density, which is mass divided by volume, or grams/cm.cubed. in today’s physics. Not only were his measurements the COMP, but so was his basic arithmetic and algebra the Comparison Process, as was his realization at that historical “Eureka!” moment, that he could solve the problem by displacing the same weight of gold with water and doing the same with the gold crown, and by COMPARING the difference, determine if gold had been replaced in the king’s crown with a base, less dense metal.

Now look, is it reasonable to conclude that the Comparison Process clearly used throughout this creative discovery of density by Archimedes is a sheer coincidence? No! The COMP lies at the heart and core of most all known, testable creativity. It’s simple, it explains a very great deal and very efficiently, too. It can do a very great deal with a single, basic form of processing, the Comparison.

One more case: that of Thomas Edison’s extraordinary career as an inventor. That is, his creativity process. When Edison found the electric light he transformed human life. Darkness was dispelled and illumination efficiently created without risk of fire and with ease of use. It was his greatest discovery. But what was the creative leap which he took, which created the electric light? The Comparison Process gives us this insight. He used a lot of electricity. He had seen that when electricity of high voltage and current ran through metal wire it made it glow. And he reasoned, using the COMP, what if we use a lot more electricity, and make it glow very brightly? THAT was the creative leap, comparing a bit of power making the wire glow red, to a lot of power creating a bright light. It took him much trial and error to find the carbon filament which lasted some 80 hours, but he did. It took longer for us to find tungsten filaments which would last even longer, using the same trial and error seeking the outcome desired, by the Comparison Process. But there it is.

By extension, using the COMP, most all creativity is COMP, creative writing, the use of language to create meaning and explanation, composition of music, creation of all art. It’s the COMP. Creativity is at its very roots, its very wellspring, the COMP. It’s arrived at with all the great inventors of new ideas, they simply have that moment, when they put the right ideas/observations together and out it comes, the new, revolutionizing idea. Be it Relativity, or Quantum Mechanics, or the electric light, Evolution, or the creation of the idea of density. It all has the same, common source, operating in the cortices of our brains. If we can speak language, we can create a string of words which makes sense and describes formerly unknown events/ideas. If we can understand this new string of words, then we have made a discovery of something new, too. It’s all the same cortical process, the COMP.

The COMP unites all sciences and the arts. It unites all languages and mathematics. It unites us with all the living creatures on our planet who use the COMP to recognize territories, to identify food, to see predators and avoid them, at every high level function, to survive. At the biochemical level, the creation of new life, reproduction, is at the DNA level, a form biochemical of the Comparison Process. It’s very simple, but it does almost everything important to us. This is no accident, as has been described more fully before in “Le Chanson…” And it gives us a very unifying, deeply comprehending, with simplicity above all, about how to understand/comprehend, speak, read, order from chaos, organize almost everything we do. From the very elementary particles, to the atoms, to the elements, to the tens of millions of UIPAC compounds, to the very classification of the millions of genus/species of all living forms and viruses, to the very trillions and trillions of Stars (Hertzsprung/Russell Diagram), to our millions of words, dictionaries, thesauri, all indices and encyclopedias. It creates life, it organizes life taking chaos and creating order, it organizes and controls our minds and the very cells which make up our brains. It is the Comparison Process, unifying, universal, generalizing, comprehending. And when we travel outwards into space over the next 1000’s of years, we will meet other space faring species, eventually, and we will create an understanding of their languages using the COMP, as will they create from ours. The COMP unites us with all the universe. It’s a universal decoder of all languages and events. The Comparison Process.

Comparison Process. Brain Organization: Explananda, Pt. 3

Comparison Process: Explananda, Pt. 3

As a demonstration of the creativity of the COMP, consider how the brain is organized. The real point is why the motor/sensory system is upside down and reversed left for right? That is the toes/feet/legs are on the superior part of the prefontal gyrus of the motor strip, as are the sensory areas, and the face and up is on the inferior part of the Premotor area. This is really simple to answer creatively using the comparison process. When we look through a magnifying glass held at a distance, what happens to the image? It’s reversed left for right and upside down. Is there a lens in the body? Sure, 1 concave lens in each eye which does this image transform as the magnifying glass. And so the left brain controls the right body and vice versa.
Further, in the brainstem decussation of the pyramids, sensory/motor afferents/efferents take the left brain connections to the right body and vice versa for the right brain connections.

So, it’s pretty clear to figure that our entire brain is organized according to our visual systems. To confirm this note that the visual cortex is also organized this same way. The inferior(lower) visual cortex receives input from the top 1/2 of the visual field of the contralateral eye. The superior part of the visual cortex receives input from the inferior (lower) 1/2 of the visual field in each eye. And of course the left vertical halves of the visual fields in both eyes go to the right visual cortex, and the same vice versa for the right halves.

This confirms that the brain is upside down and reversed right for left due to the lens images in the eyes. Our brains are organized around vision. We are visual creatures. And the same is true for the advanced apes, and probably even most mammals including dolphins. Just look for the Decussation of the pyramids in the brainstem of these mammals to confirm.

The superior parts of the brain’s motor/sensory strips are concerned with sensory/motor functions of the lower parts of the body, and the inf. body parts with the sup. parts of the brain.
The right parietal cortex on both sides is higher cognitive functions, being spatial relationships, and emotions(the cussing center is there) and the Left parietal with verbal reasoning, and so forth, right next to Wernicke’s area in the Left superior temporal lobe. As far as the Top/bottom approach to understanding the brain, the clinical aspects of brain lesions far outweigh any concern for that, surely.