The Spark of Life and the Soul of Wit

By Herb Wiggins, M.D., Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process Model/Theory 14 Mar. 2014

The Spark of Life and the Soul of Wit

Contents:
1. The Spark of life within us. It’s the dopamine boost built into our cortex which can release it.
2. Its relationship to “chi” and other excited states of mind; a normal, not magical, natural function.
3. How to use and re-create this force, the endogenous dopamine release
4. Simple Biochemical and physiological basics of dopamine
5. Survival strategy of the dopamine boost; tiring, rest afterwards.
6. Simple conditioning exercises to release dopamine at will. Find those “special moments”. Mountain top experiences
7. Controlling these powerful dopamine releases. We’ve done it before with sex hormones in adolescence.
8. Dietary methods to increase dopamine. Weight loss from the dopamine boost

The Soul of Wit
9. Humor as Comparison Process
10. The pun, its value as COMP skill and training.
11. Jokes as self-perpetuating activities due to dopamine boost. Why jokes spread widely.
12. My Family of wits
13. My cousin’s gifts which sustained her against her heart condition
14. Grandfather’s family’s extreme longevity, mid 90’s usually. The family predisposition for humor.
15. The Jones’ family’s funny bone and longevity.
16. High dopamine may mean low addiction potential.
17. The modern malaise, drugs, depression, rock concerts/raves, and obesity.
18. Haydn’s “Surprise Symphony”, overeating and endorphin release
19. Dopamine, adrenalin appetites suppression; activity boosters.
20. Why do humans suicide alone among all other animals?
21. Potential treatments/course of action to bring modern societies back into health, revealed by a simple pun. It’s simple, universal and true.

1. The life force is within us all. It can be felt by any of us, when we feel that awe, that amazement, that most deepest and profoundest sense of wonder. No matter what it’s from, be it good love, be it good sex, be is that Eureka! moment of creative discovery. This living force is within each of us, but most of us have forgotten it, tho we’ve experienced it. It has value of multiplicity of purposes and uses and can be renewed and recreated by training to provide the inspiration we need to live, to survive, to perform well, and whatsoever good use we seek to use it for.

It’s real. It, in short, is the dopamine elevation which we can create using our cortical cell columns. Behind loves, emotions, good feelings, the humor and comedy of our species, behind all religions and underlying and creating all social, political, commercial movements & organizations, be they good or bad. It lies there sleeping in most of us. Yet we have all felt it, and felt its power. We remember it.

2. This is not to be confused with the Chi, or other spiritual energies, which have been mythologized from the Spark of life. This is real and existing, but those spiritualists and others have created divinity where it was not and beliefs regarding it which are not true. Not being scientifically trained in medicine and psychology and the biological chemistries of life, they have elevated a simple internal process, tho of great power, to some kind of divine event, which it clearly is not and does not have. Nonetheless, they have recognized the power of it, and can create it at will, tho they are mislead as to its origins in the body, and where it comes from.

For this reason they have not fully comprehended, or as much as we humans can comprehend, from where it arises and how to use it. They have not fully recognized through ignorance its limits and its capabilities.They do not realize its fullest potential to cure and heal, and create long life and the good. They have surrounded the elan of life with a lot of false beliefs, mummery, fluff and distracting, let us be blunt, delusions, both philosophical and religious, which hide and obscure a normal, natural living force inside of each of us which creates the will, emotions, inspiration, love, great music and art, great science and much else, endlessly and repeatably.

3. This work will show the normal physiological basis of the elan vitale and show each of us how to use it for our greater good. It will show the limits of it, and the potential of it to create a modern renaissance of life and health and well-being for all the peoples of the earth. Because you see, we carry this force, this powerful wellspring of all emotions and feelings within all of us from birth. There is nothing mystical about it. But it is real and we can each of us use it to create what we need best to live a good life for us all.

4. This driving force is the release of dopamine by the cortex of our brains. Dopamine, as has been previously shown is very likely the physiological neurochemical behind our emotions (The Emotional Continuum). Like its chemical siblings, adrenaline and norepinephrine it creates arousal, wakefulness, excitement. The heart pounds, the blood pressure rises, one is ready for anything and everything. To fight or for flight.

Dopamine is created in the brain by the substantia nigra, and probably on a microsynthetic process in various other parts of the brain. Where we find dopamine, we find adrenalin (epinephrine) and norepinephrine. When we get excited, or are seriously threatened, there is an immediate release by nerve stimulation from the brain, from bilateral cortical adrenals. This is the so called adrenalin rush. But dopamine is ALSO released with it. This is a very serious thing to happen, because people can die from heart attacks, strokes, and the general mania which can arise from this physiological, flight or fight reaction.

5. It’s a survival strategy which can result in persons doing incredible feats showing great strength, great abilities and even fanatical activities, which can do great harm to themselves and others. We recognize it in the suicide bombers, the kamikaze, and in the early Christian martyrs who could suffer unimaginable tortures and deaths for their faith. It is the power of the Jihad. That is the power of this physiological catecholamine release.

However, it’s very tiring, it uses up a lot of energy in a very short time and one must necessarily rest afterwards. Like good sex, there is always that let down afterwards and of which many women comment on to their snoring men, who literally pass out and sleep for the 20′ or so until the dopamine, endorphins, etc, can be metabolized away. Almost every one in his teens has had some experience personally, or vicariously with it. It’s very powerful, and the love it can generate can bond/bind persons together for a very long, even life time.
These show the natural life force of dopamine release and the related adrenaline rush seen in mania and psychoses. We are playing with Living Fire here and it must be carefully controlled if we are not to harm ourselves and others.

6. Be that as it may, this energy of inspiration, of love, of great feelings can be released by each of us, by simple conditioning exercises/rituals/meditations, to put it to use whenever we need it. There are many cases of this. An inspiring leader be he political or military, can talk to the troops and his party members to get them “up”, so to speak. This he does by carefully selected appeals to their feelings which all humans have in common. A wonderfully awe inspiring scene outside, such as a total eclipse of the sun, with its paradoxical and awesome darkness during the day, which inspired amazement in those who could both predict it as the Druids could, and others. A beautiful played rendition of a great piece of music, be it rock, or classical guitar, or orchestral music of which the great marches, symphonies, suites & so on are known by all. “The Glory and the Grandeur” a percussion suite comes to mind. And if we hear that one played well, we will never forget it.

Simply walking in the wilderness in the mountains, with wonderful scenery around you. Any kind of “mountaintop experience”. Looking down from Hawksbill Peak, under an intensely blue sky, seeing near dusk the sun glinting off the reflecting loops of the Shenandoah River in teh distance, with the Massanutten Mountains, darkly blue in the westering, dimming light. The trees below in their reds, greens, yellows and oranges, like a colorful carpet of pompoms. These are the scenes we can never forget. These are those special times where the dopamine highs are released. “Rocky Mountain High.” Do you see John Denver’s dopamine release event? It’s been there all along and we missed it. We see now his source of inspiration. And it’s a dopamine burst. And we can return to those again and again by teaching ourselves how to recreate that special feeling, and then put it to good use. We, too, can see it raining fire in the sky. a grand meteor shower, very rare, but still awesome.

These are the ways we can learn to access those feelings any time and anywhere we want to. Each of us has his own, special times, where he/she has felt those intense feelings. We remember them, we can recall them, we can use them to train ourselves to re-create that feeling. We put ourselves, basically, in a quiet sitting space. We recall that special time, or we put on some music which is great in its own way. Then we remember how we felt, and we let the music, the memory, the situation fill us with that same feeling. There are many ways of doing this. There are many approaches to creating this state. We each of us carry within us these powerful feelings in our memories and in our cortices. Practice this from time to time during the week. If we do it right, then we can induce this feeling again, and again, until, when we need that extra inspiration, we need that extra lift, when life is getting us down, we can recreate this surcease from threats, anxieties, and the rest of life’s “slings and arrows of outrageous fortune. and the “1000 tiny shocks flesh is heir to.” When we learn to reproduce those goosebumps at will, that feeling of awe and excitement by the force of our wills, then we are there.

Just like meditation, right? Similar. That’s the key. We’ve all heard of it. We’ve all seen it done. But we never “got it” nor understood, comprehended, nor made the connection, nor ‘SAW” it because the effect has been surrounded by all that mummery and fluff. We didn’t see the unlimited forms of it because those disguised this simple, basic, normal physiological response to dopamine/catecholamine rising levels. Going to rock concerts (or raves), etc. is not an efficient way, nor probably healthy way to bring out and develop a self-conditioned response from a normal biological process, rising dopamine levels in our brain.

It’s nothing divine or spiritual. It’s the same feeling people can get at a religious revival, or a great sports event. The thrills of victory or the agonies of defeat. We see where it comes from. It’s built-in biologically within all of us. We’ve felt it many times and it can be remembered, then recalled and then recreated at will to find the inspiration, the will, and determination and purpose to do what we need to do for our betterment. It’s not magical nor mysterious. It’s simply normal human physiology. And if we want it, we can use this training for our best interests.

7. When young boys become men at puberty, the effects of testosterone levels rising can be seen. They get wilder, more aggressive, the muscles grow and get stronger. They have trouble controlling their feelings. We males can recall those times when we felt that huge, internal rush, where we felt like gods come to earth. That incredible feeling of power. That’s part of the dopamine rush created by androgenic steroids. When using too much of those, bodybuilders can get “roid rage”, which makes them crazy for a while. They can ram their fists through wallboard and wooden doors and barely feel it. It’s very similar to what happens when we get an adrenalin rush when in times of great danger. They can go frankly psychotic and require hospitalization in a psych unit, and sometimes never get back to normal from the psychotic break. Many of us have seen this.

But we learn how to control over time these strong feelings created by rising androgens in our adolescence. And we learn how to use it towards our own best interests and advantages. The control of this power without diminishing it is the key to success.

8. Diet can increase dopamine. Certain foods are higher in L-dopa, which is converted to dopamine by dopa decarboxylase, an enzyme in brain. Fava beans, esp. the younger beans (even stems are higher in L-dopa than riper beans. Exactly when to pick the younger pods seems not to have been stated. Steam or microwave for best results.

It’s not recommended to take L-dopa outside of a physician’s careful management.

The Soul of Wit

“Gnothi seauton.” (Know yourself) —Socrates, 5th C. BC, Ellas

“To see a world in a grain of sand and a heaven in a wild flower.” — Wm. Blake, 18th C. England

Humor is clearly part of the Comparison Process, and the tie in with the dopamine is also highlighted by the COMP. This is just more depths within depths, too. See:
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/14/depths-within-depths-the-nested-great-mysteries/

First, the pun is an easy way to look at humor. Puns are as common as homonyms, words/phrases which sound alike, though the words are spelled differently. The longest pun phrase known is a quadruple one, “Let Us Pray.” The first is a group of lions, looking bored and feeling hungry, “Let us prey.” The next related to the grocery vegetable section, where to restore the leafy greens, the grocer says, “Let us spray.” The last is left to the more creative in the same store.

When we hear puns, some call the lowest form of humor, tho the greatest writer and playwright in English, Shakespeare preferred them. One reason was his incredible creativity and verbal ability. THAT was because punning makes us find relationships among words, which can be uncanny and interesting. “But Hamlet ’tis common to die.” “Aye, it’s common.”

If people have a predilection to puns, they are far, far more likely to make the connections among many OTHER ideas, words and images to BE creative. If we do it every day, it increases our abilities to see unusual, unexpected relationships among words. This kind of skill, punning, is highly creative. It will even re-organize the brain’s structure and predilections to become more creative.

But the pun, like any form of humour is likely to make us laugh, or at least smile, and occasionally groan. It does elicit that good feeling which is the sign of the dopamine boost, so often pointed out here. Because of this, the pun is the quintessential event by which most humor can be understood. It makes us laugh. Dopamine is a “feel good” chemical, heightens awareness, improves mood, lessens depression and some even have read/stated monthly “Humor can be the best medicine.” Given the antidepressant effects of dopamine, it’s not surprising.

11. We note that jokes are passed around a LOT. We see and hear them in often different forms, even those which are different variations on the same basic joke. Again all myriad ways, the endless, unlimited Le Chanson. Years ago Tom Swift and Polish jokes were all the rage, and those made huge rounds, even going international, too. For instance, “Do you have to go ASAP?” Yes!” said Tom Swiftly. Then there were the elephant jokes, the Smurf jokes, the mucous jokes, endlessly, again, the variations on the theme.
“Do you know why elephants paint their toenails red?”
“NO.”
“To hide in cherry trees.” (picture an elephant in a cherry tree).
“Have you ever SEEN an elephant IN a cherry tree?”
” NO.” laughing.
” Works, doesn’t it!!” (Both laughing)

Then we recognize(COMP) at once the violation of logical principles which is blatant and that’s what makes it funny plus the elephant weighing 5-10 tons, balancing precariously on a slim branch in a cherry tree an utterly absurd sight, too. A visual image makes it even sillier.

Again, this is empirical introspection. We don’t HAVE to see others laughing to know they are. We can see inside their heads, recognizing the absurdity of the joke. Again, EI. This is how the COMP shows us the commonality of how most all humor works.

Slapstick is often violation of moral/social conscience. The joke, “How is a baby different than a sea gull? Well, the sea gull Flits along the Shore.” Again, the grin, the use of a not clean word, the joke, when we process the phrase by comparison, by exchanging the “F” for the “S” in shore, and vice versa. This is the COMP once more at work, getting the joke by COMP substitution, then reading the change and laughing at the result. There are huge numbers of jokes like this. There are huge numbers, unlimited numbers of all kinds of jokes.This is the Le Chanson at work, once again. It’s all recognition, too, yet another hallmark of the COMP working

But the point is we get that COMP related dopamine release, that smile, even guffaw. Dopamine is moderately addictive. So we tell it again to get that good feeling once more. And some persons tell a lot of other persons, each tells more and so it proliferates, exponentiating. Again, the multiple replications of the COMP. And so it gets done again and again and starts out small and can get national attention in time. Endlessly, again, the sign of the COMP.

13. In my family we have a lot of wit, esp. more clearly seen on my maternal side. Two of my uncles and two aunts were funny people. Spend much time with them and you’d be laughing too. My mother’s full brother was the living image of his father, in appearance and personality, too. Yet his father died when he was only a few months old, and he had no memory of him, either. Familial predisposition, heightened dopamine effects. My G’pa was a minister, his oldest son, was, too. My other grandfather was a minister. My step grandfather’s brother was a minister, same church. A boring minister doesn’t bring them back to the pews Sunday after Sunday as often, either. We can trace ministers back into the German reformed churches as far back as a Hessian soldier’s son and our Swiss Mennonite ancestors who founded the sect in Lancaster in the early 18th C.

I can name a large number of cousins who are funny, too, each descended from my mother’s sibs who were almost terminally humorous. I recall my cousin, who’s a nurse, visiting with her best friend at university, and she got us laughing so much, I’ve held that memory for 45 years. I have the familial predisposition to it as well, as does my youngest son, the elan vitale spoken of above. This can be a clinical sign of it, too.

Such people can have profound effects on others. My cousin Trudie Ann, named after her G’ma, was that way. Humorous to the point of almost being painful from what she could say or do. Like her father, who was a practical joker, too. Yet Trudie was a very sad case, a baby born with Transposition of the great vessels of the heart, meaning the venous blood came into the left ventricle and exited through the aorta and was not aerated and red. The pulmonary artery oxygenated blood came into the right ventricle and was circulated through the lungs again. The body was cut off from oxygenated blood. She was a blue baby, with severe clubbing of the fingers and toes, and very, very limited ability to do much due to low oxygen to brain and body.


But, and this was the surprise, she had a big hole between the ventricles, a connection between the aorta and pulmonary artery which was large and open (PDA) and the foramen ovale between the two atria was open, also. So enough oxygenated red blood got into her aorta to keep her alive, barely.

It was a balancing act. Now if the holes were too big, the heart would have gone into failure. and if too small, she’d have died from very low cardiopulmonary reserve. Needless to say, very, very few survive more than 2 years and she was too old for the corrective surgery, which not many survived even when it did become available too late for her.

But she had that spark of life, that sense of humor. And she was fun to be with, and endlessly funny, despite her appearance, her short stature, all of those things which young people can be so terribly crippled by. She wasn’t pretty, but that huge smile made up for all of it. She was a delight to all who knew her. She knew she lived on the edge of death and had to be careful not to overdo it. Only very short runs, and no long walks. But she lived this way solid in her faith and good humor for 22 1/2 years!! She was not expected under any circumstances to live past 2-3 years old. She was a delight to be with, exceptionally joyous and liked people and others around her.

At the last, she was out with friend, and the strain on her big heart got too much for her. She overdid it, not realizing she was losing, yearly, critical cardiac reserve and her great heart stopped and she passed on, suddenly, while having fun with friend, as always. What sustained this amazing person, this miracle of life within our family? Her faith and her uncompromising good humor. She was our miracle girl, though many did not realize it until she was gone.

This can be the power of deep religious belief and the dopamine from incredibly good humor, extending life beyond all the probabilities, which made her life a miracle. Trudie Ann, we love you, we miss you, Requiscat in Pace.

14. My grandfather had 12 brothers and sisters, a good sampling for statistical purposes, 5 of whom lived to be in their mid 90’s. We expect about 40% of offspring to be as long lived as their parents. My great uncle, George, I recall specifically had the family funny bone. He kept me laughing and of course I tossed it back at him for 2-3 hours of family history and related while visiting him in Towson. I asked him where the family baldness came from, his Mom or Dad? It was late onset, male pattern baldness. “Well, he said, “That’s a sore spot with me.” being totally bald in his 80’s with a bit of white fringe above both ears and around the back. “But…”, he said, with a twinkle in his eye.” And got me two photos, one of his father who was bald, and one of his mother’s brother, his uncle, who was bald, too. “You tell me!” and we laughed. Good humor to the last.

