The Limits to Linear Thinking & Methods

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/CP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014
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Largely the old ways of linear thinking are coming to an end. This can be demonstrated in many ways, but the Procrustean mythos of the old Greeks was about this real, limiting problem. The false dichotomies, ” A —> B only” mentality of machines where pushing a button yields only one outcome, whereas as in complex systems (most of the universe of events, 99.99+%) can do much with little. Linear logic and methods have reached their limits to growth. We are clear about this because of the rule of diminishing returns of incompleteness and oversimplification. The simple logics and methods are becoming obsolete and being replaced by far, far better methods which can do more with lots less, and thus grow faster, and do what linear methods cannot even dream of. This change of epistemology and paradigm marks the end of the machine age, in short.

That logic and forms of math which use those recursive logics are not complete as Godel’s Proof shows, more accurately called Godel’s Incompleteness theorem. And it’s easy to see how this works. If everything is either A or not A, and there is no excluded third, as formal verbal logic demands, then this is refuted greatly by the statements that events are either White or black. This is but the fallacy of the false dichotomy, which misses the unlimited variations of shades of greys between the two. Thus our logic eats itself like the Ouroboros snake. It’s intrinsically not logical. Or using another approach the koan of Ulam who stated, calling the universe “non-linear” is like calling biology the study of All non-elephants. It misses millions of species. And those are why linear methods are incomplete, and we are reaching the end of the machine age. It’s simplifying, but too much so. It’s to some extent an easier way of looking at things, but it misses too much to be very complete. & that’s the problem. Light speed measurements, which contrast greatly with QM interpretations of the same events which also elide over and cover up this fallacy will be addressed below.

.Another example is that of graphite reactors, which are complex system at low power due to small areas of fluctuation which propagate from chain reactions beginning at some sites more than others and create instabilities, which can blow up, compared to more sustained, more even linear fissioning processes at higher power outputs.

.The same kind of widely varying rates of fissioning at low power are unstable because some areas will rapidly grow by input/output mechanisms. As a few neutrons hit a few atoms those fission, releasing more neutrons, creating the very quickly rising, notable chain reaction. But in fact, those take place at the onset of fissioning at random areas, where more or less fissioning at low power takes place. This arose from input/output effects, where by chance chain reactions grow exponentially simply by random events, and in other places not so much, due to variations in purity and interactions of fissioning centers as they coalesce and become more even, pretty much homogenous fissioning areas at higher power. The instabilities come at shut down, and powering up. This is what destroyed Chernobyl’s reactor block 4, to the destruction of the USSR, and continuing dreadful radiation contamination problems existing widely over central Europe, today. It’s a complex system being ignored by linear thinking which likely created the problem.

.Very likely had the first nuclear pile, created by Fermi and Leo Szilard, the latter who first realized the possibility of the nuclear chain reaction and patented it for himself, was a similar kind of graphite moderated reactor used at both Windscale’s disastrous events, and Chernobyl’s, the RBMK-1000 models. Had Fermi and his team been less lucky, they could have blown up several city blocks in Chicago and essentially badly damaged or destroyed much of the University of Chicago and even that great city. But nothing is gained by not trying out new methods, although hopefully, as in Alamagordo which was way out in the middle of vast empty areas, showed they’d learned their lesson, at least in part. Those are how complex systems can be applied, as well.

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As another example of linear thinking ignoring complex system effects & events, look at a weather vane, turbulent flow and plane crashes to see the aspects of complex systems being missed by the forced linear, Procrustean bed approach of eliminating most of what’s going on. For simplification for sure, but still, yields wildly and serious incomplete methods and models. A weather vane generally shows wind direction. But let’s take a complex system, more complete look at what’s much more likely going on. Compare the direction of the wind using a heavier weather vane versus a much lighter one. (Wind socks are ever much more so linear, too!) The heavier weather vane weighs more, uses inertia of matter to even out all of the other directions of turbulent flow of wind. So do wind tunnels, for that matter. Both are highly linearized methods which ignore what’s much more likely ongoing.

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For instance, the light weather vane on a breezy day will point generally in wide ranges of directions, but on the other hand, it varies its directions a LOT more due to the real, turbulent flow of the wind currents. Thus it can move, literally in any direction as does the turbulent flow of wind, which is the case, & will create vortices, eddies and other features developing from normal wind flow, so that the lighter vane can point even oppositely at times compared to the heavier. & light vanes can even spin about whereas the heavier vane will not be so likely to do that. Thus the heavy weather vane is linearizing wind events and creating a false output, which while it simplifies interpretation, is in fact not the case and thus not a very complete description of wind flow.
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Further, Turbulent flow is growth capable, which is why a butterfly’s wing flapping can create via growth processes the outcomes of Tropical Storms to typhoons. & the same growth capabilities of complex systems, create the transforms relative to emergence in complex living systems as well. Turbulent flow is created by this constant adding up and proliferation of events.
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This omission of real data, ignoring existing events has serious implications for aircraft  flight. As mentioned above, wind tunnels give a highly linearized kind of flow, which is NOT what’s seen in the real life of turbulent flow, i.e., winds. Thus the efficiencies of such wings are just about ONLY seen at higher velocities, rather than the lower. As the fixed wing planes fly slowly, the wind flow over wings is necessarily more turbulent. As they speed up, it becomes more linearized. This creates a problem at lower speeds, too, because the fixed wings are designed for high velocity. But, and this is the key point, slowing down and landing and speeding up from stopped to lift off and beyond are NOT as linear. That’s largely what creates the most crashes which are very often seen at take off and landings. These observations should have  very profound effects upon wing and aircraft design, as well. And are why it’s also good to fly into a head wind when landing and taking off, not just because in the latter it slows the craft down, but in the former,  it rapidly increases the linearity and diminishes the turbulent flow, too!! It’s not just a linear phenomenon, we see. & with VTOL’s was an early problem with acceleration and take off, too.
