Melding Cognitive Neuroscience & Behaviorism

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/CP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014

Cognitive Neuroscience and Behaviorism can now be significantly joined by using the models in the previous articles. Comparison processes, Least energy, Complex systems, and Comparison methods which exist without limit, can be combined in a more comprehension model of the higher cognitive functions. lastly, the Structure/function relationships which allow us to identify areas in brain which subsume the higher abstractive functions, such as language/math, thinking and reasoning; vision, and other senses, motion and skilled acts;, etc. Essentially, the many higher cognitive functions which create and make up when combined and integrated, our consciousnesses, i.e., how we structure and understand events around us and within us..

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Comparison process is a universally applicable function, and virtually everything within and without the nervous systems can be compared and contrasted to other events as well. The CP creates the comparison methods, which were widely and well described by Dr. Paul J. Stark, dept. Chair, Statistics, Univ. Cal. Berkeley, and has been referenced numerous times before.
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Dr. Stark writes of the “ubiquity” of the comparison method(s), which are available, and cut across most fields, making the CP consilient, and virtually universally applicable worldwide.
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 In addition, when we look at our adjectives, which are used to describe most all events, as well, we find the series “high, higher, highest, low lower lowest; cold colder coldest, hot, hotter hottest”, without limit, from the base forms, some, more, most. The first base form is that. The last the “-st” forms, universally used in English worldwide, is the superlative. And the middle form, the “-er” form? The Comparative. There it is again. Very likely all those 3 basic forms are comparison methods as well, with the first setting, then to the highest, or lowest and the rest being comparatively used, universally and applicable to most all descriptive uses. It’s bigger than a breadbox, or hotter than hell, or colder than a freezer, to give some idea of the widest ranges of these comparative terms within our language, called adjectives. Unlimited, as well. Comparison is ubiquitous, it’s universal in our languages, and most all have forms of these same meanings, as well. These are the comparison methods at work in our adjectives, which we use to describe, and measure as well.
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Have previous discussed how the comparison process (CP) is a kind of logic which does NOT use the negative. And have discussed how the negative arose as a specific, likely over extension of the exclusions seen. This insight into the negative as a near universal exclusive form Hofstadter shows how the incompleteness of Godel’s Proof arise from this inconsistency, of “This statement is false.” or “I am a liar”, among all the limitless permutations.
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In contrast, the CP is the original logic, and it’s a logic of exclusion, which is NOT like formal verbal logics and because of this is naturally self consistent. Exclusion is a highly limited form of the negative. And from this logic likely arises what has heretofore been called “inductive logic.” But it’s lots more than mere induction, too.
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The CP does a very great deal as it organizes information in many ways, as well. This was discussed in alphabetization of dictionaries, indices, maps, hierarchies, taxonomies, the IUPAC listing of all known compounds, and elements and their characteristics. & the periodic table of the elements. Also we see the family trees of genealogy, which naturally relates to the taxonomies of both life (Kingdom, phyla, class, order, family, genera, species, and variants of species), and languages, a la the romance languages, the Slavic languages, the Teutonic, Semitic, as well as the overall hierarchy of the Indo-European languages, & those of Asia, as well. All massively CP of the similarities of words to each other, which finds those relationship/associations of words and organizes languages into a genetic order, as well.
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 It’s also the root and method of trial and error. CP does a VERY great deal with a little. Creating, writing our dictionaries, as well as reading them, all by trial and error.
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Please peruse section 8.
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It’s also the origin of data, information and knowledge, and can be very, very easily shown to be the case by this simple, but easily expandable proof using measurement, which is a numerical form of description.  This discussed in the article:
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By measuring, using the epistemology of Einstein’s relativity (relationships), we compare a relatively fixed, stable, useful and efficient scale, such as a meter stick. And compare all lengths against that numerical standard. The output is numerical data, and information. So every time we measure something we are creating new information, be it degrees (comparing to the boiling and freezing points of water in both Centigrade and Fahrenheit scales), or weights (against 1 cc. of water at STP, the gram). Or volumes (against a cc. of water). Or pi as the comparison of the lengths of the circumference and diameter. Or algebras as the ratios & proportions, viz. the Comparisons. Trigonometry compares the angles of the sides of the right triangle, as is a form of algebra as well. It’s endless in mathematics & measuring, endlessly useful and repeatable, as well. A comparison method of immense utility.
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Many concepts and constants in nature are found this way, viz., Pi, the gravitational constant, density, which is gm./cc. ratios, and speeds/velocities, which are km./hour, or minute or second as the case may be. Each of them specific and repeatedly applicable evidences of the wide use of the CP operating in our cortices, producing our mathematics, as well.
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Now examine the verbal descriptions we use, as above with the quasi numericities of high, higher and highest, or short, shorter, and shortest Thus showing how verbal descriptions are converted, translated by comparison process into numericity of the scales arising from our senses, long/short, hot/cold, warm/cool, big/little, etc., without limit. There are 10K’s of these adjectival forms in English and they can be created at will without limit. And in each case of them, these trios are specific and unlimited evidence for the existence of the comparison process repeatedly and provably working without end (La Chanson Sans Fin) in our cortices.