It was a big treat to visit with my cousin, Margaret, whose mother was a Jones, also, being Saranda Jones, my gr-g’ma’s older sister. I’d asked her where Lillian, her sister was, aged 90, as Margaret was 91. “Out dancing with her Boyfriend.” she said. Again, there it was. She said she didn’t have a very good memory any more.
“What happened to John Valentine Jones? ” He’d died in his 30’s.
“Oh,” she said, “He was crushed up against a barn by a mule and he died.”
“Margaret, that’s 20 years before you were born!!” I said. And we laughed again.

She talked about not being able to garden any more since last year. I asked her where and she showed me the back acreage, 1 FULL acre a farmer friend of hers plowed up for her, at age 90. Instead she put out a lot of orange clay vessels in the back enclosed porch and grew many fresh veggies there.

“I call it my pot garden.” she said, that glint in her eyes. The family gift in full. I knew where mine came from, then, by an easy, simple comparison.

15. My gr-gr-grandfather was David Jones, born 1822, Pipe Creek, Maryland, dying 1901. His father was also David Jones, dying young about 1844. His father, as far back as we can trace the Jones’, was another David Jones living in 1870 census on Big Pipe Creek age 99, who ran a mill, as a millwright, on the same watercourse, his daughter, Elizabeth married to the man who ran it as well. ( None of our David Jones’ owned any lockers. Locks, maybe and perhaps for a short time, bagels.) For several generations in that family, they lived into their 90’s and my uncle today, a Jones on his father’s side, his daughter a nurse, is 93. With the family sense of humor in full, too. 250 years of longevity, also possibly due in part to the dopamine boost, that spark of life.

When I had an outpatient procedure done some years ago, where I was put under with Intravenous meperidine(opium like pain killer) and diazepam(Valium), I came out of it. and he sort of looked at me. “Are you a drug addict?”
“No, not ever.” I said.
“The amount I used on you was more than twice what is usually used, including 10 mg. of Valium.” he said.
“Hmm.” I said. “At the dentist’s it takes 150% the normal amount of local anesthetic to numb the gums, too,”
He was quiet “You must have a real resistance to drugs of those kinds.”
“Yeah. A buddy of mine was hit in ‘Nam, and he took 2-3 times as much morphine as normal to kill the pain in his upper arm bullet wound. John was straight as an arrow about drugs.” It was OK.

My dopamine level is high, normally. It gives a resistance to addiction, because I don’t need it. We get a natural high on life in my family. It’s in the brain.

17. And this is yet again, depths within depths. Because in modern life people are taking coffee for the stimulation to get them going. Again, modestly addictive, caffeine’s chemical structure is a dopamine imitator. There are immense problems with drugs. People are going to raves, horror movies, rock concerts, to get that feeling back. They’d lost that loving feeling, and just can’t get it back. There is a lot of depression out there on the street. Roughly 15% of people in our society are taking psychoactive drugs. A huge number of people are overeating, too, in order, most of the time to get that endorphin rush from stomach distension.

Haydn’s “Surprise Symphony” is based on this effect. When Haydn’s chief patron, the Prince Esterhazy, commissioned him to write music, he often played it after a big dinner. The Prince ate a lot and then went to sleep. The stomach is the most richly innervated organ in the human body and creates a LOT of polypeptides. It’s an endocrine gland due to how much it produces, one of which is endorphin, which acts like morphine, tho not as long lived. So the Prince ate a lot, his stomach distended a lot, releasing much endorphin and bingo, like morphine he went to sleep right in the middle of Haydn’s hard to compose music.

Needless to say Franz was frazzled by this. So he created a work called the above symphony. At a certain interval, Haydn had noted the Prince falling asleep, so at those exactly timed intervals, the quiet music was marked “Sforzando!” which in Italiano means, “play as loudly as you can,” literally translated. And then was loud for a good bit of time afterwards, to keep him awake. Then it went on and on and he was treated to the wake up sections a couple more times. Again, the commonality, we can see why people fall asleep after eating. and why they overeat many times, too.

The catecholamines, adrenalin and dopamine are appetite suppressants. Those of us with higher dopamine don’t eat as much and are far, far more active because of the stimulant effects of dopamine. My father, grandfather and I have been lean persons. Adrenalin can even make some persons throw up.

A higher level of dopamine will also reduce weight by the increased activity it creates in normal persons. It acts as above to decrease appetite, increase activity, and can be a very helpful adjunct to weight loss and treatment of overweight persons. This might well be one of the life extension effects of normal/modestly elevated dopamine levels. My grandfather was lean all of his life. So is my father, both lived into their early 90’s, though my father is 91 and healthy. The setting of increased activity in him was higher. This might well promote longevity.

20. Consider that no animals and certainly no plants can commit suicide. Why is this? Why do they live? They cannot do anything else. Those species which auto-self-destruct are eliminated by the normal evolutionary processes. They must have a normal life sustaining metabolism built into them which will fight to survive. They will not commit suicide. Humans do, because our cortex can interfere and create the means and the impulse to do so. Much of this can come from mania and severe depression brought on by maniacal and lack of control of the self. Usually, the person who suicides has a profound and serious delusion about his condition. He cannot see himself surviving, although many others have lived despite being in worse conditions. Suicide, in most cases, can be seen as a clinical delusion where the comparison process in the cortex has gone very wrong combined with low dopamine/serotonin levels or imbalance between the two. A simple anti-depressant will often change this. A dopamine boosting regime will also in many cases.

21. So a cure for part of the modern malaise and problems in western societies already exists within us. Elevate those dopamine levels to a more normal level, and find what is lowering them abnormally and cut back that inhibition. Then a great many of those illegal, fattening and dangerous activities will get a lot better. The answers, as usual, lie within us and without. We simply have to put it together. From the simple lowly pun, a world’s problem can be helped and/or solved. These are Blake’s “seeing a world in a grain of sand.” It’s a prescription for social improvement, widely. This is the power and the endless, unlimited capability of the Comparison Process. Use it well and use it wisely.

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Empirical Introspection and the Comparison Process

Empirical Introspection and the Comparison Process

By Herb Wiggins, M.D. Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014

“Progress in physics is always preceded by an epistemological advance.” — Albert Einstein

“Least energy rules.”

Contents
1. The Comparison Process COMP) as the basis of recognition and cognition, arsing in brain cortex, working in tandem with LTM. The COMP hallmark is recognition. seen in all major classes of advanced animals.
2. Territoriality as recognition and the COMP.
3. Lower life has biochemical forms of the COMP. Reproduction is a complementary form of it.
4. COMP creates language and meaning, COMP as universal decoder.
5. Empirical introspection (EI), insights from medical practice which prove this.
6. Basis of empirical introspection in the sciences, and scientific medicine
7. Pain and EI.
7b. Dreaming, dream interpretation and introspection
8. Reading, creating dictionaries, indexes, phone books, all empirical introspection. (EI)
9. That which is real inside of us is what we all have in common. That which is real outside of us is what we have in common with what exists in the universe outside of us.
10. Measuring as a form of the COMP
11. Confirmation of the existence of EI and the COMP: 100’s millions of times.
12. The commonalties of the creativities.
13. The source of creativity of computer programming.
14. Mathematical creativity and the COMP by Empirical introspection
15. Creativity as a form of recognition. Seeing inside the minds of creative people using the COMP
16. The LEP and origin of feedback systems.
17. The massive capabilities of the COMP, endless, unlimited.
18. Stabilities and their importance.
19. Empirical Introspection of movie making.
20. The dopamine boost built into the COMP
21. Problems of modern society related to loss of the secret of the dopamine boost and attempts to replace it with drugs, raves, etc.
22. The ubiquity in brain of the dopamine boost structure/function; Our solutions to problems are inside of us and also outside.

1. One of the Comparison Process’ (COMP) major tasks is recognition (although it is a multiplicit, complex system with many other capabilities), that is, Re-knowing, and lies at the basis of cognitive activities in the brain. The COMP in the cortex is able to create a memory of stable events, existing both within and without the nervous system. It can then compare any future event to the stored Long Term Memory (LTM) event for further processing. The function is identifying or calling up the LTM event and comparing it to that which is being seen, thought about, or interacted with to establish similarity, identity, a match, or common characteristics, associations, and/or relationships, connections. This is some of what the COMP can do. But the basic task is the recognition function. It can do this endlessly, without limitations over time. It is how we recognize speech, the sounds we call words. It is how we recognize written words. It is how we communicate with each other. Indeed if humans were not social there would be no need for words much at all, beyond a few vocalizations and grunts, etc. which many animals, including our nearest relatives have.

The recognition function is a major hallmark of the Comparison Process. Whenever recognition is seen that marks a COMP being used. We see this is the major kinds of animals, from our nearest relatives the great apes, through the primates, the rest of the mammals, the birds, reptiles, down to the fishes, all of which display an ability to recognize their fellow species, for purposes of mating and protection if heard/flock/schooling kinds of species. They have territories as well, and must recognize landmarks, scents and other features, including the sun for navigation, and moving about.

2. Territoriality of itself must necessitate the use of recognition. This means that all known animals have it, in some form or another, even down to the lowly anemones, who know self from not self and are capable of defending territory. It’s necessary for reproduction as well, surely a convincing argument for the presence of recognition in all known species above the level of sponges.

But even sponges recognize self from not self. The experiment where red and white sponges were gently broken down into their constituent cells, and then in a nutrient sea water bath reconstituted themselves once again into red and white sponges shows this.

In the immune system the cells of the body know self from not self. And it is constantly on the hunt for foreign proteins and chemicals which can disrupt function. This is a biochemical form of comparison process, just in the same way sponge self-recognition was.

The higher animals know each other, and they know where their nests/dens and territories are, they know family from outsiders by sight and scents, and they know food and dangers and predators, too. These are all recognition and necessarily imply in each animal showing those characteristics, the recognition capacity which results of their own, analogous to ours, COMP. It is a universally used process from the highest animals in the great apes down to the lowliest sponges and very likely lower.

The bacteria and algae know food, and they have protections against attacks, too. And because those very likely date back at least 3.5 Billion years, these biochemical recognition methods are very, very ancient. They extend through the entire chain of life, from the very lowest to the highest, and unite in a very real way, all life.

3. Our means of reproduction using DNA/RNA replication of the basic building blocks of the genes, the nucleotides, also is a form of the comparison process, where when the DNA or RNA polymerase during replication detects a thymidine, it adds on an adenine and vice versa (uracil in RNA, which distinguishes RNA from DNA), and the same with guanosine/cytosine pairings. It must recognize each of those nucleotides, biochemically, and then complementary processes add on the one of the other.

When the cell reproduces it duplicates the DNA chain, while it also is creating more proteins using RNA to replicate the gene sequence by complementary processes and that then goes to the ribosome where 3 DNA bases are coded (codons) into a specific amino acid, which chains build up the basic, essential proteins/polypeptides of the cell, without which the cell would not survive metabolically or structurally. These are yet other Comparison processes, albeit biochemical on the part of the DNA/RNA polymerases and their transcriptions and then creation by a similar comparison process into proteins, etc. From the very start of life to the very present, the COMP in one form or another has been essential for all life. It binds all life together from the lowest to the highest, and is a unifying characteristic of all life. That is the Comparison Process, be it replication of DNA/RNA, be it protein/polypeptide synthesis, be it knowing cellular life from other cells, be it the immune system, be it recognition of other species or self and same species, be it territoriality, and be it the highest known form, human, higher primate cortical cell columns and cortex, the Comparison process of the brain.

4. It’s very clear then with this kind a ubiquity, in animal behaviors alone that it should be found in human brains. But there it has been able to create language, by simple recognition of words, meaning by comparing those words to each other in unique contextual forms. And in creating every single kind of language, which can be translation and related using the comparison process into every other kind of known language. The COMP is a universal decoder of language and it allows every person on earth to develop their own unique ways of stating those languages, as well, our idiosyncratic speech patterns, unique to us all, that our fellow humans can identify each of us by, too. All the myriad ways of all of the languages, each stated in unique, individual ways, but each the same. From simple to enormous complexity. Understanding this fact allows us to enormosly simplifiy the complexity around us into unifying principles/observations. It sees through the “buzzing, blooming confusion” and orders it.

It has allowed us by trial and error comparisons to translate and understand the Rosetta Stone and many other extinct languages, too. It allows us to decrypt the newspaper cryptograms and more complex codes,. It has allowed us to decrypt the genetic codes as well, and even to decode the universe’ events into the natural laws we have found. It does not just create language and recognition, but it also much more.

5. It allows us to create an empirical introspection into the very innermost workings of our minds. Because the COMP is the major function of the cortex, in almost every case it gives us the critical insight into what to look for. In the medical field, this is a common practice. It’s very simply done, and it’s empirical introspection, where the mind can look at the mind. Where the mind can comprehend and study by observation the workings of the mind body and nervous system. Where we can detect and apprehend thoughts, themselves. And the exact internal, mental processes leading to language and its use.

Take the scientific method and confirmations for instance. There are scientists who find an interesting observation and they carefully describe and then publish their findings. If other scientists can observe and find the same events, then it is considered confirmed. But why that? Because the universe is what we all have in common. If others see the same events we see, and record them, it’s likely those are real and existing outside of ourselves and we are not just seeing what we want to see. We use double blind, carefully controlled, prospective studies to be sure we are not looking at what we want to find. For that reason, confirmation of events is the sine qua non of sciences. If and when others observe and describe the same acceleration of masses in earth’s gravitational field, then the 9.8 m/sec squ. value becomes established as the case and scientific, empirical truth is found. This is how it’s done. That establishes carefully done observations as true and real.

Let us extend the same method to empirical introspection. Here are some basic examples of how it’s done. When a person comes to the doctor for numbness and tingling of the fingers, we know the anatomy and the function of the nerves in the hand/arm which are clearly, provable related to those tinglings. If the thumb, forefinger, middle finger and part of the thumb side of the ring finger tingle, or are numb, we know it’s the median nerve, because that’s what has been carefully and confirmed to be the case in unlimited numbers of humans so far studied. Unless the person is medically sophisticated they would not know this and when a person states the truth, we can tell. By comparing their symptoms which they sense, to that which we know to be the case about nerves and so forth, we KNOW it’s a median nerve problem. That means we have looked by examination and history into those person’s minds and found that their statements correspond/compare to real, existing events. That is provably empirical introspection is it not? This can be done with almost all of the nerves in the body, everyday, in every nation where there are good medical professionals. It’s a fact. It’s common to all humans. There are other tests such as the electromyogram which can also independently confirm what the patients says is going on. This is valid, empirical introspection

Let’s go further to a more difficult problem, looking at pain. People can have pain in certain parts of their bodies, and we know what is commonly seen by building up huge databases of medical information. Suppose the person reports a bad, throbbing headache, periodically, which her mother also had, and a sister has, too. Further, the headache are often presaged by spots in the eyes, or scintillations of light, which are called scotomata. We do an exam, find no neurological abnormalities, compare the signs/symptoms to our differential diagnostic tables, and make a working diagnosis of migraine headaches. Often then we do tests to see if there are brain structural abnormalities, hypertension, etc., which can cause similar headaches. We give a triptan medication and if the headaches are frequent, a med which will likely prevent a lot of them. If the triptans work and the headaches abate, then it’s very likely migraines. This method can be extended to other kinds of pain, as well. This yet again, is another empirical introspection into the senses, the most difficult one of all, pain. But we have tests and many other ways of telling what is real and what is not.

The same is true of foot pain, back pain, chest pain, etc. The same can be easily extended to the vision, and touch sensations, too. We can even investigate loss/absence of gravity sense, also. This is all empirical introspection, because we know that all humans have characteristic states and conditions which they report by introspection which correspond very well to known anatomy and common reports. Because we all have these organ systems in common. Just as we all have events in existence in common. It’s the similar analogous process to scientific investigation, observation and reporting, and is used very day all over the world. What we have in common is real, within our bodies or without. That’s the key. A trained observer, the medical professional, relies upon his OWN introspective, trained methods, to make a diagnosis of a condition reported by the introspection of the patient. This is completely legitimate and practical. It’s not just that introspection of the patient, it’s also the introspection, and recognition of the condition by the medico, which is at play here. And it’s valid and reliable. It’s not perfect, but nothing in this world is. But it works and is practical.

7b. Dreaming and dreaming states

The problem of dream interpretation is the problem of introspection. How do we know what dreams mean has been the bugaboo of the entire field since Freud’s “The Interpretation of Dreams”. Most of it simply is not believed because of lack of substantiation for his approach. A great many New Agers also talk about dream interpretation with an equivalent lack of credible substantiation.

But there is a way and in the clinical neuroscience it’s been used for years. How do we know that dreams exist? Because of the Rule of Commonality (RoC). We know that pain exists in people for the same reason, everyone knows about it and has realistic appreciation for those injuries and related problems such as migraine headaches with also do exist. The same is true of pleasure and other findings, introspective.

But in specific cases? That’s a tough one. When a patient comes in with numbness, either persistent or intermittent in the hand, we can tell if it’s real or not by several techniques. First, does it correspond (compare) to real sensory nerve distributions or not? If hand/glove kind it’s not always clear. With a careful exam we can detect numbness and tingling with specific methods and find on electromyograms (EMG) whether or not the reports of numbness have a concomitant injury shown by increased latencies and slowed nerve conduction speeds. The above can provide realistic and SPECIFIC determinations that the individual complaints are real. That is, the introspective reports are the case.

But how can we do this in dreams? We know they exist, but reports of dream content are colored by length of time elapsed between the dream and report, emotional factors such as social concerns about appropriateness, etc. But occasionally there are real cases where we CAN show this. I’ve been a field biologist for over 50 years. My observational skills are developed.