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This is important because it’s at lift off and taking off, as well as at landings that MOST crashes take place. That is, during the not linear wind flows around those fixed, linear wings, where down and up drafts, cross currents, and other normal wind phenomena of turbulent, chaotic wind flow, easily and provably observed takes place. Thus many plane crashes are a result of wings and lift which mostly work best in linear flows, and tend to crash at other times. Even at higher speeds, hitting the jet stream, or a cross current flow of two intersecting weather systems can do much the same thing, the so called, “clear air turbulence”.
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And there is that turbulent flow problem again.and this is the real point. Birds don’t use fixed wings, and they use moving, complex systems to fly by flapping, changing their wing aned body shapes and movements in many different ways. As those are complex system they have much more capabilities to adjust to cross currents & turbulent flows by adjusting automatically in ways which trial and error systems have found to be effective. & they can even create & perform the most amazing flight acrobatics, as well. As our vector thrust aircraft still being developed, can do a lot of it as well. Thus VT is a more non-linear way of flying because of the unlimited combinations  two thrust vector engines flows can create.
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These VT create non-linear, complex system flight paths which linear jets cannot begin to do, nor compete against. The 90% and 99& kill rates of the vector thrust Indian MIG’s and Sukhoi’s, seen against US F-16 advanced fighters in a mock air battle showed this back in 2004-5. And those have been carefully hushed up and not widely broadcast, because it showed, among other things, that complex system approaches were far, far more capable than linear, fixed wing methods so long used. Similarly, thrust vector missiles and torpedoes also have such capabilities, because they are not subject to linear flying and sailing which their target must be. & can outfox anti-missile systems which expect inertial and linear flight paths.
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But how can we deal with turbulent flow? & that’s been the problem of solving and understanding turbulent flow problems. It’s rather simple in fact, and goes to the heart of how we know what we know, that is, our epistemological assumptions. Our cortices can solve those problems by a simple series of methods using comparison processes. They find the stabilities in complex systems, those repeating events which can be seen again & again, recognized, remembered and recalled without limit. Those observations, which the birds have made with their 220 millions years of gliding and flight and have passed into their instinctual complex system of flight skills created by their nervous systems. Those modify wing shape and movements to minimize the interruption of flight every 5-10 ms. or so. Which linear system, fixed wing aircraft cannot possibly do. That’s the secret. Our complex system brain outputs ignore linearity and looks for stabilities (most often created by least energy effects) and patterns which they can recognize, and within those create a working, practical, trial and error driven model of efficient flight. Surely it takes longer to develop and use, but they don’t crash that often as do our aircraft and are at home in flight through turbulent conditions because rather than trying to linearize it, they take advantage of all of the unlimited options to fly with greater safety, skills and abilities than fixed wing, mere machines can do.
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This is what a consideration of weather vanes can show. And once we realize those facts, find the appropriate answers/solutions, then the crashes at take off and landing due to turbulent flow will simply disappear, largely. These are the practical benefits of complex system thinking replacing highly limited, incomplete and not very capable linear thinking.
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Weather is also complex system of multiple factors of wind speeds and directions,  of humidity, density and temps of air, and their complex interactions. As a result the huge numbers of weather of all types cannot be understood very well using linear methods. Thus we have found, that like the simpler complex systems of dice, and the more complex systems of quantum mechanics, that we must use probabilities, which find more of the stabilities and repeating events which lead to understanding. Once again, our ability to input the outputs of events to find the higher order and relationships, which creates our hierarchies of understanding our weather. The seasonal temp changes, the more rain in the spring where cooler and warmer more humid weather creates rain, thunderstorms, even hail, lightning and tornadoes, those attendant dangers, which weather forecasting can develop and use to more cleanly predict what’s going on. Thus we can better guard ourselves against flooding, lightning strikes, powerful storms, wind & hail damage and so forth. Probabilities are one way which we can better deal with, by trial and error outcomes, bad weather and good, heat and very cold weather, as well. It introduces more predictability using math probabilities, than is possible with linear methods. Using the far, far older and still workable comparison processing of recognition and then pattern recognitions. Indeed most math models are developed from the earlier recognition and pattern recognition models as has been shown in Relativity, which was first created by recognition systems, and THEN mathematized after the fact by Minkowski and Einstein. This is where our sensory information has been converted to mathematical forms, although highly linear methods, which also miss a lot of the complex systems details, too.
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With respect to the linearization of complex systems in which medications/drugs are used, this also shows this same kind of epistemological shift from linear systems, that is, drug “side effects”, which are in fact complex system effects. & calling them side effects, simply ignores, oversimplifies, and misses the outcomes needed to increase understanding without limit. Have discussed this before in:
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Peruse about 1/2 way down the article to the paragraph beginning:
“Lets use a clear, medical application of complex systems thinking….. “
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But suffice it to say, the linear method of “take the pill” and ignores the “complex system effects”, is best replaced by complex systems thinking, a far, far better way of doing things, & is leading to a new pharmacology, where multiply active drugs, have far, far more beneficial effects, that just one, linearized pill, & with fewer side effects. More likely, it uses widely those “side effects” & can be our friends. & as current research shows bacterial drug resistance is being attacked by using just those methods. Understanding the deeper ambience, the myriads of milieus of complex systems, allows us to give a dual drug, which blocks the beta lactamase used by resistant bacteria against the highly effective class of penicillins and cephalosporins.
