Einstein’s Great Subtleties: Einstein’s Edge

 Einstein’s Great Subtleties; Einstein’s Edge
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 By Herb Wiggins, MD, Clinical Neurosciences; creator/discoverer of the Comparison Process/Methods, Mar. 2014.
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Raffiniert ist Der Herr Gott, aber boshaft  ist er nicht.
 (Subtle is the Lord God, but he is not mean.)
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Preceding every major advance in physics comes an epistemological advance.
(Einstein’s new measuring epistemology)
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Compound interest is the most powerful force in the universe.
(AKA gravitation, least energy collections of mass)
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Our Understanding arises from finding the relationships of events in the universe. –“Physics and Reality”, 1936
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“Almost anything which jogs us out of our current abstractions, is a good thing.”  —Alfred Whitehead
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Gott wurfielt nicht!!  (God doesn’t Gamble. QM’s probabilities are not the case.)
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“Spookie action at a distance” is not the case.  (Quantum entanglement), The EPR Paradox.
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“In order to do good physics, we must put the personal (emotional biases) aside.”
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Einstein’s Thought experiments (Process thinking of Whitehead)  as per Dr. Sagan’s “Cosmos” series Re the similarities of gravity and being in an accelerating field of reference (as in a rocket, or in an elevator)
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Einstein’s “great subtleties” are not just any thing of modest import, but an oxymoron of exquisite depth and sensitivity to how events in our universe can be subtle yet of vast import, viz., the littlest can be VIP, a very important point. Taking a major hypothesis by Wolfgang Pauli best and most easily illustrates this.  When Pauli was working on beta decay, where in a nucleus a neutron decays into a proton and and electron, there was by comparison, a significant difference between the mass/energy measures before and after Beta decay. & this could not be accounted for. Because in any neutron decay it must change to a proton and an electron, both of specific masses, and often carrying significant energies as measurable velocities.. The First Law of Thermodynamics, which is universal and only broken probabilistically, demands that in our universe of events, there is conservation of mass and energy and that no matter or energy can completely disappear or be created. The mass/energy of the neutron MUST, therefore equal the mass/energy of the Proton and electron, but it did NOT!!!
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Thus where was the extra mass and energy found in beta decay? Enter Nobelist Enrico Fermi, who left Italy for political reasons (his wife was Jewish). He postulated, because there was no sign of any particle on the experiments, other than a proton and electron, that a very small neutral particle was carrying off all of the missing mass/energy. And in his work, Fermi named it the Neutrino, Italiano for the “little neutral one”. So small in fact, that it’d be very, very hard to find. So tiny that they despaired of ever finding it. That is, it was a very, very great subtlety, the smallest known relatively stable particle yet it must exist. At last the neutrino was found and it was so small, for years no one knew if it had mass or not.
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But there’s another part of the neutrino story about how the disparity between the numbers of expected neutrinos from the sun’s hydrogen fusion processes gave only 1/3 of the expected neutrinos upon repeated testing (scientific confirmation). That is a very great subtlety, Festinger’s “Cognitive dissonance”, which usually precedes major discoveries and revolutions in the sciences. Very similar to what Thomas Kuhn writes about in “The Structure…..”. The difference between what is expected by a human brain model versus what the universe shows us by experimental testing, checking and finally, confirmation of events in existence, is likely to be going on. Kepler’s realization that Brahe’s “8 minutes of arc” disparity between a round versus elliptical orbit of Mars created the Keplerian revolution in astronomy, as per Kuhn.
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The neutrino is very, very small, and can travel at near light speeds, too. Often reaching terrestrial detectors before a supernova’s light reaches the earth, in many cases. This tiny subtlety gives in fact, a cosmic “heads up” that one of the greatest explosions in the universe, the Supernova, is on its way. Again, the subtlety of the very, almost non-existent mass shows that one of the very biggest events in the universe is on its way. Thus the Neutrino is not once, but doubly a very great cosmic subtlety.
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Yet another huge subtlety of Einstein was his life’s work. Most know of this work on General and Special Relativity, which vast expansion and improvement in physics, for which he never received a Nobel Prize, inexplicably, showed that light speed was a constant and could not be exceeded by fermions, that is normal matter. No matter how much energy we put into accelerating particles or indeed any amount of normal mass, we cannot reach light speed. This is an exponential barrier of great import.
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Please peruse section 6.
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The point is that high speed mass gains energy as it’s accelerated, that it gains velocity of greater and greater amounts. So here Einstein was exploring what went on at the upper end of the spectrum of the heats/energies/velocities of particles of matter. & that is the beginning of his first subtlety. The exponential, asymptotic barrier of light speed placed upon all known masses normally accelerated.