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Observe how we describe colours, ROY G BIV, by COMPARING those universal standards of colour, against which we describe new events by comparison to our standards. & thus create new information/data. Each word, by clear, logical extension  can be seen & understood, as an efficient comparison standard, which when applied to each new event seen, can describe it relatively to those ideas/words which already exist. Description and measurement are two differing methods by which we describe, but both act, at their root, using comparison processes, arising from the cortical language centers.
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Ideas/words most often reinforce each other. The idea is connected intimately to the word, both spoken and now with writing, spelled. Ideas are thus grounded, and reinforced by words, both written & spoken. Ideas become more stable, more usable, more memorable, in these cases. Thus does description using words, act in its own way, as does numerical measuring, to describe events in our existence, both internally or externally. But verbal descriptions are the older system and far, far more flexible. & mathematics as Ulam stated, needs to be much more developed and advanced in order to describe what our words do easily, more flexibly and more universally.
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The cameos of how we think, a guy sitting in the sun. It was a cold day, breezy, so to stay warm, he found a place in the warming sun, out of the wind, and kept warm. The animals know the same, and use it intuitively, such as insects warming in the sun, the seals laying on the beach in sun to warm up from the cold water, & even Dimetrodon whose sail like back structures allowed it to warm up more quickly as ir ran blood thru the sail on is back, and thus warmed up more quickly, too. Thus showing how ubiqutous this is. Altho those animal use, but cannot express what they are doing as we can.
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So the chap thought about it, and this created creativity, by finding through trial and error, methods to warm up and stay warm, too. It’s universal in how we think, as well. CP shows us how to look inside of the brain and see how the mind orders itself and works.
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CP is also the source of how our memories are ordered. Hofstadter has a list of 100’s of words which he’s used erroneously, but which were VERY similar to each other, as evidence of his analogy model of brain processing. But at the root of the analogy, is the comparison process of the entire word cluster of Analogy, metaphor, story, parable, fable, aphorism, koan, etc. All fundamentally comparison process methods, differing modestly, but like the moral laws, the civil/legal laws, the universal scientific laws, and the rules and regs organizing and governing all human groups from the family units up to the means of running schools, churches, corporations and indeed all forms of human groups and associates. The same, massive CP among rules and regs and how we, and events in the universe, behave, and are to behave. From whence comes the moral Conscience as well. All forms all CP methods with the same roots.
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At the roots of mnemonics, most all of them are the comparison processes. The word associations, the tricks of memory, because most all words are, as Hofstadter intuitively saw, are organized by what he missed, the comparison process. Universal, ubiquitous, as Dr. Sharp showed, consilient, La Chanson Sans Fin.
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But how are our verbal memories organized? Clearly not by logic, nor by numbers, but by Sounds. For instance, when we want to use the form, “word”: we can mistakenly use world, or work, as all 3 start the same way. Thus most all words are stored in this hierarchical way, with wor- being a starting form, then we check by T&E for the k, or -ld, or d which we need to find. Because we are searching by T&E we will occ. make a mistake, but as the words are very closely organized, and resemble each other greatly, the information in each allows us to find the right one. Again, information in our “mistakes”, which are not totally wrong. Thus most all words are stored by such sound alike hierarchies, at least at first.
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As we grow older we begin to attach many new relationships and information to each word. As these categories become more complete, reasoning begins to occur about age 12 or so. But take Ohio, for instance. At first it’s simply the 3 syllables, with the 2nd accented. The we learn there are counties there, geographical regions, and that Ohio borders on Michigan to the N, Indiana to the W, PA to the East and Kentucky to the south, on the Ohio River, and W. Virginian to the SE. Then we learn the cities and major counties, the capital, and that it’s on Lake Erie, one of the whole collection of
Great Lakes, too. So when we think of Ohio, all of these connections are available for our thinking. And just as we select what we want to find the words stored by sounds since childhood, so do we create hierarchical chains of memory tracing tying all of these facts together around, Ohio.
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Another example outside of the two ways in which that chap stayed warm, and how he created solutions of staying out of the wind and in the warming sun, synergistically operating. & both which minimize by comparison of outcomes, i.e., trial and error, comes “A mother’s wisdom, the putting together, making connections, the roots of our creativities in most all fields, as well.
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IN addition, there is yet another basic way of using this information. Most of us have had that time when we could not recall a name or word, but we had something close to it, such as when looking for a name we think of Lewis. as stated before, there is information in our mistakes, which is the beauty and value of the CP. Even our mistakes have the information within them to correct those. So we do a permutation search, knowing we are close to the right name, but not on the money. and we see the name Bruce, and it complete it. We were looking for Willis, and we see thus how close it was to Lewis. Just switch the first 3 letters around and there is the answer. There are endless kinds of these queries we can use to find the words/names we want. Just by being aware of it, is often enough to eventually by T&E finding the right combo to lead us to the word searched for.
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Clearly, because words are organized by CP this is how both mnemonic systems work and how we store as well as find the words we seek, tho in a very facilitated way, which of course, is called verbal fluency in language.
