The Fox & The Hedgehog

The Fox and the Hedgehog**

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014.

“User Ma’at Ra” ( Power is the truth of Ra. ) –King name of Ramesses 2, The Great. 1300- 1210 BC, Khemet (The Black Land, Egypt/Misr)

” Knowledge can be power.” –John Locke

” Least energy rules……”

** “The fox and the hedgehog” from “Preface to the Grammar of Biology” –Erwin Chargaff, PhD,, biochemist, “Science”, 14 May 1971.

The “Grammar of Biology” is an astonishingly wise & insightful article by Erwin Chargaff, the great biochemist. He discovered Chargaff’s rules, one of which was that in DNA the base pairs, cytosine amounts exactly matched the guanosine, and the adenine the same as the thymine. He wrote about the fox and the hedgehog. “The Fox knows a lot of things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing”. From the poet, Archilos of Paros.

There is further importance and practical value to the LEP(least energy principle) in terms of living systems, our societies and economies. For a very long time evolution has been thought of as being driven by population pressures of Malthus and the competitive “survival of the fittest” dicta. But what, specifically, are those? Some point out that being fit and in good health helps survival. But what exactly are the basic specifics of those? They state competition but with few instances, and indeed the whole of social Darwinism, which sounded good, but never worked out, fell into disrepute for this dearth of clearly definable, measurable specifics. & so it has remained, largely, since 1859 when evolution was first introduced.

Using the LEP, however, can greatly improve our understanding of what’s going on in the most basic processes of evolution. And like most comparison processes results in significant increases in understanding of the details and specifies, which this method can give us, Plus the practical consequences & outcomes of this kind of new model of what drives evolution. First of all, there are metabolic, structural, and genetic processes in life. There are the citric acid cycles, the glycolytic cycle of energy production and the highly oxidative processes going on in those symbionts of bacterial life within us, the mitochondria. In EACH of these cases, the specific instances of metabolic cycles can be explored in terms of their thermodynamic efficiencies. By comparing these among the living systems, we can determine which are more efficient and which are more likely to yield what is, as Einstein said, the most powerful of all forces in the universe, compound interest.

Recently, it has been found that some blue green algae’s chloroplasts can create 20% more starches than chloroplasts in our usual domesticated plants can. By this comparison, thus LEP, we know that here is a process which can be improved, and thus every 3+ years, double output. And if those chloroplasts are transplanted successfully and will integrate neatly within the metabolic specifics of our domesticated, food bearing plants, then food production can be effective increased by an extra 100% of production in most cases in just over 3 years.

This shows the power & wisdom of Dr. Einstein’s compound interest and the REAL driving force behind evolution. It’s not “competition” nor “survival of the fittest” so much as the more highly specific and useful LEP. For each metabolic cycle, each biochemical process in the cells, as has been shown, there are unlimited ways of improving those. & each time an improvement is made and significant advantages given, the species become more stable and more complete. So thus when we create ever more efficient systems, which do a very great deal with the least possible energy, we create metabolic fitness and durability which cannot be effectively nor easily undone. Look to the stability of the proton, for example. THAT is our goal to achieve.

Behaviors of food gathering and growing crops, social interactions and reproduction, physically fit and efficient body structures, as well as training of the next generation efficiently and well, to create a self-sustaining growing system, are some of the logical ideals at this point in our understanding. A society which cannot or will not transmit its wisdom of surviving to the next generation, cannot or will not train more than adequately in the technologies, the doctors, the computer and technical experts in the fields of design and construction, electronics, power systems, water and transportation systems, and so forth, will not survive. If a society destroys its intelligentsia, it’s very quickly doomed. If it HAS no intelligentsia, it cannot survive, but is likely to be absorbed by outsiders.

If it is not moral, and ethics can be very easily seen to be a series of clear, survival strategies, then it will die or be conquered. And all of these elements must be carefully integrated to create the highest possible efficiency, guided by the LEP and thus be the most stable. Those species can survive better, being the most capable of resisting those forces locally and in our planet and off, which can destroy us. Or further weaken us to the point where we can be destroyed by a 1-2 punch, or 1 thru 3 punches as have probably happened during mass extinctions in the past. Thus we must get off planet to survive and spread ourselves widely around this universe in living communities of high efficiency, in all the details. The LEP of the universe is ubiquitous. This should be our best blueprint and goal and course of action. LEP cannot long be ignored. We must implement and find specifically ways of both biological enhancements of our metabolic efficiencies, all carefully integrated into our DNA genomes. & we must find the best morality/ethics which produces the most efficient and thus stablest and survivable societies for progressing out of our ignorance and incompleteness of understanding.

Why does the human brain work so well and how did it comes about? That’s very clear using the comparison process, the Least Energy Principle(LEP). Because thinking and manipulating logically, mathematically and using complex systems gives a HUGE advantage in controlling the environment around us. We can build better shelters, do agriculture and thus build up more food and storage of foods so we are less bound by fluctuating climatic conditions such as droughts, floods, pests of food plants & animals, and so forth. The human brain in its current form evolved because it created ideas which could be put into play to model and thus control more of what went on around us. This larger advantage gave greater reproduction and growth to those groups who used those methods, their populations rose and they took over from the less intelligent and not so well organized societies, who weren’t able to use such methods.

It was both biological and social, cultural developments interacting which created the evolutionary advantages of compound interest, PLUS those societies, which most notably were able to create stable, growing agricultural systems, leading to large population growth and the cities. The increased food production compound interest outputs, gave rise to population growth. THAT is why the human brain’s physiological advantages of modern man came about. And combined with social advances made the most of those internal biological evolutionary changes, which kept feeding back to create new technologies, and then created more internal biological, genetic advantages, growing exponentially. This took over and dominated ecological niches of other creatures, as well, resulting in more land for humans to expand upon. Sadly, a serious side of effect of this has been environmental degradations and species’ massive destruction, again which will act in the long run to cut growth. Understanding these facts carefully by using the LEP will show us ways to get round these problems and bring our populations into balance with our ecologies & technologies. Otherwise, it’s likely to collapse, and not later, but sooner.

