A Field Trip into Our Understanding

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014

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“User Ma’at Ra.” (Truth is the Power of Ra.) –Ramesses 2, “The Great”
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“Uas, Djed, Ankh” (Power, Stability, Life), –The oft repeated Trinity of the ancient Khemetans
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“Knowledge can be power.” –John Locke
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“Knowledge is worth more than gold and rubies….
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Knowledge is good because from it comes wisdom, and from wisdom comes many good things.”–Proverbial sayings
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“Basic, scientific research is very important because it often creates technologies of value.” –Common wisdom

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“There is a repeating principle operating in the brain which creates predictive control.”

“Simplify, simplify, simplify.” — Henry D. Thoreau

“Least Energy Rules.”

“Most every advance in physics is preceded by an epistemological advance.” –Albert Einstein, referring to his relativity epistemology.

“Raffiniert ist Der Herr Gott….” (Subtle is the good Lord…) –Albert Einstein & Proverbial saying.

“Beauty is Truth. & Truth, Beauty.” –John Keats

“It’s not over until it’s over (…or until the Fat lady sings(Tosca.).)”
“You can see a lot by just watching.” –Yogi Berra

“Let us pray; Let us prey; Lettuce spray; Let us spray; (& 3 others) –Repeating, homonymous puns, origins of human humor, & the dopamine boost which creates and sustains..
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Human understanding can now be cleanly generated from the structures of our cortices and explained on that basis. The structure/function relationships of our brains/minds have been used for generations to examine and explain how the brain works, and how the functions of the mind, senses, thinking, speech and language, vision, and so forth, come about. This will essentially extend the S/F model to further explain how thinking and all of those higher abstracting functions come about in a consistent, clearer way than heretofore has been possible.
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Structure provides the basis for function. This is basically a structuralist approach and will use a peripatetic method to explore what’s going on and how to understand it. As speech is located in the left hemisphere in 97% of people, and damage to the speech centers uniformly and universally is causative (cause/effect model) of defects in speech, this is clearly established. Because damage to the motor cortex causes damage to movements on the contralateral body, and the same with the sensory system; & damage to the visual centers as well creates visual problems in higher functions, These are highly established, scientific, medical facts.
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In the same way, we must understand plate tectonics as an analogy which can also help explain brain/mind relationships. The outer surface of the brain is analogous to the plates on the earth’s surface, which interact in complex ways with respect to each other. The endless upwellings of the mid oceanic ridges, whereby the underlying geological processes both support & drive the plate movements. Each of which act in a complex relationship to the others, in a grand system of organization. But this is complex system, and the future of plate movements cannot be easily understood, either. We can see past movements, but future movements are not easily predictable
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In the same ways the outer surfaces of the brain, the cortex, create the complex higher abstractions and processing of events, supported & driven by the deeper structures of the brain. But in this case, the outputs of the structures of the cortex are created by the underlying structures of the 100K’s of cortical cell columns (CCC’s, Mountcastle), which are composed of 50K-60K neurons  of columns arranged in a hierarchical way of 6 layers, and they are everywhere the same, save for the motor cortex, which is slightly different in layer 4 where there are Betz cells. And on the EEG the outputs of alpha, beta, and theta are all the same all over the cortex, as well. Thus the structures of the cortex and their outputs are remarkably the same in origin, too, satisfying the S/F rules.
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There, in the CCC’s is where the comparison process is going on, and it’s well established that the consciousness is created in the cortex. Because if the cortex is damaged selectively by carbon monoxide poisoning, leaving virtually the rest of the brain intact, consciousness and the cortical functions are ALSO lost, while the deeper vegetative, not processing elements are preserved. Thus consciousness and the higher abstraction functions are mostly located in the cortex. When damaged, they are lost, the lights might be on, but no one is home. That which makes up each personalty, our characters, are all gone, irrecoverably. This simple fact largely shows us what’s going on, & the structure/function rule is strictly satisfied. Cortical functions are what we are in terms of personalities, those traits and memories, behaviors & distinctive speech, gaits & habits, and everything else which makes us individuals & human. When cortex is damaged, the veriest essence of our humanity is damaged or gone.
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But how does this come about? How do the feedback loops of self-sustaining cortical outputs arise? Through the inputs/outputs of internal information be it thinking, memory, actions and so forth. & we see how these are created by those endless, unlimited feedback loops by the very repetitious nature of our words, actions, habits, & so forth. It’s this very repetitiousness of the comparison process which is on display there, then the repetitions of the neuronal CCC’s. & they are all over the gyri of our brains, packed tightly as well. The information comes in thru the white matter from the sensory and internal systems, and are then processed in cortical input/output loops, which can feedback into the other cortical processors, too. Thus the CCC’s are the major processors which drive and create the outputs of knowledge, understanding, reasoning, language, visual and other sensory functions, the hearing, music, spatial relationships & so forth.
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This is how it works. Knowledge and understanding arise from the relationships established & perceived by the processing of internal & external inputs. The comparison  process takes those inputs & processes them using a kind of “Uber Logic” arising from the CCC’s. At first we have, empirically, the signal detection, which gets the attention of the CCC’s. then comes the comparison of the incoming data with the Long Term memory, through which a match/similarity created by the CP creates basic recognitions. Then comes the magic!! The outputs of the CCC’s are then fed back into the CCC’s for further data processing, and the pattern recognitions arise. First comes the initial recognition and is then further processed to pattern recognitions, one after the other in a repeating input/output feedback, process, creating the hierarchies of understanding.