I have two cases. This first where a recurrent dream of walking along a weathered wooden pier with planks missing, and the green water below with waves sloshing against the piles and at times almost close enough to get my feet wet. In each case over 40 years, I was simply terrified I’d fall into the water and get drowned. In each case of these repeated nightmares, I was usually stressed by situational problems at work, etc.

But the key was, we were showing old family movies of the time we ere in St. Pete, FL., and on one of them it showed a movie of that same pier, same color water (all my dreams are in color) and at once I recognized that that was the source of the dream. I’d walked on it with my father, and had been terrified. But I’d forgotten the event.

This was clearly Freudian repressed memory, because for some 45 years it wasn’t clear WHERE the dreams had come from. Within a few weeks, that dream tried to recur, I just said while dreaming, this is that old memory and I won’t have this any more. And did not, and haven’t since.

Once the source of the terror was found, and realized what it was, in tandem with Freudian neurosis abatement observations (which argues that those are real and existing by the RoC), the dream stopped. It has never recurred, either. I had a similar dream with a swaying elevator, and once figured out, some 10 years later, when riding on the SAME elevator, the recognition came on me that THAT was where it had come from. It tried to recur, and I abolished it the same way.

That dreams can appear to be remnants of older memories many times, which we seem to have forgotten, not just repressed, seems to be the case. The fantastic elements of dreams, events appearing, disappearing and so forth, are simply NOT real and unexplainable.

However, for this one. I can fly sometimes while dreaming. I lift up off the ground and take off. Sadly, no one who’s ever seen me having one of these dreams has reported any levitation of my body!! But the one thing I do recall is that the flying was always very slow. I’d get caught up in wires, etc. and thinking about it, it takes a LOT of processing power to fly, esp. very high, because then the complexity of the surrounding scenery would take a LOT more processing power to recreate that. I am NOT a hang glider person, tho I have no fear of flying at all.

In this case of flying dreams, they are completely synthetic and cannot possibly compare to any real memories at all. In the case of lucid dreaming reports, the persons can also get control of their dreams and create fictional activities, too. Therefore it’s hard to believe the dictum that ALL dreams are a result of memories, only. Those memories might provide a groundwork, but the mind can build on that, actually. We know this because the scene changes in dreams are NOT real because things simply appear and disappear in violation of physical laws. That is magical thinking, which isn’t real any more than one can fly or cause objects several meters from one, to move into one’s hand. That my dreams have done a lot of.

However, I was using computers about 1995, and at the time moved up from a low baud of a few 100 to a 2400 baud rate of screen scrolling. It exceeded the ability of my brain to follow by a factor of several times. But bless my brain it DID try to keep up, tho never really succeeded. Within weeks of that time, tho, my flying dreams ALSO sped up, markedly and I wasn’t getting slowed down or tangled up in wires again Since then, continuing to use faster and faster computers, I can fly a LOT faster and higher, too, even to this day.

Probably, visual processing speed in my brain sped up to its maximum by using the new high speed modem. And my dreams got faster. One suspects that using computers has speed up the the brain processing of we humans, where such is possible, too. As speed of intellectual processing is related to 85% of IQ, because the IQ tests are timed, therefore this creates a reasonable conclusion from my dreaming of flying, that computers may in fact speed up our brains and make us proportionately smarter, in that respect.

These are the ONLY realistic interpretation of dreams I’ve ever been able to make. Should OTHERS have similar findings, then we can begin by the RoC, to learn more about dreams. Until then it’s a lot of speculation as Father Freud first formally showed us. We must have a LOT more testable data to compare with before we can more reliably decode and understand our specific dreams.

8. Let us now extend this introspection to the recognition processes we see when people read a dictionary or thesaurus or map, etc. Do we not have and see the same activities in all persons who refer to those lists and texts? Do we not see the same process which creates those texts and indices and the taxonomic Tree of Life of all the species which exist? Each of which can be read by anyone, using the same process. Of course we do. The Comparison process is what we all have in common, be it reading a text, finding a word in a dictionary, or finding something on a map, or the creation of the map, besides. This yet another kind of empirical introspection. It’s valid, and meets the criteria for validity. it can be done again and again and provably is the same process both in using the dictionary and creating it. The same, Comparison Process each time.

9. This is confirmation of the existence of the COMP in our brain cortex, that it’s a higher function, as well. Because when those areas are ablated by strokes, trauma or other damage, those reading, speech, and comprehension functions are gone. The structure/function rule of the brain has been shown to be true without limit, so far. For every function of the brain, there is a corresponding structure which creates that function. There is the speech center for talking and reading and writing. There is a right inferior temporal lobe for face identification. There is the visual cortex for interpreting signals from our retina which reproduces with extraordinary accuracy events which we look at in all their shades and colour frequencies and corresponding colours. The same is true of the other senses. Same is true of our feelings. We all have these in common. We all have the same emotions in common and all of these can be related to a structure in the brain.

We all have consciousness in common. This is the awareness and knowledge of that which is around us and inside of us. Ideas/words express this knowledge carefully and fairly accurately too. We have those words in common do we not, in one language or dialect or the many others? This establishes those ideas/words/images as real and existing in our brains/minds. The reports are real, both those inside and outside. The words and knowledge are the same. When we say something, we know it, and can communicate it. And in all of these cases, the Comparison process is working. The writing and the reading of those words is of the same origin, the COMP.

We have our consciences in common, located mainly in the frontal lobes, by which we internalize society’s restrictions and acceptable activities. We compare that to what we do and what others do. In the laws of nature, we compare the behaviors and descriptions of events in existence outside of us, comparable also to the same structure of moral laws, which we use daily, all of us in common. The Legal laws are the same. The templates/forms/structures of logic, math, and others are of the same kind, readable and creatable and modifiable by the COMP.

10. In measuring it’s all Comparison Process. This has been proven time and again, for everyone. Anyone can take a ruler or tape and measure lenghts and distances. Anyone with any training can read a map. The COMP is real because of these unlimited, repetitive, confirming facts. The organization of the Tree of Life by these endless COMP events, that of the periodic table of elements, that of the Hertzsprung/Russell diagram (which organizes into a coherent whole the trillions of observable stars, each a confirmation of that comparison/correspondence to the HRD), that of the repetitions of the same measurements of time and calendars, and our words, images, and the written words which exactly correspond/compare to those mental ideas/words/images. This same commonality of use by the same/similar variations on them, shows they are real.

11. The 100’s of millions of telephone books and dictionaries. The endless listing of street addresses, and the 100’s of millions of maps and templates of all sorts. Endless in its variations, and all real and existing, as the that single, simple Comparison Process existing in all of our cortices which does the thinking, information processing and understanding and speaking and reading. Each and every one of the 34 million known chemical compounds (of an estimated quadrillions possible, (mostly in what’s left of the rain forests) has been named, classified, organized and indexed by that. Is that enough evidence, or are we dealing with what the British justifiably call bloody mindedness?

The Comparison Process is confirmed by these events in the millions and even billions of examples. If several thousands show it, 100 millions show it beyond all reasonable doubt. And any variations among us in reading/writing those lists, is simply the endless variations on a common theme.

12. Let us take creativity. Because we know what to look for, the COMP, we can see inside the minds of those being creative. They have often told us how they did it, from Kekule to Einstein, whose 5 discoveries created Relativity. We know that Newton found the spectrum and realized what it was by comparing it to the rainbow. We know that Newton AND Leibniz both found the calculus, slightly different forms of it, but essentially the same. What were the insights and creativity which led to both of their insights? They’d be comparison processes very similar to the insight of Archimedes whose text showing the calculus from 2300 years ago we now have, also. Compare those 3 men’s insights. That is the mathematical form of Creativity using the COMP.

We have brilliantly creative computer programmers. What are the exact means by which they create new programming techniques? How did Borland create resident pop-up programs? What were his insights as to how to do that? Take every major advance in programming and find the ways in which those insights arose, and compare and cross check them with the number of very similar creative advances made by other programmers. In this way we can again look inside the heads of the programmers for the COMP which creates the creativity of programmers. And then we can model that using a computer system, and create a creative computer, which creativity can proceed at speeds of millions of times faster, than we whose COMP works at about 100-200 msec., compared to a potentially unlimited speed of the quantum computers now working.

14. Gauss, Riemann, and Lobatschevsky almost simultaneously created non-Euclidean geometry. So did a 12th Century monk, but thought it was so silly he didn’t continue it. ALL FOUR found the same thing, that the parallel line axiom was NOT necessary to build up a consistent geometry. and so developed that from which the modern space/time geometry is used in physics today. This is a very similar comparison process creativity in four mathematicians. The same is true of the rest of mathematical creativity and describes how Ramanujan and all the others performed their creative magic.

The same is true of scientific creativity, or verbal creativity, of creative writing. The COMP model extends itself by logic and by proxy to every other field of the sciences and arts, and music, as well.

15. Because we see that these creativity events are ALSO recognitions of the value of that which is created. Creativity is a form of recognition. The recognition by Darwin and Wallace, that on remote isles, a single species tended to diversify into many species and when those diversified enough it’d lead to every species known developing from previously existing forms, that is, evolutionary model which is now scientific fact. Evolution has been confirmed literally 10 millions of times. If evolution is confirmed by those many instances, then how much more confirmed is the comparison process in our brains by the 10 billions of times it’s confirmed every day when 7.5 million humans use it?

We can see inside our own brains/minds this kind of COMP which created the same findings by different men at different times. That commonality of events, which is the key to empirical introspection. We can actually get inside the heads of our most creative people now and see how their minds are working. We can SEE the creative acts. We can see the organizing power of the Comparison process as it organizes each and every part of our dictionaries, our maps, our indices, our everything. Organizing to create knowledge. Organizing to create prediction and control in our consciousness and our consciences, as well as control of industrial production, agriculture, etc.

16. It underlies the Least Energy Rule because that is a COMP. Compare the outputs and costs of each method being studied by the LEP. The least energy one is favored, by the COMP, which is yet an LEP, too.

It’s the feedback loop you see, the original one. It processes and creates a product, which can be endlessly and consistently fed back in, to create more output. Each fed back in. The Comparison Process even explains, uniquely, and cleanly, the feedback systems. How’s that for practicality and utility?

It organizes, unifies, simplifies and yet allows all complexities and endless variations within itself and those to be more clearly understood. Simple, yet complex. Easy, yet surrounds itself with endless variations of incredible size and complexity, which hid/hides and camouflaged(s) it from us for 1000’s of years.

17. It’s all very similar, we see now. Simple, powerful, endless in variations, and because it does a very great deal with only a little, it’s least energy rule obedient and complete amenable to thermodynamic analysis. Because it does the same in every field, it’s a huge simplification, but allows endless complexity to be developed, and understood and explains in details those endless variations on a theme, be it living forms, be it mathematics, be every language and the dialects, be it visual arts, music in all its endless variations of rhythms, styles, scales and modes, and even fashions and design of cars, architecture and much else. It even explains each human’s, each living form’s genetic and personality and behavioral uniqueness and yet commonality with all other living species, alive or extinct. It does a LOT with a little. It’s efficient.

18. What are stabilities, the Djed of the ancient Egyptians? Those are maintained similarities, samenesses. We see this in trees, rocks, stars, matter, and the repeating, reiterating process by which those are built, maintained and broken down. Stabilities are created by the Pauli Exclusion Principle and chemical bonding. Stabilities are Least Energy Principle forms. CO2 and H2O are stable because they are least energy. No chemical energy can be obtained from those molecules. And upon those stabilities of water and carbon dioxide molecules, plus nitrogen and trace elements, all life has been built, within the endless cycling of CO2 and H2O molecules’ stabilities.

The COMP is also a LEP stability, the most common denominator of our mental processes. That is why the cortical cell columns are almost exactly alike. That is why but for the motor cortex, the micrographic examinations of the 6 layers of the entire cortex, except for their neuronal synaptic connections to each other and cortical cell columns(which demonstrates their unique functions of visual, language, sensation, hearing, musical, emotional, etc., cortical functions) are almost exactly the same. That is why the electroencephalogram over every single piece of cortex reveals the same alpha, beta, and theta activities. It even explains the 14 and 6 EEG activity over the motor cortex which lacks layer 4 and has Betz cells instead.

19. It’s been easy to analyze films using the Comparison Process as well. We can use it to see inside the heads of the directors, producers and script writers, and how they are inside the head of the audiences. How they are using humor, surprise, action and creativity to entertain and enthrall their audiences so they keep coming back again and again to watch the movie in the theaters, on the Internet, or by buying a DVD at home or with friends.

20. This is why the COMP will succeed, in the long run. Not only is it backed up by the LEP, but it’s also reinforced by the dopamine boost. Once individuals rediscover this ancient boost and use it creatively for inspiration and better lives, and given the positive feedback nature of the COMP/dopamine system in our cortices, not much is going to stop this process. In the long run on earth and the rest of our universe, least energy rules.

When creativity and understanding are understood, as they now are, this will create, potentially a renaissance in the arts and sciences which can dwarf anything yet seen. In each of us, this massive, repetitive, endlessly/unlimited process is active. Understand it, learn how to boost and inspire yourselves. This creative Spark of Life exists within all of us. It’s the Gotterfunken, the veriest spark of God Himself, the “chi”, the Atman, the feeling of Enlightenment, those mystical feelings and states. And any of us can learn to call it up, learn to use it for ourselves and others. It’s very powerful and underlies all good leadership, all loyalties, all inspiration. It in its best forms it is love incarnate, be it agape, eros, philias, maternitas, or love of country, or our pets and possessions. It underlies the “AHA” or Eureka emotions of discovery/creation. It underlies our jokes and witty entertainment. It underlies all those feelings of awe, of astonishment, of childlike wonder. All the goodness of life itself.

21. We find that our modern societies we have a great many problems to solve. What better than to use the Comparison Process to solve those? It’s there within all of us, immanent, and working. Is this not a good solution? Everyone has the potential to do it. Because everyone has those same, cortical cell columns, the same structures and the functions, the COMP and the dopamine releasers built in.

We find the drug additions, which are simply attempts to feel better, to replace that “loving feeling” that good feeling which has been lost. These are many of the emptinesses of modern society, the malaise. We’ve “lost that loving feeling” and we can’t quite “get it back”. It’s the dopamine boost. In the societies we find the young turning to raves, and rock concerts and sex, and other self-destructive, damaging activities. Because the dopamine boost secret has been lost. People turn from the main stream churches to fundamentalism, to the exciting church services of the same, where that has been preserved. When most church services were once exciting and rejuvenation experiences, they are now too often boring and not re-inforcing, because they do NOT boost the dopamine in those who attend them. Staid, quiet, laid back and not interesting. They’ve lost that loving feeling. and just can’t get it back.

22. Yet it’s there inside each of us. Everyone has dopamine in their brains/bodies. Everyone has the Comparison Process which can release it in all the myriad ways. Dopamine boost is innate in our very natures. It palpably, provably drives the emotions, it inspires, it creates love. The dopamine boost we feel when with friends and loved ones. That’s the self-reinforcing system created by our minds/brains. Reinforce it, make it become part of the LTM, and you can have it any time you need it. That’s the key, regardless of how we find it, let the outcomes be good in the long run, and by their fruits we will know the best ways. The answers are there, our COMP is set up to find them. Here inside and within each of us are the solutions to our problems within and without.

Let a Revelation in understanding create a Kuhnian Revolution.

The Continua; Yin/Yang, Dualities; Creativity, and Prediction

By Herb Wiggins, Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014

“Every structure has its capabilities and its limits.”

“Observe the wisdom of the Ant.”
— Proverbs 6:6-8, 30:24-25

Contents:
1. The Continua and dualities as the source of the same, opposites and complementary forms.
2. Kinds of the continua EM spectra, periodic table of elements and isotopes; listing of subatomic particles; biochemicals, IUPAC listings;
evolutionary Tree of Life
3. The Electromagnetic spectrum continuum, extending and creating the EM spectrum from the visible light range. Describing and measurement; Many examples of discovery/creativity along the continuum
4. Sound continuum.
5. Motion and speeds. from at rest to near light speed.
6. Introducing the Exponential Barriers (ExponBars) as part of natural laws; what these can mean as limits to measurements.
7. Sense of heat, as a source of Heat/energy continua; comparison process of detecting heat by the skin. ExponBar of absolute zero and highest heats approachable by matter. Continuum of Absolute Zero to Cee.
8. Touch, Hardness and pressure continuum. Moh’s Scale of comparison process; Pascal continuum of hardness; Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP).
9. Thesaurus as the best source of possible continua.
10. More ExponBars: particle physics, Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle; Bell’s test of measurement of spin in entangled particles/photons.
11. ExponBar of the Perfect line or circle measurement thought experiment
12. The continuum of time, from the Big Bang to present
13. The continuum of the brightness vs. number of galaxies and the Low Surface Brightness Galaxies, Disney/Malin.
14. The chemical continuum.
15. DeBroglie matter/wave graph.
16. Taste, discussion deferred.
17. Feynman diagrams as a special case of continua for describing particle interactions simply, another case of creativity.
18. The dialectic as a special case of creativity using the dualities along an continuum.
19. Matter density continuum, and the discontinuities.
20. Evolutionary Tree of Life
21. Plate tectonic model
22. Verbal continua describe in very fine details complex systems, arriving at an understanding of N-body solutions without using mathematics, a capability of COMP denied to mathematics.
23 Traveling salesman problem
24. The complex medical history, physical examination, differential diagnosis, and treatment protocol tables used in the practice of medicine as yet again a case of a complex system yielding to COMP methods. N-body solution using the COMP of language to do what math cannot.

1. The Continua are modern, updated, vastly extended forms of what in older times were considered Dualities, such as love and hate; up and down, light and dark, good and evil, and indeed any pair of synonyms/antonyms listed, many of which do not have numericity, tho it’s been extended to tall/short; lean and overweight, and the many, unlimited (Comparison Process), other ways each of these can be stated, almost endlessly.