Thus it’s behavioral & structural efficiencies driven by the LEP which must guide us, as they have guided the survival of most all other species on earth to long lives, longevity of survival over the eons. Evolution is driven in most all aspects by LEP and that’s how to better understand evolution, cultural development, and behaviors and emotional systems, etc. It’s how our brains came about, because they can handle real existing events as models in brain, which are far, far easier to think about, than to manipulate events outside out brains, every single time. Thinking about doing something, becomes DOING something over time, as the models get more and more efficient. But we must NEVER forget that mind is the merest shadow of events in existence, from which it’s derived. The idea/word NEVER is superior to the force, logic and power of events in existence, against which it must most always be measured, described, and above all, compared.

The immense stability of some species is explained by the LEP. Their longevity and stabilities of a genome, and why species live so long must now be addressed. Limulus (the horseshoe crab, 450 mega years), stromatolites(algal clumps of sand/calcium, 3-3.5 gigayears), Lingula, a mollusc (480 megayears); and the Sequoia tree species (100-120 megayears), are also likely LEP. They live long and are stable by a simple mechanism which is genetic. IF a species is highly efficient in most all ways based upon the genes, then if that species varies genetically even slightly from that maximal efficiency to a lesser, the lesser will be selected against, thus returning the efficiency of the species genome and population to the maximal amount. Thus such long lived species are stable, by the LEP, which creates that very efficiency resulting in their stabilities.

Further, by inputting this recognition, If we humans wish to live long as a stable species, we MUSt be the most efficient metabolically, genetically & structurally and behaviorally around. Then nothing can compete with us successfully and we will have entered the longevity marathon with a huge advantage. This is what the long lived stromatolites, dating back to 3-3.5 gigayears tell us. They survived because they are efficient. Even the horse, which is 12 megayears old as a genus, has outlived us, by using extremely efficient genetic, metabolic, structural and behavioral adaptations to its environments. The more efficient we are, the more likely we will survive for billions of years. The more efficient our mental systems for understanding and our models are, the greater longevity we will be granted in a universe driven by the LEP. This is the key to understanding longevity of a species. The total LEP outcomes which create stabilities which can last for eons.

Further, it’s clear that human emotions and structure, and thus genetics has been stable for 1000’s of years. The article shows this:

But what happens if we begin to make changes in our human genomes? It’s very clear that each gene interacts with one or many others. If even one gene is changed, this could have a long term systemic, even lethal effects. For instance, the so called “side effects” of medications are NOT side effects at all, but called that to ignore the complex system effects of medicines. Each new drug has not just a single effect, but many effects, although our linear thinking and methods try to limit and ignore those by naming them, side effects. Drug side effects are NOT, “side effects” but rather complex system effects. In the same way, making genetic changes in humans without understanding the fullest implications of those systemic effects, which will reach in many cases well beyond a single genetic change.

Our genomes are stable, because they are efficient, by the LEP. If we make changes in the genomes without regard to those efficiencies and render the system less efficient by any single or more genetic changes, then we risk damaging the stability and efficiency of the entire genome. It’s well known in the genetics of domesticated plants and animals, that when we selectively bred for characteristics, we start seeing a significantly greater mutation rate than normal compared to wild genomes. Both dogs and navel oranges show this. We humans, if go we mucking about carelessly in our genomes, before we comprehend more fully how a single change genetically, can create many other changes, not necessarily obvious at first, but in the long run important to survive, can destabilize our own genomes as well. This will create less survivability and increased mutation rates which can be very, very dangerous and damaging. Therefore, we must be observant, carefully investigate the fullest systemic effects, not side effects, of each genetic change we plan on making BEFORE instituting those. Otherwise, there could be very serious problems down the line for those who are genetically changed, without considering most all of the major complex system effects. These facts MUST be taken into account before any such changes are made.

The facts that our emotions are stable is part and parcel of this system approach. Even a minor genetic change could change our emotional states and how we react. the moral and social implications of this could be protean. Changing human emotional outputs could render segments of our societies unstable and even dangerous. It could cause serious breakdowns socially as well as psychologically, because the old rules would no longer apply. And the new forms of human emotions could have serious long term harmful consequences in interpersonal interactions as well as social stabilities. We cannot afford to destabilize our emotional systems, which would likely result in destabilizing our societies as well. This is a very real concern based upon solid evidences. We MUST be very careful before we institute genetic changes in our species of ANY kind, because those could have long term deleterious systemic consequences of major import.

The many psychoactive drugs available are now doing this, exactly. altering the stability of the mind and creating a great many new and previously not seen personality disorders, including psychoses. Those will necessarily destabilize society, create increased percentages of aberrant behaviors and resuls in new crimes against humanity of all kinds. Indeed, there is now being used the category of “drug induced personality disorder” which cannot be placed into the usual DSM-5 categories. This problem will tend to worsen as drug usage becomes ever more widespread. thus resulting in social instabilities and heightened insecurities plus deaths, crimes, and inefficiencies which will damage, perhaps fatally a society’s economic survival, as well as genetic and cultural survivals. These are real problems to be taken seriously.

The next ideas are those of economic efficiency & stability, specifically. For some time it’s been known that there is an “invisible hand” first noted by Adam Smith, which seemed to be directing economic, industrial, development and continues today in the midst of our current economies in the service industries, manufacturing, and so forth. The efficiencies of U.S. agriculture, where less than 1.5% of the population grows food for the rest, Plus massive food exports is well established & legendary. Compared to most nations which must import much of their food and rarely have fewer than 20-30% of their people engaged in growing food is telling. And this, very clearly is the LEP as the major driver, as well. Because as been shown before, efficiency counts. Solid, efficient food production will tend to stabilize any society which uses those methods. It will also promote growth of population to such a size that it cannot easily be attacked, nor defeated.

Thus the major aspects of economic growth, which are driven by the LEP, create a massive compound interest growth, which we are seeing most clearly in the electronics and computer industries. Not only are several percent added every year, but that growth is compounded every year, becoming ever higher. Efficiency results in growth in most cases, as Apple, Inc., has shown the world, neatly. We must begin to understand our economics in terms of LEP and thermodynamics to best understand what’s going on in this complex interaction of materials, transforms, added value and output of the complex system, we call an economy.

To discuss these LEP further, consider paper & papyrus, with ink & pens. These are far, far better, faster, vastly more able to be made cheaper, though paper is not as durable. This immense LEP advantage over cuneiform tablets which were bulkier, required 100’s of volumes more storage space & heavier, & took more energy to move around, compared to papyrus & then paper with vastly higher information densities per area/volume/weight measures. & thus all around a far, far more efficient method.