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Thus the PCN starts to work again. & there are other mechanisms which can be used, such as triple therapies, long used in TB and Staph infections, among the more common and earlier forms of drug resistant bacteria. Using 3 antibiotics together in different combinations can create a kind of complexity of interactions, most notably, that the bacteria will have a very hard time figuring out and adjusting to. The trinary method creates, as N = 3 or greater, a complexity of such vastnesses, it’s all but impossible to overcome, therefore. We use complexity against bacterial resistances, in other words. We make the combinatorial complexity too great for bacteria to very easily overcome!! Thus complex systems thinking, extending our models well past the linear “take the pill” with the least side effects (ahem!) approaches.
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This is also how sildenafil can be made to last 3 days. And how drug resistances of most all types can be attacked and blocked. By using 3 or more meds which attack HIV, much more is attained, as well. Complex system approaches, which have been created by trial and error. & sadly those using them haven’t any kind of good model to understanding WHAT they are doing, and why and how to expand greatly with this complex system knowledge to create unlimited amounts of further, useful approaches & work. This is the power of complex system understanding and knowledge and why this can go & grow, without limit, too.
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Largely, though, what we create is what we are looking at. We mistake the “precision” of our figures for something which actually does not exist!  We linearize the outputs by least mean squares, and then admire the accuracies we achieve. This is false reasoning and not the case. The linear points from which we artificially create a line from, by “least mean squares” methods. The measuring of high exponents numbers of events, which we then create a very tight, supposedly highly accurate figure, which disappears when we only measure a few of those points. We sum up endless measurements and get a very tight figure for “cee”, but if we measure only a few photons, we find that those photons are travelling both below and above light speed.  Gleich discussed much of this in his “Chaos” book. The scatter of points so often found in experiments, and then linearized using a lest means square line drawn through all those point is omitting, ignoring and missing actual events.
Extending this further, this is the light speed problem in a nutshell. When 10 exp.30 photons are measured, a very, very tight, linear speed of light is obtained. But this is an illusion. When 10-20 photons ONLY are measured, the velocities will likely be both FTL and slower, too. There will be a distribution of photon veolocies, NOT each photon traveling at ONLY Cee!.  This is the source of the illusion which linear methods create. When Eugene Wigner in his article published in 1955 showed that helium atoms tunneling out of a radio-isotope did not ALL stay below light speed, but that some were transluminal, his findings were ignored and physicists refused to come to grips with the Procrustean bed linearizing of events in existence, which they were doing.
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The summation is not real, the certainty and precision are created by our methods, which hides the awful truth that at the quantum level of events, such precision is NOT possible. This has been shown before when we measure events of specific types again and again, with more and more precise methods which cost more and more to do. Eventually we reach the limits of our precision, but we fail in finding that last digit. The Law of diminishing returns kicks in, as it has in particle physics, trying to reach the end of the exponential barrier of light speed, and we miss what’s going on. We are looking at the forced results of our methods, not necessarily at events in existence. We are looking at the outcomes, the limits to our methods, not necessarily events in existence. We create the Procrustean bed of linearity, forcing events of all sorts into a straight line, when in fact, those events are not likely so.
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Let’s carry this further. By measuring each event with the series of measuring methods, as has been stated before many times, we at first eyeball the length, and get an approximation, say 8 inches. Then we use a good tape measure or rule and get the length to say 8 1/4 in. Then we use a very fine metal draftsman’s rule, and get it to about 8 9/32ths. Then a finer metal rule to 8 & 17 64ths. Then we use a micrometer and get it to 8.25773. But at each level, no matter if we use a light microscope, an electron scope, or use light interference to measure down to nanometers, we still have in each case of meauring, the +/- error of measurement, and each method costs more and more. We are aproaching the rule of diminishing returns, the exponential barrier limit of most all measurements. There is NO final digit possible to be found. There is always a limit to our measurement! Events in existence are not likely to be measurable to any final digits. Further with changing temps and pressures physical characteristics of objects will, at microscopic levels, change shapes & sizes as well. Most all events are very likely irrational numbers due to these limits in our measuring methods, intrinsically.
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And this is the point, linearizing events in existence imposes a Procrustean bed of unreality upon them. Colors are NOT a visible, linear spectrum of wavelengths and energy and Planck’s constant, and energy, AKA E=h times nu. Walk into a paint store and look at their huge collections of color palettes, which mix up all those wavelengths with combinations of colors NOT seen in the EM spectrum, nor even hinted at. And the unlimited gray scales between black and white, all of which create the unlimited vastnesses of colors which are detectable by our eyes. The realities of what colors are much more likely to be. Mixtures of spectra of light photons of varying numbers at many frequencies, combined with both white to black and all the unlimited shades of grey, fixed by the quantum emission events of electron levels, and in some cases nuclear gamma radiation, too.
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This is the problem. Photons making up colors are much, much more than a linear scale of light frequencies. They are in fact combinations of photons of many frequencies, which we can both see, detect and often not detect. Our eyes see at a macroscopic level, which sums up and misses most all of this unimaginable detail and indeed created synthetic colors, such as brown, and mixes red with blue and gets violet, and blue and green and gets aqua & various shades of turquoise, too. Colors are constructs of our brains. We miss most of the details in terms of the numbers photons of light at each frequency, and in fact we cannot begin to measure that complexity, either. And there is NO final digit to brightness, nor the mixtures of frequencies, either. Light is NOT a linear scale but saturation, numbers of photons, and kinds and numbers and intensities of photons, you see. And none of those have ANY final digits, either! Events are essentially irrational numbers at a deep quantum level.