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He by using thought experiments, which will be discussed later, about what it was like to ride on a photon. What was that event like and how those masses would change as they reached closer and closer to light speed?  And here comes the next subtlety.  When the ether was found to be very unlikely to exist, by the MIchelson/Morely experiments, something had to be done. So Lorentz and Fitzgerald created a set of equations, which showed that ether was not needed. But no explanation of why time slowed down at higher and higher velocities, that energy increased as it did, but never reached light speed;  and why length and width, compared to a stationary observer, would be shortened.
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This was as revolutionary as the realization, the putting together of WHY that would occur, because absolute time and space were not real, but time and space were highly likely relative to a set, relatively fixed, stable standards. And in such cases, there could be no absolute space or time.
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Now that insight is quite quite ancient, and goes back 2400 years to Protagoras who stated that “Man is the measure of all things” and that because of this measuring activity, there were not any absolute values of anything. But all was relative to a set, stable set of standards, which can be quite arbitrary. IOW, whether we use meters, inches, stadia or any other measure, the fixed, stable  (TD efficient, least energy) standard eliminated the possibility, very likely, of absolute space. & indeed, absolute time, as well. No total synchronization of events is possible, either. This was part of the major epistemological revolution of Einstein. Preceding every major physics advance comes an epistemological advance.
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But why it should have take 2300 years from 450 BC to 1915 to be realized as likely true, and then developed into a part of physics? It is quite an interesting question, which cannot be answered here.  However, “The Ages of the Brain, Brain Hardwiring”, which will be finished at a future time, will address specifically how this occurs.  Likely, as Max Planck wrote, “Progress in physics proceeds one funeral at a time.” Of which Einstein believed, because it took much time for his new model to be approved of and confirmed, and then still not believed by all others. & of which, he himself, with respect to quantum mechanics to which he held great and life long objections, was an example of himself. Thus, more subtleties, very likely.
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So we have Einstein’s work on the very,  very fast, high velocity, high energy content fermions.  And along that same line, velocity/energy. His next work was on Brownian movement. For a very long time the problem in physics was how particles moved and behaved in bulk. It took years for particles to be seen by their effects and how this worked, too. But Einstein was now looking at it. Visualizing it, and doing thought experiments on it.
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This resulted in his next great work, showing the characteristics, the relationships among events, which created more understanding. In short, atoms were postulated to exist, but no one could see them directly, even tho they were inferred as the most likely, simplest and efficient explanation. In other words, they satisfied the least energy, thermodynamic rule of Occam’s Razor. That is, the simplest hypothetical explanation for an event/phenomenon is that which uses the least new terms, and describes it most completely. Occam’s Razor is thus a least energy solution to most problems. It’s a reality sieve, which allows us to compare most all the hypotheses which can explain an event of types, and then by that simplest explanation, we know it’s highly likely to be the case. That is yet quite another kind of subtlety, that thermodynamics, an aspect of the Second Law, least energy, lies behind the workings & sorting actions of Occam’s Razor. & very likely, most all other energy requiring processes in our universe.
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& so it was left to Einstein, to describe motion in ambient room temps, in gases and liquids which could prove how Brownian motion occurred and that atoms/molecules were the most efficient & simplest explanation of that relationship.  His work showed the connections between chemistry, physics, kinetic movement and thermodynamics. Thus his statement, in “Physics and Reality”, 1936, that our understanding of events arises from the relationships among events in existence. Subtle, simply, easy, elegant and above all fruitful as most all goog models must be.
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Two whit:  x squared = 2Dt; & the conclusions of his extended model by two French men in 1908 and 1909, showed that his model was correct, & accurately accounted for what was seen experimentally. Thus he produced a means by which the atomic/molecule model could be tested, confirmed, because it worked.
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And that is magic!!! How did he know it was correct? We are not told. And these subtleties are accomplished by him time and again, seemingly without end, as will be shown again. Einstein was asked what the secret to his creativity was, and he stated, don’t reveal your sources. And he never has and did not. But looking backwards, we can begin to see what he was doing. How Einstein’s brain/mind was working to create his creativities.
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So now, we have the energies of atoms being increased to near light speed, and in normal, terrestrial conditions the energies/velocities of fermions by his Brownian movement work, but he was Not done yet, not by any means.
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What happens at the other end of the linear spectrum of fermion velocities/speeds/heats/energy content? Near Absolute zero. Again, yet another exponential,barrier! We cannot reach absolute zero. Our universe of events is tightly contained & held between light speed at the top end, through Brownian movement at normal temps, and at the lowest temperatures possible, yet another exponential barrier. How does this come about? How can this be?