That drove out cuneiform tablets by compound interest advantage very quickly, not surviving the 1200-1000 BC period where Middle East cultures all collapsed during the transition to a full Iron Age. Bronze died out, as copper & tin were far scarcer than iron resources, though harder to work, could create vastly more weapons & harder tools, too, esp. with the advent of steel. Thus, LEP played a huge part as well in the earliest economies & societies. And these pen and paper methods survive to this day, altho the far, far faster word processing methods are well nigh catching up. For the first time in over 4500 years, something can exceed in efficiency, pen and ink on paper. It was stable THAT long because of its ultra high efficiencies of use, storage (libraries/archives), and reading.

It’s the LEP which drives creativity which creates worth, value and growth, NOT some putative “invisible hand”. It was the research sections created by Andrew Carnegie, which helped him drive out his competitors by finding ever more efficient methods to create better and less expensive steel/iron. The same was true of Edison’s research labs at Menlo Park, NJ. The same is true of most all modern industries, which have active research departments all having one goal: to create faster, more efficiently, less costly products, to gain the advantages of the compound interest force over their competitors. To win that “Bottom Line” advantage. An advantage in which Apple, Inc., has led the way, to become the world’s largest and most wealthy company yet seen. By clearly identifying this source of economic growth the LEP and the creativities which drive it, we can therefore understand economics better and make it work better, consciously, instead of by Trial & Erro and guessing.

What is creativity in fact? It’s a more efficient way of doing things. Compare the methods of the ancients using circles to model the orbits of the planets. Those were complicated, used lots of epicycles and were not very accurate. But Kepler’s ellipses and Newton’s laws of motion were far, far more accurate, and in addition, could describe any such set of solar systems far, far more easily than the ancient methods. Thus they were given a huge compound interest advantage, and indeed dominate today. The fact that the orbits so computed are LEP should not come as a surprise, either, as Newton’s equations are also the LEP solutions to those orbits. This is hardly an accident!! Although we have adapted his methods to the more accurate “elements of orbit” to describe them in 3-D, those work far, far more accurately to get men to the moon and back and spacecraft exploratory probes to the outer planets, as well. LEP methods, efficient, more accurate, and they win and run the show.

The essential driving force of the comparison process, which creates the LEP methods, can be stated in a complex system way, using its characteristics & thus showing its power. The LEP arises from the comparison process & can be seen using this principle to make a creative solution. Applying (a comparison word: apply an application, apply an application of an application, etc) it comes about by comparing the outcomes in terms of energy, time, resources & costs of each method, skill, process, application or way of doing something. That which uses the least energy wins. It creates the highest compound interest benefit of growth over the long term. Creatvity is essentially a means of creating a far more efficient or effetive method/products using the comparison process.

But let us look deeper into How this comes about in detail & specifically. Comparison takes two or more ideas, words, &/or events & compares them. In finding common elements in each of them it organizes & understands them within that category, such as the analogy word cluster, which can also be considered in a more incomplete form, an antonymous form. The higher Category is the analogy word cluster, or higher abstraction, just as antonyms are higher abstractions. Therefore it unites and simplifies a whole group of similar events, words/ideas, into a single embracing, subsuming category, and thus saves energy. The many become the one. The confusion goes away, and ordering is created. Simplification of the mass takes place. LEP.

Further, consider the insects become in all of their astounding complexities & forms, members of the Arthropoda. And all of the insects are collected into their various families, all joined by common elements of genetics, appearances, 6 legs, antennae shapes and such. This not ONLY organizes but greatly simplifies the whole family, and then find the orders of insects from that. But it’s also a least energy principle. It does MUCH with less. The system of classification creates an LEP form. Thus it’s highly efficient compared to just a random listing of bugs, beetles & butterflies, and organizes it as well. & that organization can be read far faster, and the place of any known insect can be found. & more entries can be added to these lists. These classifications are thus highly organized, least energy forms. Exactly like our genomes!!

Let us take chitin, keratin, collagen, and lignin/wood/cellulose. Each of these are very, very durable, physically and are not easily broken down chemically, because they are LEP forms. It takes a LOT of energy to break down cellulose/wood, because it’s least energy. Thus animals of themselves cannot digest this to gain the sugars out of which wood is composed. But instead rely upon vast collections of bacteria and protozoa in their guts, in order to get at this sugar resource of lignin. Thus the termites, ruminants, and others must create the conditions where those bacteria/protozoans, not only thrive, but can be passed onto the next generations, without losing that cellulose breaking down process, leaving just enough sugar for the host to justify the whole long gut and cellulose digesting mix, which does the work. Those compounds are all very, very stable. They are least energy & durable compounds. This gives us an idea of how efficiently the LEP and comparison process which drive it can increase our understanding of what lies behind the essential stable structures of plants and animals. Nothing Less than the LEP has driven & created and used time and again, by the comparison process. Gaining that compound interest advantage, as well.

That is how the comparison process works, by saving energy in terms of finding places for each insect species & how, Also, it simplifies the system. It’s how any new insect can be placed by comparison, once again. Repeating endlessly the forms of comparison, ordering, saving energy. Those are the secrets of the comparison process and why it’s been selected for to work in our cortices. That’s what makes sense of how our minds work and why the comparison process works. The LEP, which is comparison process created & driven gives the compound interest advantage. These are the depths within depths within depths of siple recognition, the deeper pattern recognition such as of the Periodic table of elements, understanding, and the classifications/hierarchies methods of understanding. The comparison process taking vast amounts of data, efficiently finding the unifying, simplifying elements in them, then creating a highly energy efficient classification scheme to both organize and make it possible, predictable by trial and error methods to be both created, AND read by the same process.

