The Continua; Yin/Yang, Dualities; Creativity, and Prediction

By Herb Wiggins, Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014

“Every structure has its capabilities and its limits.”

“Observe the wisdom of the Ant.”
— Proverbs 6:6-8, 30:24-25

1. The Continua and dualities as the source of the same, opposites and complementary forms.
2. Kinds of the continua EM spectra, periodic table of elements and isotopes; listing of subatomic particles; biochemicals, IUPAC listings;
evolutionary Tree of Life
3. The Electromagnetic spectrum continuum, extending and creating the EM spectrum from the visible light range. Describing and measurement; Many examples of discovery/creativity along the continuum
4. Sound continuum.
5. Motion and speeds. from at rest to near light speed.
6. Introducing the Exponential Barriers (ExponBars) as part of natural laws; what these can mean as limits to measurements.
7. Sense of heat, as a source of Heat/energy continua; comparison process of detecting heat by the skin. ExponBar of absolute zero and highest heats approachable by matter. Continuum of Absolute Zero to Cee.
8. Touch, Hardness and pressure continuum. Moh’s Scale of comparison process; Pascal continuum of hardness; Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP).
9. Thesaurus as the best source of possible continua.
10. More ExponBars: particle physics, Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle; Bell’s test of measurement of spin in entangled particles/photons.
11. ExponBar of the Perfect line or circle measurement thought experiment
12. The continuum of time, from the Big Bang to present
13. The continuum of the brightness vs. number of galaxies and the Low Surface Brightness Galaxies, Disney/Malin.
14. The chemical continuum.
15. DeBroglie matter/wave graph.
16. Taste, discussion deferred.
17. Feynman diagrams as a special case of continua for describing particle interactions simply, another case of creativity.
18. The dialectic as a special case of creativity using the dualities along an continuum.
19. Matter density continuum, and the discontinuities.
20. Evolutionary Tree of Life
21. Plate tectonic model
22. Verbal continua describe in very fine details complex systems, arriving at an understanding of N-body solutions without using mathematics, a capability of COMP denied to mathematics.
23 Traveling salesman problem
24. The complex medical history, physical examination, differential diagnosis, and treatment protocol tables used in the practice of medicine as yet again a case of a complex system yielding to COMP methods. N-body solution using the COMP of language to do what math cannot.

1. The Continua are modern, updated, vastly extended forms of what in older times were considered Dualities, such as love and hate; up and down, light and dark, good and evil, and indeed any pair of synonyms/antonyms listed, many of which do not have numericity, tho it’s been extended to tall/short; lean and overweight, and the many, unlimited (Comparison Process), other ways each of these can be stated, almost endlessly.

2. In the sciences the electromagnetic spectrum of light is one of the commonest. most Visible of the continua. There are very many others, the continuum of the periodic table of the elements including all of the isotopes, well self-organized and clearly shown how they are all related ot each other in terms of nuclear/electronic structures, proton/neutron numbers, and so forth. There is the continuum of the smallest particles, the stable neutrinos, up to the unstable mesons and so forth, then to the stable protons, electrons and neutrons; thence up to atoms, to the compounds, inorganic, organic, and endless biochemicals of the polypeptide/protein chains, up to the continuum of the tree of life, upon which all known species are located, generally organized according to phyla if possible, up to the great apes, our closest cousins and to the latest series of modern humans, Neanderthal man, Cro-magnon, and modern humans.

3. The EM spectrum is a good one to start with, because it’s a continuum of light in all of its various forms. At first we had the visual sense, a system with black-shades of grey-white and dark/light, and all those related dualities in our languages and the many others. Colors were also seen, which have very ancient names as well. This is the continuum of light given to us by our visual system from the rods which give us black/white to the cones which give us the colors, ROYGBIV.

The study of optics goes way back to ancient times, as they had ground convex lenses they used to magnify smaller objects. But not much happened until Newton passed a white beam of sunlight thru a prism and saw the spectrum of light, and realized at once that it was the rainbow, which is the naturally occurring form. He made the discovery that the rainbow is created by diffraction of light by water droplets. But he understood it because he could create a rainbow at will by using a prism and sunlight. The frequencies/wavelengths are related via a couple of equations, E (energy) = H/ (Plank’s constant) times the frequency of light, small “v”. Wavelengths can be related to this, but the Wiki article will show all of that. This was the creative insight of Newton. He saw at once that both the rainbow and visible light spectrum were the same by the comparison process.