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And yet Einstein got there first, with yet another set of subtleties: the Einstein-Bose condensates.  & here once again was his foresighted magic. Growing older, he knew he had to work with younger persons to do his work (CF: EPR), and use all his immense creativity and insights. So about 1925 they published their findings, that at extremely low velocities of matter, atoms and other particles would create a quantum effect where a common quantum state was shared among all those fermion particles trapped in such an ultra low energy state.
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At the time, there was no way to test the Bose/Einstein model. But it was Einstein & so eventually it was found out how to cool atoms to near the opposite of the light speed’s exponential barrier, the asymptotic, exponential barrier of near Zero Kelvin.  It takes, as it does to approach light speed, more and more time, energy, expense & highly developed and efficient methods, such as we find in our particle accelerators, in order to create the very low cryogenic temps which can create Einstein/Bose condensates.  The lowest possible quantum level of energy. So here was Einstein once again exploring the very lowest of energy states, as he had explored the normal energy states of Brownian motion & also those highest possible energy states, near light speed.  & describing the characteristics &  events seen at such ranges of energies from the very high, to medium, to the very lowest.  & it also turned out to explain superfluidity of liquid helium. A Rather remarkable and unexpected outcome. But fruitful as good models must be.
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Those experimental solutions & confirmations of B-E states were first produced about 70 years later by Cornell and Wieman, using some rather expensive and energy intensive methods to create ultra low temperatures.  How did Bose and Einstein know they were right?  What thought experiments did they process to realize that their methods were the best?  No one knows, and that is the magic of Einstein and Bose. & what we will further explore here.
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Einstein stated that compound interest was the greatest force in the universe. Let’s explore that to explain further from the standpoint of astronomical history, and then go into gravitational waves work, as a seguing of his subtleties.
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Taking gravity, it’s least energy. Every single mass which exists has gravity. The larger masses have greater gravity, which can reach out at greater and greater distances than smaller masses. Thus, we have an Interesting case. And when smaller masses are captured by larger masses they fall into it, releasing energy. The energy out from a gravitational field around a mass creates this least energy fall. As it falls, it gives up energy, finally crashing on a surface, and coming to an end of its motion.
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Avalanches show this in short. The mass of rocks and snow, esp. are higher in the mountains. And then something, some landing snowflake, or dislodged rock pushes the snow down a bit, and that more and more moves downhill to the irresistible force of gravity. & so it grows, exponentially, creating a massive rock and snow avalanche so often seen in winter. Visually, do a processing of this event. Cartoon in each of our “Mind’s Eye” this process. The mass of snow begins falling, faster and faster, releasing more and more energy, becoming larger and larger, and then at the bottom of the hill, it slows, pushing a huge amount of air in front of it, and causing all sorts of damage to anything in its path. And then finally comes, but not to a complete rest, and relatively slowly settling and falling here and there. Over some of hours to days, or longer.
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Thus what we have is an exponential growth of falling mass into a gravitational field, which follows a least energy path. That is it’s thermodynamics and gravity combined. The one an explanation for the other.  and further, the fall of the avalanche starts  very tiny, grows very quickly & then tapers off at the bottom. That is best described ideally as an S curve.
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Now we consider Whitehead’s process thinking descriptions, to show this S-curve and how it’s created by descriptions of events of all sorts, too. Whitehead’s “Almost Anything which jogs us out of our current abstractions is a good thing”. That’s the beginning point.
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Or as Jefferson stated along those same lines, “I hold that a little rebellion now and then to be a good thing!!!  Both create improvements and scientific and progress in many other fields.
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The next is what he stated along similar lines. The society (or group within a society), which cannot break out of its current abstractions, after a limited period of growth, is doomed to stagnation.
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But if we look at what Whitehead stated, a limited period of growth, we see the exponential growth of an S-curve there & as it tapers off, thus we see the top of the S-curve, too.  This is how mathematics is creatively applied to verbal descriptions of noticed, notable, observed events in existence. This is the source of mathematically creativity at its best, being used to more precisely through Einsteinian epistemological restraints, to measure and then describe events. The verbal, visual cartooning of the Mind’s Eye of the avalanche is quite the same as an S-curve, is it not? And this comparison processing between Whitehead, a gravitational field effects which creates the growing planets and stars, is quite an S-curve as well.
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It starts out small, and then grows larger and larger, until at last, most of the mass of the solar system is cleared out and the remaining masses continue growing, esp. if asteroidal orbiting bodies are present, goes on and on, but more slowly over time. Thus the top of the s-curve of accretion of matter into the sun, and the planets/moons around it.  The universal S-curve of growth, exponential, f/b the slow down peak of the S-curve. The avalanche is simply an upside down S-curve, with high energy at the top, and lower, comparatively, energy at the bottom.