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Further, the comparison process gives rise to the comparison process word cluster of other mental processes, which all have this consistency, this transitivity. We can logically and with sense compare a comparison. And then compare that comparison. and then on and on. We can think about thinking (introspection) and then think about that thinking. We can explain explanation, and so on. We can talk about talking, again and again. We can speak about speaking, etc. We can write about writing, & write about that writing again. We can analyze analysis and again and again. Indeed the number of comparison process word cluster members which are all TRANSITIVE & repeatable in this way, and thus created as methods/variations on the theme by comparison process, are endless. Again, just as the cortical cells columns can endlessly process. We can observe observation, and observe that observation as well. We can do most everything as a result of these highly similar processing words show.
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But we cannot swim about swimming, and we cannot walk about walking. These are NOT comparison process words, or mental functions. This is the comparison difference. We can add adding, then again and endlessly multiply adding & multiplication. & subtractions, divisions endless, but we cannot ski about skiing. We can walk endlessly, but it’s not a mental, higher abstractive function. This is the difference. We can recall recalling and remember remembering, but we cannot drink about drinking, or eat eating, either. These are motor functions, tho while related to each other, cortically, are NOT understanding understanding, nor comprehending comprehensions. They are not transitive, not recursive, not self consistent either.
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Although this seems trivial it’s in fact deep. Because the endlessness of these transitive functions underlies most all higher mental functions. And the feedback loops of input/output, from which clearly arise comparison processing are in fact the case. But the feedback loops in the cortical structure create the creativity, create the reasoning, the thinking, as a unique structure/function relationship. This is how we know and understand. We create comparatives, relationships, associations and build up our knowledge from those. Most All is relative to everything else. The comparison process can compare endlessly, without inconsistencies and find the relationships of all to everything else. These are the keys to understanding the structure/function of the cortex and how it creates mind. The transitivity of the logic, this mental process, the comparison process & its methods offspring, does most all of the work.
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How does it work? By least energy principle (LEP). By combining two or more inputs it finds the consistencies, the relationship(s) among those and simplifies down our understanding. We realized that all critters and bugs with 6 jointed legs are arthropods. We understand the presence of wings in those forms and the antennae, heads, mouth parts, thorax and abdomens are all the same/similar, too. Just endless variations of the forms. We call them insects. And this cameo, this basic method, can be applied to most all living things, including the viruses to create the grand design, the complicated, detailed and unending (as more extinct and living are found) hierarchy/Taxonomy of the living species of life on earth. This massive hierarchy relates all living species to all others. And it all comes about by massive comparison processing of the samenesses, the similar, the endless, recurring duplication of what is seen. Suddenly, it all makes sense.
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Almost at once we see everything has a place & a place for every known species in the taxonomies of life. This is how understanding is created by the organizing power of the comparison process. These relationships of “compare and contrast” (the lumpers & splitters) create the creativity which we see, to identify them again and again. Not only does the CP create the organizations of the classifications & hierarchies, but it simultaneously reads it, too.
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Take the medical images which we recognize, identify, such as in radiology. The radiologist in order to read (a metaphor) an X-ray must have a basic knowledge of what’s normal and what’s not. Almost all the acceptable variations and those which are abnormal, thus disease causing states. He, with this long experience, then uses a systematic observational method on the PA and L Lateral chest images to “read” the X-ray, by massive comparison processing. In the same way, most all images are read, whether inside the reading room of hospital or in the wider world outside. Again, it works within and without. Image recognition is comparison process. Reading the radiological images is also comparison process. How much of this is done every day? Millions of times. Those are the massive evidences in a single place which make the comparison process (CP) which we can hold to be a “self evident truth”. Or comparing the normal lab values with the patients’. or the EKG’s, EEG’s, or the pulmonary function results. Most all comparison processing. Each an evidence of the endless evidences of how wide spread it is. & reading most all words too, & understanding and hearing the words is the same. Comparison Process.
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Most all the taxonomies of living systems, the Hertzsprung/Russell diagram of the stars, the organization of the galactic types; the IUPAC classification of 34 millions of chemical compounds (each molecule’s place yet another of the massive evidence for the CP). Also, the periodic table of the elements, the bodies of legal laws, and morals, and the scientific laws of our universe, and indeed even our moral consciences in our frontal lobes have this underlying structure of relatedness. Most all of these arose by comparison process.
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The classification schemes of medical diagnoses was/is created by the same means. The dictionaries of the words in all languages, by the same process of organization as has been previously shown. & at every stage every point where each new  entry is inserted, the organization rises, the relations of the words to the others becomes clear, entropy declines. These dictionary lists are also hierachical, as are the city directories, phone directories, street addresses and so forth. But the hierarchical organization is hidden by the listing of one word after another, with no break from where words starting with “cab” become “cac”, tho such divisions could be made to show those hierarchies and the shifts necessary to continue onwards. If there were black lines in the left margins of each column at the start of each new shift in hierarchies, it would also serve to shorten our trial and error searches, too.