These energy savings are then realized repeatedly by any reading of the classification again. It creates compound interest energy savings which are of huge advantage in the long term. Thus the entire system is least energy saving, & thus favored, thus above all, highly stable. Unless a more efficient classification method comes along, this out-competes and is favored. It’s also stable, a stability because it’s least energy. & that is how the comparison process does the deed. Least energy form, Stability, & huge long term energy savings which multiplies advantage and out competes compared to any other system, unless that is more efficient. This is the key to understanding understanding, and in fact, understanding and recognizing (reading) very likely most anything. It’s universal, unifying and simplifies greatly so we can comprehend far more with far, far less. & each time we use this system, the energy savings multiply via the compound interest rule. That is the heart and core of the comparison process and why it evolved (& our brains’ cortex came about), & why we are so successful as a species. also why it’s stable and why it’s so widely used not only in humans but all over the planet in living as well as not living systems. LEP, the Fourth Law of Thermodynamics.

This is the point of it all. The foxes, linear thinkers, know a lot of little things, but the complex system, comparison processor users know one big thing. Guess which wins in the competition of life with that huge compound interest advantage, every time they use it?

The Hedgehog. Least energy rules.

A Mother’s Wisdom

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014

“Seek and you will find. Ask & it will given to you.”

“There is more in heaven and earth Horatio than is dreamt of in your philosophy.” ”

“Knowledge is good because from knowledge comes wisdom, and from wisdom comes many good things.”

“Those who have eyes and do not see, ears that cannot hear and mouths which cannot speak.”

1. Efficiency in driving and development of skills and understanding
2. Comparing outcomes, creating the higher abstraction and hierarchies of knowledge.
3. The Least Energy Principle (LEP) and efficiencies. The compound interest advantages of the LEP, driven by the comparison process.
4. The outcomes of ethical behaviors and longer, healthier lives, as comparison process underlying morality and ethics.
5. Thinking about observations and educational skills. Preparing a life
6. Biological and mechanical engineering
7. Observational skills and biological engineering and medicine
8. Travel being an important kind of education.
9. Incompleteness of knowledge; always keep on learning
10. Comparison Process is global and everything can be compared to much else. The comparison process builds the hierarchies of knowledge and understanding.
11. The relationships of the LEP and incompleteness, and thermodynamic efficiency. Efficiencies via the LEP create compound interest growth and highly advantageous capabilities.
12. Quantum technologies of the English robin are LEP
13. Improving scientific models are also LEP, Kuhn’s “The Structure…” shows this clearly
14. The most complete theory is also the LEP model. those models are favored and succeed over less complete models, driven by the compound interest advantage.
15. Final completeness is not possible. Thus there is no real answer to Bell’s incompleteness of QM possible.
16. the LEP is an unacknowledged but effectively a Fourth Law of Thermodynamics.
17. Why photons and physical systems must follow the LEP, but living systems do not follow it strictly.
18. Breaking up the unlimited feedback loops of behaviours.
19. There is no limit to improvement and progress. Virtually everything is possible for us.    20. A plea for the sanctity and value of life.

1. Over 50 years ago, I was riding with my mother, and she’d been talking about driving skills. As both parents drove probably upwards of 50K miles each year, she had some very good driving skills. She’d been telling me that if the light were red, not to drive quickly to it, but hold back, so often times it’d change to green and you could glide right through the intersection. Saves a lot of time, stopping by braking, saving brakes ,and gasoline, too. “But,” and she looked at me, “when you’re right here on the street, if you’re driving the speed limit of 35 mph, by the time you get to the light up there on the corner of Western and Lima, it will be green. You don’t have to stop, unless there’s lots of traffic. So, you can save time, starting and stopping, too. And if you get into the groove at that point, by going a bit faster, or slower,then you can make the light easily too.”

Let’s examine a mother’s driving skills & wisdom. Essentially, the goal was to save gas, time, braking time and effort, by making the green light. The alternatives were a lot of stopping, starting, wearing out brake pads, and so forth. It was in fact, what she knew intuitively and did not express, a Least Energy Principle(LEP), which was being used to guide her driving. But how did she arrive at those efficient conclusions? Clearly, she had compared what happened to driving at other speeds and at other places approaching that light, but had noted that this certain spot on the street, if by going 35 mph would reach the light after it turned green with good margin, if the red light was on at that point on the street.

Always thinking about such things while driving, by trial and error (T&E), she had found this rule, or rather created it. So I’d used that rule many other times while driving in the future at many, many other commonly driven past intersections, so it was general rule with unlimited applicability, too. If a bit behind such a sweet spot, then I’d speed up. If behind, then slow down a bit. It was a good, general rule to use. And she had thought about it, done the outcomes comparisons and found this stable rule which worked. It might sound trivial to some, but in a nutshell this cameo of experience is the way in which most of our driving skills, and in fact, most all other of our skills are developed & created. Recognizing the light, the speed of the car & the relationships of driving too fast meaning getting there more quickly, compared to driving slower and arriving a bit later. then using that estimate, to most of the time get there when the light was green and not having to stop, but cruising through the intersections to go straight ahead or make the right turn.

2. That is the issue here. the recognition of these relationships, and then comparing outcomes by T&E to arrive at a general rule which gave predictive control of driving. She taught me that general rule for driving, which can in many ways be easily adapted to other skills and other outcomes by comparisons. I didn’t know at the time about LEP and comparison processes, or comparing outcomes as a way of learning how things worked, either. But it surely prepared me to recognize later what was going on, when the comparison model was used. It’s easy to apply in day to day life and the interesting point was, she’d learned that little driving rule so well, that it was automatic for her in most cases to make that light while green. And she would do it coming down the Lima road. even if she were coming to the same light from a northerly or southerly direction. She’d charted out a number of commonly used intersections to use this rule. and the more she used it, the more it was ingrained and automatic, too. It had become a skill. & it rewarded itself again and again, which further reinforced using it.

And what’s more the more she used it the more time, gas, brake lining she saved as well. Every time it was used, the advantages of using it built up in a compound interest kind of way. and so the LEP drives the compound interest formula which creates long term advantage and effectively creates in time, irrefutable gains and competitive advantage compared to other methods. More on this recognition/observation, later

3. Furthermore, if we only go thru a certain intersection very rarely, it’s not much of an advantage to use. But if going that intersection as we did almost daily, often several times, it became a real time saver. The next general rule up the abstraction level, the hierarchy of understanding, is that if we do virtually the same act, multiple times per day, or in the week, the more often we do that skilled act, saving time/gas, braking, etc., then the more often it’d get paid back. Suppose it were 10% more efficient to use that timing rule. Then every 7 times it was done, it gave a two fold advantage by the rule of 72 of compound interest. The method paid itself off every 7 times it was done!!.