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But understanding this, we can see beyond the highly simplified, linear series  of low and high frequencies of light. Just as we can see beyond linear number lines, to the more complex events which lie behind temperatures, which are essentially simplified down to speeds of particles and atoms. Near absolute zero, which we cannot EVER reach, characteristics change. Bose-Einstein effects take place which are NOT predicted by classical physics. Near light speed, characterizations change, too. In either case our reality is within a well at either end between an exponential barrier of Cee and the same at absolute zero. Whence come these events? There is something beyond absolute zero as well, which our linear methods do not account for, too.
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But cee can be exceeded, because measurement of photons and QT of alpha particles, helium atoms from radioisotopes, shows FTL, which creates the average of light speed, does it not? We are summing not ONLY up from below light speed, but above it, to create the statistical exact light speed.  Cee is a tight figure because we use so many orders of magnitude of repeated measurements to make it that way. But on either side of cee, there are still photons moving both below and above. Accordingly, QM states that cee is a statistic, NOT an absolute. Thus we get “beyond the absolutes”!! Our models are not complete!!
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The same is true of pressure measurements. At normal STP we see solids, liquids and gases, all of this on the linear scale of pressures and temps. But it’s complex and is temp and pressure dependent, and NOT linear. At very high temps we see plasmas, and not gasses. And at very high pressure we get this hierarchy, which is quantized, of solid, compressed solids, including the unusual compounds not seen at earth surface pressures. The white dwarf star matter, then neutron stars, and then finally black holes. The latter two of which likely evaporate due to quantum fluctuations of neutron –> proton, energy, electrons and antineutrinos. And the black holes which evaporate by violations of the fact that some particles and photons will escape from the black hole in pairs, when they exceed cee. Compare and contrast this with evaporation of radioisotopes, which also Qu. Tunnel particles out of the highly compact nucleus, where high densities slow down processes such as neutron decay times. Within many isotopes, the neutrons are not limited to about 15′ of life, but as far as we are concerned, an unlimited life span, within a high gravitational field.
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Yet another limit is the way our cortical columns (CC’s) process information. We read, and count and speak, linearly, because that’s the way the CC’s work. Thus linearity is built into the system. But by using hierarchically ordered means, we can figure out complex systems by looking at stabilities, and linking those together by CP. This creates & writes the hierarchies of our understanding, and also how we read and speak, linearly. But it gets around linearity by allowing us to understand the patterns, relationships, and associations of those groups of events, by thinking about them visually, and not just by using linear speech, thinking and so forth. These visualization and hierarchical methods, using both taxonomies and hierarchies to order information works a lot better than simply induction and deduction. Thus our recognition systems driven by the higher logic of CP get around the linear to create understanding of complex system by this means.
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In addition, we can parallel process in our minds. It’s built into the system, because we know that some persons can multitask. It’s a skill, tho not common. We know that Julius Caesar was dictating to one scribe while riding, at the same time thinking about what he was going to dictate to the other, and so composed at twice the rate. & because the two groups of composition, they could interact with each other, this allowed a deeper analysis of events to take place. The two dictations were interacting, and the whole becomes more than the two apart.
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In the same way, a chemistry prof could not only lecture to us, but also plan what he was going to do in the lab that coming afternoon, at much the same time. & he could integrate the two when needed, also. As our CC’s DO operate rather independently of each other, although many are connected in real time, this also is a way of rising above the limits of linear thinking and data processing. Indeed we are thinking in real space, while walking down the street; we can be listening to music while writing; and we can also be seeing, while hearing, while talking, much at the same time, too. This vast integration, which might be very possibly creating a complex system of outputs, may in fact be creating the non-linear, complex system which we call consciousness. This then, might be a series of solutions to the problems, of rising above the limits of linear thinking and forward flowing information processing, too, in the CC’s. And sounds a good deal like what the many brain functions going on inside our heads are doing all the time, too.
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We can be aware of our breathing and controlling that, tho it falls back to brain stem, sub-conscious control much of the time. For instance we learn subconsciously to control our breathing while speaking, and must. It’s essential to talking normally, too. Talking means we are moving air thru our vocal chords to make normal speech. Thus, much is being done, as well as lip, tongue and other movements of the palate. These combined activities, multitasking in other words, which we do all the time while playing 10 fingers on a keyboard, show this multitasking capabilities of brains. & not only that, but the player of the keyboard, can simultaneously  listen to the orchestra around him, while playing as well, as do the other member of the orchestra, band, choir, and so forth. All of these events, imply  innate, multitasking, simultaneous activities, which can produce, much, much more by working together, than alone. &  shows thus that the normal brain is likely operating as a complex system, and NOT linearly. Thus we must learn to understand how these multiple tasks are done together, and then extend it in our normal brain activities. Then learn to facilitate it and then teach it to others. This represents yet another way in which we can use visual thinking to extend our understanding of complex systems, too. The unlimited options given us by normal brain, operating well out of the forced, linear methods we can grow far, far too accustomed to, as well.

The Balanced Brain

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/CP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014
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There are a few basic concepts to understand more completely the complexities of neurochemistry. First of all, dopamine is the oldest and most central neurochemical of primate brains. It has upwards of 15-20 receptors with which it interacts, and thus must likely be very ancient to have so many. The D1 and D2 receptors, which largely, respectively mediate Motion and Emotion. In addition, DA is the parent compound of the catecholamines, the precursor of both norepinephrine and adrenaline, from which the former is directly derived.  DA interacts with both NE and Adrenalin receptors as well, and shares many of their alerting, activating, and stimulant qualities.