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And this is how gravitational fields of larger & larger collecting masses of bodies create the stars, & their companion stars and planets, as about 1/2 of stellar systems are multiple star systems of 2 and more stars associated gravitationally.
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So the smaller masses become the larger where there is enough mass. & then become stars, and those stars collect into a larger, and larger mass. & that in the long run makes up a galaxy, which can collide and interact with other masses of smaller galaxies, growing and growing on, a nearly unlimited series of S-curves.
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The galaxies then get larger and larger, and then they become local galactic clusters such as ours. As the local galactic clusters become larger & larger, and associate with the Abel group, or our own group super cluster in the Virgo region. Thus the entire universe is seen as a mass of collecting, gravitationally bound and growing structures. Exponential, compound interest growth occurring every where! The grand structure of our universe based upon the most powerful force in the universe, gravity, which grows by compound interest, does it not?
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That’s precisely what Einstein meant, His subtleties when he stated that compound interest was the greatest force in the universe. Simple,, elegant, universally applicable and observed, in all spaces and times we can so far view. Simple, elegant, fruitful, and deep. So very much Einsteinian, is not?
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About 1800 La Place, a great French astronomer. noted that the solar system was rotating in all the same directions, the planets, their moons & asteroids, pretty much the same direction from the north of our planet on the plane of the ecliptic, as seen from above, from West to east. The planets all orbited the sun this same way, and the moons as well.  & they all rotate on their axes the same direction, as their moons were pretty much orbited all the same, except for Neptune’s moon.
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Why was this so? La Place postulated that our solar system arose, visualized using processing thinking, cartooning, or dreaming as we call it in sleep, as a spinning disc of mass, that as it condensed, drew in more and more surrounding gas and dust, and became a solar system. He had no way of proving that was so, either. But he knew it was likely. Occam’s “reality sieve” Razor again, we see. It made the most “sense”. But what happened next?
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Let us extend this model by a more recent example, to show yet again this kind of processing of masses and events in our universe.  When the Hubble was turned towards some of the nearby nebulae in our own Orion spiral arm of the Milky Way Galaxy it found some very interesting clots of matter, some partial light years across. Those knots of matter were rotating, and when many scores of them were seen, they were shown, eventually in many cases, to result in the creating of enough central mass to start hydrogen fusion, which meant those became stars. And they found more and more of those rotating, spinning discs of gas. Each of them confirming, many times over, La Place’ 200 years old model!!!
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And by now enough has been seen, from the clots of dusty matter glowing only by nearby starlight, which became suns, and the light cleared out the dust, exposing the dusty remains of each planet’s dusty trailing of gases, as the starlight pushed out the remaining dust and was cleared by gravitational collecting. Again, visual thinking. process thinking of Whitehead.
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How long did this confirmation take?  About 200 years. How long should we entertain hypotheses? If they are least energy and simple, for about 200 years, or so. Truly subtle are the ways.
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But we are not done yet, but well along in our field trip, peripatetic exploration of the subtleties of our universe of events in existence.
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The LIGO  experiments much more recently, at last after 100 years of seeking confirmation of Einstein’s gravity waves, finally detected them. The second LIGO in Europe has also confirmed such events in tandem with the North Am LIGO. This took over 100 years to confirm Einstein’s model of gravitational waves existing. not 200 as with La Place’s model.
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Einstein wanted to know the “mind of God”. to some extent he succeeded with relativity, exploring the behaviors of fermions at near light speed, Brownian movement at normal ambient temps; and fermions at ultra low temps, namely, Bose-Einstein condensates.
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Recently, gravitational waves were found, but at great cost and time, and largely confirmed by the two operating LIGO systems, which have confirmed empirically and are very likely the case, events of distant gravitational wave creations from the coalescences of pairs of  black holes, and more recently a pair of of neutron stars.
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But how did Einstein confirm all of this to his satisfaction, 4 generations ago? How did he KNOW that Bose/Einstein condensates were real and likely. How did he know his work on Brownian movement was right without empirical, experimental testing? How did he KNOW that gravity waves existed?
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In order to solve that we must learn to know the Mind of Einstein, surely a much more realistic and possible to solve problem, than that of God’s mind.  And it can be understood, that he probably had ways of empirical testing via “thought experiments” as pointed out in Sagan’s “Cosmos”. That is to say, Einstein had such a very good reality sieve set for processing events, that he could test each of those hypotheses and know that they were very likely the case, before empirical, experimental testing confirmed them.