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Now combine the comparison processes  and CP methods with least energy, which is a comparison process as well. All actions take energy. We can compare the energy cost of each action against those similar, and find the one which is least energy. That’s the winner. This is a creativity aspect as well, and as stated before, any systems which can be translated to thermodynamic methods ARE very likely to be real. Least energy methods are real, as the source of tgrial and error outcomes of advantage. As the sources of figuring out good solutions to problems, that is decision making. As we compare outcomes, a la Dr. Sharp, we learn which is most effective, and which has least side effects. & which has the least energy costs, least money cost, least wastage of materials, and least time to perform. Least energy, least energy, least energy. Simplify, simplify, simplify outcomes of Henry David Thoreau. As well as  Occam’s Razor, which states, that the model which explains the most, with the least is the most likely to be right. Least energy again. Creativity again. Do you see? CP, CP, CP, LE, LE, LE, outcomes compared to each other for maximizing benefit with minimal costs.
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This article shows how this creates growth from LE processes:
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Having established the fundamental basics of mental processing of information and creation of same, it’s necessary to look at behaviorism and meld this with the cognitive neurosciences. Essentially, behaviorism seeks to explain human actions based upon stimulus/response, the comparison process form very similar to cause/effect, input/output, structure/function, etc., being most all CP forms.
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And this is an extension of behaviorism into the complex system, structure/function model of CP and least energy. In our environment there exist endless numbers of repeating stabilities. Days, hours, sunrises/sunset, trees, grasses, stars and constellations. All fo this are easily and readily seen, recognized and known again and again without limited. The repetitions of events in our existences, the stabilities.
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And how this related to the reinforcement and learnings of behaviorisms is at once very, very clear. Each time we see the same, similar and repeating event, it’s reinforced. We see each stability/event enough times, our long term memory stores it by this constant reinforcement of being sense, again. Be it a word/idea, a kind of bird, a building, a morning/evening star, and so forth. The repetitions of events reinforces those events into our LTM, and this happens naturally and spontaneously. & the more we see any event the faster it’s going to be stored, is not? And is this not learning?  Repetitions of events promote reinforcements of Long Term Memories.
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Now consider these, the neurophysiology of dopamine, the growth and spread of humor and memes, the going viral on the internet, or the creation of fads and fashion. All spread and are created by the same, repeating means. The dopamine boost, as has been described before an an internal reinforcing process driven by dopamine (DA). IN fact, DA will preferentially facilitate laying down of LTM, as well. For instance, we most all of us easily recall the first time we had sex with another. We recall the momentous events in our lives, those wedding, that first child born to us, the dreadful accidents and injuries we had. In each case, there was a huge DA boost, in cases of injuries the flight or fight response, created by release fo DA, adrenalin(DA originated, metabolically), cortisone, anandamide, etc. This forced us to lay down deeply ingraining information into our LTM. DA and catecholamines facilitate us to recall those events. And as such, DA also creates growth, in the same was a the Growth and development article above shows.
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So not only does Least Energy create growth in brains, with fads, fashion, and the spread of humorous stories, memes, and going viral on the Net, but it Synergistically acts with DA to create growth of our ideas, & actions, as well. These are the two brain systems both in competition with each other, but capable of working together. The physical and the emotional (DA drive). DA creates both the Motion and Emotion in our bodies and brains. & when combined with LE processes can substantially promote growth of both sorts in humans, as well. & it applies by easy extension to the animals and plants, and even the creativity of the DNA itself. Because the laying down of LTM is protein synthesis driven and that means DNA activation by DA without question via messenger RNA to create the physical LTM, mediated by neuronal synapses, rather permanent Long Term Memories.
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These internal events have been missed. The external reinforcements of Pavlovian classical conditioning as well as the behavorist discovery of operant conditioning, BOTH operate using LE as well and DA boost. The external conditions effects, are in fact, very likely reinforced and made to work by the DA boost, acting as the final common pathways in learning of most all kinds. The person who is motivated to learn. The pleasures of Philosophy, as Aristotle states, are dopamine boosted. The mother who gives her child sweets while he’s learning so he will be reinforced to learn and LOVE learning, again, internal DA boosting. Thus the DA boost is the internalizing  event of the exterior, visible conditioning events. and not only simplifies our understanding of behavioral reinforcement, but this comparison process explains behaviorism, as well. Providing a cognitive, neuroscientific process which underlies behaviorism and thus in a deliciously efficient, elegant, and simple way, shows how learning occurs.
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The “Eureka” moment of Archimedes. The thrill of victory and the agony of defeat. The mountaintop experiences, and discoveries, all driven simply, easily understood both by LE in tandem with the highly reinforcing and remembering, dopamine boost euphorias.
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Curiosity is likely the same. I recall when my son brought in a lizard in a bottle. and he was very excited. “Daddy, daddy, look what “I” found!” And it passed into his LTM because it was exciting to him, via DA boost. Cognitive activation methods in teaching in school are of the same kind, easily explained by DA boosting of the teaching methods. The “AHA”, again, you see?
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And this is how both cognitive neuroscience AND behaviorist methods can be brought together in a fruitful melding of ideas, Now systems are joined together by the deep connectivity of the comparison process acting within brain/mind.
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And how in “Towards Universal Understanding” the thermodynamics, relativity and QM, when combined with  complex systems thinking, CP and it’s methods, LE, and structure/function relationships can create, potentially, Universal models, which by using the universally applicably Comparison processes and methods, plus Least Energy (universally applicable, too), can unite most all knowledge, and explain most all which is within &  without  our brains/bodies and the universe of events in existence.
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Universal models. The logic of the comparison process.
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La Chanson Sans Fin: Table of Contents