And that’s the key to understanding, here. When a task is done repetitively, the more often it’s done more efficiently, the more time/resources, energy are saved, and the more it pays back. This is a secondary rule, which can be created by simply observing what happens with each skill we develop. Not only does it get easier to do with practice, but it pays itself off relative to the increased efficiency it gives. This is the next hierarchy up from the driving rule app of least energy. And that is a good driving, time saving, gas saving rule. All built up by the comparison process with respect to the comparison method of the LEP. She had not only taught me the LEP rule, which can be generalized to unlimited other cases of action and use, but had taught me a general method by which I could create further methods, too, Such as the more often you do something, and save time/energy, then the more you get back by making that action more efficient!

These are the hierarchies of understanding. Recognition of events and how they relate. The creation of the rules of efficiency, & Then recognizing that if the rule could be applied more and more often, the benefits would be greater, and thus by using such a rule where the most benefits could be gained repeatedly, the rule compounded the advantage of LEP efficiencies that much more.

4. A next thing she taught me was, and I recall this as if it were yesterday, from over 50 years ago, we were driving down Main St. at Lincoln, and she pointed out this older woman sort of hobbling across the street.
“How old is that woman?”
“She looks about 60-70.” I said, comparing what I knew about persons I’d met and their appearance and known ages.
“She’s my age. I graduated from high school with her.”
Mom was 41 years old. She let it sink in a bit. “That’s what happens to you when you smoke, drink, carouse around, and don’t get a good education by spending your time badly. She’s had a rough life and it shows, doesn’t it?”

Again, my mother was comparing consequences and outcomes of behaviors with the events that most often accompanied them in the long run. “By their fruits you will know them.” is a phrase which leads to wisdom. And “The days of the righteous will be lengthened and those of the wicked, (the old looking woman on the street) will be shortened.” This cameo, again, shows the bases of our morality and ethics and rules of living.

in other words, look to the future for what your actions will do to you,. And gain wisdom to do those good acts which result in longevity & healthy living compared with those which will prematurely age and cause early suffering, crippling & death. Again, recognizing what we are seeing, comparing outcomes, and making a general rule about health. As mother was an Registered Nurse, she was acutely aware of what created health and what harmed life. No one in our family smoked. There wasn’t a bit of alcohol in the house, EVER. So another comparison process series of recognitions, combined with comparing outcomes, as while driving, about how to live. Mom never lost the chance to teach, either.

5. When growing up she wanted me to go into medicine, She knew I had the abilities to become a nurse or more, as she had become. But she knew, intuitively, one highly important fact: If a medical professional cannot observe and see what’s going on, and understand the implications of it, just like the older appearing woman on the street, then he cannot examine, treat and determine outcomes of treatments very well, either, because of a lack of observational skills to do that.

So, it started early. National Geographics to learn a lot more about the world. 3 sets of books making up a rather complete encyclopedia, which I devoured when only 9-10 years old. And when I was reading through them not understanding it all, but learning still a great deal, she’d bring in cookies and milk for me, as a 10 year old, reading for hours, to make learning sweet, you see?

Then when I was 11 came a chemistry set. Dad had already gotten us an erector set, so we could learn how mechanical things worked and could learn to build things from the nuts and bolts which came with the nice set.

We eventually wore it out making things, developing our tool using abilities as well as mechanical skills. and then he found a rather larger, more complicated but older erector set from the 1920’s, which had a lot more interesting parts to it and which could be used to teach us more about mechanical engineering skills, too. Round objects, more complicated pieces and such. Motors and how those worked, with a transformer to convert wall current to usable DC voltages. The reason he did this was obvious and Mom encouraged it, too. I even used that to create a very powerful bar magnet, too. Not in the instruction manual as it involved using a bare copper wire from the DC output. I was thinking ahead and applying what I’d learned.

In addition came the train set, which ran on safe but electrified low DC current,. We could set up the tracks with one cross over with two tracks built into it, and plug those into the other straight or curved tracks, too. Then there was a special set of 2 with had a train track changer and a track coming off the main track, which could do a lot of things such as side tracks. The major problem was how to make the train go the other way around. Otherwise, it’d always go around the same way. I found out how to make overpasses using books to steadily raise the tracks up. We devoted the entire floor of the living room to that, until Mom had had enough of it, because it was hard to sweep up and clean the room with all those tracks all over everywhere.

6. Dad was a car mechanic and good one. So he was all for us learning mechanical things to work in his business. So was his brother & both made their livelihoods cars, bikes, motorcycles, etc.. So was their father, my grandfather, a car mechanic and watch maker/repairman. And so was his brother a mechanic, my great uncle, in the car business and so had been my great-grandfather of the same surname. So when I became a medical professional, basically a biological engineer, I had the family background for how and why things worked the way they did. What was more, I married a woman whose father was a civil and mining engineer. & she eventually became an electrical/electronics engineer with a degree, at my persuasion. Because I knew that electronics and computers were the coming, highly important profession. Again, tracking the course of a society by comparison processes. So did my oldest son become IEEE, and then my younger son a computer science programmer and systems analyst & engineer. & both knew the ins and outs of computers very, very well. My sister partnered with a brilliant mechanical engineer, who was also a contractor, spoke a number of languages, and they worked together at a major defense industry company running the computer section, electronics and mechanical engineering department in LA. Then my youngest sister married another biological engineer, an MD, and completed the trend, as she was a university trained biologist. There is little doubt what at least 2-3 of my grandchildren will be but will be, but engineers, either biological, mechanical, or possibly more likely, electrical/electronics.

And Mom and Dad set this all in motion in their wider wisdom over 50 years ago, as above.

7. In addition, mom got me a telescope and was soon observing the stars, planets, moon and other bodies with it, too. Not always good viewing days, but occasionally in the summer season there were those rare, cool, dry, clear days where if we went out into the nearby countryside, we could see the band of the Milky Way so bright and clear, we could almost touch it. Needless to say in medical school there were four of us who went out stargazing, because they’d done some of that as well when younger, Our parents knew about observing skills and how important those were for medical professionals.

I did well in the state tests in biology and general science, and our resident high school biology, Doc Phillips, put me in charge of the insect collection, a nice series of cedar boxes which contained the various bugs, beetles, butterflies, moths and other classes of the Insecta.