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What was the nature of his confirming mental processes and testing? This is possible to know by using present day clinical neuroscientific models of how we model and understand events in existence. Which Einstein himself stated in “Physics and Reality”, published 1936.  “Our understanding of events is based upon finding relationships among events (by comparison processes), and visual thinking.” That is Whiteheadian “process thinking”.
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IOW, Einstein was a very good visual thinker. He’d not have any trouble seeing plate tectonics for what it was, and would be able to cartoon it in his mind. & we know, not accidently, he was a very fine violinist. And we know that those who cane play a musical instrument very well, are very likely to have Double the spatial relationship skills and abilities of those without fine musical skills. Couple that with his very quick mind, which as a patent office examiner of new devices, he could at once see how the device to be patented worked. And then with those rapid, professional skills, have enough time left over each day to work on his relativity models, which he published while working in a Swiss patent office.
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He worked in the Swiss patent office, and was very, very good at looking at designs, turning them around in his head and then figuring out how and if they worked as described. and thus could be patented. It’s told that he was so good at that, he could finish a day’s work by noon and then spend the rest of his time working on his physical models, which he published while working at the patent office.
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Now we also know that Einstein played a good violin, too. And we know clinically, that those persons who can play a musical instrument well, have about double the spatial abilities of those who don’t play. And that’s the Einsteinian edge, once again. It’s how he did his magic. Accurate, clear thought experiments from his outstanding spatial visualizing skills.
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So there it largely is. He was able, using mental visualizing (not at all that much different from dreaming), to see how, that is do a thought experiment, about how events in existence worked. & because he had new and key insights into how events very likely must be.  That was how he found the relationships, most notably between the Fitzgerald-Lorentz equations, which were NOT, as they were said to be, what happened to fermions if there was not ether, but what happened to fermions at closer and closer approaches to light speed, as measured by set, relatively fixed, stable measuring standards. That is the comparison process of relativity, that same comparison process which lies at the basic process which uses measuring scales to create data of numerical values. And also applies to, in the same way, verbal descriptive standards to create data and recognize events, as well. Thus  description and measuring are tied together by comparison processing of two related types, description by words, & numericity and measuring, that is mathematics.
So, we can now see the background of how he was able to come up with his models. He could determine relationships among  events, which gave greater understanding, and then do thought experiments to TEST in a number of ways, if those models were correct and realistic.
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In the same ways as Darwin  found the closely related finches on the Galapagos islands, relatively isolated archipelagos, so then Wallace found the same radiation and creations of many of the species on the isolated isles of Indonesia.
Thus we can peer into Einstein’s mind and know how he did his phenomenally creative work by using his own statements, combined with Least energy, comparison process models of mental functioning. And that was how he found his relativity, what it’s like to ride on a photon, and how being in an accelerating frame of reference is very similar to being in a gravitation field. Comparing those two sets of thought experiments, was how he realized that gravitational waves existed, because gravity had to be propagated at light speed, more or less.
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&  that is exactly what the great Dutch scientist, Huygens, found with the moons of Jupiter 3 centuries before. A good method to measure the speed of light, by visualizing the moons of Jupiter lay in itself a way to calculate light speed.
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For high level thinking Einstein is one of the best. He could see patterns and confirm them with his methods, and even today, 100 years later, the LIGO’s, two of them, have confirmed existence of his great subtlety, the gravity waves, altho it took vast amounts of money and organizations on two continents to see and detect them, but they are confirmed.
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This confirming ability of Einstein to KNOW that gravity waves existed. To know that gravitational fields bent light, and would create gravity lenses, too, is remarkable. The Hubble Telescope’s large number of intergalactic wide field images have confirmed this without limit. & no less remarkable than his exploration of the lowest end of the fermion complex curve of absolute zero, or as close to zero K as we could get, about 100 years after He and Bose found it. How did he know? And that is what we intend to show how he confirmed most all of this.
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In the examples of Einstein’s mind working we see gedanken experiments, or visual thinking going on which is highly realistic, efficient and applicable. IOW, his brain was modelling the universe of events and processes with very high fidelity. He was an intrinsically great visual processor & intuitive neuroscientist. He knew, in short more about how the mind could work than his contemporaries and we are just now realizing that.
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For instance, he insisted that as above, “We must put the personal (emotional thinking) aside in order to do good physics.” This was a great truth. We cannot emotionally process information very well. For instance we cannot  decide we like or dislike PCN, or vaccines, as that is not relevant to whether they work and how well, or not. He knew this and “how to put the personal aside” in order to do good physics. IOW, he concentrated on cortical processing, using the emotions only to drive his needs to “understand the mind of God”. and he did to some extent. Set the bar high when Einstein and you can succeed to some extent. & because information processing is done in the cortical columns, his were very well developed. The emotions lie in deeper structures, & altho they can at times over-ride the cortex, esp. in times of great stress and emotional duress, most of the time the cortex closely controls and monitors the emotions. This is an essential part of our social controls and morals, as well.