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But significantly the least energy principle is also obeyed. The organizing is least energy. More is understood with less. It’s efficient, which also is the hallmark of the LEP. But further, it’s also more stable as LEP creates stability as well. LEP is built into the CP, and that’s so well and universally why it works and how it works. The structure/function principle of thermodynamics applies to the CP and how it organizes events.

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Maps are much the same as they are read according to comparison to N/South, East/W axes, and each point on the map corresponds very well to sites in existence. Mapping is most all comparison process. Each map is “read” the same way, largely. And the more accurate the map, the more closely it “Corresponds” to events in existence. The more accurate our verbal model of events, the more it simulates and correlates to events in existence. & thus its value and utility rises as well. As we explore and manipulate the model, so do we essentially explore and manipulate in our minds, the events within and outside of us. this gives organization & predictive control.
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The CP as the main mental processor is transitive, consistent and has created large bodies of consistent organizations. Even the delusions of the well developed mental disorders are of the same. The irrational & the rational are shown to arise by these means. Thus CP explains both the rational and irrational. A simple process does most all of it.
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CP explains the origins of the trial and error method. & Where this is used endlessly, over and over again, thus showing its structural origins in the input/output feedback loops of the CCC’s. Also the major characteristics of the CP, as well, showing the tight structure/function relationships of the CCC’s with the CP functions, its outputs and methods.
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The events in existence are also created over and over again, the endless circles, wheels & cycles and repeated events in existence. The suns, moons and the orbiting planets and our paths endlessly move past the relatively fixed stars and their constellations. The moon and sun repeat their orbiting movements and set up times of cycles and wheels. The cycles of day/night, of birth, life and death. The noons and midnights, the weeks and months (moon), the seasons and holidays, the years and decades to the centuries and millenia and eons of time. The endlessnesses of branchings &  leaves, roots and trees. Of white clouds, of the sunrises and sunsets where a part of the spectrum is seen every day & sets up a palette of colours every day of the black before sunrise, lightening to a deep red, then bright reds, oranges and then yellow colours for us. With greens in the plants and browns, & the blues of the sky, the black of the night flowing into the many dark and then lighter gray shades in the days. as well. The endlessly repeating particles, giving rise to the atoms/elements/isotopes; creating the molecules; those creating the organic & biochemical molecules and then the biologicals which create the cells. The endlessness repeating cells of the bacteria and algae; the combining  into the multicellular forms. the endless segmentations of the worms and insect larvae. & the jellyfish and fish, segmented, too; the birds and the reptiles, & above all; the primate families. Then  the body organs and the brain, the latter neurons with endless potential connectivity as well & finally the mind arising from the repeating, simulating of events in existence, the CCC’s with the repeating CP’s and it’s many offspring the CP word clusters. Rising up the reductionist hierarchies, from the simple to the complex beyond all imaginings.
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The pages of our dictionaries also show these structure/function relationships. Not only the word clusters, but the synonyms, of like meanings in words, and the antonyms, as well, as an analogous, complementary method. Much much more can be stated about the various kinds of antonyms, being complementary, complete opposites and negations of each other. They are very heterogenous kinds. The Homonyms, endless repeated, being used, over and over again. from which some humor can also arise. Thus the dopamine of emotions.
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But there are deeper depths within depths hidden in our language and here a few of the many those are, of which hugely more can be easily found. The CP shows the relations & associations of most all events to each other, It established those. But we see the word, “comparison” and it was put into the dictionary by a consistent means. It’s self consistent. It applies to itself. It can understand itself consistently. It’s recursive. It does a great deal with a little.  It’s stable for this reason, it also is least energy, which its stability arises from, too.
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And there is the “iter cum” word cluster, the “go together” words, the relationships and associating words, all starting with “COM-” and CO- & the endless variations of those, as well. The correlation, the company, the combine, the correspondence, endlessly it seems, 1000’s of them, nearly without limit. The community, the commons, the Koine. Those are the relationship words, and they arise by the CP. For in amongst those, all those endless trees of the COM- words, the comparison words of relationships, lies a huge complexity and hidden, subtle as the ways are, lies the generator of the whole forests of the COM words. It had lain camouflaged by the very complexity it had created from its simplicity. For it was subtle, as a process, NOT a thing, nor a Principle, but a process, a logic. Thus do we understand WHY there are so many COM words and can be created without limit, too. The endless repetitions of the CCC’s and their outputs, the word, comparison, CP was right there all along!! The veriest roots of the tree of life hidden by the complexities it had created around it.