1. The Comparison Process, Introduction, Pt. 1
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/02/14/le-chanson-sans-fin-the-comparison-process-introduction/?relatedposts_hit=1&relatedposts_origin=22&relatedposts_position=0

2. The Comparison Process, Introduction, Pt. 2
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/02/14/le-chanson-sans-fin-the-comparison-process-pt-2/?relatedposts_hit=1&relatedposts_origin=3&relatedposts_position=1

3. The Comparison Process, Introduction, Pt. 3
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/02/15/le-chanson-sans-fin-the-comparison-process-pt-3/?relatedposts_hit=1&relatedposts_origin=7&relatedposts_position=0

4. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 1
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/02/28/the-comparison-process-explananda-pt-1/

5. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 2
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/02/28/the-comparison-process-explananda-pt-2/

6. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 3
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/04/comparison-process-explananda-pt-3/?relatedposts_hit=1&relatedposts_origin=17&relatedposts_position=1

7. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 4
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/15/the-comparison-process-comp-explananda-4/?relatedposts_hit=1&relatedposts_origin=38&relatedposts_position=0

8. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 5: Cosmology
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/15/cosmology-and-the-comparison-process-comp-explananda-5/

9. AI and the Comparison Process
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/20/artificial-intelligence-ai-and-the-comparison-process-comp/