The EM spectrum/continuum begins at the lowest(duality) frequency end, the long wavelengths of alternating current fields, then up(duality) to radio waves, microwaves, infrared, the Red/Orange/Yellow/Green/BIV series of visible light, then Ultraviolet (UV, ultra being yet another relational duality), X-rays, gamma rays and finally, cosmic rays, the latter are largely iron atoms accelerated to near light speed, or Cee. This is a physical, real continuum, and the relationships of each frequency to the others can be read by looking at the frequencies, going from lower to higher, again yet another continuum. Every part is related to each other part by frequency, wavelength and energy. So it’s not only created by the comparison process, but just like a dictionary can be read by the COMP, because it’s been ordered by numericity. This is where measurement of light came in. Numbers in terms of frequencies were applied to ROYGBIV, which is what science does in order to more accurately describe/measure phenomena. And in measuring, this is done by comparing an arbitrary metric standard against that which is being measured.

But now look. Our eyes “measured” the light as well by comparing dark to light, which is the amount of photons coming in, few to large numbers and all the shades of grey in between. This is physiological description by our visual systems. And our cones measured light by creating colors which corresponded to frequencies, too, tho we didn’t seem to know the order of frequencies from lower to higher, either, before Newton. But yet, our eyes did. The higher frequencies of light interact with rhodopsin more energetically, than the lower, and this is how the red/green/blue base colors came about. We just didn’t know it, but our visual system, we see in retrospect, did.

Eventually, it was discovered that there was more to light than just visible light, tho how our eyes “tune” themselves to the brightest, relatively non-injurious frequencies and match those of our sun, is also apparent. We can see better when it’s brightest, because there are more photons to send information to our eyes. Therefore the most efficient way to “see” is by using the brightest part of the solar spectrum, I.E. the Yellow-greens, to which our cones are the most sensitive for seeing in color. This is no accident. It’s a least energy principle (LEP) approach. Using the COMP we can see this.

IR was found, radio waves found by detecting electric sparks which created waves which created slight currents in antennae, and the radio/TV/microwave systems we all use today were created in response, again by the COMP. By extending the EM spectrum to the higher frequencies, UV, X-Ray, gamma ray and cosmic rays using instruments, which basically translate light invisible to our eyes into forms by which we can detect it via our senses, then all of that continuum was found. Note that our senses were the starting place for this progress. In creating a continuum with the spectrum, then extending in a creative way that continuum and out popped the entire EM spectrum. It was ordered by the comparison process, measured by combining it with mathematics, and became a great deal more understood, organized, and predictable. All mediated by the COMP.

4. Let’s look at sound, which our ears pick up, too. We organize it in music by loudness which is the force of sound(Newtons/meter-squared) waves hitting our eardrums/second, which was first measured by our ears as quiet and loud sounds and all those in between. We also heard in our musical instruments the lower pitches and the higher pitches. and we organized our string and wind instruments, as well as percussion instruments in the same way. It’s very analogous to how the sciences organized sight, isn’t it? By a relational scale of soft and loud and low tones and higher tones, which is also the comparison process, too, And also the duality which it can create, too. It’s relational, not absolute. We can hear a set of intervals, compare them in terms of rhythm and pitch and we can ID the melody, “Mary had a Little Lamb”. and in the same way any other melody we “know”, that is we have in our musical Long Term Memory. It doesn’t matter what key the melody is in, it’s all related to the intervals of the notes. This is no different for speech, language, vision, and so forth. It’s all the same, the COMP, which re-Cognizes, I.E. re-KNOWS what it’s heard before. It’s the basic cognitive process, the COMP.

The series of pitches is the frequency of the tones, from middle C at 128 Hz to the C tones above and below, 256 and 64. All relational, all ordered, all knowable, all predictable so we can play a tune. But we don’t NEED to know the key the tune is played in, just the relationship of the notes to each other. We “read” the sheet music in just the same way we read words. We compare the sheet music notation to the keys on the piano, the frits on the guitar, the levers and holes on the wind instruments, etc, each of them corresponding to what we see on the sheet. It’s the same thing as reading, the comparison process, exactly, just altered for tonality and processed in our right and left hemispheres in the music/hearing centers.