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Take the “RE-” words as yet another vast & major example in our lexicons of all languages. Those words such as remember, recreate, recall, iterate and reiterate, again and again, over and over, and times and agains, endlessly. Clearly, CP characteristics, The 1000’s of such, etc., etc, etc, forever and ever word clusters. ALSO showing the structure/function relationships hidden well within our speech, is it not?
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But there are others, many other mysteries and depths within depths in our language, which have almost completely arisen from the CP, too, and its interactions with the inputs within and those without, and how it comprehends comprehension, as well. & the lovely, “recombine” which is both RE- and COM- united, consistently.
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Take for example, the adjectival words of the type, high, higher and highest. and low, lower and lowest. High, mo-re high and Mo-st high. Some, less-er, lea-st. Good, bett-er, be-st. See it again? It’s been there all along, and the positive adjective is the base adjective. The last is the superlative form. But the middle form, the “meet in the middle”?  It’s the “comparative” form hiding there all along in the complexity it has created. And the clincher? It’s the reverse of the “RE-“, the “-ER”. The relationships among the Mo-st word and the “highe-st” word is structure/function again. Didn’t see it? NOW you do.
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This all goes back to Alexander Kuhn’s “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” and how with the new epistemology of our improving understanding, we “see with new eyes”. The veils are torn from our eyes. We see better and further. The new paradigm shows us knowledge and relationships and understandings we did not have before. & like with the eka elements by which Mendeleev’s new periodic table predicted unknown elements, it can be very fruitful. The CP creates creativity. It allows us to “make the connections”, connect the dots, put it together, to see and visualize the recognitions. It’s the essence of creativity as well. The wellsprings of creativity, of LEP forms, the sources of our insights, figuring out, understanding, the “AHA and “Eureka’s”, as well. Most all knowledge & Understanding are relationships & associations, a relativity created/mediated by the CP.
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Again, Good/God; Gut/Gott, and Nefer/Netcher, all of the same kinds. All those relationships. Not accidental in form or structure. Hiding there. And then there is “gold”, we see, again.
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To Live is good. But the reverse (boustrophedon, implicit in our reading), thus “Evil” and with a ‘D’ become Devil. or in another form, vile. Or, to “die”, yet again. These are not accidents. These are the deeper connections within our languages, which show the structure/function relationships created as meanings by the CP and ever it goes on.
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Take the relationships of the families. A son, for example. he’s related to his parents as a child. He has a father and mother. Each father has his own father and mother. they have siblings, such as brothers and sister, to which their son is a nephew, and his sisters nieces. and he can become an uncle, and his sister an aunt. And they have fathers, and grandfathers, and great-grandfathers. And the son may become a father, and a grandfather, etc. Or a spouse, or husband & uncle. Each of these clearly showing the relationships of all to all others.The endless cousins, second cousins, etc. The endlessness genealogies, the hierarchies of life. Without limit. But mathematics cannot easily navigate nor create, nor read these relationships. That is the key problem here with math and its very great limits as well, & has been developed already and will be shown yet again.
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Take the structure/function relationships word cluster. We have cause/effect; Stimulus/response; Input/output & their related characteristics. Not pure synonyms, but the meanings are there as well. The word clusters are extensions of the idea of synonym, related but not the same. Showing the relationships again by comparing those to each other, and reaching a higher understanding & organization. What goes out, come back around, “karma”, again. The same basic relationships. Cause and effect. Do to others, as you would have others do to you. Cause & effect. Actions have consequences.
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The very repetitions of the words, words used to explain words. Measurement and description are two forms of the same process, comparing. We compare events to our measurement standards, and we compare words to words and events for meanings. These are all the same as in the article
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Etymologies are yet another prominent comparison process. (CP). As the languages are organized & related into taxonomies by comparing their words, so is etymology yet anther related CP method. Essentially words are compared to their putative earlier forms for usage and evidence. There are unlimited numbers of these known, but as a comparison processor for decades, this interest personally again shows the ubiquity, omnipresence over time and universality of the CP.

For instance the ancient Etruscans of Etruria inhabited an area in Italia known as Toscana, or Tuscany as the English etymologically derived word usage shows. “Tosca” of Puccini, is yet another form of the same word. & it’s no accident that Toscana overlies largely the area of ancient Etruria, so important in early Roman history.

The romance languages again show these etymologies, with literally 10Ks of words in each language sharing etymological relationships, clearly and provable with ancient Roma. There are Francais, Lang D’Oc, Catalunya, Espagnol, Galiciano, and Portuguese, Italiano, Romanian, Romansh, and the many dialects of each, well known, 6-7 in Lang D’Oc, alone.