He taught me how to use a written key to ID the insects, and esp. the Coleoptera, because he was a trained entomologist. So with my 3rd butterfly net that mom helped me make up, I was off collecting during the day and at night when the line of widely lit car dealership made it easy to collect the nocturnal insects drawn to the lights which were on for hours.

8. In addition, we went on camping trips, which saved a lot of money, overnighting in tents, cots, blanket & sleeping bags, lanterns, and white gas cooking stoves. So not only did we have a good idea about how to pack things, and how to set up tents and sleeping bags, but we had a good idea about how to build fires, cook on those. Then we’d hike around quite a bit improving our navigation skills, paddling the unsinkable canoe Dad got for the family, & learning some boating skills. In addition to practicing our swimming skills that Mom made sure we all had.

There’s nothing like hiking to bring out the biologist in some, so when in the Black Hills I took off solo, with a backpack, and hiked over hills and yon, scaring a porcupine almost as much he scared me, & finding a 5# block of pure rose quartz. I had a method of hiking setting my sights on a single landmark, a line of a hill, and knowing where I was in comparison to that the whole time. I wasn’t lost, but was free hiking of the trails, too. Eventually ran into the trail to Harney Peak, climbed that and then back by that trail to Sylvan Lake campground where we camped.

We traveled a great deal about the USA, too, to Adirondacks, the Finger Lakes, the NYC 1964 World’s Fair, Expo ’67 in Montreal. And all over the tri state area, extensively. All of this prepared me well to observe and have basic skills to become a medical professional. Travel is a very good kind of education, which my mother knew and again, combined many useful outcomes from going on many camping trips.

9. But the last and most important lesson she taught me was “keep on learning”. Because if I did, by the time I got a lot older, I’d use almost all of it. And she was right. Interestingly enough the best collegiate teacher I ever had, a biologist trained at Woods Hole and Brown Uni, said much the same thing and we learned a LOT more that year than ever had before. And in addition, the best teacher I’d ever had, told me “Keep on learning. You don’t know enough.” I said, “Mark, do you?
“No, and that’s why I keep on learning, too.” he grinned.

Within these admonitions came an intuitive understanding that our knowledge was & is incomplete. & the only way to learn more to make it more complete, was to keep on learning. Since then have learned that the limits to knowledge are indeed a very critical part of knowing and epistemology, and perhaps here have made a bit of contribution to decreasing our abysmal ignorance as a species. The universe of events is far, far greater than we are, and as Lincoln said, “The Big pot doesn’t go into the little pot.” But we keep trying to get as much as we can of value into that “little pot”, the brain.

All of these efficiencies my mother knew about and applied to her work, to make it more efficient, effective and to take less time, so she (& we) could gain that compound interest, exponentiating method to do more and more. To never stop learning means there is more raw material to work with to create more comparison knowledge, which is comparison —> knowledge. Thus it’s exponentiating in most cases, as the advantage by using it repeatedly creates more compound interest & growth.

She knew this intuitively & gave this to us. My comparison process has extended that knowledge of the LEP to well past what it has been before.

For instance, why is our knowledge incomplete?

The comparison process and its major tool/method, the LEP, can give us a more complete, and deeper understanding, looking within the depths of understanding. Beauty is truth and truth is beauty. Thus, in this sense is a deeper understanding of events. IN that sense, it’s a discovery which releases dopamine. And when we look upon that which is most fair, we also get that dopamine release. & so in the same sense that we are rewarded by gazing upon beauty, we are rewarded by finding truth. So the bard was correct. IN the same sense that love, hope, faith and charity boost dopamine and positive things, so are beauty and truth. The depths with depths, we see, once again.

And in the same way, completeness is a real problem as Godel’s proof discussed in special cases of axiomatic and recursive systems, which have much in common with thinking and comparison processes. In the same way Bell’s completeness theorem in QM can be considered simply more of the same. Are there events which QM cannot discuss and describe? And we must turn again the Wisdom and insights of a quantum specialist, and have stated this before, by Dr. Richard Feynman. “Biology cannot be understood by QM. We cannot develop biology from it.” He was correct.

In the same sense Ulam stated :”Calling the universe non linear is like calling biology the study of all non elephants.” He was remarking upon the excluding going on. & the use of the negative, as has been discussed before, is very global exclusive. A or NOT A, is too broad in many cases to be helpful. The comparison process is not as globally exclusive, but as it can still be exclusive, as has been shown before because while we walk we cannot swim, while we talk we cannot swallow, and on and on in unlimited characteristics of most of words. But this kind of exclusion is hardly global and far, far more unlimited.

10. But the comparison process can be applied to anything!! It’s global, universal,and there is nothing it cannot be used for. We can compare apples and oranges, and find the similarities and the differences. We can compare comparison itself and find more comparisons by doing so. We can compare a comparison, and compare the comparison of that, and that again, endlessly, in a cause and effect chain, as well. Thus it’s a universal tool. But does it have limits? And the answer is, it must as it’s a structure. Therefore, as in “Beyond good and Evil” and “Beyond the absolute,…”, we must look for some things the comparison process cannot do, and in “Beyond the Absolute” this is partly answered, but not completely, because as will be shown below, how and why this is the case..

11. But the key to understanding our understanding is that comparison process is what drives understanding. & that for our understanding to be ever more complete, we must reach very close to better LEP solutions of thermodynamic, theoretical completeness. The least energy rule must be more closely approximated. The solutions must be more and more efficient than those before. A highly efficient method which will outperform the others, and over time by compound interest and exponential growth, rises over anything against which is far less efficient. Thus this efficiency both drives it and stabilizes it, because such efficiency excludes effective competition by ANY other, known means. But those methods which are significantly more efficient, the compound interest advantages exceed what other methods can create.