From those notes we could hear, or not, depending upon deafness, we realized that some people could not hear tones others could by comparing people’s hearing. Some could not hear softer sounds, also. So it was asked, what if we play a higher note on the wind instrument? And through that realization was found more of the sound continuum, ultrasound whistles were made, and ultrasonic frequencies were discovered. It goes very, very high, each of it higher and higher frequencies, and each of it more and more energetic, too, just like light. Eventually, infrasonic tones were found, and the frequencies were lower than those audible. The same continuum, you see? The same line.

5. Let’s take motions and speeds. Essentially we “see” a movement across our line of sight by comparing each position to another at intervals in our eyes. The visual system smooths out those jumps so we see it as continuous. In the same way, repeated flashing of images on a screen too fast for our eyes to see each of them, sets up the illusion of movement. We call these motion pictures, now videos. The movement can be measured, also, again comparing distance the object travels compared to time. That is, it’s a ratio, a proportion, a comparison process.

Speeds can be seen as no speed, then slow and up to very, very fast. Again, teh slow and fast duality. and the continuum is built around it, faster than we can detect and slower. From being at rest, compared to a fixed spot, to very close to the speed of light as seen by our instruments, which describes the current continuum, which is also measurable. Objects can move so fast our eyes don’t see them. For this reason high speed photography was developed in order, instrumentally to allow our visual systems to detect very fast processes.

But we know that all speeds are relative, that is compared to a fixed spot. But there is no absolute resting spot. The ultimate speed is that of light speed, according to physics from several years ago. We approach that speed coming from a full stop but only with difficulty. The more energy we put into a mass or object to make it move faster, the more it takes to speed up to increase to light speed. Energy = 1/2 Mass times V (velocity).

6. Einstein showed that we could never reach light speed using normal acceleration. We move up an exponential barrier (ExponBar), and we can see if we were taking 1/2 of the distance to a spot, then 1/4, then 1/8, 1/6, etc., never get there. The actual equation relating this fact is in the Lorentz/Fitzgerald equations. At usual speed as a fraction of light, it’s the above. At very high speeds approaching a significant fraction of Cee, the equations are seen. E=1/2MV squ. is an approximation, not the reality. This is a highly confirmed fact. And this is what created the exponential barrier. Will return to the ExponBar soon.

Essentially our nervous systems can also create motions using muscle contractions. We can throw a ball, move a tennis racket to hit a ball, the same with a bat in cricket or baseball, or in Jai a’lai. We can run fast, or walk fast, or slowly or not at all. Thus the same rest, slow, fast duality which is seen, also creates the continuum although much slower than many processes, in which we live and act. This is what the motor strips/cerebellum and the rest of our motor systems do. Mediated so far in some way by the comparison process going on in the motor strips/cerebellum. But will not tackle that yet.

Touch is also a sense which we have, and there are many descriptive aspects to it, many dualities. We can feel if something is cold or hot, cool or warm, soft or hard, smooth or rough, wet or dry, etc., but will not review all of the human senses of touch which are multiplicit.

7. Taking cold and hot, the major duality of temperature, as it’s now known, we can detect these differences, feel a fever, or if something feels too cold. These are also comparison processes. We can describe these things, although within some major limits, also. How this related to the continuum of cold and hot is obvious. Eventually means were created to judge more accurately than our senses, to measure temperature. This si basically how much energy a substance holds. If it holds more, it’s hotter than if less. We can heat something up and make it hotter by many means, but the scale starts near, but never at Absolute zero, and then extends up to very high, well past plasma levels in our sun, to much higher. You see all of our adjectives used here are comparatives, too, not absolutes. Again, the comparison Process.

How does the skin know what temperature it is? By comparing itself at the skin’s resting temp to that is which being touched. If the skin is warm, anything warmer than the skin will feel warm. Anything cooler, will feel cooler. Anything scalding will burn and create pain, so that too is another scale, so far not well understood. The temperature scales of the skin are comparison processes. If the skin is very cool on a cold day, putting even a modestly warm object against the skin makes it feel very uncomfortably HOT!!. Putting something colder than 50 degrees against very warm skin on a hot day, can give a feeling of extreme cold. Temperature sensation uses the comparison process to determine relative temperature differences, thus hot/cold, warm/cool, etc. This is simply a fact.