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Also, it must be understood that it’s the comparative activity of neurochemicals, not just only their absolute levels which determine these activities’ outputs. This is because there are down regulators of DA, such as GABA and Serotonin (5-HT), as well as other catecholamine up regulators. So a modest DA level, but with decline in inhibitory neurochemicals such as serotonin and GABA can produce overexcitation, well past what the actual DA levels would produce. For instance, a GABA setting protein in brain reduces effective GABA inhibition of DA, and may create psychosis or mania, while the DA level really has not changed that much.
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Next, in order to generate information, at least two events must be compared to generate information, just as comparing a length of an object to a measuring scale creates data, so comparing the known major effects of DA with other neurochemicals will create the relationships and information about most all the other neurochemicals, which both share effects of and interact with DA in some ways. Thus we use DA as the major descriptor, the least energy comparison by which we interpret and more completely can understand, in a general framework sort of way, more comprehension of brain neurophysiology and neurochemistries.
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Dopamine (DA) has these multiplicit capabilities as manifested by its many receptors sites, showing its complex systems’ essential nature.
It creates pleasure, and this is well established. DA in too high activity/levels can create an imbalance which creates psychosis and/or mania, which in the “Emotional Continuum” :
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shows how essential it is to understanding emotion. Talking to those who’ve experience such events, they state it was a rich and wonderfully joyous thing. Then did NOT want to lose the mania or psychosis, because it was a highly euphoric state. This observation also explains why taking meds to suppress such states is often resisted by patients as they lose that feeling of “Freude” and pleasure. It’s highly rewarding effect to have high DA activities and levels.
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In addition, high DA levels/activities are associated with increased speed and depths of memory lay downs. The most exciting events we experience, those mountaintop experiences, the dangers and major events of our lives are enshrouded in a high DA state, and we thus rarely forget them, Wild, wonderful, dangerous, or very exciting. DA enhances long term memory, possibly by enhancing synaptic creation by protein synthesis.
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Also, high DA, or indeed high adrenaline as well, creates a euphoria, which can be imitated by opiates, cocaine, amphetamine, endorphines, nicotine, and even the dimethylxanthines, such as Caffeine, theobromine, theophylline, tho the latter three are not as strong as the former.
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Also, each those substances may be quite addictive, in various levels, and when levels decline, also result in addictive withdrawal effects, from mild in caffeine and its congeners, to moderate in nicotine, and rather severe in opiates, cocaine, etc. These withdrawals also reinforce the addiction because getting “high” again will ablate the highly unpleasant withdrawal states of nausea, illness, headaches, etc., as well as restore that euphoric feeling.

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Often those with high DA activity are anorexic, and lose appetite, as it’s a potent anorexic agent, as are nicotine, amphetamines, etc. The implications of this for anorexia nervosa treatment is significant, because if that DA activity is high, it can be blocked with DA inhibitors, such as the haloperidols, and so forth.  Orexin effects can also be a source of this condition, but operates via the older, deeper DA systems creating appetite suppression and satiety.

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Inhibiting DA will also create drowsiness, which is commonly seen with most all DA blockers, as well. Thus DA is a very well described alerting agent in brain among the neurochemicals, as are the other catecholamines and those agents which release them.
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In addition, DA is known to be addictive as well, as giving large doses of L-dopa, will create problems with addictive withdrawals upon stopping higher L-dopa use in Parkinson’s patients. In addition, fava beans have a moderate amount of L-dopa in them and thus can be addictive in themselves, perhaps accounting for some of the popularity of fava beans and humus.
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DA can create nausea and vomiting, as anyone has seen with a flight or fight response of bilateral adrenal discharges released in dangerous, threatening, or modest to severe injuries. Strength, performance and speeds enhancement occur with this survival response, as well. & many of the opiates create serious nausea, too. although the anandamide receptors (via, for instance,THC)which can create euphorias also, creating increased appetite, pain control, and control nausea to some extent. Thus we learn by those chemicals which create & modulate DA effects, more of the entire aspects of DA, itself. We learn by comparison, and create knowledge and information by these fruitful comparisons.
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Those persons often will throw up with high DA effects, and in addition, are highly resistant to pain. PCP users are notable for this pain resistance, and nothing but a strong taser will slow them down. Thus DA has significant pain relieving activity, and notably modest with dimethyl xanthines, nicotine, but more pronounced with opiates (both exogenous and endogenous), and cocaine, as well.
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The association of euphoria producing drugs with pain control is well known, and this is yet again another DA effect, centrally.
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The association of DA with higher creativity is well known. And if the DA gets too high it can also create madness. Thus, the well known association between madness and genius of this type. And the creativity of many highly talented persons is associated with a DA profile very much like that of a schizophrenic, though those affective characteristics are controlled in some way, so they do not come out as mania or madness of frank psychoses. Creativity and inspiration are thus DA characteristics as well. And those drugs associated with this kind of DA stimulation can also promote creativity, though with a cost, as is well known with such stimulant drugs: addiction, death, psychosis, and so forth. Heart attacks with overstimulating effects of the catecholamines are well known. For this reason very little coffee or even chocolate are allowed patients in coronary care units.

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The well known “roid rages” seen in males who use huge amounts of androgenic steroids, show how very widely originating DA stimulation effects can be. And in estrogen usages, or menapausal withdrawal of estrogen, psychoses and related mental disorders can also, clearly be observed. And “roid rage” and those menopausal disorder ARE successfully, confirmably and repeatedly treated with major tranquilizers, as more confirmation of this wide range of substances whose multiplicit effects, show the complex systems at work. Thus, the balanced, brain.

In addition, testosterone can create an aggressiveness often seen in younger men, shortly after puberty, which may persist unless socially better controlled. Almost all of those males who “burn rubber” creating the squealing tires effect are young. Few women do that, either.
