Extensions & Applications: Pts. 1 & 2

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014

The tools to be used and applied here are the comparison process (CP), its complexities, multiplicities and characteristics; least energy and its rules (AKA the least action, least free energy, tendency for systems to reach low energy, lower order, entropy, the minimalist principle), structure/function relationships as  comparison methods relating structure to function in brain and vice versa (brain, neurochemicals, genes, enzymes, etc); complex systems  approaches and models (chaos a la James Gleich, systems models, etc.); Recognition is the interaction via comparison processing between events in existence with Long Term Memory (LTM), learning, and the creation of the series of signal detection, recognition, then the pattern recognition, pattern recognition, etc., which create the endless hierarchies of our understanding. This is done via similarities, near matches/identities, the categories of Aristotle, etc., By comparing the two competing systems of behaviors, the younger, neocortical thinking and information processing (CP, rational, reasoning) interacting with the much older emotional system (“Dragons of Eden”, Sagan”), Dopamine 2 receptors mediated, the spark of life, the id/ego of Freud, the irrational logics of the emotions, etc.
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1. Brain structure and advances in understanding neuroanatomy
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This is fairly obvious and has been used for generations in medicine to figure out how the brain works. Essentially, there are brain structures, which can be very well correlated by brain & brain outputs exams in neuropathology, CT & MRI scans of brains, EEG’s, MEGs, and evoked potentials. The structure/function relationships of brain are often called by the complicated and sesquipedalian, impressive and somewhat confusing, “clinico-pathological correlations”. This is easiest to use by calling it structure/function relationships  (S/F). If in the left temporal area, near the angle of the temporal lobe, there is a lesion, from whatever cause (cause/effect relationship, AKA also, S/F) then there will be a functional loss of speech in some ways. These have been very well worked out for speech & highly confirmed, observably, medically and scientifically in the millions of examples. But not only in the left temporal areas, either. There is a “swear center” in the right temporal area, next to the area of brain which integrates emotional, musical and spatial relationships ( each with their own areas adjacent to each other) which can be located. If a person has a left speech center stroke, surprisingly, these persons having lost most clear speaking, & may have garbled words,& so forth, yet they can swear very clearly. In addition, if they know song lyrics, many times, those are also preserved even those the major speech centers on the left are damaged, while the right is intact. Thus they can sing words very, very clearly, despite their rather serious damage and functional loss of the left speech centers.
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This was initially posted and has been more fully developed below from the original “The Explananda 3” article
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In addition, between the superior frontal lobes of the interhemispheric fissure, there is a speech output center, which, if both sides are injured by some cause, such as stroke of right or left anterior cerebral arteries arising from the same side, they lose the ability to speak, temporarily, because this is the speech output center. Without it, spontaneous speaking, babbling of babies ( part of the built in speech development system), and so forth, is not functioning. In time, in adults, speech will come back, altho its output will be fairly impaired and they will not have the spontaneity of speech normal for most people.
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If the left thalamus is damaged by a point lesion from small vessel arterial disease, there may be a total loss of verbal memory for words. They will not be able to recall words. however, they will completely understand words spoken to them, because the cortical speech centers are intact. It’s likely there are other speech centers in the brain, as well, such as cerebellar and tremors abnormalities which can severely degrade speech motor output as well.
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Now, let us consider something totally new and unknown. It’s been known using S/F relationships, that in damage to the brain’s right motor and sensory strips which lie exactly adjacent to each other (for obvious reasons of coordination, feedback and reflexes of fine motor control, etc.) the left side of the body will be damaged in terms of motor control & sensations. Vice versa, if left motor strip and sensory areas are damaged, there will be corresponding loss of sensori-motor functions on the right side of the body. In addition, in general, the toes are mediated by the top of the motor & sensory strips at the fissure between the two hemispheres, then come the balls of the feet, the arch/instep, the ankle, and the ankle’s connected to the legs bones (tibia/fibula), the legs bones to the knee bone, and up the legs on both sides. As the functions of these strips move down from the top of the brain, then come the hips, torso, the chest and then the fingers, forearms, upper arms, shoulders, and then the neck and face. This is true of both sides. The so called sensory and motor homunculus is upside down and reversed right for left. This has been largely known since the studies of Wilder Penfield at McGill University in Montreal in the 1950’s, which correlated well with pathological injuries compared with deficits in living patients.