10. Optical and Sensory Illusions, Creativity and the Comparison Process (COMP)
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/03/06/opticalsensory-illusions-creativity-the-comp/

11. The Emotional Continuum: Exploring Emotions with the Comparison Process
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/02/the-emotional-continuum-exploring-emotions/

12. Depths within Depths: the Nested Great Mysteries
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/14/depths-within-depths-the-nested-great-mysteries/

13. Language/Math, Description/Measurement, Least Energy Principle and AI
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/09/languagemath-descriptionmeasurement-least-energy-principle-and-ai/

14. The Continua, Yin/Yang, Dualities; Creativity and Prediction
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/21/the-continua-yinyang-dualities-creativity-and-prediction/

15. Empirical Introspection and the Comparison Process
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/24/81/

16. The Spark of Life and the Soul of Wit
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/30/the-spark-of-life-and-the-soul-of-wit/

17. The Praxis: Use of Cortical Evoked Responses (CER), functional MRI (fMRI), Magnetic Electroencephalography (MEG), and Magnetic Stimulation of brain (MagStim) to investigate recognition, creativity and the Comparison Process

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/05/16/the-praxis/

18. A Field Trip into the Mind

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/05/21/106/

19. Complex Systems, Boundary Events and Hierarchies

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/06/11/complex-systems-boundary-events-and-hierarchies/

20. The Relativity of the Cortex: The Mind/Brain Interface

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/07/02/the-relativity-of-the-cortex-the-mindbrain-interface/

21. How to Cure Diabetes (AODM type 2)
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/07/18/how-to-cure-diabetes-aodm-2/

22. Dealing with Sociopaths, Terrorists and Riots

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/08/12/dealing-with-sociopaths-terrorists-and-riots/

23. Beyond the Absolute: The Limits to Knowledge

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/09/03/beyond-the-absolute-limits-to-knowledge/

24  Imaging the Conscience.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/10/20/imaging-the-conscience/

25. The Comparison Process: Creativity, and Linguistics. Analyzing a Movie

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/03/24/comparison-process-creativity-and-linguistics-analyzing-a-movie/

26. A Mother’s Wisdom

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/06/03/a-mothers-wisdom/

27. The Fox and the Hedgehog

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/06/19/the-fox-the-hedgehog/

28. Sequoias, Parkinson’s and Space Sickness.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/07/17/sequoias-parkinsons-and-space-sickness/

29. Evolution, growth, & Development: A Deeper Understanding.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/09/01/evolution-growth-development-a-deeper-understanding/

30. Explanandum 6: Understanding Complex Systems

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/09/08/explandum-6-understanding-complex-systems/

31. The Promised Land of the Undiscovered Country: Towards Universal Understanding

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/09/28/the-promised-land-of-the-undiscovered-country-towards-universal-understanding-2/

32. The Power of Proliferation

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/10/02/the-power-of-proliferation/

33. A Field Trip into our Understanding

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/11/03/a-field-trip-into-our-understanding/

34.  Extensions & applications: Pts. 1 & 2.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/05/17/extensions-applications-pts-1-2/

(35. A Hierarchical Turing Test for General AI, this was deleted after being posted, and it’s not known how it occurred.)

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/05/17/extensions-applications-pts-1-2/

35. The Structure of Color Vision

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/06/11/the-structure-of-color-vision/

36. La Chanson Sans Fin:   Table of Contents

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2015/09/28/le-chanson-sans-fin-table-of-contents-2/

37. The Structure of Color Vision

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/06/16/the-structure-of-color-vision-2/

38. Stabilities, Repetitions, and Confirmability

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/06/30/stabilities-repetitions-confirmability/

39. The Balanced Brain

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/07/08/the-balanced-brain/

40. The Limits to Linear Thinking & Methods

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/07/10/the-limits-to-linear-thinking-methods/

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41. Melding Cognitive Neuroscience & Behaviorism

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/11/19/melding-cognitive-neuroscience-behaviorism/

42. An Hierarchical Turing Test for AI

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2016/12/02/an-hierarchical-turing-test-for-ai/

43.  Do Neutron Stars develop into White Dwarfs by Mass Loss?https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/02/08/do-neutron-stars-develop-into-white-dwarfs-by-mass-loss/

44. An Infinity of Flavors ?                             https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2017/02/16/an-infinity-of-flavors/