This then has established a continuum, once more from near absolute zero, compared to water’s freezing and boiling points, the Comparison Process, we once more see without too much surprise by now because of its ubiquity. But approaching Absolute zero is very difficult. Because the closer we get to it, the more energy it takes to get there!!. This is in fact yet another exponential barrier, the ExponBar.It’s been very difficult to find the equation which should be like or match the Fitzgerald-Lorenz equation for approaching the speed of light. Thus temperature is bounded at the highest levels by the exponential barrier of trying to reach light speed, and at the lowest level, absolute zero, by a similar exponential barrier. Wouldn’t it be interesting if the equations were equivalent?

The highest possible temps we can find go thru the states of solid, liquid, gas, plasmas and then still higher yet. As these are the speeds of moving atoms/particles, it can be understood, that the velocity of particles cannot exceed the speed of light, and so the highest possible temperatures there have an exponential barrier, yet again. So with heat we have an ExponBar at the low end from Absolute zero to Cee, and yet another exponential barrier at teh high end. What does this mean? More later. These are yet two more ExponBars. Hmm. Are we going to keep on seeing these? Yes. And they are ubiquitous and unending, which sounds like what? The COMP.

8. Touch also extends to soft and hardness, as relative scales. If something is too hard it can hurt us, by causing pain. If soft we can feel the difference. Again, the duality. and once more again, the continuum. Moh’s scale was once used to measure the hardness of rocks. Geologists assigned certain hardnesses to talc, limestone, quartz, corundum (sapphire) and diamond (mined) in ascending order of hardness. Again, softer or harder, comparison process. Again a measurement against substances compared to each other. If the substance could scratch something else by comparison, then it was teh same or harder. And this was how the scale was determined. Once again, the COMP. Are we having a pattern recognition event again? Eventually the Pascal scale of pressure was set up, measuring from resting state, of no pressure, to the highest state possible, when diamonds could be scratched/fractured by pressure, and not just any diamond, but a Carbon-13 diamond, which at about 125 Billion Pascals (GPA) is the hardest substance known.

But we are not done yet. The force which determines hardness is that of electron repulsion between the interacting objects, say quartz and glass. Each will scratch the other most times. They are of the same hardness both being mostly SiO2. The scratching breaks the bonds of the solid SiO2, and thus scratching it. The Pascal is measured relative to certain standards, also, once again showing the comparison process in its fullest glory as the basis of all measurement.

Here we have another continuum, do we not? based upon the senses originally and so on and on. Mathematized and measuring, yet again from the dualities.arising from the sensations.

What is the hardness of the electron and proton? It’s the Pauli Exclusion Principle(PEP) which forbids two fermions from occupying the same space at the same time. The pressure which prevents us from passing our hand through steel is just that. But how hard is the proton? We know there is neutronium, created by ultra high gravitational fields where almost all protons and electrons are compressed into neutrons. Moving up that hardness line, we see white dwarf star matter. Moving down further is only one thing, the black hole, which cannot be easily examined. This is the hardness scale, the continuum as we now know it, lined full of discoveries and creativity events.

Surprisingly enough the PEP is exactly the source of almost all of our motor vehicle laws. Don’t try to violate the PEP, that is collide with anything!!. Simple, real, exact, basic. Again the creativity of the comparison process, simplifying and increasing our understanding of events.

But are there any other? Turn to a thesaurus and see how many are known. It’s the endlessness of the comparison process all over again, is it not?

How about some more Exponbars? First, in particle physics. Particle physicists have been using more and more energies and higher and higher velocities accelerated for higher and higher costs for the last 70 years in order to investigate matter, basically by speeding it up to near light speed, an ExponBar in and of itself. And every time they built a bigger and bigger machine, until the largest, the Hadron Collector was created at CERN on the French/Swiss border. That one cost more than all of the others, almost combined. In order to find the Higgs, it took a lot fo time and energy, roughly the cost of building the machine, $10 B and then the cost of the experiments themselves. They found and confirmed the figures at a single site, using a single team, then published. But the facts are, it needs to be at least twice confirmed by separate teams, at a separate sites to be reliable and certain.. Will $10B+ be spent again? it’s not likely, nor is it affordable. This is the ExponBar at work, again. Also called the law of diminishing returns.

Let’s take the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle(HUP), which states that we can determine the spin of an electron, but we cannot simultaneously determine its exact location, or vice versa. If we do try to do so, what do we get? BingO!, the ExponBar. The HUP is yet another form of the general class, ExponBar. This has not been understood or known before.