“Red Land Black Land” by Barbara Metz shows many more of these interesting etymologies. Khemet was the original name of ancient Pharoanic Egypt. Khem meaning black, and -et meaning land. As a Semitic language, Ham in English as the son of Abra-ham are also cognates. From those came the Al Chemi of Arabic from which are derived Alchemy and chemistry and and other forms such as biochemistry, etc. From Djeseret (Red Land) comes via the Hellenistic Greeks and Romans, the word for desert, as the ancient “red land” precisely meant that dry, sere land outside of the fertile black soil of Khemet along the Nile. In its modern extension, Deseret also comes from this ancient word. From the Khemetan for gold, we find Nubia present to this day. The comparison process roots of etymologies are very closely derived and easily seen. This is very, very clear evidence.

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Description & measurements, etc. Most All CP.
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Because the stimulus/response shows the deepened understanding of behaviors to the input/output systems of the CCC’s, which they SAW, but did not see, tho they imitated it to make sense. This method of CP is an extension of Behaviorism even as it’s a recognition of what’s going on. The behaviorists saw the external reinforcements which created learning via classical and operant conditioning. But they missed inside the black box which contained the internal dopamine boost which created the endless internal reinforcements which are responsible for the external reinforcements and how those come about. Thus this system extends and explains the behaviorist model of learning, as well.
Re-cognition, re- knowing arises from CP. Thus “cognitive” psychology. again the relationship, the recognition, but not clearly, tho intuitively seen, yet implicit.
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The chi  (tai chi, chi gong), the dopamine boost, the “drive to survive”, the spark of life, the soul of wit, are all related in this same way.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/30/the-spark-of-life-and-the-soul-of-wit/

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Different ways of saying much the same events. The LEP is essential to comprehending the “simplify, simplify simplify” of Henry D. Thoreau. Or the Least Energy of Occam’s Razor. Do you see the connections, the relationships, the new recognitions? The CP endlessly creates & thus it’s creativity as well. LEP/creativity. CP/LEP, the two fraternal twins. The CP embodying and generating the LEP solutions. The LEP recognized by comparing outcomes, and the best one, LE, wins.

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“Brevity is the soul of wit” said Franklin. The shorter phrase which makes the point, is the better. Least energy once again. See it? Now you do.
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Least energy principle. Least action, least free energy, the minimalist principle, etc., etc., etc. The word cluster again, in all the myriads, repeating ways. This is how it’s done and found. It’s no accident. It’s the endless repeats, cyclical structure of the universe, reflected in the repeating functions of the comparison process outputs, which closely model those events. Do you see with new eyes?
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The words which we use the most are the shorter ones to save energy. LEP. Looking at the numbers, one, two, three, four, five, six, then longer, seven, eight, nine, and then shorter again, 10. Because ten is the base 10 of our numbering system & we use it a lot, it’s shorter to meet the LE purpose, do you see? Least energy, again. The unlimited number line building up complexity of 3 millions, 1 hundred, forty-five 1000’s, eight 100’s &(!) fifty 4. The symbols for each number, shortening, each time & energy saving abbreviations and such, again least energy. In the number 1, instead of one. Use it often enough & we do, it saves HUGE amounts of time, printing, and energy, We abbreviate it. saving time, ink, and energy.

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We can state the same thing of mathematics, that it’s used and useful because it creates savings, LE advantage. Consider driving from Philadelphia to Baltimore, or LA to San Francisco, or indeed any city to another place. If we have no idea of how far they are from each other, then we cannot easily predict and know how long it will take. but if we don’t know the gallons of capacity held in our gas tank, nor the mileage of our car, nor the speed limits on the roads from place to place, the system becomes very hard to figure, predict, control, or efficiently drive.

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However, if we know Baltimore along I-95 to Philly is about 100 miles away, and the speed limit is 65, then we can reach it in 1.5 hours. If our fuel mileage is 25 mpg, and our tank holds at least 5 gallons, we can make it without stopping to refuel. If gas is $3/gal., then we know it will cost us about $25 to drive there & back. Thus does math save massive amounts in time, energy, without limit, and increases our predictive control of our traveling. It’s least energy, far more so than verbal descriptions. This, in essence, is why we use and have developed mathematics. Least energy, more exacting predictability & control.