Thus completeness, that is the highest explanatory power for a new method, is LEP, and by measuring the quality of that information using Shannon’s information theory, we can reach a deeper understanding of understanding and creativity. This is the point: deep within the concept of efficiency and exclusion and negatives, lies the LEP. The most efficient system is the one which is the most complete. Should we be able to find a method which accomplishes a goal far, far more efficiently than do others, then that one will win. LEP, again. Thus completeness and LEP are intimately and necessarily tied into each other

12. Compare then the English robin’s quantum magnetometer consisting of 2 entangled atoms/molecules within a molecular cage, which tells the robin where north is to a high degree of accuracy. Humans can build such quantum magnetometers using superconducting systems the size of large closets, and weighing a better part of a tonne. But the robin does the same task, in a space so small it’s microscope and on the molecular level. Which system wins? The Robin’s by 250 millions times in terms of space alone, not to mention cost of creating and maintenance!! Robin’s solution is LEP. This shows how far we have to go. & how very incomplete our knowledge about quantum magnetometers is. by comparing the two.

13. Let us look specifically at Kuhn’s “The Structure….:” once again. He stated the earliest forms of planetary motion were very incomplete. But Ptolemy’s was far, far more complete using circular orbits and in fact was a lot more efficient in describing what was then known, compared to the Babylonian method. Then along came Copernicus and his model was even better, being more simple, and thus LEP, too. Occam’s Razor fits in here as well. The simplest hypothesis which describes most All the data without using too many other new hypotheses, is the one most likely to be correct. & thus Occam’s Razor is LEP!!! Unsuspected, but there all along, if ONLY we knew how to look at it and what to look for. simple, elegant, multiplying explanations from a simple starting point, hugely increasing efficiencies of understanding, & compounding the advantages every time it’s used, the comparison process method of the LEP!!

Kepler came along and introduced 2D ellipses and found his 3 laws. Those worked and were far more efficient when included with the solar centered model than anyone else had found. Again, LEP. Whenever his method was used, it was so much more efficient than epicycles and circles and earth centered models, it won out in the least energy contest. And every time it was used that efficiency rewarded the users by compound interest, again, and again, and again.

But, and this is the point, when Newton described all planetary orbits using his laws of motion, he reached again, a very high efficiency, because his method could describe very accurately the planetary orbits by relating them to mass & distances. These could describe orbits far, far more efficiently galaxy wide, indeed universe wide, than even Kepler’s methods, Again LEP. His methods were far, far more complete, thus LEP. Currently we use elements of orbits which describe orbits, esp. of Mercury much much better, in 3D than the Newtonian methods, tho they are more complicated, they gain by being far, far more accurate. Thus LEP, too. These are the depths within depths which we can still mine from Kuhn’s “The Structure….”

14. Therefore, to generalize from specifics, when a theory reaches the point where it, or another similar model achieves that goal of thermodynamic high efficiency, because it’s the most complete, it wins. And thus if we can compute by some means, what the theoretical efficiency of a model is compared to a run up the exponential barrier, it will tell us not only how efficient it is, but give us an idea of how far we have yet to go to reach that goal. LEP is a measure of completeness, therefore. But often we do not know of a better method, to compare it too. Thus there may be No ultimate theoretical efficiency level, no absolute, But to compare the various methods and see which most efficiently describes an event under consideration. It might be we must make a judgement about diminishing returns, before we try to find a better, rather than climbing up that expon bar again.

Clearly, if we run up the exponential barrier, or more practically, a set of “s” curves each of them exponential growth to some limit and then falls off, we can get some idea of how far we have to go. As most all of these comparisons and measures are necessarily bound by relativity, that is they are not absolute, it may be practically impossible to tell, except by the rule of diminishing return, if that model is the most efficient or not & Possible within a realistic goal of our ability to measure it.

Frankly, we cannot know this in many cases. and thus completeness very likely must be completeness with respect to some standard, which is arbitrary and frankly not complete itself. Completeness absolutely is not possible, because that would imply a system which worked by using virtually no energy at all, clearly violating physics. Neither is least energy. We can never get to nearly no energy at all to do something. It’s the same expon bar of trying to run up that greased slide of light speed, or absolute zero, or to make a perfect circle, or a perfectly straight line or other such fantasies.

15. Thus there cannot BE, very likely, or EXIST ANY final completeness. The solution to the problem of whether QM is complete, is insolvable. The only thing we can do, is what we have always done, find more efficient methods by trial and error by which we can continue to climb up the series of discontinuous “S” curves, which will continue to improve our ideas. Final Completeness does NOT exist!! It cannot be found! And the measure of completeness of our theories relates to the LEP of informational theory and thermodynamics. This is the answer to Bell’s completeness explorations. QM can most likely never be complete. No theory can. There are very likely no absolutes in our measurable universe.

16. As far as this is concerned, the LEP should be considered the FOURTH Law of Thermodynamics as it’s universally seen from particle physics and photon paths, to the arbiter of the galactic orbits and paths taken in the largest known clusters of galaxies. Therefore being a universal macroscopic principle, which also works at the quantum event level, it should be considered a macroscopic law of thermodynamics and a real, probabilistic tendency towards events at quantum levels. The LEP is therefore a corollary of entropy rules, for least free energy and for efficiency of complex systems, the least energy paths, too.

17. The interesting point to make is that we human and animals do NOT follow in all cases the least energy paths. Photons MUST, in most all cases, but we do not. We take exploratory ways which take a lot more energy than least energy. We get bored doing the same old routes all the time and branch out to find new and more interesting ones. This fits in well with habituation and boredom/ennui concepts. We get bored, and we change the way we do things, the way we arrange furniture in a room, the kinds of things we do all the time. We adopt new habits and new hobbies. I became a kitchen gardener & Egyptologist at about the same time. These broadened my knowledge, making it more complete and enhanced my understanding of western culture & origins, which again, improved my models of how our own culture came about and from where, being Egyptian, Ellenic culture, then Hellenistic back in Alexandria. then Roman culture, which gave rise to our own. Thus breaking out of the ways we do things, keeps us learning, growing and developing newer, more inclusive and thus complete models. This kind of least energy violation may in fact be explorations to find more LEP methods, and so is allowed.

18. In the same way, we easily get into feedback loops of repetitive behaviors. Some of these unlimited, dopamine reinforced feedback loops can be very dangerous such as drugs addictions, cigarette smoking, overeating and the manias of fanaticisms. Becoming bored, and having normal habituation responses built into our systems can break up and block such feedback loops and activities. It may be that boredom and habituation are ways in which becoming locked into counterproductive and even damaging habits is broken up, to prevent those endless feedback loops and keep us out of trouble. There are probably more brain mechanism, so far unsuspected, which also tend to block more of these untoward, unlimited feedback loops in our behaviors, as well. Thus boredom and habitation can be healthy. So are curiosities, a self sustaining, self reinforcing behaviors which make us look into new things. “Never stop learning” is yet another one. So is the love of travel, which is a very important kind of learning, which can again, as it did for me twice in Egypt, lead to very deep insights as to the origins of Western culture, which trends continue to this day, as well, in our lives.