2. In the sciences the electromagnetic spectrum of light is one of the commonest. most Visible of the continua. There are very many others, the continuum of the periodic table of the elements including all of the isotopes, well self-organized and clearly shown how they are all related ot each other in terms of nuclear/electronic structures, proton/neutron numbers, and so forth. There is the continuum of the smallest particles, the stable neutrinos, up to the unstable mesons and so forth, then to the stable protons, electrons and neutrons; thence up to atoms, to the compounds, inorganic, organic, and endless biochemicals of the polypeptide/protein chains, up to the continuum of the tree of life, upon which all known species are located, generally organized according to phyla if possible, up to the great apes, our closest cousins and to the latest series of modern humans, Neanderthal man, Cro-magnon, and modern humans.

3. The EM spectrum is a good one to start with, because it’s a continuum of light in all of its various forms. At first we had the visual sense, a system with black-shades of grey-white and dark/light, and all those related dualities in our languages and the many others. Colors were also seen, which have very ancient names as well. This is the continuum of light given to us by our visual system from the rods which give us black/white to the cones which give us the colors, ROYGBIV.

The study of optics goes way back to ancient times, as they had ground convex lenses they used to magnify smaller objects. But not much happened until Newton passed a white beam of sunlight thru a prism and saw the spectrum of light, and realized at once that it was the rainbow, which is the naturally occurring form. He made the discovery that the rainbow is created by diffraction of light by water droplets. But he understood it because he could create a rainbow at will by using a prism and sunlight. The frequencies/wavelengths are related via a couple of equations, E (energy) = H/ (Plank’s constant) times the frequency of light, small “v”. Wavelengths can be related to this, but the Wiki article will show all of that. This was the creative insight of Newton. He saw at once that both the rainbow and visible light spectrum were the same by the comparison process.

The EM spectrum/continuum begins at the lowest(duality) frequency end, the long wavelengths of alternating current fields, then up(duality) to radio waves, microwaves, infrared, the Red/Orange/Yellow/Green/BIV series of visible light, then Ultraviolet (UV, ultra being yet another relational duality), X-rays, gamma rays and finally, cosmic rays, the latter are largely iron atoms accelerated to near light speed, or Cee. This is a physical, real continuum, and the relationships of each frequency to the others can be read by looking at the frequencies, going from lower to higher, again yet another continuum. Every part is related to each other part by frequency, wavelength and energy. So it’s not only created by the comparison process, but just like a dictionary can be read by the COMP, because it’s been ordered by numericity. This is where measurement of light came in. Numbers in terms of frequencies were applied to ROYGBIV, which is what science does in order to more accurately describe/measure phenomena. And in measuring, this is done by comparing an arbitrary metric standard against that which is being measured.

But now look. Our eyes “measured” the light as well by comparing dark to light, which is the amount of photons coming in, few to large numbers and all the shades of grey in between. This is physiological description by our visual systems. And our cones measured light by creating colors which corresponded to frequencies, too, tho we didn’t seem to know the order of frequencies from lower to higher, either, before Newton. But yet, our eyes did. The higher frequencies of light interact with rhodopsin more energetically, than the lower, and this is how the red/green/blue base colors came about. We just didn’t know it, but our visual system, we see in retrospect, did.

Eventually, it was discovered that there was more to light than just visible light, tho how our eyes “tune” themselves to the brightest, relatively non-injurious frequencies and match those of our sun, is also apparent. We can see better when it’s brightest, because there are more photons to send information to our eyes. Therefore the most efficient way to “see” is by using the brightest part of the solar spectrum, I.E. the Yellow-greens, to which our cones are the most sensitive for seeing in color. This is no accident. It’s a least energy principle (LEP) approach. Using the COMP we can see this.

IR was found, radio waves found by detecting electric sparks which created waves which created slight currents in antennae, and the radio/TV/microwave systems we all use today were created in response, again by the COMP. By extending the EM spectrum to the higher frequencies, UV, X-Ray, gamma ray and cosmic rays using instruments, which basically translate light invisible to our eyes into forms by which we can detect it via our senses, then all of that continuum was found. Note that our senses were the starting place for this progress. In creating a continuum with the spectrum, then extending in a creative way that continuum and out popped the entire EM spectrum. It was ordered by the comparison process, measured by combining it with mathematics, and became a great deal more understood, organized, and predictable. All mediated by the COMP.

4. Let’s look at sound, which our ears pick up, too. We organize it in music by loudness which is the force of sound(Newtons/meter-squared) waves hitting our eardrums/second, which was first measured by our ears as quiet and loud sounds and all those in between. We also heard in our musical instruments the lower pitches and the higher pitches. and we organized our string and wind instruments, as well as percussion instruments in the same way. It’s very analogous to how the sciences organized sight, isn’t it? By a relational scale of soft and loud and low tones and higher tones, which is also the comparison process, too, And also the duality which it can create, too. It’s relational, not absolute. We can hear a set of intervals, compare them in terms of rhythm and pitch and we can ID the melody, “Mary had a Little Lamb”. and in the same way any other melody we “know”, that is we have in our musical Long Term Memory. It doesn’t matter what key the melody is in, it’s all related to the intervals of the notes. This is no different for speech, language, vision, and so forth. It’s all the same, the COMP, which re-Cognizes, I.E. re-KNOWS what it’s heard before. It’s the basic cognitive process, the COMP.

The series of pitches is the frequency of the tones, from middle C at 128 Hz to the C tones above and below, 256 and 64. All relational, all ordered, all knowable, all predictable so we can play a tune. But we don’t NEED to know the key the tune is played in, just the relationship of the notes to each other. We “read” the sheet music in just the same way we read words. We compare the sheet music notation to the keys on the piano, the frits on the guitar, the levers and holes on the wind instruments, etc, each of them corresponding to what we see on the sheet. It’s the same thing as reading, the comparison process, exactly, just altered for tonality and processed in our right and left hemispheres in the music/hearing centers.

From those notes we could hear, or not, depending upon deafness, we realized that some people could not hear tones others could by comparing people’s hearing. Some could not hear softer sounds, also. So it was asked, what if we play a higher note on the wind instrument? And through that realization was found more of the sound continuum, ultrasound whistles were made, and ultrasonic frequencies were discovered. It goes very, very high, each of it higher and higher frequencies, and each of it more and more energetic, too, just like light. Eventually, infrasonic tones were found, and the frequencies were lower than those audible. The same continuum, you see? The same line.

5. Let’s take motions and speeds. Essentially we “see” a movement across our line of sight by comparing each position to another at intervals in our eyes. The visual system smooths out those jumps so we see it as continuous. In the same way, repeated flashing of images on a screen too fast for our eyes to see each of them, sets up the illusion of movement. We call these motion pictures, now videos. The movement can be measured, also, again comparing distance the object travels compared to time. That is, it’s a ratio, a proportion, a comparison process.

Speeds can be seen as no speed, then slow and up to very, very fast. Again, teh slow and fast duality. and the continuum is built around it, faster than we can detect and slower. From being at rest, compared to a fixed spot, to very close to the speed of light as seen by our instruments, which describes the current continuum, which is also measurable. Objects can move so fast our eyes don’t see them. For this reason high speed photography was developed in order, instrumentally to allow our visual systems to detect very fast processes.

But we know that all speeds are relative, that is compared to a fixed spot. But there is no absolute resting spot. The ultimate speed is that of light speed, according to physics from several years ago. We approach that speed coming from a full stop but only with difficulty. The more energy we put into a mass or object to make it move faster, the more it takes to speed up to increase to light speed. Energy = 1/2 Mass times V (velocity).

6. Einstein showed that we could never reach light speed using normal acceleration. We move up an exponential barrier (ExponBar), and we can see if we were taking 1/2 of the distance to a spot, then 1/4, then 1/8, 1/6, etc., never get there. The actual equation relating this fact is in the Lorentz/Fitzgerald equations. At usual speed as a fraction of light, it’s the above. At very high speeds approaching a significant fraction of Cee, the equations are seen. E=1/2MV squ. is an approximation, not the reality. This is a highly confirmed fact. And this is what created the exponential barrier. Will return to the ExponBar soon.

Essentially our nervous systems can also create motions using muscle contractions. We can throw a ball, move a tennis racket to hit a ball, the same with a bat in cricket or baseball, or in Jai a’lai. We can run fast, or walk fast, or slowly or not at all. Thus the same rest, slow, fast duality which is seen, also creates the continuum although much slower than many processes, in which we live and act. This is what the motor strips/cerebellum and the rest of our motor systems do. Mediated so far in some way by the comparison process going on in the motor strips/cerebellum. But will not tackle that yet.

Touch is also a sense which we have, and there are many descriptive aspects to it, many dualities. We can feel if something is cold or hot, cool or warm, soft or hard, smooth or rough, wet or dry, etc., but will not review all of the human senses of touch which are multiplicit.

7. Taking cold and hot, the major duality of temperature, as it’s now known, we can detect these differences, feel a fever, or if something feels too cold. These are also comparison processes. We can describe these things, although within some major limits, also. How this related to the continuum of cold and hot is obvious. Eventually means were created to judge more accurately than our senses, to measure temperature. This si basically how much energy a substance holds. If it holds more, it’s hotter than if less. We can heat something up and make it hotter by many means, but the scale starts near, but never at Absolute zero, and then extends up to very high, well past plasma levels in our sun, to much higher. You see all of our adjectives used here are comparatives, too, not absolutes. Again, the comparison Process.

How does the skin know what temperature it is? By comparing itself at the skin’s resting temp to that is which being touched. If the skin is warm, anything warmer than the skin will feel warm. Anything cooler, will feel cooler. Anything scalding will burn and create pain, so that too is another scale, so far not well understood. The temperature scales of the skin are comparison processes. If the skin is very cool on a cold day, putting even a modestly warm object against the skin makes it feel very uncomfortably HOT!!. Putting something colder than 50 degrees against very warm skin on a hot day, can give a feeling of extreme cold. Temperature sensation uses the comparison process to determine relative temperature differences, thus hot/cold, warm/cool, etc. This is simply a fact.

This then has established a continuum, once more from near absolute zero, compared to water’s freezing and boiling points, the Comparison Process, we once more see without too much surprise by now because of its ubiquity. But approaching Absolute zero is very difficult. Because the closer we get to it, the more energy it takes to get there!!. This is in fact yet another exponential barrier, the ExponBar.It’s been very difficult to find the equation which should be like or match the Fitzgerald-Lorenz equation for approaching the speed of light. Thus temperature is bounded at the highest levels by the exponential barrier of trying to reach light speed, and at the lowest level, absolute zero, by a similar exponential barrier. Wouldn’t it be interesting if the equations were equivalent?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absolute_zero

The highest possible temps we can find go thru the states of solid, liquid, gas, plasmas and then still higher yet. As these are the speeds of moving atoms/particles, it can be understood, that the velocity of particles cannot exceed the speed of light, and so the highest possible temperatures there have an exponential barrier, yet again. So with heat we have an ExponBar at the low end from Absolute zero to Cee, and yet another exponential barrier at teh high end. What does this mean? More later. These are yet two more ExponBars. Hmm. Are we going to keep on seeing these? Yes. And they are ubiquitous and unending, which sounds like what? The COMP.

8. Touch also extends to soft and hardness, as relative scales. If something is too hard it can hurt us, by causing pain. If soft we can feel the difference. Again, the duality. and once more again, the continuum. Moh’s scale was once used to measure the hardness of rocks. Geologists assigned certain hardnesses to talc, limestone, quartz, corundum (sapphire) and diamond (mined) in ascending order of hardness. Again, softer or harder, comparison process. Again a measurement against substances compared to each other. If the substance could scratch something else by comparison, then it was teh same or harder. And this was how the scale was determined. Once again, the COMP. Are we having a pattern recognition event again? Eventually the Pascal scale of pressure was set up, measuring from resting state, of no pressure, to the highest state possible, when diamonds could be scratched/fractured by pressure, and not just any diamond, but a Carbon-13 diamond, which at about 125 Billion Pascals (GPA) is the hardest substance known.

But we are not done yet. The force which determines hardness is that of electron repulsion between the interacting objects, say quartz and glass. Each will scratch the other most times. They are of the same hardness both being mostly SiO2. The scratching breaks the bonds of the solid SiO2, and thus scratching it. The Pascal is measured relative to certain standards, also, once again showing the comparison process in its fullest glory as the basis of all measurement.

Here we have another continuum, do we not? based upon the senses originally and so on and on. Mathematized and measuring, yet again from the dualities.arising from the sensations.

What is the hardness of the electron and proton? It’s the Pauli Exclusion Principle(PEP) which forbids two fermions from occupying the same space at the same time. The pressure which prevents us from passing our hand through steel is just that. But how hard is the proton? We know there is neutronium, created by ultra high gravitational fields where almost all protons and electrons are compressed into neutrons. Moving up that hardness line, we see white dwarf star matter. Moving down further is only one thing, the black hole, which cannot be easily examined. This is the hardness scale, the continuum as we now know it, lined full of discoveries and creativity events.

Surprisingly enough the PEP is exactly the source of almost all of our motor vehicle laws. Don’t try to violate the PEP, that is collide with anything!!. Simple, real, exact, basic. Again the creativity of the comparison process, simplifying and increasing our understanding of events.

But are there any other? Turn to a thesaurus and see how many are known. It’s the endlessness of the comparison process all over again, is it not?

How about some more Exponbars? First, in particle physics. Particle physicists have been using more and more energies and higher and higher velocities accelerated for higher and higher costs for the last 70 years in order to investigate matter, basically by speeding it up to near light speed, an ExponBar in and of itself. And every time they built a bigger and bigger machine, until the largest, the Hadron Collector was created at CERN on the French/Swiss border. That one cost more than all of the others, almost combined. In order to find the Higgs, it took a lot fo time and energy, roughly the cost of building the machine, $10 B and then the cost of the experiments themselves. They found and confirmed the figures at a single site, using a single team, then published. But the facts are, it needs to be at least twice confirmed by separate teams, at a separate sites to be reliable and certain.. Will $10B+ be spent again? it’s not likely, nor is it affordable. This is the ExponBar at work, again. Also called the law of diminishing returns.

Let’s take the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle(HUP), which states that we can determine the spin of an electron, but we cannot simultaneously determine its exact location, or vice versa. If we do try to do so, what do we get? BingO!, the ExponBar. The HUP is yet another form of the general class, ExponBar. This has not been understood or known before.

If we do Bell’s test to determine the speed of exchange of information between the 1st entangled particle/photon of a pair, it then determines that of the other, an instantaneous speed of information transfer between the two particles/photons. So we find at first that to be at least under the speed of light. So we try it again and it rises to several times Cee. We try it again, with more and more energy/cost/time and we find it 1000’s of times Cee. The latest experiment shows 40,000 times Cee, rising up the ExponBar again. Hmm. What is going on?

When to try to find that perfect line, or perfect circle, we again find the Exponential Barrier when we do that. Is it in fact a limit to our systems of measurement, or is it real? What Does the ExponBar signify? No matter what system we use, no matter how we do it, we will always find the ExponBar at the limits of our abilities to measure something by the comparison Process. No matter where, no matter when, no matter how. There is a limit to knowledge built into the system of which the speed of light, absolute zero temperature and the HUP were the first known. There are endless others, too.

12. Let’s go back to some more dualities/continua, such as time. Past and future. Life and death. Young and old. Early and later. Morning and evening. Day and night. Each of these terms relates to the others by the COMP, please note. This is no accident. This is the way measurement/descriptions work.

We measure time relative to the system in use in each culture. All of them have a single point which was year one. The establishment of Rome the city, the birth of Jeshua Ben Josef, the Jewish Calendar, the 1st year of Ramesses 2’s reign, the date of the Hegira. The date of the Nile indundation in Khemet (ancient Egypt), etc. Each of these time lines measures a series of repeating intervals using the lunar or solar method of comparison. Time like everything else described or measured is always measured relative to a set standard. Nothing is absolute, we can start anywhere and end anywhere, but we use utility and practical value and the least energy principle to set these up so they weill be stable.

At first time was the endless cycle of the years from the rising of Sirius heliacally, to the frist day of spring when the length of the day was equally sp[lit between day and night. Measuring against the fixed stars, or against a set number of days done by in the lunar calendar, but ALWAYS, always compared to some standard, a COMP. Eventually, we learned that time arose LOT longer before us than in front of us. The evidences ketp piling up, the long durations of erosion of the mountains and plains by weather, water and rivers. The breakdown of radioactive isotopes. The immense times necessary to explain the worldwide evidence of sedimentary rock layers, and so forth. The age of the earth was found to be first thousands, then millions and then billions of years old.

The continuum of time was being created as we understand it today. Just like all of the others initially based upon comparison processes relating words to each other, just as we still do today. “See you in the morning.”
Explained/defined by early in the day after sunrise and not night, either, but part of day.Again comparison process. Constant, measured against stable processes such as astronomical observations, clocks, atomic clocks and even the processes going on in pulsars.

Much creativity and discovery can be found inside of these continua. The Colors were found by newton’s prism. Radio waves by Tesla and Marconi. X-rays by Roentgen, and so forth. The sound continuum also had its discovers, as did that of the other continua, such as the Tree of Life, the listing of all the species of life on earth and how they all related to each other by the comparison Process. That too a continuum.

13. Another continuum which has recently been added to is that of the kinds of galaxies. A very thoughtful astronomer named Michael Disney plotted a graph of the brightness of the known galaxies against their number. He found no smooth tail off as would be expected. So he reasoned there must be huge numbers, 10’s of billions of hard to see low brightness(COMP) galaxies. Using CCD’s (charge coupled devices) David Malin of the Australian Astronomical Observatory, which can sense extremely low numbers of photons which normal photographic paper cannot detect, and long exposure times, he found them, the Low Surface Brightness Galaxies. Billions of them including a real monster, the 650,000 LY’s diameter Malin-1!! A wonderful discovery, again made by extending, creatively, a known continuum. Just as has been seen so many scores of times before.