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Recently a “Y” chromosome of a highly specific type was reported in 50% of the men in Europe, having a common male ancestor. For that much growth and spread of the few genes on the Y, it must have been potent indeed, creating substantial advantages, Least energy effects, which created its stupendous growth. Y chromosome is uniformly associate with 4-5 fold higher androgen levels after puberty in most all males compared to women. Thus the complex system effects of sex hormones in creating advantage of enough of a value to perpetuate itself and grow to this degree, is likely a possible reason for its growth and success.
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Let us take a number of clinical states, such as sleep/wake cycles, migraine headaches, and in a later article, on the pain complex system of DA, opiates and endorphins, and the neurokinins. This will explain the bases of pain control as a complex system strategy, rather than just taking a single medication, & instead of the usual, linear, and too limited approaches to DA disorders and related conditions.
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During wakefulness, DA levels and activities are rather high. However, as the day wears on, esp. with hard physical labor, a certain amount of sleepiness can occur. Because the DA and 5HT interact in a balanced way, as DA activity declines, the person normally becomes more drowsy and tired, & very often a nap will restore normal wakefulness. Thus, the 5HT effects will rise when DA activity declines. And alertness will rise, as DA effects are enhanced, as caused also with nicotine, dimethyl xanthines, and so forth. This also is another case of the “balanced brain” where effects are activities levels modulated by other neurochemicals, being stimulants or sedatives.
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IN fact, it’s rather interesting that humans have what are termed nicotinic receptor sites, when nicotine is NOT found in the brain at all!! This indicates that there is something in the brain, normally, which activates those receptor sites, and in doing so, creates similar effects as do nicotine, including withdrawal and addictive effects, as well as with higher doses (as with Strychnine), delusional, manic states, and often seizures. Thus, since DA is the major stimulant widely employed endogenously,(it will awaken some comatose patients when given IV to raise BP) the primary nicotinic neurochemicals must be the catecholamines. There is NO endogenous nicotine found in human brain.
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Why then are nicotinic receptors sites discussed? What do those receptor site ACTUALLY bind to? And why is this question never really addressed? But it does strongly imply a relationship between muscle activity and acetylcholine and dopamine. We know that the strength of those who are in high DA states is far, far greater than normally seen. PCP and other manias are seen to do this. Stories of flight and fight responses from Adrenal release are well known. The increased aggressiveness of those with high DA activity/levels is also well known. Thus, the secondary neurochemical in muscle activation is likely DA as well as ACh. The evidence has been there for years, tho and hasn’t really been well understood, either. But these are extreme cases, but nonethless real, observed, and repeatedly seen events showing almost supernormal strength. DA is likely behind this as well as adrenaline.
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For this reason, as we know that stimulants necessarily mimic DA, and that DA creates addiction if in high levels/activities, then the so called nicotinic receptors are in fact, partial DA receptor sites.  External nicotine when administered, activates these sites to produce addictions, some euphoria, appetite suppression, and can create withdrawal effects, as well. Thus the DA spectrum is partially, again, mimicked by nicotine. And that’s the whole key.
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In terms of pain control, euphoria is found with elevated DA levels/activities, as with amphetamines, cocaine, PCP, and even with THC, which is the anandamide receptor, tho that is endogenously produced and often released with stress and flight or fight responses, but short lived. Where DA activity is imitated, or mimicked, then we have found, as with opiates, a cross reactivity with the DA primary sites, in most cases. Thus the nicotine receptors Are NOT actually such sites, but ALSO cross reactive with where DA is also active, either primarily or as a moderator.
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This fact is also strongly reinforced by this observation, clinically, that DA can create nausea, as can any of the catecholamines in high doses, but that they also create pain control as well. This explains why the nicotinic agonists, epibatidine and its analogue nicotinic agonist tebenacline both are powerful pain reducers, too,  200 and 50 times as effective, mg./mg. as morphine sulfate, the baseline pain control drug we use to measure pain reduction (again, comparison process!!). They act as DA analogues, and kill pain as well, but without the addictive side effects, tolerance, although they do create nausea, as do opiates and DA.
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We see partial DA spectral effects with many other meds as well, thus showing the overlaps with DA effects of stimulation. We also begin to understand why the aspirin in some compound drugs, are given with caffeine (Anacin)to enhance pain control, as well, This, too is no accident, but complex system effects acting, which we can see, once we detail the full DA effects of stimulation, pain control, appetite suppression, nausea, increased BP and heart rate, etc. When we measure by comparison other drugs against the DA profile of multiplicit effects, we begin to see more deeply into the neurochemical systems in our brain & how they interact and act.
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Thus we can see why DA operates in the nicotinic receptor sites, when there is NO nicotine in brain to activate them!!
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We see depressions with beta blockers, but why does no one ask how this happens? Because beta blockers block catecholamine effects, the DA is also affected in some cases and thus depression occurs, as partial spectrum of DA effects. Thus the alpha and beta adrenergic receptor sites are ALSO DA receptor sites. This adds about 4-5 more receptor sites to the DA family as well. Plus the nicotinic sites, too.
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Then when we discuss sleep, we must make a model of DA and 5HT and how they interact. The drowsiness which occurs is when the lowering DA level/activity occurs, unmasking the 5HT (and GABA) sedating effects. When GABA is low in activity/levels, mania and psychosis can be produced.
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So when drowsiness occurs, the 5HT may then increase in activity as well as in levels, & the person sleeps for a while. Then awakens when the DA returns more towards normal activities, too. And we can dream during naps as well.