If we do Bell’s test to determine the speed of exchange of information between the 1st entangled particle/photon of a pair, it then determines that of the other, an instantaneous speed of information transfer between the two particles/photons. So we find at first that to be at least under the speed of light. So we try it again and it rises to several times Cee. We try it again, with more and more energy/cost/time and we find it 1000’s of times Cee. The latest experiment shows 40,000 times Cee, rising up the ExponBar again. Hmm. What is going on?

When to try to find that perfect line, or perfect circle, we again find the Exponential Barrier when we do that. Is it in fact a limit to our systems of measurement, or is it real? What Does the ExponBar signify? No matter what system we use, no matter how we do it, we will always find the ExponBar at the limits of our abilities to measure something by the comparison Process. No matter where, no matter when, no matter how. There is a limit to knowledge built into the system of which the speed of light, absolute zero temperature and the HUP were the first known. There are endless others, too.

12. Let’s go back to some more dualities/continua, such as time. Past and future. Life and death. Young and old. Early and later. Morning and evening. Day and night. Each of these terms relates to the others by the COMP, please note. This is no accident. This is the way measurement/descriptions work.

We measure time relative to the system in use in each culture. All of them have a single point which was year one. The establishment of Rome the city, the birth of Jeshua Ben Josef, the Jewish Calendar, the 1st year of Ramesses 2’s reign, the date of the Hegira. The date of the Nile indundation in Khemet (ancient Egypt), etc. Each of these time lines measures a series of repeating intervals using the lunar or solar method of comparison. Time like everything else described or measured is always measured relative to a set standard. Nothing is absolute, we can start anywhere and end anywhere, but we use utility and practical value and the least energy principle to set these up so they weill be stable.

At first time was the endless cycle of the years from the rising of Sirius heliacally, to the frist day of spring when the length of the day was equally sp[lit between day and night. Measuring against the fixed stars, or against a set number of days done by in the lunar calendar, but ALWAYS, always compared to some standard, a COMP. Eventually, we learned that time arose LOT longer before us than in front of us. The evidences ketp piling up, the long durations of erosion of the mountains and plains by weather, water and rivers. The breakdown of radioactive isotopes. The immense times necessary to explain the worldwide evidence of sedimentary rock layers, and so forth. The age of the earth was found to be first thousands, then millions and then billions of years old.

The continuum of time was being created as we understand it today. Just like all of the others initially based upon comparison processes relating words to each other, just as we still do today. “See you in the morning.”
Explained/defined by early in the day after sunrise and not night, either, but part of day.Again comparison process. Constant, measured against stable processes such as astronomical observations, clocks, atomic clocks and even the processes going on in pulsars.

Much creativity and discovery can be found inside of these continua. The Colors were found by newton’s prism. Radio waves by Tesla and Marconi. X-rays by Roentgen, and so forth. The sound continuum also had its discovers, as did that of the other continua, such as the Tree of Life, the listing of all the species of life on earth and how they all related to each other by the comparison Process. That too a continuum.

13. Another continuum which has recently been added to is that of the kinds of galaxies. A very thoughtful astronomer named Michael Disney plotted a graph of the brightness of the known galaxies against their number. He found no smooth tail off as would be expected. So he reasoned there must be huge numbers, 10’s of billions of hard to see low brightness(COMP) galaxies. Using CCD’s (charge coupled devices) David Malin of the Australian Astronomical Observatory, which can sense extremely low numbers of photons which normal photographic paper cannot detect, and long exposure times, he found them, the Low Surface Brightness Galaxies. Billions of them including a real monster, the 650,000 LY’s diameter Malin-1!! A wonderful discovery, again made by extending, creatively, a known continuum. Just as has been seen so many scores of times before.

14. So this provides yet another way to creativity, does it not? Find a continuum, and extend it. Trial and error. Sooner or later, we will make more discoveries based upon this simple process. For instance, when organic molecules are made, we can add all sorts of groups such as -OH, COOH, CH3, etc. to them. By simply listing the known molecules and adding onto them, we can create endless numbers of new compounds, can we not? As long as we know the rules for adding on groups. This is the Comparison process which creates word strings, the number line, the alphabet, etc. This is essentially the basis of the hugely cited Combinatorial Chemistry method, which in the early 1990’s created such a stir, so to say. It’s also the basis of the current revolution in pharmaceuticals, because at first it used to take months to make a few compounds, of say, new antibiotics. Now, using the method, 100K drugs can be synthesized in a short time in micro quantities and simultaneously tested for effectiveness. Including antibiotics. Since no bacteria known can be resistant to 100K antibiotics, this means, does it not, an effective end run around bacterial resistance?