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Freud also discussed this in his concepts of the ego and Id getting in the way of normal, good critical thinking & decision making.
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As has been stated before it was his visualization of events, of processes, or process thinking to quote Whitehead, which did the work. A picture or image is worth 1000 words. IOW, we can use a visual image, cartoon that and sidestep using words, to grasp the larger picture of what’s going on. Our brains are visual, very much so. and this is proven here, as well by an early 20th C. British neuroanatomist:
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How most all the higher brain and deep structures are organized around the visual system.
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We are thus very visual creatures. Our visual fields overlap and create by parallax the ability to more accurately & quickly judge distances. Most species, other than the great apes, do not have this visual capability by any means. All of this innate in our brains/minds and visual systems.
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This shows the human edge. We don’t use words to process information, necessarily, but visual processing of how things can look when we design new instruments, or create new devices/tools. We design them in our heads, and then put that on paper & make it real. Einstein’s father was a mechanical engineer, and his son inherited the familial traits to do so, as well. Einstein worked for a number of years in the Swiss Patent Office, doing that daily & entirely. Mostly all looking at designs and devices to see if they worked and were patentable. That was massive visual processing at least. He was an excellent violinist and it’s known that those who play well any musical instrument esp. one as difficult as the piano or violin, double their spatial abilities to manipulate events in space and time compared to those without such musical skills. That’s yet another of Einstein’s subtleties.

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Visual processing of information has a logic all its own, not necessarily verbal, mathematical or even logical, for that matter. But it does use comparison processing to do that magic.
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How this is all done is seen by comparing Edison’s to Tesla’s methods. Both work, but the latter cut the Gordian Knots of Complexity and simplified down the whole problem. That’s also how Einstein did his work. His intuitive sense of comparison processing, visual processing, & least energy processing was at work. For instance, in order to create an electric light Edison had to test over 900 materials by brute force, over 2 year’s work,to find those which would make a durable light filament. We can see his mind at work during this creative sets of actions.
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But Tesla was skilled in physics, and knew a simple, single fact. That of refractory materials resistant to heat, that is, which would resist breaking down & melting when glowing white hot. & thus he’d know that Carbon, which was what Edison eventually found successfully, altho delicate, has one of the highest possible refractory values of any known element, which can conduct electricity. But Mo, W, Re and some others are also very highly refractory, as well. But only about 6 need to be tested, NOT 900!!!  And that’s the Edge of Tesla. His high level concepts could cut the Knot of Complexity, & sorted very quickly to the key concept which would have led within 2 weeks to the electric light filament. As his very fine mind solved many other such problems in the same way. That was in part, Tesla’s great genius.
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Now how about Einstein? He believed in keeping his sources secret. Hide your sources, he said, to eliminate competition and indeed in all of his notes one rarely finds ANY references to other’s work. He kept his sources secret. And kept his competition in the dark.
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Let’s apply to confirm it, this visualizing method to Charles Darwin on the Galapagos archipelago. He saw the many finches there, very similar to each other, the raw materials simplified for evolution, to a single kind of visual appearances of finches. Very closely related due to appearances. And if, supposing as his “Mind’s Eye” (Dr. Hofstadter) did, saw that a single species of original finches likely created the entire group of finches there. & so he did very very well, indeed. & continued for most of his life’s work before and after “The Origin…” to confirm and extend the model of evolution. And succeeded.
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Consider that EXACTLY the same visualization of processes was seen 25 years later by Russell Wallace in the Indonesian archipelago where he found, again and again, on many islands and with multiple related plants and animals, confirming his observations, that species modified into other species, gradually. Which he could also see, visualize and view  them in most of their major details.
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Compare this to Einstein’s gedanken visualizations. He could see that standing in an accelerating reference frame, was exactly (but not quite, in fact), the same as being in a gravitational field. & this kind of visualizing, was the case behind much of his relativity work. Also, what was it like to ride on a photon? Or what was it like to see events if we accelerated in to very fast speeds, that the light in front of us, would blue shift, and the light behind, red shift.. Again, visualization, process thinking using images, to cut the Gordian Knot of complexities and very greatly shorten the sorting processes to solving problems. Sagan shows Einstein doing this as well in his fine, insightful “Cosmos” series.