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And that is interesting, because as we awaken partially during normal sleep, the 5HT activity is high and we cannot awaken fully. But the cortex is activated and normal activity during dreaming is seen there. Thus dreaming is a state of heightened DA activity while 5HT is high and one cannot fully move, nor get up.l
How does one explain hypnosis? DA activity stays high enough to be able to hear the hypnotist, but a sort of dream state occurs, and can encode suggestions which act as post hypnotic states. This is largely what’s happening as we know that memory encoding is enhanced during sleep, too. So we dream due to higher DA activities plus heightened 5HT levels, which maintain sleep long enough to get enough rest and not to increase muscle activity. The combinations of Da and 5HT are more than just a few, but also multiplicit as their receptors sites show.
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The facts are, when we are asleep, we are NOT comatose nor fully asleep. This is easily shown by nocturnal bladder and bowel control, and the fact that we do NOT roll out of bed!! Even when we are asleep, parts of our brains are wakeful enough to do these unconscious acts, preventing bed wetting, and falling out of bed, too. Children often do not have these systems fully matured until after 5-6 years old and are often at risk of falling out of bed, too. But few adults do, either.
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Nor are we in total paralysis during sleep, because we move around in the bed at night as time lapse photography has shown, confirmably and repeatedly in sleeping people. Why does this happen? So the body does not get pressure palsies, or bed sores due to too much lying in one position. These ARE seen with paralysis total as well as drug and often Ethanol induced comatose states, as most clinicians quite well know by multiple, confirming observations.
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Thus while asleep, apparently we move, the sleep paralysis is temporarily lifted to allow some movement, & sleep paralysis recurs. But bladder/bowel control are not lost, and neither do we fall out of bed!! These observations which are fairly straight forward and clear, put to rest the belief that sleep is a simple, not complex system state. And it also explains rather well hypnogogic states, as well. It’s more complicated than that, but it provides insights into how the other brain states change and highly influence our behaviors via DA and 5HT, among others.
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Brain is in a balanced state with the core pillar of brain activity being DA for both motion and Emotion. It’s balanced with GABA to maintain sanity and decreased delusional states. It’s balanced with 5HT to create wakefulness and drowsiness, signaling to us via yawning that we need to sleep. Thus yawning is a declining DA level/activity associated with a normal to rising 5HT activity. It often precedes sleep, very likely. Simple, simplifying and highly problem solving. Comparing the KNOWN effects of DA to the other neurochemicals to gain deeper and greater understanding and knowledge about how the brain works.
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Thus, the balanced brain.
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All of this suggests the root of anorexia nervosa, as a high DA activity level, with the delusion states of “being fat” when the person is not. The appetite suppressant effect is very apparent by the extreme weight loss. Thus simple, effective DA blockers currently available will suppress the anorexia, and begin to ablate the delusions of being fat as well. Anorexia is a too high DA activity/level brain disorder, and should be approached as such. No doubt this insight will result in much better understanding of AN, how to treat it and by T&E show more of its complex neurochemical bases, rooted in DA over-activity, at least.
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Sleep disorders are often seen with manias, depressions and related conditions. This should not be surprising. A normal sleep pattern in the circadian rhythms of cycling DA levels/activities, modulated by serotonin. The interesting fact that raising 5HT levels in depressions using SSRI’s shows this codependency of normal sleep with 5HT upon DA, as well. Getting better sleep allows the DA levels to be more normally repleted over night, and thus helps one side of the neurochemical balance equation to return to normal, thus pulling the person out of depression better. Depression IS a complex system disorder, thus neatly explaining the whole spectra of presentations and seemingly unlimited ways of presenting itself. PLUS showing that simply elevating DA activity via a MAO anti-depressant will NOT fully cure/treat the condition. Nor will SSRI’s, either. Thus the stage is set to more fully understand migraine headaches and How those must be treated more successfully using the complex system neurochemical approach, which we use to treat depressions in their fullest variations and nearly unlimited forms.
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Migraines are complex system neurochemical disorders. There are a huge variety of kinds of this, as well, thus complex system traits being apparent. What seems to occur in migraines is that the 5HT level drops, thus releasing the stimulatory effects of the visual scotomata and the other positive effects of DA being unbound and over active.
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In addition, the visual cortex in migraineurs has a peculiarly low threshold to magnetic stimulation causing visual scotomata, when so stimulated. Normals do NOT have this. Thus the migraineur has a 5HT neurochemical variant, which from time to time, will drop the 5HT level/activity and in some cases, create, guess what? The fingerprint spectra of DA being released from inhibition. There will be nausea, which must be treated. There will be pain from vasodilation, the usual throbbing ha’s. There is the spreading depression of Leao seen over the cortex, which ignores and passes over the arterial supply, thus showing an inhibition of normal cortical activity,quite independent of blood supply patterns. There can be seizures about 10% of the time, showing that normal cortical inhibition is gone, and DA activation has occurred as well. The migraineur in an acute attack is NOT interested in eating, either, not just because of nausea, but because of the DA effects increased by decreased 5HT, unmasking DA signs!!
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In addition, many migraineurs will take coffee, and caffeine is often added to ergots to enhance their activities against a migraine. The inflammation which occurs with migraines is often seen. Thus migraines are complex system, neurochemical effects, whose effects are better detailed when compared to DA effects, enhanced or so forth.
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MIgraineurs may be highly perfectionistic persons, because the DA is unmasked in part by lowered 5HT activity. This also goes along with the syndrome of DA hyperactivity as well, but migraines may well enhance inspiration as well as creativity, even intelligence. How else to explain why the gene is present in about 20% of many women, although in males much less expressed. Understanding that it’s a complex system also explains why a single drug approach so often fails to fully control the migraine.