15. In the DeBroglie matter/wave graph, listing at one end the photons and then moving up thru the electrons, the protons and so forth we can construct a matter wave line. At some point where the waves begin to become very hard to detect, that is the borderline between the quantum event level and the macroscopic level of existence, which we call normal. Such a duality between waves/matter characteristics can be set up to measure the transition between probabilistic behaviors/quantum effects dominate and deterministic mass action behaviors of chemistry, the deterministic, stoichiometric rules of chemistry. This is how the border zone can be more easily discovered. Set up the continua from where quantum effects prevail, such as quantum tunneling, to where they do not occur, or are much less likely to occur. Diagram it. make it real and visual.

16. Taste is a more complicated sense, but will be treated later.

17. When using the Feynman diagrams, we see that continua have been created, which can neatly show relationships far more easily than talking about them or doing the mathematical work to show it. Thus the system is more energy efficient than the math, and this was why Feynman’s diagrams superseded Schwinger’s ponderously slow, taking weeks of complicated, mathematical methods. Feynman’s solution was a creative genius at work, again, the comparison process. Don’t do the math, do the diagrams following simple rules. We see his genius at work, introspectively, using the COMP. The comparison process allows us to look inside the mind, empirically.

Look around, find some dualities, create a continuum around them and make some discoveries. Or make a graph of two characteristics against each other, create a continuum and make new discoveries. That’s another way creativity can be done.

18. Regarding the dialectic, this can also be understood as a kind of continuum arising from the dualities of the these/antithesis, which when combined create a synthesis. This explains the limited but real creativity of the dialectic, though it has largely been ignored from some time as being not as useful as first claimed. It’s a duality which can create a continuum of the form, A + opposite A > synthesis. There are complementary dualities such as male/female, right/wrong, versus true opposites, such as yes/no; good/evil; up/down; in/out, well check the thesauri for the rest.

19. The densities of matter are also a continuum. Compare the most dense, the black hole, to neutron star matter, then white dwarf compact matter, each with its alinear discontinuities due to the above, then to compressed matter, to solids, liquids, gases (vapours) to plasmas. Then up to vacuums, to space vacuum of about 1 hydrogen atom per cubic meter, then to space which contains a good deal of dark matter (neutrino gas) to lower densities, and from places in space where there is a marked Casimir effect to even lower effects. These latter cannot yet be quantitated to any great degree. This is where discovery and creativity come in. In time we will be able to find out where the neutrino gas is of higher density VS lower and how to quantitate it, too, just as the Casimir effect will differ in various areas of the universe due to gravitational/mass density changes near large galaxies and out in the great voids in space between the star clusters,seen by astronomical survyes. Again, the density continuum, with many, many discoveries/creativity events laying upon that great line, and many more to be found.

Let’s name at 3 major complex systems, the Tree of Life, the plate tectonic model, and the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (HRD) of the known star types.

20. The evolutionary Tree of Life was established by comparing all known living species, including viruses and organizing them as to classes wherein they shared major characteristics with others. For instance, the insects have 6 legs, and are found in the Arthropoda class where the 10 legged decapods such as shrimp and many 100’s of species or plankton and other forms are found. The spiders are in the Octapoda because they have 8 legs, the centipedes and millipedes because they have many many legs, and the chitinous segmented worms correspond to many of these, too, just a lot more legs.

Each of these are related to all of the others by the branching diagrams, simply by following it down to where the tree branched, such as when human species, Homo sapiens(socialis) branched from Cro-magnon, same H. sapiens; and where Homo neanderthalensis (Neanderthal man) branched off the line. Where Homo erectus (java Man and Beijing man separated out. To the new finds of H. floresiensis on the island of Flores, Indonesia, to the latest Human form, H. denisovensis found in central Asia. There are a number of branches of early man yet to be found, again, lying on yet again, fertile continuum of human evolution.