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Let us continue in this same frame of thinking by observing the Plate Tectonics Model in geology which has created a paradigm for understanding the surface features of our planet, & which is a very great epistemological change from most all previous models of geology. In it, we Cartoon in our minds to see the plates moving against each other. and it’s also VERY much a complex system thinking as well. It cannot be mathematized, but ONLY described by words. & then via images, we “see” how earth’s surface moves. It cannot be easily predicted into the future, only seen & inferred by what has happened in the past.  & that again, shows the probabilistic nature of complex systems. They are not deterministic, but stochastic, probabilities like the weather forecasts, yet another widely described, studied and recorded complex system of note. or like probabilities in the stochastic model of QM, for that matter.
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Thus we see the mind of Einstein at work again. What happens at linear light speed? The Lorentz-Fitzgerald equations take on an entirely new & more real meaning. and he first “saw” this by his methods, too.
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And then yet another example. the solutions to complicated particle interactions and processes, such as the breakdown or creation of the neutron from the proton & electron.
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As a sidelight, Einstein stated that “Subtle are the ways of the Lord God”, referring to the OT source. And his is yet another example of it, of the very many he and others found. Which confirms the scientific validity of his saying. When the neutron breaks down, it produces a proton and an electron. But the deep subtlety is that the energies and masses of the Neutron versus those of the Proton and Electron do NOT match. There is an energy/mass disparity. A cognitive dissonance of Leon Festinger. & from such disparities, which Einstein was also good at seeing, came an astonishing advance in physics. And the subtlety is the neutrino, not quite massless, but almost, and with enormous energies at times, too. So it was missed and then finally found. The tiniest most impossible to easily measure particle, about which we are still learning its amazing subtleties, quite like  Einstein noted & saw many other instances of. Thus confirmations without much limit.
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Feynman figured out how to “see” these neutron to proton/electron productions via his very concise & what are now called Feynman diagrams. Instead of solving all those very complicated equations which used to take 2 weeks of work to laboriously calculate. His diagrams worked within a few minutes. Again, his magic was visualization and HOW to solve the unmanageable equations, which we solve nowadays by computers, within a few minutes, too. But this is how it’s done. NOT magic, but the human edge, Einstein’s edge, to visualize complicated processes which words and math cannot handle very fast or well. But yet our visual cortices, working in tandem with the frontal areas, can do so very, very easily & quickly.,
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That’s how it works. That’s how the mind  of Einstein & Feynman worked. Both sought to understand the universe around them. This drove their work, consistently. They were both sorting, thinking, testing, checking and trying to find answers to their major questions. Einstein died in bed still doing his work, very likely, in the last days of his life. That’s how Tesla’s mind and that of the many great persons, such as Mendeleev’s mind worked: to visually diagram the elements, isotopes & atoms into a concise, visual chart, the Periodic table by seeing the similarities among the noble gases, the alkali metals, the ferrous metals, the halogens, etc. That visualization is the human edge to understanding. and the above examples confirm this beautifully and repeatedly with events in existence as well. And those are the keys to understanding Einstein’s brain structures as well.
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 It thus took Einstein some time to confirm what was to be known. And that gravity waves must exist and travel as waves, as does light.
And that the nature of fermions at very, very energies, as compared to fermions at ambient temps, and the similar exponential barriers of near light speed, and near Zero Kelvin, neither of which can be Reached by normal accelerations and decelerations, either. & thus he explored the entire double curves of light speed and zero kelvin; and found that characteristics likely there by thought experiments, which showed by his unique least energy, efficient, relativistic, comparison processing of those events.  & who has put this together, that he explored the whole ranges of speeds, Heats, & energies of the fermions, methodically and deliberately?
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That’s how creativity is created. That’s how understanding is created. And that in a nutshell is how his intuitive neuroscientific understandings of how brain worked, lay at the basis of his immensely gifted creativities, which even to this day are being proven. & confirmed without limit, such as the bending of photons by a high gravitational fields (gravitational lensing) are also confirmed. Which he knew could be found, but stated that since the distances were so great it’d be hard to test. Said that an intervening galaxy in line of site with the erath and the interposed galaxy, by visualizing this state of affairs. Again, spatial, visualizing, thought experimenting!!!  But it was the case, & he knew it was. So his remarkable arcs and Einstein crosses litter the vast distances encompassed by the Hubble’s extraordinary mirror and lens systems. Amazingly, but true that It takes optical lenses to detect gravitational lenses and lensing!!!!
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Indeed, subtle are the ways of the Lord, and he is not mean, but gives us, as Einstein said, indeed MANY ways of confirming those subtleties, which in the case of “spookie action” at a distance, where his mistake was highly fruitful, and with Bose-Einstein condensates, AND gravitational waves, too, are very likely the case.