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In the visual systems, the round visual fields are organized like a clock face analogy. The upper visual fields’ functions on the right ( 9 to 12 to 3 o’clock) are subsumed in structure of the inferior occipital (visual) lobes at the back of the brain. Inferior (lower) visual fields are subsumed by the top of the occipital lobes all smoothly from top to bottom. and again, the right visual fields in both eyes, from 12 to 3 to 6 o’clock are found in the structure of the Left occipital lobe, all smoothly integrated. & the left visual fields are on the right occipital lobe. Thus the same pattern, Right reversed for left and upside down. The same as the motor/sensory systems. In the right frontal eye field, this pushing the eyes to the left to direct attentions. Left frontal eye fields, push the eyes to the right by a similar yoking system which is brain stem in origin, but controlled by the frontal eye fields. The same system. In addition the cerebellum also conforms to this pattern of left reversed for right and upside down.
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In addition, we find at the decussation of the pyramids, where at the base of the brain stem which becomes the spinal cord, the left cortical motor and sensory descending fibers from the left hemisphere crossover to the right, and the right cortical fibers cross over to the left. In addition, the sensory/motor fibers coming up from the left side of the body cross over to the right side of brain stem & up to the right cortex, and  the right body conversely. Further, the optic nerves coming out of the retina of the eyes carrying their visual signal cross over corresponding to the same visual field where right visual field crossover over at the optic chiasms, to the left, and left visual field conversely; plus the inferior visual fields rise up to go to the superior occipital lobes, and conversely, left visual fields to right.
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Thus we see all over the brain, including the white matter connections (80% of brain mass) conforming to this pattern, the deep basal ganglia structures, and even the internal capsules and thalami conforming to this right reversed for left, and upside down structural plan.
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Why is this so? How does this come about? What has kept us from seeing HOW this happened? And in addition, we find this same pattern, by Comparative neuroanatomy, occurring in most all normal humans, primates, mammals of all families, including porpoises,because they have those “decussation of the pyramids” as well, thus shown by MRI and CT scans, too, as in neuropathological studies, This same universal, pattern. It’s Very likely seen in the birds, reptiles, amphibians, as well as possibly the lobed fish from which our ancestors descend, esp. the Coelocanth family.
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 http://sol.rutgers.edu/~shinbrot/NewHome2006/Papers/Decussation11.pdf
This article discusses this mystery from the first and confirms anatomically what happens, but NOT why. Not a single mention of why the brain is reversed right for left and upside down, but it declares & discusses that it’s so!
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The solution to this hitherto unrecognized and heretofore fact of neuroanatomy, much ignored but highly basic, and widespread upside/down and reversed right for left anatomy of brain is easy to comprehend via the comparison process. It creates the solution, simply, easily, elegantly and is highly fruitful for understanding brain, too. The CP is the basis of these structure/function method by which we comprehend and understand brain functions and structures, very likely. & thus is Least energy configuration of brain anatomy as well.
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Take a double convex magnifying glass and hold it at arms’ length. What do we see, compared to the right side up background? The image thru the lens is reversed right for left and upside down!! Exactly conforming to the complex and universal neuroanatomy of mammalians’ brains, of most ALL mammals, primates, and certainly normal human beings, most all 7.5 billions of us. Why has this not been seen, literally, before?  The “eyes have it”! Thus much complexity is simply reduced to correlating motor, sensory, visual information to the images which fall upon our retinas when passing through the double convex lenses of our eyes. Traits which we likely share with all of the mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and perhaps even some fish, as well. Thus uniting us all by a simple, common brain structural feature. Simply look for the decussation of the pyramids, or analogous structures, and this will be seen, widely. Perhaps it’s even true of some insects as well, in their millions of species & 100’s of trillions of individuals.
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This is an example of the comparison process creating information, and creativity, which cuts through the Gordian knot of complex systems, and simplifies, simplifies, simplifies (Henry D. Thoreau), creating a least energy solution, and thus growth in understanding of how our brains work. The implications will likely be protean as well. The top/down model of brain, the older structures being at the bottom and the newer at the top was touted a few years ago as significant, but it was somehow incomplete and not satisfying, and it did NOT explain the upside down & right for left universal neuroanatomic facts, either. Though the cortex of the brain is at the top, it’s also the newest part of the brain, thus “neocortex”. While visual system is at the bottom, it’s also neocortex, as are the hippocampi under the temporal lobes, which subsume most laying down & organization of memories.
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This is how comparison process creates new knowledge and new understanding. The implications of this upside down, right versed for left new neuroanatomy created which corresponds to the visual images on our retinas are bound to have fruitful consequences. We are overwhelmingly visual creatures!
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2. Einstein’s model of relativity, that measurements and thus description are not absolute, because those rely upon an arbitrary standard, relatively stable from which to measure. There is no absolute space or time,because all time is relative, and complete synchronization of times is not possible. & all space measurements are relative standards. Thus times/space are relative that is comparative standards. and underlying the basic relativity principles, since proven to be the case in physics, lies comparison process as the parent of relativity. We measure by relative standards, and create data/information. In the same way we describe as another kind of measurement, which is yet another kind of description, too.