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The contractions are more of the same, saving both print and speech times & space.
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NASA, NASCAR, the endless numbers of acronyms created by comparison process, CP, etc., etc., etc(!). LEP in our language yet again. Always been there, but now you see it!! It’s in the dictionaries, too. Efficiency by any other name is still least energy.
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In English we find a largely general absence of gender of all words, almost always seen in romance languages, all of which have gender for most all words. English is LOTS more efficient because we don’t have to memorize genders of the words & indeed los/las, el/la and un/la and les in those languages are not needed. “the” replaces all of those. A LOT of memory space & time is saved by English NOT having gender except when actual sexual differences are important as in biology, male/female, etc.
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These are ways in which German, the romance languages and others can be become a LOT more efficient by ridding themselves of the genders of words outside of biological usages. It’s NOT efficient. it’s a memory and time hog.
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The use of tonality in Chinese and Vietnamese allows tone to be used as a way of creating meanings. High, medium, low tones in Chinese give it the ‘sing song” quality, which describes it, but does NOT state the deeper truths. That tonalities can hold meaning. The vowels of the Vietnamese dialects hold meaning in how they are pronounced and held and what tones they carry.
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Tonality is used in English with the stressed syllables. Speak’-ing, and these variations also can hold meaning. Two tones only in English, stressed and not stressed. English is not as tonal as Chinese, but similar in that respect. In Japanese each syllable is given equal stress, To-kee-yo. not To’-key-o as English accents state. This is part of the English accent when speaking Nihonese.
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Ma-ma, Da-da. Simple, repetitious, cortical in origin. From the simplicity of baby talk to the complexity of our professional languages and terms. The simplicities of Chinese with its repeating syllables, and then combining them to form new words. Same process,.From the simple 4 DNA base pairs to the complexity of the genome. Again and again.
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We can get lost in this endlessness. “Om padme Om, Om padme Om”, etc., etc. The endlessnesses of the prayer wheels, of the cycles of time and processing. Meditation as just that. Clearing the mind, not thinking, but then meditate on this.
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The analogy word cluster: Analogy, metaphor, simile, parable, fable, Koan, anecdote, story, etc, all related closely, too, to explanation, understanding, knowledge and knowing, and comprehension. To figure it out, make the connections, connect the dots, “see what’s going on”, endlessly.
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There are duplication, replication, copying, and so forth with many words of the same type. Reproduction, and so forth. and how do we recognize they are the same and duplicate?  By comparison process in most every case. From the DNA polymerase which detects a thymine and adds the adenine, & vice versa, and the guanosine to which it adds on the other helical chain abuilding a cytosine and vice versa. It’s comparison process at a molecular level. To the m-RNA which is built up by RNA polymerase which is basically the same, but uses Uracil to complement adenine, tho Cytosine pairs with guanosine and allows the cell to distinguish between DNA and RNA.
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Then the m-RNA goes to the ribosome, and it detects the 5′ start, reads up a single 3 base codon, and puts in an amino acid, then reads a next 3 base codon, & another, again and again, repeating up the chain until it reaches the signal to end, frees up  the completed chain and the polypeptide or protein is now created. Each additional nucleotide decreases entropy and creates order, just as the letters in the dictionary do, also. Again & again, without limits. The endless repeating chain of the DNA molecules working like a comparison process on the molecular level, again and again, within the endless cycles of time. This is reproduction, which like in our printing presses, TV’s, radios, magazines, the internet, websites and even the transistor, magnifies and amplifies by repetitions. Media are amplifications. So is speech which all can hear, or as used in teaching as well. It’s simple, and basic, we use the CP and apply it, endlessly. It’s clear that we may easily hold this truth, the comparison process in our cortices, to be self evident.
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In summary, There are stabilities and metastabilities in our universe, created and re-created and stable due to the constant flow of events. Because of these repetitions of events in existence, those are reinforced and pass into our lot term memories as stabilities, created by protein synthesis, resulting in synaptic, stable memory traces. Dopamine can reinforce those faster, thus facilitating the lay down of those traces, the memories & habits and their uses & methods. As we recognize patterns by their repetitions, thus those patternings become stable as  created traces in LTM, modeling recurring patterns inside ourselves and outside as well. These then become stable patterns of behaviors, LTM and so forth, and they are LE, and thus stable, too. As persons age, their personalities become stable as well, as experience & Meyers/Briggs testing show. Society then becomes stable as the morals, rules, laws, and languages also become stable by use and LTM/synaptic facilitations operate this way. Then as we age, we find it harder and harder to learn more, to learn new languages without accents. But more of this in the coming article “Ages of the Brain”.
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Confirmations of the repeating of events in existence is required to establish the truth of the matter in the sciences. We do it again and again until the signal rises out of the noise. In doing evoked potentials, we do those repeatedly until the signal arises out fo the background noise. In the CCC’s those also are done, checking, testing, repeatedly until the signal rises that a good LE solution has been found. It pops into our consciousness from all those parallel processes in our CCC’s and we understand. These relationships are not an accident.
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Time telling, reading the clock, synchronization, setting a clock, all of them comparison processes. Also addressed pointedly by Einstein’s relativity.
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And so in this way does our understanding model and mimic and comprehend events in existence. In our language it does as well, and the now recognized S/F relationships flow out of the dictionaries like water, endlessly. There all along, too. The fruitfulnesses of the comparison process models by these endless comparisons, of the hierarchies which are endless, the reductionist model, the comparing of languages, to show the taxonomic associations of the language. Each word, each etymology, comparison process. Each task, each step, adding to the massive evidence, and thus simplification of the “blooming, buzzing” confusion to understanding via the Least energy rule of thermodynamics. Applying it again and again, processing without limit to gain our understanding & control. & standing in the middle like a high tower of confirmability, the CP.
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In summary drawing towards a close, Dr. Douglas Hofstadter’s “Godel, Escher, Bach…” has been very prescient and instinctively helpful in making progress in understanding our understanding. He mentioned a problem with trial and error, and this has been explained about how it comes about using the CP, and its universal use and value, as well, From Edison’s T&E creating of artificial lighting, to how we learn most everything using T&E. & to perform those using least energy methods, which form the bases of professional abilities, as compared to amateur, slower, less quality, less efficient work. & how those more efficient methods come about, as well. And how our education can be vastly improved, limitlessly, by working out those skills, styles, methods and techniques, then teaching them and improving them, endlessly.