We cannot extend this family line into the future, except by pointing out all of the variations of the wolf, which has been domesticated into the 100’s of known dog breeds, as a VERY prominent example of evolution in action, which is undeniable. In this case man was the evolver, not a more natural cause. Same is true of all domesticated varieties few plants, now numbering in the 100,000’s. Again, discovery/creation of new variations of plants/animals is yet again, the creativity we necessarily find along a continuum, in the specific case of the tree of life. All the myriad ways, from the simple to the complex, the comparison process at work in creating new forms of life as well as cataloging, organizing and understanding what has been found. Le Chanson Sans Fin, universel.

21. Looking at the plate tectonic model will reveal something very unexpected and useful. Essentially, using the basic concept of the geological plate, which can be seen here: the geologists created a working model of how geological processes act and where they occur. This is in fact a sort of round comparison process continuum. All plates are related to other plates. No plate is absolute and their complex movements and descriptions are based upon a few simple rules/processes. Again, a visual, diagrammatic, 3D model. Where a few lines are worth 1000 words and umpteen pages of math, if at all.
The simplified version.

The geological processes are sea floor spreading due to upwelling in oceanic ridges; subduction zones where seafloor is moving down under continental margins, creating 1. volcanic zones (the Cascade mountains, N. Am) from subduction materials melting and rising up, and 2. subduction zone earthquakes the most powerful of all quakes; normal fault movements created, such as the San Andreas fault; hot spots on the ocean floors and those related effects. The East African rift system Spreading zone is seen as a land version of seafloor spreading zones.

Listed from the first plates found, sea floor spreading in the mid-Atlantic rises, which separate Africa/South America in the south to Europe/North Am in the north. Then the rest of the circular continuum was constructed around that.classical extending of the continuum until it was far, far more complete, tho more work is going on now. Each new plate found was another creative act/discovery and much more is yet to be found. The finding of living systems completely independent of the sun in the East Pacific Rise, yet another kind of discovery, also lies on the spheroidal geometry of plate tectonics. With more such spots to be found, undoubtedly very ancient ones as well.

22. Plate tectonics is complex systems theory, a descriptive solution of the N-body problem, is it not? No math, but visual descriptions, occasional measurements in 3-D which show how the geological processes work. We see that the COMP can create a predictive theory based upon descriptions which are NOT mathematical, yet real and useful. We model successfully complex systems, but have a great deal of trouble developing these systems using math, esp. biological systems. Where they do work, they show the structure/function relationships using programming. This also is probably another way to AI modeling of the human brain. What works for complex systems such as plate tectonics should logically, by analogy work for living systems and organs and genetics, once we have enough of the basics to model along the same way as in plate tectonics. Which, come to think of it was how the characteristics of the comparison process (work in progress) were found recognition with LTM, ordering (empirical introspection), etc., It should even work to model the complex system which is our solar system.

23. The traveling salesman problem has been solved by bees.

Imitated by man and then computerized once the COMP had created a translation of what went on with the bees and how we can understand it in human language. Again, the translation of a bee creation/discovery into human terms/language, made possible by comparison processes. Again, trial and error as a basic part of creativity.

Bees did NOT solve this problem using math, any more than birds solve complex trajectories by math, either. But they did use a form of the COMP, because they have recognition, thus the comparison process of the hymenopteran analogous system. Ours can solve this problem, too, using the COMP. We translate the bees’ method into descriptive language. It’s roughly analogous to the mathematical series approach. The first few elements of the series are not as exact. Over time, it becomes a good solution. And again, the Least Energy Principle in action!! This is yet another example of how the COMP works and what it can do, which math can’t. Do you get it yet?

And the bees DO have maps AND language, because they have recognition, too. They can recognize hive mates versus enemies/not self. They know their hives and where those are. They can fly out and come back. These are LTM (Long Term Memory) and the COMP, just like birds know where their nests/territories are, just like they know who their mates, foes, food, and predators are, too.
Karl Von Frisch’ pioneering work into seeing what went on inside the bees’ nervous systems (empirical introspection).

24. The complex medical differential diagnosis is just more of the same complex system descriptions, lying on a complex continuum, which relate in all known details the kinds of diseases of the various organ systems, and how to diagnose and treat them, tho far, far more complicated, too. See Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy article (in progress) for more details on the processes/sequences of medical creativity and discovery, which has been and will be done. This is the unifying process underlying the Comparison Process. This is its unlimited utility and value. It can produce a COMP solution to the N body problem.

Find your continua, describe them and understand, create and discover more. That’s a form of problem solving/creativity.

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