14. So this provides yet another way to creativity, does it not? Find a continuum, and extend it. Trial and error. Sooner or later, we will make more discoveries based upon this simple process. For instance, when organic molecules are made, we can add all sorts of groups such as -OH, COOH, CH3, etc. to them. By simply listing the known molecules and adding onto them, we can create endless numbers of new compounds, can we not? As long as we know the rules for adding on groups. This is the Comparison process which creates word strings, the number line, the alphabet, etc. This is essentially the basis of the hugely cited Combinatorial Chemistry method, which in the early 1990’s created such a stir, so to say. It’s also the basis of the current revolution in pharmaceuticals, because at first it used to take months to make a few compounds, of say, new antibiotics. Now, using the method, 100K drugs can be synthesized in a short time in micro quantities and simultaneously tested for effectiveness. Including antibiotics. Since no bacteria known can be resistant to 100K antibiotics, this means, does it not, an effective end run around bacterial resistance?

15. In the DeBroglie matter/wave graph, listing at one end the photons and then moving up thru the electrons, the protons and so forth we can construct a matter wave line. At some point where the waves begin to become very hard to detect, that is the borderline between the quantum event level and the macroscopic level of existence, which we call normal. Such a duality between waves/matter characteristics can be set up to measure the transition between probabilistic behaviors/quantum effects dominate and deterministic mass action behaviors of chemistry, the deterministic, stoichiometric rules of chemistry. This is how the border zone can be more easily discovered. Set up the continua from where quantum effects prevail, such as quantum tunneling, to where they do not occur, or are much less likely to occur. Diagram it. make it real and visual.

16. Taste is a more complicated sense, but will be treated later.

17. When using the Feynman diagrams, we see that continua have been created, which can neatly show relationships far more easily than talking about them or doing the mathematical work to show it. Thus the system is more energy efficient than the math, and this was why Feynman’s diagrams superseded Schwinger’s ponderously slow, taking weeks of complicated, mathematical methods. Feynman’s solution was a creative genius at work, again, the comparison process. Don’t do the math, do the diagrams following simple rules. We see his genius at work, introspectively, using the COMP. The comparison process allows us to look inside the mind, empirically.

Look around, find some dualities, create a continuum around them and make some discoveries. Or make a graph of two characteristics against each other, create a continuum and make new discoveries. That’s another way creativity can be done.

18. Regarding the dialectic, this can also be understood as a kind of continuum arising from the dualities of the these/antithesis, which when combined create a synthesis. This explains the limited but real creativity of the dialectic, though it has largely been ignored from some time as being not as useful as first claimed. It’s a duality which can create a continuum of the form, A + opposite A > synthesis. There are complementary dualities such as male/female, right/wrong, versus true opposites, such as yes/no; good/evil; up/down; in/out, well check the thesauri for the rest.

19. The densities of matter are also a continuum. Compare the most dense, the black hole, to neutron star matter, then white dwarf compact matter, each with its alinear discontinuities due to the above, then to compressed matter, to solids, liquids, gases (vapours) to plasmas. Then up to vacuums, to space vacuum of about 1 hydrogen atom per cubic meter, then to space which contains a good deal of dark matter (neutrino gas) to lower densities, and from places in space where there is a marked Casimir effect to even lower effects. These latter cannot yet be quantitated to any great degree. This is where discovery and creativity come in. In time we will be able to find out where the neutrino gas is of higher density VS lower and how to quantitate it, too, just as the Casimir effect will differ in various areas of the universe due to gravitational/mass density changes near large galaxies and out in the great voids in space between the star clusters,seen by astronomical survyes. Again, the density continuum, with many, many discoveries/creativity events laying upon that great line, and many more to be found.

Let’s name at 3 major complex systems, the Tree of Life, the plate tectonic model, and the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (HRD) of the known star types.

20. The evolutionary Tree of Life was established by comparing all known living species, including viruses and organizing them as to classes wherein they shared major characteristics with others. For instance, the insects have 6 legs, and are found in the Arthropoda class where the 10 legged decapods such as shrimp and many 100’s of species or plankton and other forms are found. The spiders are in the Octapoda because they have 8 legs, the centipedes and millipedes because they have many many legs, and the chitinous segmented worms correspond to many of these, too, just a lot more legs.

Each of these are related to all of the others by the branching diagrams, simply by following it down to where the tree branched, such as when human species, Homo sapiens(socialis) branched from Cro-magnon, same H. sapiens; and where Homo neanderthalensis (Neanderthal man) branched off the line. Where Homo erectus (java Man and Beijing man separated out. To the new finds of H. floresiensis on the island of Flores, Indonesia, to the latest Human form, H. denisovensis found in central Asia. There are a number of branches of early man yet to be found, again, lying on yet again, fertile continuum of human evolution.

We cannot extend this family line into the future, except by pointing out all of the variations of the wolf, which has been domesticated into the 100’s of known dog breeds, as a VERY prominent example of evolution in action, which is undeniable. In this case man was the evolver, not a more natural cause. Same is true of all domesticated varieties few plants, now numbering in the 100,000’s. Again, discovery/creation of new variations of plants/animals is yet again, the creativity we necessarily find along a continuum, in the specific case of the tree of life. All the myriad ways, from the simple to the complex, the comparison process at work in creating new forms of life as well as cataloging, organizing and understanding what has been found. Le Chanson Sans Fin, universel.

21. Looking at the plate tectonic model will reveal something very unexpected and useful. Essentially, using the basic concept of the geological plate, which can be seen here: the geologists created a working model of how geological processes act and where they occur. This is in fact a sort of round comparison process continuum. All plates are related to other plates. No plate is absolute and their complex movements and descriptions are based upon a few simple rules/processes. Again, a visual, diagrammatic, 3D model. Where a few lines are worth 1000 words and umpteen pages of math, if at all.

http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Glossary/PlateTectonics/Maps/map_plate_tectonics
_world.html
The simplified version.
http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/about/edu/dynamicplanet/nutshell.php

The geological processes are sea floor spreading due to upwelling in oceanic ridges; subduction zones where seafloor is moving down under continental margins, creating 1. volcanic zones (the Cascade mountains, N. Am) from subduction materials melting and rising up, and 2. subduction zone earthquakes the most powerful of all quakes; normal fault movements created, such as the San Andreas fault; hot spots on the ocean floors and those related effects. The East African rift system Spreading zone is seen as a land version of seafloor spreading zones.

Listed from the first plates found, sea floor spreading in the mid-Atlantic rises, which separate Africa/South America in the south to Europe/North Am in the north. Then the rest of the circular continuum was constructed around that.classical extending of the continuum until it was far, far more complete, tho more work is going on now. Each new plate found was another creative act/discovery and much more is yet to be found. The finding of living systems completely independent of the sun in the East Pacific Rise, yet another kind of discovery, also lies on the spheroidal geometry of plate tectonics. With more such spots to be found, undoubtedly very ancient ones as well.

22. Plate tectonics is complex systems theory, a descriptive solution of the N-body problem, is it not? No math, but visual descriptions, occasional measurements in 3-D which show how the geological processes work. We see that the COMP can create a predictive theory based upon descriptions which are NOT mathematical, yet real and useful. We model successfully complex systems, but have a great deal of trouble developing these systems using math, esp. biological systems. Where they do work, they show the structure/function relationships using programming. This also is probably another way to AI modeling of the human brain. What works for complex systems such as plate tectonics should logically, by analogy work for living systems and organs and genetics, once we have enough of the basics to model along the same way as in plate tectonics. Which, come to think of it was how the characteristics of the comparison process (work in progress) were found recognition with LTM, ordering (empirical introspection), etc., It should even work to model the complex system which is our solar system.

23. The traveling salesman problem has been solved by bees.
http://www.wired.com/2012/09/bumblebee-traveling-salesman/

Imitated by man and then computerized once the COMP had created a translation of what went on with the bees and how we can understand it in human language. Again, the translation of a bee creation/discovery into human terms/language, made possible by comparison processes. Again, trial and error as a basic part of creativity.

Bees did NOT solve this problem using math, any more than birds solve complex trajectories by math, either. But they did use a form of the COMP, because they have recognition, thus the comparison process of the hymenopteran analogous system. Ours can solve this problem, too, using the COMP. We translate the bees’ method into descriptive language. It’s roughly analogous to the mathematical series approach. The first few elements of the series are not as exact. Over time, it becomes a good solution. And again, the Least Energy Principle in action!! This is yet another example of how the COMP works and what it can do, which math can’t. Do you get it yet?

And the bees DO have maps AND language, because they have recognition, too. They can recognize hive mates versus enemies/not self. They know their hives and where those are. They can fly out and come back. These are LTM (Long Term Memory) and the COMP, just like birds know where their nests/territories are, just like they know who their mates, foes, food, and predators are, too.

http://www.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/en/news/features/feature5/
Karl Von Frisch’ pioneering work into seeing what went on inside the bees’ nervous systems (empirical introspection).

24. The complex medical differential diagnosis is just more of the same complex system descriptions, lying on a complex continuum, which relate in all known details the kinds of diseases of the various organ systems, and how to diagnose and treat them, tho far, far more complicated, too. See Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy article (in progress) for more details on the processes/sequences of medical creativity and discovery, which has been and will be done. This is the unifying process underlying the Comparison Process. This is its unlimited utility and value. It can produce a COMP solution to the N body problem.

Find your continua, describe them and understand, create and discover more. That’s a form of problem solving/creativity.

Depths Within Depths, the Nested Great Mysteries

By Herb Wiggins, Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014

“Raffiniert ist der Herrgott aber boshaft ist er nicht.”
“Subtle is the Lord, but he is not mean.”
— Albert Einstein

This is a field trip through some of the most interesting findings regarding a common occurrence, the rainbow and colours, and how that led to the most deeply meaningfully-possible discoveries in our lifetime, how the universe may have come about and from what it might have come from, and what underlies all of our universe.

It’s a field trip in space and time from now, back in time to Newton, then a bit forward in time to Mt. Wilson Observatory in California in the South San Francisco Bay area, then further back in time billions of years and across billions of light years, then even further back.

Everyone has seen a rainbow, and some have been lucky to see those rare, triple rainbows, where we see first the brightest arching band of ROYGBIV and then the next inverted band of colors, not as intense and then dimmer still, and the third band of color again in the usual red to violet sequence. The rainbow arising from the successive reflections inside millions of raindrops.

Most know how those colors were found, but let’s recount the first discovery of the spectrum way back in the 17th C. when Isaac Newton, not yet knighted, let a bright beam of sunlight shine through a prism he had, and which cast a broad beam of colored light, we know NOW as the visible light spectrum, onto a smooth, white surface on the wall. He was astonished to say the least, and began trying to figure out where it came from, that white sunlight should give a band of colors, only seen, as he realized it, in the rainbow. This compared well to the rainbow’s band of colors, and Newton made the creative insight by associating that the two came from the same process, which turned out to be the different bending of different frequencies of light through a refracting glass triangle of some length. He had found an astonishing thing, colors made up white sunlight. A subtle finding of the first mystery.

He furthered his work on the “Opticks” And things stayed there for some time, until a German chap named Fraunhofer began to look at the spectrum of light with a lot more depth and care. He found yet another subtle mystery.

Inside of the spectra of the sun lurked a series of black bands of unknown origin, which he carefully studied, ordered and labelled. These were hiding in the rainbow all along, you see. Eventually the lines were found to be the absorption of light looking like vertical bands, corresponding to certain electron levels in individual atoms, sort of a visual fingerprint which every element has of the same atomic number and distinctly different from all other elements. So by seeing each distinct, identifying series of lines, carefully analysis could show what elements were present. Indeed helium, named after Helios, the Greek sun god, was discovered on the sun before being found as an elemental gas on the earth. The one discovery predicted the other. Creativity and discovery, you see.

The spectra show us what kinds/amounts of elements there are throughout the entire universe, as long as we can get a spectrum of a star, nebula, or other body, or galaxy made. Another, the Second subtle mystery inside of the rainbow.

Now we go over to Mt. Wilson, which at one time was the largest and best telescope on earth. There a gardener, by the name of Milton Humason had begun working on the great telescope there, because he was very, very good at doing the patient, sustained night time work needed to get photograph images of those fuzzy, blurry white patches of light we now know as galaxies. At the time, few knew what they were, but decades of work by Humason and Hubble showed those bright galaxies were outside of our own, very large and bright barred spiral, the Milky Way.

But then something deeper and more amazing happened, once again.

Astronomers were able to estimate distances to these galaxies using a standard brightness scale, found by a man named Shapley. He had studied an unusual kind of variable star, like Mira, the “Wonderful” the ancients named it because it was so interesting. Mira changed its brightness markedly with time, brighter, then dark and then brighter again. Shapley found that the brightness of these stars, called Cepheid variables, was directly related to the period of time it took each to brighten and then dim. And as the distances to these stars could be determined with some accuracy, in time, because brightness fades in a very precise way with distance, knowing the period of a Cepheid variable star, made it possible to measure the distances to those stars, as well as to ANY galaxy in which such a bright variable star could be found.

Comparing Cepheids’ distance scales, Hubble and Humason’s data showed that the further away the galaxies were from our planet, the more the spectrum shifted to the red direction. And they found more and more shifting, the dimmer and further they were away. And how? By measuring the absorption spectra which showed those same lines on stars and galaxies. This was seen not only in our sun and the stars in our own galaxy, but in the Local Cluster of galaxies, in which our Milky Way is the second largest galaxy, but out as far as the telescopic eyes could see, now at 14 Billions light years (B LY) away and as far back in time as the same 14 B yrs. ago. And here was yet again, inside of the rainbow, inside of the spectra of galaxies, yet a THIRD subtle, deeply hidden mystery.

This was true regarding wherever they looked and every time they looked, the galaxies’ spectra showed that same red shift more and more, the further they were away. Comparing our sun’s base line spectral lines to those of the galaxies, was how this movement of the spectral dark lines were measured and found.

In time it was realized that the further distance a galaxy was as we looked out, the further back in time the galaxies were all moving away from us, not quite uniformly, but mostly. This was astonishing. The universe was expanding. The further away from us those galaxies were, the faster they were receding from us. A great mystery had once again been found, just from looking at a rainbow from the closest and most distant light from galaxies separated by the entire lifetime and size of the universe.

Such subtlety, such depth, such mysteries. Subtleties upon subtleties, could there be yet more? Ja, ja!!

But we are not done yet, to the surprise of us all. Because there is yet a Fourth and Fifth subtlety laying within the three above, nested quietly, there for perhaps 15 and more billions of years, too. It has been missed by the many and not been talked about at all, but yet it’s true, real and again, Ultro Misterioso. It’s been decades since Hubble and many others found and confirmed the expansion of the universe and now the story can be carried on even further.

Because we measure the red shift by comparing the absorption lines, and the absorption lines are ALL the same from the labs on earth to the sun, to the nearest stars to us and then across the kilolight years and megalight years, and 13 gigalight years of galaxies and stars. All of these absorption lines which can be seen are the same, from now, and way back until a short time after the universe first came into existence and in all of the intervening distances. The same. Not different, the same.

Because the same absorption lines indicate the existence of the same electron levels in the atoms, which means the SAME chemistry and the same atomic, nuclear structures are seen through all space and time. How subtle and mysterious is THAT? This is the Fourth depth and subtlety hiding in the spectral lines of everything there is.

It means because the chemistry is the same, it means that life as we know it can/could exist in all spaces and times, and in ALL the intervening spaces and times, so far as we have observed, through all 15 billions years of time and 15 B LY’s, too. And that life as we know it can have evolved an unlimited number of times all through all space and all time in the trillion estimated galaxies known and in the unimaginable numbers of stars in our vast universe.

Yet there is a FIFTH mystery which not only compounds the previous Four, but confirms the case. We know thru physics of relativity found by the man who said that Der Herrgott was subtle, that light is bent when it passes through a strong gravitational field. This was proved in the early 1920’s by starlight passing our own sun and is one of the most highly confirmed facts in existence.

Further, Einstein postulated that if on a line of sight a more distant galaxy’s light should shine past an intervening galaxy on the same line of sight, then the most distant galaxy’s light should be bent into a cross of 4 or more lights, or even arcs of lights. He said that the distances for that to occur were so great, it wasn’t likely to be found.

Yet, those have been found. Google Einstein crosses, rings and see the images of 100’s of them. This confirms the spectral data, because even at over 12 B LY’s distance and back in time the same 12 B years, those Einstein crosses and arcs have been found.

Mystery of mysteries!! Einstein’s laws and those of gravitational physics have been confirmed, yet again, as being the same, at the observable, most distant times and spaces in our universe, and all of intervening spaces/times right down to our doorsteps. There is no reason to believe otherwise.

Nested inside light are now 5 mysteries, and yet another even deeper mystery altogether, the Sixth depth, the Sixth Mystery of Mysteries.

Subtle are the Ways of the Lord!!

Because how does the universe KNOW, how can it be that in all spaces and times, the laws of the universe are observably very much the same? The answer is even a greater, deeper mystery, and related yet again to the deepest of all great mysteries, how did our universe arise and from what conditions?

Occam’s Razor is a least energy, comparison process. If there are a number of competing hypotheses explaining a phenomenon, then the simplest which does not create more than the fewest new hypotheses and yet still explains the data, is highly likely to be right.

A most probable answer is this, that underlying our universe and in touch with it at all points, lies an instantaneous universe which keeps the laws, ordered and the same in our universe. How else, but instantaneous processes acting through all spaces and times for 15 B LY’s and 15 B yrs.?

But it is unbelievable some might say. And here are the facts. Instantaneity is allowable in our universe being consistent with Quantum Physics, which has NEVER been found to be wrong, tho it’s difficult to understand and use, much of the time.