19. Thus as far as we humans are concerned, improvement is endless. There is no final completeness. Our universe is that complex due to the probabilities of QM creating unlimited possibilities for us, too. Just about everything we can conceive of, as long as it does not violate a clear law of physics, can be done. There are plenty of loopholes aroudn those as we can fly by 15-20 different methods, compared to 300 years agao and the English robin can create a molecular sized quantum magnetometer at room temps. There is no mathematics, nor conceptual approach which can give completeness, any more than it can give certainty, either. or finality. It’s looking for a chimera, a fantasy, an inane search of folly within a pitch dark room for a black cat which doesn’t exist!!

There is NOT a final or finished solution to the problem of completeness. We find again, ways around the expon bar, the asymptotic limit, the rule of diminishing returns, and move on. These are the depths within depths of a mother’s wisdom. There is not final or end to progress or advancement. Our future is unlimited in this universe as far as we humans are concerned. Virtually everything is possible, in fact, and it’s only those limits between our ears which limit us. This is what Rhizobacter teaches us. This is what the English sparrow’s quantum magnetometer which is microscopic tells us. While our own magnetometers are huge things which require supercomputer superconductor devices the size of a large closet. Compare THAT inefficiency of ours to the extraordinary tiny size and completeness and LEP efficiency of the English robin’s molecular sized quantum magnetometer. It’s extraordinary!! So many times where we first try to go, living systems have been there before us tens of millions, even billions of years before. “Observe the wisdom of the ant.”

This is what all those many ways of flying, still being added to tell us. There are NO effective limits to anything, other than a few set laws of nature, such as expon bar of light speed, absolute zero, etc.!!! We can climb that series of exponential “S” curves quite a bit longer than we can ever foresee. Around every new corner there are yet other, unlimited numbers of emergent phenomena to find, yet another new antibiotic family, yet another new way to do tasks, more efficiently, more effectively, more least energy than those found before. & with the taking up of Quantum technologies, those will exponentiate as as they must, & we are with our quantum tunneling electrons in our transistors, matching the next generation of quantum computers, taking the first and hardly final but only the beginning of moving inwards. Ad astra, to the stars. & into our unlimited universe and the universes beyond that within the “Depths within Depths” of our own universe.

We have now the knowledge leading to the wisdom to know, for us, there are no limits. Why stand we here idle? This is “Human Wisdom”. There are no limits because there is no final digit to any event’s measurements. There is no precise measurement and events are irrational numbers without a final digit, either. There is not certainty, because most all is very likely to be possible, like humans flying 15-20 different ways and more coming. To flying in low gee in flight caverns in space, acting not only as exercise, but for air storage, too. These are the massive possibilities created by a NOT deterministic, not linear, but complex system universe, of which we only understand but a little at present. Our future is thus unlimited here. We have but to seize it and win our heart’s desires. We give up our absolutes & certainties, but with the higher likelihood that everything is possible. It’s very likely a fair trade.

20. There are far, far deeper meanings in all of this as well. Nanotechniology seems to be a coming thing, but an essential, critical, omnipresent piece is missing from this puzzle. Engineers are using linear, mechanical methods to try and create it. and have largely failed. But the wisdom and how to create and efficiently use nanotechnologies are all around us. Those are the living systems of of virions, cells, and multicellular organisms, which like the English Robin and Rhizobacter can do a very great deal with their “complex systems” of biological nanotechnologies. This has been developed to an ultra high degree of efficiency over billions of years, and sits there, waiting for near sighted, money pre-occupied experts, who are all but totally ignorant of biology even in their own lives, to take advantage of the limitless capabilities of the life-giving, complex system nanotechnologies of life.

Within every cell and multicellular organism, there are high efficiency complex system nanotechnologies of high power, & capabilities which can do a VERY great deal with very, very little. Far, far more than linear systems can EVER do. And for each of the species on earth which dies out, and cannot ever be replaced in most all cases, that vast wealth and storehouse of nanotechnology is being lost, probably forever. Species die out all of the time due to human ignorance and carelessness, and yet this vast treasure of information and nanotechnology goes unnoticed, unseen and ignored by most all humans, even as they destroy DAILY the richest treasure house of useful information on the planet. How do get almost anything & everything done, efficiently. & for every species we destroy, we are damaged and perhaps even destroyed, as “Medicine man” so poignantly and virtually unappreciated showed, with the brilliant, lyrical soundtrack of Jerry Goldsmith behind it. Our knowledge is incomplete indeed, and we have and are doing it to ourselves!! As we destroy life, so we very likely destroy ourselves.

As Cousteau has written, as we destroy the oceans, we also damage and destroy ourselves. Massive dead zones of 10,000’s of sq. kilometers lie off our coasts and port cities, expanding this zone of death yearly. Planet wide. the richest estuarine, intertidal zones which create more food and more livings systems compared to anywhere else on the earth. & they are dying by our dirty deeds massively off the coast of Fukushima, China and the entire west Coast of North Am. The Orca, a highly intelligent species, being extinguished down to only 70 individuals and few females, are all that’s left of vast populations in the 1000’s. & probably doomed to extinction because there is a minimal breeding, self-sustaining population needed. And it is GONE!! And no pups have been seen for at least 3 years.

We are likely next, if we do not stop this ignorant madness of species and habitat destruction. For we are not just destroying life but ourselves and our very futures here on the planet earth, which we are, whether we like it or not, in charge of. How shall we defend & characterize our custody of these children of the earth in the inexorable courts of history? The future will not think well of us, at all. If we have a future at all. For in destroying life, we have very likely destroyed ourselves, as well. The equations & balance of this universe MUST be observed.

But with wisdom, not greed. With compassion not taking from others. With love and respect for most all living things, because those lives are so very rare. AND thus life IS truly the most precious of all that which exists in all of the galaxies and the universe.

“Respect most all life.” to paraphrase Dr. Schweitzer. This is love, maternitas, AND wisdom.