Hofstadter’s simple comment was that he had a very large file of word mistakes he’d made, but what to make of that? Here it is. Our Long Term Memories (LTM-W) for words are organized initially as babies according to word sound similarities. Thus when we make mistakes, using the wrong word for the one intended, this subtlety shows us that words are stored by comparison of similar word sounds. There are endless numbers of those!! Again the repetitions, the commonalities in most all humans. Before we can read, nor think very well, most all verbal memories are stored this way. Thus, “word” is mistaken for “world, or “work; or syzigy for Cecilly, and endlessly.

But implicit in the error of saying a word mistakenly, lies a deeper, more valuable trait of the CP. Because even in our errors, there is enough CP information to correct them. Thus we check, test, and comparison process and realize, very quickly the word wasn’t the right one, and we then re-type or re-state the correct one. When we forget a word, very often the words we at first think of, in addition, is very close to, but not the same as the one we want to use. Was trying to recall the name of a noted actor, and could only come up with lysis and “ferber”, tho I knew those were wrong, the Rule of Commonality and eventually came up with Bruce Willis. The same for a noted country western singer, which came out at first, gooks and earth, which, of course, was Garth Brooks. Note the boustrophedons, and the substitutions, which is also how we mistake words. Such was “dig bitch” which once stated to my embarrassment as it meant, Big Ditch. Or how our puns are created. Not all of our errors are errors. Those can be the creativity of our cortex as well as DNA’s evolutionary creativity, as well. previously stated (Evolution, Growth, Development (jochesh00.wordpress.com).

But the implicit, depths within depths, is that the comparison process is least energy, by combining groups of words, ideas, pronunciations, and meaning together, as well. So the means by which are memories work are complex networks of relationships, of which the primary one is that of sound similarities among words. Upon that as we learn, grow and develop the more complex relationships of words & so forth, memory becomes more diffusely stored by these richer and greater associations. Not only does this organize our words & their meanings, but it creates the word segues, the flow of the streams of consciousness and the lovely flow of creative writing as well. And in addition, it creates backup memories and tracing which if we can’t think of something, or are damaged in an area, the other connections and relationships of words act as backup systems. Thus dos our memory becomes diffusely and multiply stored in our cortices, which is in fact the case. No matter how much brain damage we have as adults, there is plenty of archiving, backing up of memories in all those tracings. &  this is why a very great deal of brain damage, diffusely must occur if our LTM’s are to be seriously degraded and eliminated.

In addition, it’s recently been found that very intelligent, educated persons who are mentally very active, are more resistant to the ravages of Alzheimer’s. This is the case because we have so many memory backups by our intellectual connections and activities, that we can if one tracing is damaged by Alzheimer plaques, we can go another route, to circumvent the closed down road, much as we do in cases of traffics accidents, floods, and other emergencies. The CP provides BOTH self-organization and back up, complex systematics for the never ending multiplicities of functions of the CP in our cortices. And if one part of the cortical cell columns are damaged, those locally take over by recruitment and can, esp. at early ages, repair the damage, restore the structure and thus function. We see this in strokes, endlessly. It not only creates the cortical organizations, but can restore and repair it if damaged. MUCH with less. Multiplicity, LE all the way.

In addition, using the CP and the Least Energy rules, the two twins innately intertwined, related and functioning, the comparison process shows us a least energy, stable, and informationally useful, even if only partly correct &, self-organizing, as well. Thus it’s also a case of Occam’s Razor, the simplest truth without adding new hypotheses & ad hoc adjustments, is the one MOST likely to be the case. Thus a CP coupled with LE insight is by far more likely to be the case, just as Occam’s Razor reminds us. It’s a CP & LE sieve for creating and finding truths of greater depth, worth, and power. Thus is much done with a lot less, the CP. Complex systems are again the same, doing much more with much less and thus are favored because they, too, create savings, extra time, energy, resources, efficiencies of all sorts, etc., which create growth of all sorts. Thus they proliferate and dominate. (The Power of Proliferation (jochesh00.wordpress.com). In addition they are much more easily corrected, extended and improved upon, which solidly models how our devices start out simple, as the Wright flyer, and Bleriot’s reform of aircraft’s basic structure by putting the engine/propeller in the front and the steering assembly rudders, etc., in the back, which was more efficient. From there we get the modern planes, jets, gliders, etc, all continuing to be improved without end, based upon the solid foundations of the first devices of ANY kind. We see further because we stand on the shoulders of giants and see and learn to see better with their eyes. The past builds the future, viz. evolution, growth, development, based upon those solid fundamentals. From the simple to the complex, from “Ma-ma”, and “Da-da” to the complex professional vocabularies and expressions used, daily, repeatedly.