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It used to be we used ergots to control it, to some extent, tho there were side effects, and a tolerance developed, often. Just like tolerance to addictive drugs. Also rebound HA’s came about in tandem. Ergots were largely thought to create more vasoconstriction to control the pounding arterial HA’s like nitrate HA’s which can imitate migraine’s pounding, throbbing pain. BUT, and this is the point, the universe is subtle. The ergots do NOT fully control migraine, and ergots ARE 5HT agonists as well.
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Even the strokes we seen occ. with migraines are a result of the complex system biology, because the platelets contain a LOT of 5HT, and if they discharge will raise 5HT levels & technically could partly treat migraines. But that causes clotting and thus the strokes seen with migraines to some extent, with or without the use of ergots or much else.
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For instance, even if we used the newer tryptans which now exist in a wide variety from slow onset but prolonged action, to fast onset but shorter activity, we see only about 2/3 of migraines responding well. This again, shows that even though the 5HT agonists work, they do not work much more than 2/3 of the time, which means complex system neurochemistry in going on in the brain. 5-HT agonists are NOT the whole story of migraines!!
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The key to understanding this is to understand the full panoply of drug treatments for migraines: the tryptans, the DA blockers, the anti-inflammatories AND the muscle relaxants, plus an anti-nauseant, AND the amitriptyline antidepressants as preventatives when taken largely at bedtime, to sleep.
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Does this complex spectrum at All sound familiar? Nausea AND appetite suppression. The DA activity is unmasked and enhanced by the 5HT plus effects. Thus using a potent anti-nauseant, which is oral, and very fast acting, with the 5HT agonists, or by itself in more mature migraineurs, we can get a close to a 90-100% control rate of migraines.
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When we consider that there are sleep disorders with migraines, helping the person sleep better and more regularizing in the normal diurnal cycles, (NO night shift work!), we can better control them, too. Now this will not ignore Orexin and other neurochemicals, but simply how those too will fit into the DA/5-HT balanced brain model to help control migraines.
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We’ve known for years that chlorpromazine with its massive DA blocking capacity blocks both the nausea and directly the migraine HA’s too. The sleep it induces of itself will substantially treat a migraine. But because of its side effects, we choose not to use it except when, if the migraine goes on too long without effective RX & a migraine rescue is needed, then the whole panoply of the complex system migraine effects are shown.
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Thus the domperidona plus tryptans methodologies. Those, by themselves, block most all migraines, which is not generally known. But we must recall the neurokinins that get going as well, which create pain, directly, create vasodilation and the throbbing pains. Thus Anacin may work pretty well partly, but only 50-60% or so, too. Showing once again, even those there is caffeine with Aspirin, only partial treatment works, in this case, also.
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So here we have the major components: the dropping of the 5HT, which creates the DA effects, occasionally seizures as well, and the scotomata. Then we have the inability to sleep because the migraine is too strong, due to DA overstimulation and activity. & unless the person can sleep, the migraine will be longer lasting. Thus sleep has an effect to restore the balanced brain by raising 5HT levels. & we do this with sedatives such as Fiorinal (APAP plus Butalbital), using a barbiturate to induce sleep, as well as sedate & suppress the overactive DA effects.
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Thus we see very clearly, using the comparison process via comparing with DA, the 5HT effects, the entire spectrum of migraine HA’s in all those full panoplies of presentations, symptoms and signs.
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I had a patient who did well with domperidona alone, but noted if he took an Aleve, the HA went totally away. He had more neurokinin effects than most, and if THOSE get going, then the HA is very resistant to drug alleviation, too, with only the Tryptans. Thus fast treatment at onset of migraines is essential to control. Once the migraine train of events gets going too much, it’s hard to control it from getting worse. & multiple meds are usually needed to block the HA.
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So we have 5HT withdrawal effects, and unmasking of DA effects of nausea, anorexia, decreased pain control because DA is overbalanced, and so forth. Then the neurokinin effects of throbbing HA’s plus the inflammatory effects, locally in brain, best treated with whatever is effect and safe for the patient to use, aspirins, NSAID’s or whatever works best. Then the muscle spasms and pain effects as well, best Rx’ed with sedation, sleep and acetaminophen is some form or combination.
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Most migraineurs except in familial forms, are different. They present in the full complexity of the system in a wide range of forms. All the myriad ways of complex systems. And understanding that it’s NOT a linear condition, but complex system, allows us to not only better understand the wide range of migraines, but also how to best treat it NOT as a linear, single condition, but 5HT declines in actvities/levels, causing DA interactivity, and then neurokinin release, & a sleep disorder, and the muscle tension aspects of it as well, PLUS the nausea from DA unmasking by lowered 5HT activity/levels, etc.
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Extending this model to most other disease states, ignoring the linear models which ignore the complex system nature of most all medical conditions, will result in much more successful prevention, treatment and avoidances of the many, many complications of migraine, such as loss of work time, handicapping otherwise productive persons, strokes, seizures, and long term chronicity, as well. Because if the system simply gets used to having migraines and these recurrent behaviors become ingrained & learned, then those are ever harder to treat, as well. HA’s can be behaviorally learned, indulged, and self-promoted to occur. It’s complex system!!!
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These are the benefits in the long run of considering the “Balanced Brain” approaches to a more mature, more effective and better treatment using the CP, complex systems, and DA as the parent neurochemical in the brain, with whose effects, by comparison with the other neurochemicals, we can far more easily understand much, much more the complex neurochemistry/neurophysiology of brain.
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Will not go into the sleep disorders, too, although those are largely associated with depressions, mood disorders, and many other conditions. But those too, are amenable to the complex system, comparison process approaches for improved understanding and treatment.