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By using relative standards of comparing events to others, we create useful standards by which we describe.  For instance, ROY G BIV. We describe most all other colors of events by those standards. Similarity, high higher highest and low, lower lowest, of the general and universal used in English. Some more and  most; and some, less(er) and least. Thus are linear scales created which correspond to measurement scales, as well, rather universally. The number of these kinds of standard descriptions such as “bigger than a breadbox”, and so forth, plus hands as measures of horse heights at shoulders, and feet for most all length measurement in the older, less efficient English, and yet persisting American system, are the case. Comparison process underlies most all measurement and description in language.
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Relativity is thus subsumed to comparison process as a specific case of CP. Thus the “Relativity of the Cortex”.
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 & this is important in terms of understanding of how events are related to each other. Understanding, relationships and associations, comprehensions, and so forth are all of a type. The hierarchies of our understanding are thus relationships of the elements of the classes/categories in those relationships. & can be easily seen within the alphabetized hierarchies of our massive dictionaries of most all languages, universally. Indices, telephone and city directories, literally billions of examples of laying down of these organized structures, organized by trial & error according to the linear alphabets, most all using the comparison processes massively to create order and reduce entropy, but in a least energy way. The CP both reads and writes, as well as orders those systems: encyclopedias, thesauri, paginations, even street addresses and maps. Maps being another kind of hierarchies. So are the branching hierarchies, the taxonomies of all living things hierarchically ordered by the similarities and differences seen, perceived, detected and created by comparison processes. Examples & comfirmations of the CP in the 100’s of millions alone with dictionaries, by themselves.
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And the taxonomies of the languages, both living and extinct, all by comparing massively the words of Semitic, Teutonic, Romance (Latin based), and many and most others, too. By massive comparison of words, where the similarities of words and etymologies clearly show the close (Espagnol & Portuguese); and similiar Norsk, Dansk, Svensk, English, Dutch, Deutsch and the Polski, Russki, and Ukrainski assocations, as well. And those all within the ( higher)  hierarchic category of Indo-european. The Magyar, Suomi and Sami languages, lie within the hierarchies of the Altaic/Ungarian group of central Asia, as well. Massive comparisons of words, which establishes these relationships of each language to others in the same groups. & the lone language of the Basque, not related at all at present to any known. Its ancestors long gone.
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The IUPAC, 34 millions of examples of compounds and elements; Hertzsprung/Russell diagrams of the kinds & classes and evolutions of the stars. The organization of the galaxies and clusters of stars and clusters of galaxies, as well. It’s the Same with the hierarchies of the reductionist model of the sciences: protons and electrons, make neutrons. Protons and neutrons make atoms, elements and isotopes; atoms bond by their relationships into molecules. Carbon based atoms make massive numbers of endless organic compounds; then the biochemicals.Then the biologicals, then the single cells, the multicellular types, and then the many organ systems of cells. Finally the neurons, the many kinds of those and the brains, from which come the top hierarchy, the minds/brain functions of animals and primates.  & at the most developed, humans. The comparison process arising out of the neocortex to create & mediate most all of the multiple functions of the human mind. These are but a few of the hierarchies of understanding, showing the relationships by comparison process of events in existence against all other events by combinations, comparing, and so forth.
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By extending Einstein’s epistemology of relativity of measurement to description from which measurement arose via mathematics from left post temporal and inferior parietal areas, anatomically. Math arose from words, i.e. descriptions which have been linearized and numbered.
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Further, Einstein analysis was not complete. In his model he states that it’s just as easy & OK to use any of the planets, or any other point, as the relatively fixed point versus any other from which to organize our understanding, as none are privileged. But this, for thermodynamics reasons, is not quite correct. There Are privileged positions, which Newton’s model of the orbits of planets & planetoids, and even applies to large galaxies, as well. & that is least energy orbits are the case. The sun is the gravitational center of the system of planets and that “least energy” stabilities is not only privileged, but in fact central to the system. Newton’s solutions to planetary orbits ARE least energy solutions. Thus a relatively fixed stable (characteristic of LE) standard is the rule.
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Thus simple common, widely seen water forms both the standard of the temperature scales as STP, freezing (0 C., 32 F) and boiling (100 C., and 212 F.), plus the standard of 1 cc. of water at STP is e 1 gram, too. Length is standardized against a fixed number of wavelengths of the Argon atom, not as easily found, but unique, too.
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Thus we have an extension of Einstein’s relativity, the comparison process, which makes relative measurement easier to understand in its limits, and also extends Einstein’s epistemology, fruitfully, to understanding how our cortex works, as well.
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