A good model is at once simple, elegant, & beautiful in its own ways. This is how we know them. By their efficiencies and outcomes, plus their incredible fruitfulnesses, at once known from many sources, such as evolutionary model, the periodic table and how it forsaw and developed bonding patterns from the alkali, ferrous, precious, even rare earth metals, to the halogen series, among many others, and the Nobel, er, noble gases, which hardly bond at all. Once again, this simplicity, stability and elegance are but more names, showing the complex systems of our understandings, where less does more, and has many characteristics, not just one, and thus is not linear, but complex, and highly multiplicit in its names, forms, characteristics, descriptions and capabilities. These are all interrelated, we can now see. Thus the increasing growth and proliferation of complex systems departments and sections in the schools, universities and corporations and other structures. It’s simple, powerful, and creates growth. All of these many emergent, unexpected relationships being shown, as well.

& what of music & the arts? We store our memories of melodies by their starting tonal intervals. Start almost ANY melody in almost any key with those same intervals, & our right musical temporal lobe compares those intervals to the many, efficiently locates by LE storage that melody, & we hum along, or play or sing it in our heads. If we can’t recall a simple tune, but we can find the words, if we repeat the words, we can hear again, that is, musically recognize and play the tune again, The lyrics re-inforce the melody, and the melody, the lyrics. “Play it again, Sam.” Almost always, it’s the repetitions, endlessly of all of the myriads of ways of tempos, pitches, and scales.

We see the endless flows of the stream of consciousness, the beautiful segues from one sentence to the next in lovely creative writing, of which James Joyce; “Ulysses” is a trinity of art, demonstration and explanation of the CP and the stream of consciousness created by comparison processing..

& the lilting, endlessly variations of themes in music. From Beethoven’s NInth, the Scherzo and finally, Schiller’s (scintillating) “Oden an Die Freude” (Ode to Joy) in the great Chorale, the Gotterfunken, the Divine Spark. (Explanandum 4, near the end; and the “Spark of Life and the Soul of Wit”; all jochesh00.wordpress.com). Again, the dopamine boost, and why we like and replay music, again and again. “‘That’s our song” the lovers whisper, & the joy of love builds again, reinforcing, repeating, self-sustaining itself by a DA boost. The “Ode to Joy”, once more in all the myriad ways. The Mythos once and again.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/30/the-spark-of-life-and-the-soul-of-wit/

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The HammerKlavier Sonata’s lovely middle theme, which is a variation on “Farewell to the Piano” both lilting, memorable, flowing melodies of great beauty. The wonderfully melodic march (1-2, 1-2; 4/4 time) repetitions in Tchaikovsky great 6th Symphony, the Pathetiques, followed by the incredibly lyrical adagio, full of wonderful, flowing minor key melodies of variations, too. The lyrically unmatched Adagio of Grieg’s piano concerto. The moving melodies of Debussy, winding unexpectedly, streaming in “Claire de Lune” (Light of the Moon), and “Prelude a l’Apres Midi d’un Faun”; the orchestral richness and winding, ascendings and fallings of “Daphnis et Chloe” ballet, by Ravel; and the similarly united, streaming of notes of beauty in Vaugh-Williams’ 3rd Symphony, the Pastoral. The exciting and astonishing, 2nd movement, Allegro Molto in Rachmaninoff’s 2nd Symphony, followed at once by the ever rolling, varying, always moving, Adagio of variations on a theme. Again and again. The “An der Schonen Blauen Donau Waltzer” of Strauss, again 3/3 time, the trinity of dancing.

Thus we return to the major theme, the “Eternal Braid” of the interlocking, interleaving weavings in which we live, composed of the endless comparison processes within our self-sustaining, self consistent, self-organizing 100’s of 1000’s of cortical cell columns which create our awarenesses and our consciousnesses, not only of human animals, but of most all animals, from which our lives are closely, connected, related, and composed, The endless cycles, turns of the wheels, of the systems of circles, of the quantum waves of omnipresent repetitions which underlay and drive our universe of events in existence. These are the endless repetitions, which are endless confirmations of the CP and how it works to model a similarly limitless, universal repeating of events in existence. Each repetition a confirmation of the CP model. Endlessly confirmed in the billions at least, daily, ubiquitously. & not just on earth, but everywhere in our universe so far as we can observe, will observe and have observed.

A Model of most all Models, a unifying model of most all the events within ourselves and outside, as well. The Gloria Glorissimae. Nub Ka Kau. A Nefer Neferu (beauty of beauties). The comparison process and its fraternal twin, least energy. The ever relating, ever changing, but the same,  La Chanson sans Fin, Universelle.

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