The Bell test shows it, which showed that Einstein was wrong and that “spooky action at a distance” Does occur and at the latest measurement instantaneously to 40,000 TIMES light speed, i.e. Cee. This is confirmed.

When Einstein was discussed in “Cosmos” by the remarkable Dr. Carl Sagan, one of our greatest science authors, he showed that Einstein created a major part of Relativity by asking a thought experiment about what happened if we rode on a light beam? No time passed on that light beam. As we speed up to light speed, relativity shows that time slows down, until we, at light speed, get on the photon, and all time stops for the photon. (Not that we CAN ride a photon. That horse is one we can’t ride.) The universe around the photon happens all at once, instantaneously. There is no time for the photon. It’s outside of time.

There are 4 other confirming examples of this instantaneity in my Cosmology article, all consistent with physics and all showing that instantaneity is real. It’s OK by Quantum Physics, too.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/15/cosmology-and-the-comparison-process-comp-explananda-5/                                                                                                                  Move cursor about 40% of the way down to this paragraph starting: ” And this is the most likely the simplest answer: The universe and all of its parts are the same ….”

The Casimir effect is a real, physical finding, which accounts for this by using the probability that virtual particles/photons are popping into space and out of space at all times, a sort of interaction with our space/time continuum and some sort of another kind of something, decidely different from what se know as normal space, maybe a bosonic “ylem”, because it’s not space or time at all, but something else, and doesn’t exist for us, except at a deeper level.

Is this not like Sagan’s book, “Contact” where hidden within pi, was a great mystery, too? But these Six mysteries are hidden inside of real, existing events, which seem foreshadowed by his ideas.

And what is the last great mystery, the Sixth? What is this not space/not time level? We don’t know. And it must therefore be an analogue to, Dare we say it, “subspace”, familiar to all Trekkie’s?

We can interact with this bosonic ylem, which exists outside of time and space, from which ours arose, in order find more out about it by particle physics’ highest energies, by Bose/Einstein condensates, by quantum tunneling in all of its specifics, and by other methods yet to be found. We can observe carefully the fine structure of these above events, and discover yet more, perhaps even how the Big Bang occurred, and where events go when they quantum tunnel, and if faster than light, or even time travel are possible. Or the even greater mysteries lying within the uttermost depths of these nested and nested and yet nested again mysteries? Other universes? No one knows.

Perhaps some reading this will find out for us. In time.

Language/Math, Description/Measurement, Least Energy Principle and AI

Language/Math, Description/Measurement, Least Energy Principle and AI

By Herb Wiggins, Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014

“Man is the measure of all things.”
–Protagoras 5th C. BC

Table of contents
1. Inability of Mathematics to describe language; inability to describe biological, taxonomies and medical language and processes..
2. The universe is NOT mathematical, but partly describable with math.
3. Flexibility of language in descriptions markedly superior to math; useful biological/medical examples
3a. The comparative forms of adjectives as incontrovertible PROOF of the presence of the COMP in all language/descriptions.
4. Measuring is ALL a Comparison Process (COMP): distance, weights, time, etc.
5. Descriptions mostly cannot be measured. It lacks numericity used in the sciences.
6. Visual tracking as a predictive COMP; Butterfly chaotic flight and tracking; missile control by math/geometry versus avian tracking systems; human tracking while driving is much the same.
7. Predicting the future and the Least Energy Principle (LEP); value of the rule of 72;
collapse of the USSR and the LEP;
8. Stock market collapse of 2000 and predictions/prophecies.
9. Understanding the structure/function relationship of the comparison process in the cortex of brain; why it’s very hard to understand complex systems esp. of the cortex;
10. Can mathematics, if it cannot describe language much at all, describe human cortical cell functions which arise from the cortex?
11. Can present day math learn how to speak language, or write creatively?
12. A COMP possible solution to the problem of re-creating by machines, human cortical creativity; increasing speed of human creativity by computer modeling.
13. How do programmers create new programs, new operation processes, etc.?
A new form of relational mathematics is needed. Math needs to grow a new form, more descriptive as are languages.
14. The COMP which creates language is more important than mere grammar.
15. The use of empirical introspection to analyze and model programmer creativity processes, as it has that of scientific creativity. Creating creativity on computers by studying how programmers do their work.
16. Empirical introspective study of programmers’ skills and how their cortex’ output creates new programming. Successfully nderstanding programmers’ creativity can leads to a creative computer and substantially speeds up programming progress. Creativing creativity by computers will then be directly applicable to understanding language, emotions, and so forth and creating true AI.

1. The real problem has been for years that language and mathematics are not consonant. We can say everything in language, even complex mathematics, and we can write a great deal in language and are NOT able to translate that into math. For instance, the entire taxonomy of living and extinct species of all life, all the kingdoms and phylae, cannot be translated into mathematics. A bit of the descriptions can, but very little of it, either. Images of the living species cannot either. This is a real problem. The math does not exist which can describe a living species, except in trivial measurements, either.

In the same way, the entire compendium of medicine, the texts of each specialty, the physical exam, physical findings, differential diagnosis, complex system of steps of testing to a reasonably secure diagnosis, and the treatment protocols cannot be mathematized. We cannot describe the intricacies of psychology and psychiatry, let alone the anatomy and physiology and structure/function relationships derived from neurology in math either. It’s impossible with math as it exists at present.

In the same way we cannot translate a dictionary into mathematics, nor a novel, nor a play, nor a movie. Yet we can say and speak about all of mathematics. Teachers do this every day all over the world. The descriptions using words can describe math, but math cannot describe very much which is verbal.

2. I recall hearing many years ago at university that the universe was mathematics. I just looked at him and asked, then mathematize anatomy, the differential diagnosis and the entire DSM3!! He got very quiet and muttered something rude, and also logically irrelevant to the obvious. The universe is not any more mathematical than it’s English, French, or Latin, and those languages esp. in the biological world describe it far, far better than math ever can. In the arts and religions of the world, we can defy anyone to translate the Bible, New and Old Testaments into math, or for that matter, the Koran or the Bhagavad Gita, or the Buddhist texts. It can’t be done. Or to translate an entire movie into mathematical terms, or an opera or symphony? Impossible!! Clearly.

There is an extreme limit to the abilities of math to take on physical descriptions, esp. images. A picture is worth 1K words. An image would take hugely more, a very great deal more, perhaps 10k’s more using math!!. And neither could the math identify what the objects were, either. Esp. not even famous places.

3. Verbal descriptions on the other hand are very, very flexible and useful, as anyone in biological fields, including medicine, know from working every day. Let’s describe a beetle, for example. We can tell about size, altho we can use measurement to describe in more precise terms. But we use colors, and patterns of colors for the overall description. There are 2 antennae, 6 legs, often swept back in the Scarabaeidae family..There is a hard, protective, chitinous covering over the wings called the elytra. There is the cephalon (head), the thorax and the abdomen. Each of these in many beetle families has its own shape, such as the Coccinelidae, the lady bug family, where all are conforming to the rounded shape, tho the 3 major body division still are there. We describe these often with a drawing or image, so when we see them we can recognize them. The entire taxonomy of all beetles, and indeed all species known has been described using words. measurement is useful, but incidental to it. These descriptions are in fact sorts of measurements, tho they are qualitative, not quantitative. yet there are highly useful in description of almost all living forms.

3a. The most convincing demonstration of the ubiquity and that the Comparison Process is at the core of language and its descriptions are the comparative adjectives and forms. Endless and unlimited, just like the COMP. Here is the proof. Good and bad; Good, better, best, the trinary forms of the dualities, the comparative adjectives. Nice, nicer, nicest. Lowest, lower, low, high, higher, highest. Here is a Continuum built of two continua!!. Very much so. Two together. Comparing, combining, ever additive, endless. Very nice; somewhat nice; very, very nice. Endless comparatives. Take each letter of the alphabet and start listing each of the easiest to think of. Above, almost, below; before, a bit before, just before; After, nearly after, just after. Cool, cooler, coolest; close, closer, closest. Dull, duller, dullest; very dull, most dull. Happy, happier, happiest, very happy, much happiness, more happiness, most happiness. Etc., etc., etc., etc., etc., etc., etc., right to the end of the alphabet and in any modern language, find the same. Universal, real, existing, and solidly evidenced AND confirmed by unlimited examples, which anyone can create, any time.

Again, the COMP, endless, unlimited, undeniable, incontrovertible, essential, ever present, at the very core of description and language. The Comparison Process creates language and is the engine of language creation and usage.

4. In measuring, we use the Comparison Process overtly and completely. If we are to measure distance, we compare that to a known standard, be it a ruler, tape measure, or in surveying the theodolite which measures against the known phenomenon that the further away something is, that the size of it decreases by the square of the distance. This can be very precisely measured and then compared to the known standards to establish quickly and easily the sizes and dimensions of large areas of land without dragging around long ropes, chains and other formerly used methods. Each of these cases shows that the measuring COMPARES to a fixed gradated standard to arrive at a unit measure.

When we measure weights they are measured most accurately using a balance scale which measures a highly graded tension which is standardized against (compared to) a known weight. We step on a scale it’s comparing our weight to what is already standardized. All weights are measured using comparison.

When we measure time, we do so comparing to the UTI in Greenwich, UK, where the time is known and broadcast around the world by radio so the actual time can be known in each of the time zones. For more precise measurement, we compare the second to the vibrations of a quartz piece in a watch, which is precisely known by counting the vibrations/second and constantly counting that to create an accurate time piece. For more precision, we use the transition times of microwave radiation which occur when electrons rise to a higher level when absorbing a radiation then release it when falling to a lower level. This occurs at a very precise rate and the earliest effective clocks were accurate to 1 part per 10 Billion. So time is measured compared to the electron transition times between 2 electron levels in a suitable atom, usually Cesium. Time again is measured by this comparison.

When we synchronize we use the comparison process Two times. First the clock is standardized to noon, where the sun is at it’s highest point. That’s why Noon is used because the day was always measured from noon to noon. For obvious reasons as overcast days, this method had to be modified. Thus we standardize to noon, even today, worldwide, where the center of each time zone is offset 1 hour every 15 degrees latitude for each time zone east or west of Greenwich. Then we look at the clock, usually with a second hand/digital readout and compare our watch to when the second had reaches 12, for instance, and set the watch to precisely compare to the standard clock time. Comparison all the way through.

When we read time we do so by comparing events to a standard time keeper. When we measure speeds we measure the distance divided by time, against two comparison processes to establish distance/time, giving speed in meters/second, or whatever units to be used. In every case, we compare the event being measured against fixed standards. Measuring is clearly, plainly a pure comparison process.

Now look, how is description any different from measuring except there is not the valuable numbering system? It’s no different in fact. So when we state something we are actually using a qualitative description to measure a known quantity without numbers. Whether it’s a color which corresponds (Comparson Process) to known frequencies, or brightness using a photometer to measure the number of incident photons, it’s all the same thing.

Descriptions can be compared to some measurements. But some descriptions cannot BE measured, for instance when we call something a leg, or tail, or head, or wing. Those do not carry numericity, which is so valuable in terms of measuring events in the sciences. And indeed, it’s very hard to introduce numericity into the normal language. It’s been the great breakthru which has created the science, where ingenious, creative (COMP) methods have been used to measure where we could not measure before. It’s the number use, numericity, which has made science so successful because it permits more precise description than possible with verbal descriptions alone. It also creates more predictive capabilities,

6. Consider tracking of an object. Our visual systems are esp. good at this and devote a good deal of the nervous system to closely yoking each eye precisely in line withe other, so we don’t get double vision. This double input allows us to estimate distance using a parallax method, depth perception). It also allows us to determine which directions flying or moving objects/events are going so we can estimate where the object will be in a few seconds (bird flight), minutes(cloud movement wind speed), or hours (movements of the sun, moon, or fixed stars thru the sky. Calendars.) Our visual systems can then predict where they are going.

Now this is an interesting thing when we think about butterflies, because they fly in such a very irregular, almost chaotic way. Most people have seen this but not figured out WHY does the butterfly do this? It’s very easy. Birds also have visual tracking systems, and they can predict which way an object is going to go, because of the tracking system in their brains. So they can intercept an insect flying in a straight line more or less. Yum!!. Butterflies are very much larger and cannot easily avoid a bird, esp. with their colored wings. But, if they fly chaotically, how can the bird brain track it? There is no regularity for the bird to recognize and then target the insect. They escape very easily and so cannot be easily caught. It’s a survival mechanism based upon the bird’s tracking system which has a very hard time following a chaotic butterfly wing’s irregual flight.

How this compares to missile interception and fire contol is much the same. Essentially it can all be understood in a series of comparison processes. First, there must be detection, usually by radar. The targetting mechanism figures out by comparing successive radar impulses where the target is moving in space, and how fast, by measuring the speed at which the radar pulse bounces off the target. If it’s moving to the left, or right, then the directional system figures this out by comparing the time and location in an internal system set up for that, usually a mathmatical program which relates to geometry, that is a comparison to a 3D system. Then it compares the differences between a series of carefully timed pulses to determine the speed, and when those are done, it has a “lock”. The system gives a series of beeps or light blinkings and the operator of the missile fires it. The missile homes in on the target using constant radar updates to figure its position and if the target’s evasive maneuvers are not fast enough nor enough, then it is hit and damaged or destroyed.

The bird does this, but we don’t know how. Clearly it has to have some kind of internal representation using a neural system which can model the changes over a few dozen milliseconds, arrive at an approximation to where the insect will be in a few more seconds and dive towards it, comparing each position to the ones previously to continue to update the approximate spot the bug will be in the near future, connect this into the wing beats for diving and speeds of approach and then grab the bug in its beak within some range of movement depending on how long the neck is, and how fast the beak can shut on the bug. We’ve all seen them do it. And their capacities for intercepting flying insects is remarkable. We cannot duplicate this system, because the birds are constantly changing their positions, directions and so forth and tho the bird might not always capture the bug, it often does. Yum!! Comparison processing through out. And the bird does NOT use mathematics to do it, but neural networks, whatever those are.

Once we undestand that this sort of thing, i.e., the comparison process, is going on to measure, move towards and intercept, then we can more easily figure out how to duplicate in some way, this process. In driving cars we do the same thing. We know that if we speed up too much we will get to the light before it changes to green, and so we learn an internal algorithm related to how fast we are going and how long it’ll take to get to the light at a certain speed after it changes to green. So we do the same thing as a bird. I knew a student who was so good at this he could pick out of the air a fly buzzing about. His comparison Processes were working very quickly and very fast. No math involved, but the superb tracking and predicting system his brain had using the Comparison process.

The Comparison Process cannot just predict speeds and directional velocities, but it can also predict to some extent what people are going to say, or do in set circumstances. It can also sight down time lines, extrapolate from current data, and make a prediction that some event is going to occur. This is in fact a kind of prophecy. For instance we knew, many of us, that the USSR/communism/state socialism was doomed. In Nixon’s autobiography he talked about meeting the Dalai Lama, who stated that the USSR was not acting according to the rules governing human greed and incentive and so must eventually fail for this reason alone.

7. The real reason the USSR failed was the Least Energy Principle. This is a comparison process method, purely. It measures outcomes, compares them and finds the one which uses the least cost, time and distance in accomplishing a certain goal. It’s the basis of efficient production, work and all known tasks. The entire universe uses it in terms of a photon’s paths which are the most direct and the least energy, even thru a gravitational field. The orbits of the planets are least energy. The paths which cows take back from the fields to the milking barns in the afternoons are also least energy. The conformations of series of soap bubbles are also. From the trivial to the mighty galactic clusters, all is Least Energy. The windings and bends of river courses are also least energy for flowing waters.

This principle is seen everywhere, and is a basic tool anyone using the Comparison Process must know about and utilize. Because if a method uses less time, and less resources, and less distance of travel to get a single, set goal done, for instance, mining coal and getting that to the customers, or creating electricity with the least amount of waste of production and transportation, that advantage will build up. Using the Rule of 72, which measures doubling times related to an interest rate divided into 72, if a process of manufacturing by one factory is 10% more efficient than his competitor, given a similar marketing condition (yet another comparison process), then in 7 years, his advantage will be double that of his competitor. In 14 years 4 fold, and in 20 years he will dominate if not own the market.

This was largely what went on in the USSR. There was terrific waste in food production, at all levels, from planting, quality of seed which determined % of sprouting, cultivation, plants, lack of harvesting machines and tractors and so forth. And they could not get the food to market because of bad roads, bad trucks and inefficient storage and labor problems, they had to Fight the “Battle of the harvest” every year” where even students and factory workers had to turn out to get the food harvested, stored and shipped. This took away efficient education and production and affected the entire USSR during harvest times. While US farmers were only 2% of the population, Soviet farmers were 30-40% of the population to grow about the same amount of food. Comparatively, as it’s an outcome statistic.

This problem occurred all over the USSR in all areas. It got so they could not drill oil wells much more than about 10K feet down, in several days, where the US firms would do the same down to 25K feet in only a day, thus giving the US a huge comparative advantage in efficiency of drilling, more drilling and deeper, too. As a result USSR oil production began peaking out in May 1984. The Russkies knew this would happen and built many large, cheap, simple, graphite moderated nuclear power reactors called the RBMK-1000 models, in groups of 2 to 4. This was Chernobyl, and SosNovy Bor as well, including others. Everyone knows what happened there, esp. when an estimated 30% of Soviet workers were drunk most days, which continues to the present.

Upon this basis of inefficiency it was predicted the USSR would collapse if we held strong. Reagan increased pressure on them using direct embargoes of computer and other strategic goods and then forced them into a massively costly arms build up they could not afford. In 1991, the USSR collapsed due to its inefficiencies, many of which have not been reduced even today. This was no surprise to most of us.

8. Before the stock market crash of 2000, the “Economist” of London had 2 front page cover articles about the USA’s stock market bubble, where prices were WAY in excess of reasonable, some with price/earnings ratios of 50-60 to one and some of mathematical infinity because of no dividends. I can recall those two front page cover article images. Further when sitting at a dinner meeting with some associates in March 2000 telling them the our stock markets would collapse and to be ready to get out quickly to cut losses. There were two responses. One wife said, “The stock market can’t collapse. All of our pension money is in stocks.” I looked at her and said, “How can I be overdrawn? I’ve still got checks!!” And another fat and rather overconfident person said, “No one can predict the future at all.” “The London Economist believes they can. and it’s good enough for me.” I said.

In April it collapsed, the Dow falling from $12+K to $7K and the NASDAQ from $2300 to about $700..Many suffered serious losses. None of those persons EVER acknowledged to me what had happened to the market. Another acquaintance of mine made $50K on the fall in prices. Further, “A prophet is without honor even in his own land.” The gift of prophecy of Cassandra, pious daughter of Priam of Troy, was well recognized, but the gods had cursed her. No one would believe her. This is the hidden power of the ancient Greek myths. Do you see how all of these things fit together, creatively using the Comparison Process?

Future predictions ARE possible using the Comparison Process. It’s the gift of prophecy. If you know enough and can wrap your concepts, creatively around events tightly enough to discern the velocity and direction, you know where the thing will land hard. LBJ had this gift. So did the seer, Winston Churchill as reported in C.P Snow’s The Variety of Men. This is another gift of the Comparison Process.

Understanding this, recall that Bayesian mathematical methods can create predictive values and are used widely in machine recognition programs using voice or image recognition. In this way, these programs are doing a simple, Comparison process. How we recognize voices and persons, the same way many other animals do, too. Recognition is a very important part of the COMP, as has been repeatedly shown before. Recognition of words, landmarks, the creation of maps, and so forth. The Comparison Process is Bayesian plus and resides in all human cortices, making recognition, creating creativity, creating and understanding language, math and many, many other tasks, constantly while we are awake, and often in dreams, too. But I have digressed in order to make more important points about the COMP.

9. A further problem is understanding the major functions of the cortical cell columns of human brain devoted to the Comparison Process. The next question is how does the neurophysiology of the 6 layers of the cell columns create the processes which result in the COMP? And that question is an insolvable one at present. Using the structure/function relationship and an analogy with E = MCsquared, it can be understood better. When Einstein wrote his famous equation relating matter/energy, it was in the 1910’s. Nuclear fission did not come along until the 1940’s and with fusion, about 6-7 years later. Now at last at Cardarache, France, the International Thermonuclear Exp. Reactor (ITER) will be coming on line well over breakeven within a few years. That’s 100 years of lag time before the Structure of the S/F relationship was solved on the left side compared to the right side.

Now, the Structure of the cortical cell columns creates the COMP. We know what that is. But what is the structure which does that, neurophysiologically? We don’t know, and there is an impenetrable block on this, too. It’s the N-body problem. We cannot figure out using current math/computation power what happens with N= or greater than 3 is, either. The equations go to such complexity/chaos, not even the best computers can easily solve them. Consider that the number of interacting neurons PLUS neurochemicals is in the 10K’s at least in the cortical columns. The number of genes interacting to create the human body is in the range of 25K, interacting with probably more than 25K MORE chemicals/biochemicals. When we cannot solve for N>3, how can that be done, when in fact each of those neurons might well be interacting via synapses with 1000’s of others?

So it will take a while to figure that out. The difficult we do today, the impossible takes a bit longer, to paraphrase the wag. It took us thousands of years to figure out what the cortex did, in a basic, fundamental way and will take us a lot longer to work out the unlimited workings of the Comparison Process in the cortex.
But the point is we have the mathematical Bayesian predictive values which can create basic machine recognition of voice, fingerprints, and even some simple images. But these statistical methods don’t give us language, but we have the functional origin of language, which has not heretofore been known. It’s the COMP, clearly, that repeating simple process which is the right side of the S/F equation. It will take a while before we can generate all the details of how the COMP creates a real, existing language, altho we have the E = MCsquared of that, the COMP. The same for personality disorders, let alone the emotional system, though some headway has been made recently. Now we need to solve the N-body problem for the neurophysiology/genetics/embryology of the brain cortical cell columns.

10. Let us treat description in the same way. Math cannot give us much in the way of translating all but the simplest language into numbers/equations. Describe the colors and sky of a beautiful Western sunset. Language can give us some idea. It can even give us with certain known landmarks, where that sunset took place, at Point Loma in San Diego or looking at the alpen glow in the Colorado Rockies in the Frazier River area. Math can create a digital summary of the image, as we use Jpegs all the time. But it cannot give a meaningful description of what is being seen using those numbers in the Jpeg. That’s qualitatively/quantitatively a wholly different task.

Consider this, and it’s the critical one. Can mathematics give us the way to create language? No. Can it at present give us a way to re-create creativity, modelling in some way how Einstein, Darwin and Wallace used the Comparison Process to create Relativity and evolutionary theory? No. Until it can, then true, complete AI cannot come about. Until math can create relational methods, comparison processes which re-create the complexities of language, which the Comparison Process does every day in our cortices, then math will not be able to handle meanings and much else. This limit to mathematics must limit its use in creating AI which can model realistically, human cortical functions.

Now consider measurement. We use rulers, tapes, etc. to measure lengths distances, clearly comparing the gradations on those tools to arrive at the values we get. When we measure colors of light, we can analyze the brightness with photometers and the saturation and amplitudes/frequencies of the colors. But that would take a very long time to do. Our visual cortices do that all the time with just a few 100’s ms. of work. When we compare images in our minds, while we are thinking about events in existence, such as Darwin’s finches, can the mathematics recognize what is going on? Would it have the judgement and sense to realize what this means, as did Darwin and then Wallace in his own way in Indonesia?

11. For the same reason that mathematics, even of the Bayesian kind cannot figure out language, tho it can detect targets, compute their trajectories and hit those targets, it’s a long way from that simpler task to understanding language enough to speak it, except in a stereotyped, pre-programmed, limited way. In order for that to happen there must be, very likely, a number of very important breakthroughs in pure and applied mathematics to make this happen.

12. Let’s consider an easier course of action. The Comparison process in our brains is a massive, simple process which creates creativity. It does this by means unknown to us. We CAN however describe what is happening by looking at the process using the COMP. We know there is stream of consciousness going on, where a lot of processors are doing the work, by associations and finding the relationships among events/words by the COMP. So if we can speed up this creativity, then we will be closer to creating a system which can model the Comparison Processes going on in the cortex.

How do we do this? The COMP is a self organizing, ordering system. It’s a big problem solving process operating in our cortex. It can look at a lot of comparisons, possibly using parallel processing, and come up with answers by this same creativity. The COMP can create a lot of ideas, but as one scientist said, to be good you have to have a lot of ideas. But good ideas are a dime a dozen. This implies some natural filtering is going on. The Least Energy Principle is a major one. The structure/function relationship is another. When progress is made in understanding language better, that can be translated into creativity, that is finding out what words/ideas/events have in common and finding bridging concepts, too. These creative recombinings of words/idea/images is the clue we need. When we create sentences which describe clearly what we have never seen before, that is creativity purely. The COMP does this all the time, tho. It’s uniquely creative.

What kinds of methods are used in programming to create recognition? What are the structure/function relationships of how those many programs compare to each other? This should give a common basis in which they are acting to create, roughly, the same process which can ID fingerprints, faces, or voice commands.

The Vocoder can convert an amplitude/frequency pattern of voice into an electrical signal, which can then be converted to microwave signal, be received by antennae, and then reverse translated into more electrical signals, shipped by fiber optics to the site nearest the receiving cell phone, which then receives the microwave signal, turning in back into sound by electromechanical vibrations which create the voice of the sender.

But this gives nothing useful about language, because the device does not understand at all the meanings and use of language. It does a greart job of transmitting with good clarity the signal and doing the job of translating microwave signals to sound and vice versa, but it’s empty of meaning.

What is the difference between this and the voice recognition systems being used? This computer can transliterate voice commands into written words, then act upon that word, producing the search which gives the answers to the person’s mobile phone. And then he can free his hands to do other things. However, meaning is still not there.

13. What would it take to create that meaning, that understanding of language? That’s why true AI has not yet been found. Math doesn’t yet understand the complex relationship among the words. Why we put words in the order they must be to create meaning. The words must relate to meaning. There must be relationships among those words to create meaning and the computer MUST understand/know what those are. When THAT can be done, and it can be done using the analyses using the COMP, then true AI using language can be created. That is the step missing, the step which the Comparison Process can give us. It’s the relationships among the words that give us the meaning of the word “can”. It’s NOT grammar of itself. The word string must make sense, it must have internal consistencies among the meanings of the words.

14. Take the sentence, “The Beans were in the Can.” This makes sense. “The can was in the beans” doesn’t make the same kind of sense. So it’s the sequence which determines meaning, too. This is the aspect of grammar, which is necessary, but NOT sufficient to create languiage, as has been shown before using the COMP. Knowing whether a word is a noun or adverb is not the point. It’s the complex relationship among the words which creates verbal logic, as well. And this is why AI has failed for now to create either meaningful sentences and to understand/interpret them, because the COMP was not invoked, which DOES give meaning by comparing words to each other. This gives meaning by context. Until the contextual sense can be performed by computers, by careful analysis modeling the COMP, then AI will not easily speak good English, or sensibly, either. AI CANnot understand the word, can.

15. Let us analyze using the COMP how the programmer thinks creatively. When that is done, using the COMP’s empirical introspection, then we will see how new programming methods are created. Programming is NOT science. It’s an art like creating a musical composition or creative verbal writing. It’s creative. There is no mathematical description of it possible at this time, because we do NOT have a mathematics of verbal relationships which creates meaning. However, we CAN study a number of creative programmers and learn what steps they take, using comparison processes which do that kind of creative work. and it will be a form of the Comparison Process. We can compare their work to each other and learn from those comparisons. Once that is known, computers can be programmed to create new creative computer programming methods, by trial and error, the usual way creativity proceeds. And once that can be done, progress in the field of programming will expand exponentially because each new method which is created, can be compared to the others and this will create more and more new programming methods to solve the problem of AI. We create the tools to create the tools which create the solutions.

This is what the Comparison Process model can give us. An empirical introspective approach to the living art of the cortical processes of creativity in the programmers. The computers don’t create programming progress, human brains’ cortical processors do. and if we understand that, then creating better and more methods to solve any problem will be much easier. and go much faster. Otherwise it’s all trial and error and it’s unlikely to go anywhere very soon, unless someone gets extraordinarily lucky. But winning the lottery is exceedingly unlikely in this case, altho many are willing to bet on it. As is said, playing the lottery is likely a voluntary tax on those who don’t know the laws of probability. We MUST play when the odds are for us, not against us.

As Einstein so wisely wrote, “An epistemological advance always proceeds progress in physics.” The same is true of AI. The Comparison Process is that epistemological advance in understanding the massive comparison processors in the human brain/mind interface. We don’t have to understand the complex, N-body problem of the brain’s neurophysiology, which creates the COMP. We HAVE the needed function already identified and it’s the COMP.

16. We only have to understand the Function of how programmers are creative and what skills they are using as any professional does when he works so much better and faster than others without those skills. We must learn more about programmers’ creativity. It’s a good bet a good many of those are already known. Those series of programming skills which make him a better, faster, more accurate programmer and creative besides. That is the key here. Understand the creativity of the programmers, and design that into a computer to create more computer driven/originating creativity. That by itself will give us AI far faster. There is no reason to believe otherwise. There is no theoretical reason, given the success of basic voice/image recognition programming methods to believe anything but that it can be done with work, trial and error, and an understanding of the basics. Otherwise, without the COMP it could take 100 years. And there would be little or no understanding of how it worked, either.

We know how Einstein, Wallace./Darwin, Edison, Archimedes and others created their new understandings. We need only to compare THOSE examples to those used by the programmers to find new solutions. When the COMP enhances creative progress by direct utilization by the programmers, then progress in creating computer/mathematical models of the human language will proceed very quickly because the same processes which create new creativity for computer programmers, will, create computer human language and language use and understanding. It’s recursive, self-reflexive and will likely work. One method of creating a COMP model using machines can create all the rest of AI. Create the tools which create the tools and the rest follows.

I wrote all of these creative articles simply by using the COMP, in less than 3 months’ time in a mid 60’s year old, who should not have much creativity at all. The COMP and its re-inforcing dopamine high can give that to many persons. And what could it do to boost that in a 30 year old, already creative computer programmer and analyst? The mind fairly boggles.

This is what the COMP portends. If we understand understanding, if we can create creativity, then there are far more and better answers.

The Emotional Continuum: Exploring Emotions

The Emotional Continuum: Exploring Emotions with the Comparison Process

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model

This article is meant to be a framework, not comprehensive nor complete, but upon which a more complete model can be constructed.

The key insight, although there are likely others, is the relationship between paranoid schizophrenia of the genetic kind and the related bipolar disorder, also of the same/similar gene. How can this be? And a good answer is likely that both are variant disorders of the same underlying kind. Psychosis is prolonged mania and in the manic phase of bipolar disorder, the psychosis is partial and not constant. That is, there is a considerable variability in the expression of the presumably dominantly inherited gene which may have some modifying effects from other gene(s). Or it may simply be highly variable in its expression, such as the disease of AODM 2, which may never be expressed, may be mildly expressed, or any of the degrees of expression from requiring insulin for control, to hypoglycemic agents, or only control by diet. This same variability is likely to be true of the genetics of schizophrenia/bipolar disorder. Further in identical twin studies if one twin gets schizophrenia, the odds of the other getting is about 50%, while the incidence of the condition is about 1/2% in the population, is still 100 times expected. But it shows the extreme variability of expression of the gene for paranoid schizophrenia.

The general features of schizophrenia are from the DSM4, by the APA. Generally one finds a series of characteristics in full blown psychosis of this type such as loose associations, inappropriate behaviors and speech, pressure of speech, severe delusions and delusional behaviors, commonly including paranoia, which is as unreasonable as most delusions; auditory hallucinations, and less frequently visual hallucinations; and a flat affect meaning the person has little or no emotional expression.

Posit now using the Comparison Process, which operates in the brain cortex at the top of the 100,000’s of cortical cell columns. Most of these are very much alike, regardless of where they are, with 6 layers, except for the motor cortex which has lost level 4 and has large Betz cells instead, the function of which is very likely to move muscles. In addition, when an EEG is done on the brain, it shows very much the same alpha, beta and theta activity, no matter what part of the brain is looked at. This indicates that the cortical cell columns are functioning very much the same no matter where they are, again consistent with the Comparison Process function being the common activity of the cortex.

Because dopamine blockers such as haloperidol and other major dopamine blocking medications may completely stop all delusional and psychotic manifestations within a few days, and even cure the disorder in many cases if preventative, ongoing meds are given, the brain problem of psychosis is very likely dopamine over stimulation from an endogenous, but so far unknown process. Dopamine over stimulation can be artificially created by giving PCP, amphetamines, cocaine, and occ. tetrahydrocannabinol intoxications, the so called “reefer madness”, esp. seen in concentrated THC extracts like hashish, etc. This shows yet other kinds of over stimulation which can results in the very similar mania/psychosis of schizophrenia.

With elevated levels of dopamine activity from excessive amounts of endogenous dopamine and or excessive receptor site sensitivity, we can see that the Comparison Processors of the cortex are simply overwhelmed by excessive stimulation. The normal processes of appropriate social behaviors disappear and wild and loud behaviors are seen. The normal frontal lobe COMP controls are off line. The COMP reads and follows the conscience, which controls and promotes social behaviors. When governing processes fail, psychosis can be seen. Pressure of speech is simply the excessive talking and vocalizations which occur, because the COMP social control is not working well.

Loose associations also mark the same kind of failure, because what the Comparison Process does is make comparisons among words, ideas, images, and so forth. The processors lose organized sequencing and we see whole streams of consciousness kind of word associations, all output of speech without concern for sense, reason, or even appropriateness, either. This looseness of associations is very much like Joyce’s “Ulysses”, where he writes out these stream of consciousness associations. These may be windows into the brain’s cortical Comparison Processes, where there is a lot of association ongoing all the time, but our attention control keeps most of it out of sight. Occasionally up pops something, and we state it if the COMP checker allows it. IN psychosis the COMP governing attention is virtually turned off and shut down, and what IS working isn’t working very well.

As usual an abnormality can give insights as to what is going on in any system, because it gives one more fact/idea/image which can be compared to all others, to find answers. This is true in genetic disorders, which have taught us a lot more about normal genetics and how metabolism works, etc. The same is true of any new finding of new diseases of any kind, which can also when compared to what we know, giving rise to better understanding of disease, abnormal processes. These can build up a compendium of conditions which are related, and we better understand what is going on, simply by the finding of an error, variant, or other form of most anything. In drug research a great deal has been learned using this same process. One compound can create an unexpected effect, and by learning more about it, one can learn a great deal more about a relevant subject.

One of the best examples of this was when a new anti-histamine was being tested in rats, they were shown to simply be heavily sedated by it. most activity stopped. When further tested it was found to be a powerful sedative in humans, in addition to its antihistamine effects. It was then developed to control major problems in behaviors with schizophrenics/manias as well as persons out of control. It was found to stop the condition’s wildnesses, allow control and in some cases even to cure the psychosis. That drug was Chlorpromazine, the first really powerful control drug of the widely used phenothiazine class of anti-psychotics. This is how serendipity can often have effects well outside of its intended purpose.

Sildenafil was originally tested to promote coronary vasodilation to improve blood flow in the drugs. The male patients were doing anything they could to get more of it, because it created potency like that of 20 year old. That drug, of course, was Viagra.

We learn by doing, by testing and comparing. It’s all the same process.
In the same way mania/psychosis can be seen to be variations of the same process. How many other variations are there? The Emotional continuum.

In psychosis delusions of grandeur, of suspiciousness and other very unreasonable beliefs are seen, indicating that the COMP is not working either. Generally, people say such people are acting crazy, claiming themselves to be important but often dead persons, and carrying on in generally an uncontrolled and senseless way. Hallucinations are common, usually of the words being heard, or voices telling them to do things. The dream generators which create speech during sleep are heard while awake. and the whole psychotic episode is much like a dream state, with a great deal of fantastical events going on. Normally, such cortical activities are controlled and suppressed while awake. But the COMP are not functioning and those effects are seen

The flat affect is often seen because most normal emotional activity is mediated by the cortex. And when it’s not working, there can be little or no social interaction, no meaningful interactions with persons in a psychotic states. Overall, the COMP and the cortex giving rise to it are not working very well at all. Psychosis is a cortical problem.

In mania, very much the same is seen, tho toned down somewhat, although some manic states are very much like full blown psychosis. In the Manic state, there is still some cortical cell column/COMP control being exerted, and often the person can be reasoned with, and their frontal lobe functions can inhibit the outrageous activities seen during flagrant psychosis. So mania may be a partial state of dopamine over stimulation.

The person LIKES the mania states. They feel good, there is dopamine being released and that can create good feelings. It can be addicting in that sense, and it can promote mania as well as psychosis because it creates this ecstatic feeling in both cases of mania and psychosis. This creates one more problem with therapy because the psychotic and manic patients are getting jolts of dopamine created good feelings and who wants to stop a high?

Next we see in bipolar disorders a clear cut biphasic cycling between the manic state, a more normal in between state, followed by the depressive state, which can be severe, occasionally resulting in suicide. A similar depression is also seen in psychotic states, often more easily seen when the state is not so flagrant, often when being suppressed by dopamine blockers, i.e. a major tranquilizer. One would therefore expect to see some depression and fluctuation in psychosis in these patients as well, tho the depression is not usually treated, because it can lead to a more flagrant psychotic flare up using anti-depressants. This is being caught between a rock and a hard place, psychologically.

Let’s just extend this somewhat. How is this psychotic berserk state much different than that of the fanaticism which can work itself up to kamikaze, or terrorist bombings, or the Jihad? Though one would agree those states, being not as psychotic are more able to be created and followed through with organized purposeful actions. They are more manageable, in that sense and are not as serious as a psychotic break. Other persons who can be worked up in to agitated, ecstatic states by a very influential speaker, such as Hitler, or some rather unscrupulous religions leaders, too. This is not much different either when a general addresses the troops to get them going into battle.

The next level down would be those who have what are called very bad tempers, they lose control and commit some very anti-social acts, such as harming others, and often themselves. Tho when they come under better control, they often have severe guilt and are very upset that they have behaved in that way. The comparison processes are working again. But, the point is, they can and do often lose control again. Again, this is a failure of the COMP, and it means that in some persons, circumstances can create a temporary madness, or mania in them. They just blow up, usually with a precipitating event that greatly upsets them such a lover/spousal’s argument and or breakup. Then it passes, but the conscious/conscience controls are weak and not doing their proper social control. Again the COMP has broken down in comparing their behaviors to social standards, and when those are being overexcited, not calming the person down, as is commonest in socially controlled persons.

The main issue in these is that there is a terrifically good feeling created during dopamine over stimulation. That “high” can very easily reinforce such a behaviors and make those recur. The manic states as reported by persons who have then, whether they be full blown or not, make them feel very, very good, almost god-like in powers and feelings. Invincible, underrating their wilder behaviors as being OK, wen they are overt violations of social norms. Anger which goes out of control may also do the same.

Now lets take the more usual states, excited tho they are, at the moderate part of this emotional continuum, and compare those to the psychotic states at the extreme end. of this spectrum. There is humor, which can be shown to be a COMP which for instance, makes a pun and people laugh./ They get that dopamine kick, too, and sometime they can laugh a good deal until they almost cry. What about that Eureka moment when Archimedes found the solution to the problem the king of Syracuse would have taken his life for, if he’d not found it? What of the feelings we get when we hear a great song, or other great music, such as Beethoven’s 9th? How about scenes of great beauty sch as the Vale of the Yosemite on a clear blue sky day with 12 high waterfalls flowing, 3 of them the greatest in the world? What of a good day with a good friend? What of love with a spouse of very close friend we are intimate with? What of the pleasure of philosophy which Aristotle wrote about?

These are all the more normal kinds of excitability. And they are also very likely dopamine induced, but with less extreme actions as they are often more socially controlled. The Tarab of Oum Kalthoum, that ecstatic state so appreciated by the Arab world. What of religions and good feelings, such as we get with conversion to a faith, or feeling that Oneness with the Atman, or during meditation? What of the persistent good feeling when being in a loving relationship for a very short time, sort fo a fling, or that longer one which can last a life time? Are these not the same, but controlled good feelings which in it’s extreme leads to mania?

What of the many kinds of love, eros, philias, agape, maternitas, and the affections we have for pets and even for places, which can lead to sentimentality and homesickness? Is this not Le Chanson again? What happens when that love is lost? Do we not feel sad, and grieve and perhaps even weep? How about loneliness when others are not around? Here we see clear cut dopamine withdrawal signs and symptoms. And cannot a long lived couple together most of their lives, when the one dies, the other passes on soon afterwards? It’s extreme, but it occurs more than many would believe. And we can see then that these are the more socially acceptable kinds of that same dopamine release, whether it be transient with a good joke, or with a long term loving relationship. Does the man not grieve for his fine hunting dog, or the woman for her long lived cat? Even to the point of spending considerable amounts of money on the pets, too, beyond all reason? What is this but love? And how is this different, except not being extreme as in psychosis? Is this not the other end of the spectrum of the madness of the jihad and the assassins, but it’s socially acceptable due to its moderation?

We have all felt these emotions, and we know they are real and common for those of us in the human race. Again, the variations of the them, the song without end mediated this time by dopamine and the socially appropriate maintenance and control of these emotions by the activity of the Comparison Process in our cortex.

This is Sadness and Joy; it’s love and hate/anger; it’s the feelings of love’s labour lost and then regained. Of the parting which is such sweet sorrow followed by the joyful and emotional reunion, as the Slavs and Italians have so well shown us. The joy rebounds to assuage the absence, which makes the heart grow fonder. Here are the human emotions in all their variant forms, in all their panoply, in all the myriad and rich variations of a common theme, by which they are controlled, used and made acceptable by the Comparison Process in our cortices.

Sexual pleasure is a of kind, but will not go into that well known field to avoid titillation. But how sexual feeling bonds and promote physical as well as emotional love is very well known.

A woman’s nipples are very sensitive, which they must be to suckle her infant. Nursing is not always pleasant, but the woman gets an oxytocin rush and also pleasure from it, so she will continue to feed her baby until ready to be weaned. This results in the survival of the human race and is essential physiology and behavior. Men also have the same kind of nipples and the pleasure from the same is well known. At times the stimulation can become so frequent that a man’s nipples will leak fluid indistinguishable from colostrum, which is an early form of breast milk.

What of a good concert and performances? What of the thrills of a sports match? One can go on. but let there be little doubt that all of these emotions we have in common are real and useful within the social norms. And the conscience and our ethics and the Comparison Process watch over them to maintain that safety and value.

The ego and self-confidence are probably part of the dopamine system, also. We’ve seen the swagger of the person with a substantial ego. They feel good about themselves, probably too good. This again is that D2 receptor site activation. They may have some real basis for feeling good, a job well done, knowing that one is good at what one does, and many other similar causes. But sometimes as in narcissism it’s simply a delusional belief they are better than others, which in psychoses can be seen as delusions of grandeur. So there is a whole range of related self esteem promoting behaviors, too. This shows how dopamine activity may support the ego, feeling good about oneself, leading to confidence and a lack of depression, too. It’s an antidepressant and may promote life and health, when seen in moderation.

Let us consider another point, that of photic stimulation. When a repeating regular bright light is shown into the eyes, open or closed, the alpha waves in the visual cortex begin to match the frequency of the flashing light. If the rate slows down or speeds up, the visual cortex matches it. Now let’s consider a loud rock band, with drums, and a regular beat to it. Consider what an EEG might find in the hearing center of the cortex. Would it match that heavy beat? Very likely. Would everyone at the concert hearing that beat match it cortically as evidence on an EEG? Probably. Does the same kind of rhythmic, repeating music with a band as used by Oum Kalthoum do the same thing, when she created the tarab? Is this what happens at a rock concert? The beats and the rhythms of the music synchronizes their nervous systems. The answer is very likely, yes, and creates a similar ecstasy as is seen with the tarab. A kind of resonance effect.

Do some kinds of poetry with its rhythms and beat do the same thing? Probably. And do lyrics which rhyme do the same thing to our speech centers? What happens at a concert when the strobe lights, the drum beats and the poetry with its rhythms all occur at the same time? It’s likely a resonance effect. All feel much the same at the same time. The tarab, the rock concert. Same but different, the variations of the song without end. See reference at end, which shows that this does occur.

What of fear? Fear is a perception of danger, loss, injury to self and related threats. Therefore as recognition, it’s also under the purview of the Comparison Process. It’s learned by experience of many different kinds of threats and injuries. When we recognize the immanence of such a threat, we feel fear and try to respond to it in a away to avoid it or so block/stop the source. Recognition of a threat is the key to the fear response and emotions it creates. And recognition is the COMP.

When there is fear, there is anxiety, even an overexcited state which can lead to very serious attacks on others, self injury, and so forth. It’s an agitated state from dopamine stimulation released by the fear recognition. Again, related to mania, anger and the fight or flight emotion, with bilateral adrenal discharge with adrenalin release. Again, a series of dopamine mediated agitation, anxiety, even temporary mania/insanity from fear. The cortex shuts down. We flee or fight.

Phobias are unreasonable fears. How these develop is usually due to a very shocking event which the person may or may not recall. From there afterwards being in near the phobia releaser, be it snakes, bees, persons, heights, in large crowds may provoke that outrageous emotion of fear. Again, the excitability of the D2 receptor seen in manias and other kinds of excitements. But many of these persons with phobias will respond badly even to an image of a snake, or to a snake well on the other side of protective walls/windows. Often they will not even come into a room where there is a book open to merely the picture of a snake, or even a drawing. Deconditioning of the phobia can often work. But it’s difficult because the Long Term Memory has been so highly reinforced by an event, that the phobia recreates the same shock and reinforces the phobia repeatedly, until it becomes very difficult to abolish, quite beyond the capacity of the individual with the phobia to escape from it. They require professional help to get over the phobia. More can be found in the coming work, “Brain Hard-wiring”.

This ties in again with the mechanism of sleep and serotonin release and receptor site activation. What causes the need for sleep? This is a controversial subject but a few simple observations may be insightful. When we don’t get enough sleep at night, we are tired, run down, not feeling well the next day. If we can take a nap, there is some surcease for this during the day. However, we soon reach that point where we feel tired and need to sleep too, no matter what. In extreme cases lack of sleep can lead to hallucinations, confusion and generally the inability to think properly, all indications of COMP dysfunction in the cortex. It becomes so overwhelming that eventually we must sleep.

This is not really surprising, considering that dopamine is a catecholamine related closely to epinephrine and norepinephrine, both powerful stimulants. It’s a psychic stimulant, too, and there should be little surprise that it can create mania/psychosis, too, when found in higher than usual amounts or when there is receptor site extra-sensitivity to it, or both.

But what is going on? It’s rather simple actually. Being awake and using dopamine to move around, because we know that parkinson’s results from too little dopamine to move properly. This means that movement, in other words the motor system, requires dopamine to function. This is also evidenced by the fact that hard, physical work with lots of activity is much more tiring than a sedentary job. A lot of physical work can make us extra tired and we want to sleep. Some moderate physical activity before sleep such as walking can actually stimulate better sleep by inducing more tiredness.

But what is the tiredness and why does sleep relieve it? Recall that the brain uses up about 20-25% of the body’s blood supply and energy. It’s a very active organ. It uses dopamine to make us feel good, for the emotions all day long and a very emotionally stressful day can also make us tired in the absence of a great deal of physical activity. It can be very emotionally wearing.

What happens is this. The brain’s dopamine comes mainly from the brainstem’s substantia nigra. There may be some other minor sites of it’s synthesis, but that’s mostly where it comes from. It’s broken down all day by enzymes which keep the dopamine from building up. Therefore it must be resupplied from the brain stem to the cortex, putamen and basal ganglia. If not, we get tired. We need to sleep to refresh dopamine levels. If we don’t, we get signs of hallucinations, irritability and other signs fo cortical dysfunction unless we do.

Therefore it’s clear we must sleep and one of the primary reasons we do is from dopamine loss below a certain level, because we simply use up much of it with waking activities. It’s probable that dopamine, like it’s closely related catecholmaines, adrenaline and norepinephrine, is an alerting substance in the brain and without it, we’d not stay awake very well. Consciousness might well be dopamine mediated and this makes sense. We must sleep to rebuild not just dopamine, but the other vital stores of neurochemicals. We also sleep at night because without sunlight it’s very hard to function. We sleep at night because animals can’t do much anyway, without good lighting.

We know that sleep and waking are mediated in the reticular activating system (RAS) of the brain stem. Damage that, the cortex will not wake up. Coma will ensue which cannot always be reversed. Lowering the amount to dopamine there will induce tiredness and a desire to sleep, too. It’s not a surprise that the substantia nigral cells which make dopamine are just next door to the RAS. Dopamine is therefore, thru these many signs and symptoms and anatomic facts, seen to be related to full wakefulness.

Now we know that melatonin will induce sleep and is in fact what causes birds to roost. Sun goes down, lighting declines, their avian brains create melatonin and they must sleep. In humans much the same thing happens when light dims at the end of daytime. That grogginess we have in the AM wake ups is simply the body metabolizing away the serotonin.

Dream states are closely related to sleeping. Melatonin which creates sleep is also associated with more vivid dreaming.

Here we have a very reasonable both mind/brain neurochemical/neurophysiological basis for dopamine being at the core of our emotional states, virtually all of them except of major depressions, which because they are treated best by the SSRI’s are probably at least in part due to the serotonin/melatonin aspects of sleep, and also related to migraines which are serotonin deficiencies, which will be treated in a later article. Thus it’s possible to relate a great deal of the Emotional Continuum to dopamine and human cortical neurophysiology, as well as to sleep, too.

Again, the Comparison Process in all its richness and variations. Simple yet complex, easy to understand, yet explanatory of great numbers of emotional variations from madness to love and to being madly in love. It can easily explain many long time mysteries. Fundamentally at the core of our creativity, our inspiration, our very feelings of self-worth and survival. The Comparison Process and dopamine.

Depression is yet another related clinical emotional disorder,, and may be due to, in part, chronically low dopamine levels associated with serotonin decreased activity/concentrations in brain. We know this because both the MAO (monoamine oxidase inhibitors), which elevate catecholamines of which dopamine is a major kind, can help depression, while the SSRI’s, Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors, are even more effective in improving depression. It seems rather likely, with the great number of kinds of depression, clinically, from situational, to low level light depression from living in high latitudes during winter, and agitated depression, post-partum depression, etc., that depression is a mixed bag of an emotional/mood disorder. Still, depression fits well into the Emotional continuum of dopamine and even seems to have a kind of depressive continuum of its own, due to at least 2 neurochemicals which likely mediate it.

One can go into the serotonin effects which create migraines, as well, where getting good sleep can substantially reduce many migraine attacks in both number and frequency. Tho dopamine has not yet been substantially implicated in the cause of migraines, the fact that a dopamine peripheral blocker, domperidone, which acts largely peripherally to block dopamine, also relieves 70% of migraines itself, plus largely eliminating the nausea, GI effects of migraines too, may implicate dopamine to some extent..and when both tryptans and domperidone are used together for acute migraine attacks, it seems to abolish the headaches substantially better than either tryptans or domperidone, alone.

We may ask then how the use of dietary, mental exercises such as meditation and so forth can work to elevate brain dopamine levels. If more tyrosine were added to the diet, it could conceivably improve depression by acting upon the brain’s synthesis of dopamine. We might find that the cyclic AMP-ase inhibitors, in the xanthine stimulants (caffeine, theobromine, theophylline) might also have a use here, too. In my family’s migraines, as well as in other cases, we noted 100 years ago that the taking of several cups of strong coffee made the headaches better, too. Caffergot is an ergot/caffeine treating combination tablet. This is probably no accident, either. Coffee IS a stimulant and will probably also elevate brain dopamine levels. Certainly we would not give a stimulant to a person in the acute phases of mania and psychosis?

It’s clear that jokes, pleasure and many other dopamine related feelings can lift depression at least partly, or indeed help as adjuncts to medications.

What of the narcissistic personality disorder, in which there is not a depression yet an over inflation of the ego, with feelings of unreasonable superiority to all others? How far from delusions of grandeur is this, yet another continuum? How from the other delusions of the narcissist is this, too? The unreasonable good feelings, re-inforced by constant positive comparisons of self with perceived inferiority of others? Again the COMP, ego-syntonic and feeling much too good about oneself, well into a delusional state. This narcissism is very often a concomitant of sociopathic disorders as well.

Indeed more purely delusional states not associated with psychotic signs, may yet be another aspect of dopamine over stimulation, just as seen in mania and psychoses. It’s been shown that in persons with a higher than normal amount of psychosis in their families, there are also a good deal more delusional beliefs, often manifested as religious and/or political extremism. This would surely go along with the political activism and extremisms of some pro-animal and pro-life groups, who will create much anti-social havoc to promote their causes, of whch the environmental liberation movement was a primary example, plus many who have supported them.

There is much more to be written on this subject, but as a framework for further elucidation, study and work, this is probably enough for now.

http://www.stanford.edu/group/brainwaves/2006/AuditoryDrivingRitualTech.pdf
Auditory driving evidence in the EEG