That is peering into the mind of Einstein made possible by a more modern effective and efficient least energy, comparison processing analysis.
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When is a mistake NOT a mistake? When Einstein makes it. & we learn as much, paradoxically, from his mistakes as we do from his successes.
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Those characteristics & methods shown above, are something of how the Mind of Einstein worked, to show us even to this very day, how the Mind of God, at least in part, works.  And his immense successes at doing so, as well.
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The deeper, clinically significant, high intuitive insights of Einstein, which largely drove his scientific creativity will be dealt with in more depth in a future article.
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Einstein created his own continuum, of the energies of fermions and then explored that, light speed changed, Brownian movement, and then Bose-Einstein condensates.
Here is the “Emotional Continuum”, and then can be converted to an hierarchy for better descriptions and more completeness!
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But how did Einstein confirm all of these findings from relativity, to BE condensates and gravity waves plus light bending?  This is the deep question which must be answered.
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This is an insight into how confirmability in the sciences works:
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How this can be done wtih respectg to the Depths within Depths detection of instantaneity or one of the forms of eternity, demanded by QM is a good question. And here’s a beginning of how we can prove it’s real and detect it as well. Apply the above guides and past insights.
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For instance in Depth within Depths we see an underlying space created by process thinking. If gravity is diminished time speeds up. If gravity almost completely disappears, compared to a site such as the earth, time increases in speed without limit and processes become instant, and no processes occur, either. That’s yet another way it can be seen to be true.
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The other is that instantaneity is required by QM to work. That’s a second. The time riding on a light wave appears to the photon relative to the events around it to be instantaneous. All processes are instant. Or time simply stops, as well.
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This is more elaborated here and there are likely many other examples, including the entanglement instantaneity also found to be real and existing, and confirmed.
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Please peruse down about 40% of the article to this phrase:
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“And this is the most likely the simplest answer:….  “
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First, how much information can be found using words to describe a set series of events?  Some, but not a very great deal. Because, as it well known, a Picture is worth 1000 words.
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Now, compare that photo, or image to the actual events those are taken from? Which has the most information, the image, or the actual events,themselves? Again, we see the comparison shows us the actual events have almost unlimited details, at many levels of visual, hearing, touching, and so forth
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And what of human imagination and visualizations compared to actual events?
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That is the key question here and relates closely to how Einstein’s mind worked.
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Here we go. Because the use of words and maths are pretty much different forms of verbal descriptions versus measuring, but allied by both being outputs of the left language centers, they are related by comparison processes. Whereas ROY G BIV gives colours and descriptions, creating data; measuring the actual wavelengths, gives frequenies data, but not necessarily bright/dark & the unlimited shades of grays between white and black.
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Thus visualization is a very, very important tool in thinking about the gedanken experiments, the thought experiments of Einstein, which were not only deep, but realistic, empirically accurate as well.
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Now, we take that point deeper and further looking into Einstein’s mind and mental processes.
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The amount of information in verbal descriptions is far, far less than that of photographs of same. And the paintings also have less data than a photograph, which is why paintings greatly declined after photography because very, very reliable and easy and cheap to do.  Human drawings are almost every time far, far less detail, viz., they have far less information in them than do photographic images. We can easily discern the differences by comparison with CGI faces and real human faces.
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Thus we have this point:  words cannot describe as well as images, and they do not!!. Nor does math, of what value is our mental imaging related & compared to words/maths and their descriptions and measurements, relatively?
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It’s clear that mental imaging of a very high degree is MUCH more able to handle vaster amounts of data using such accurate as possible visualizing methods. Here we once again recall process thinking of Whitehead, which must bear upon Einstein’s imagination & visualizations, his gedanken experiments, which have been repeatedly been shown to summarize, explain and related to the basis of his work. IOW, he was NOT using verbal descriptions alone, nor math, but actual, mental cartooning, such as we see in dreams, that is visual process thinking.
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That, very clearly is a much much higher level of handling & processing information of a very great detail and volumes.  and that is the important insight into how Einstein worked at first. He did not like much math,and preferred to thinking visualizations, instead of mere words, too.
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Let us digress for a time to plate tectonics. Those are complex system cartooning and images of how the continents have drifted over the 100’s of megayears of time. They easily and clearly visualize for us how the continents have moved over time, relative to each other. Thus, we are looking at a complex systems  being made more real by cartooning, which most everyone familiar with plate tectonics has seen.
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Ecologies and biological systems are are also complex systems, and that is very obvious at once, once we grasp the fullest applicabilities, imports and characteristics of complex systems and how we think about them.
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Further plate tectonics is complex system. It cannot be easily predicted where those parts of continents and Continents will go as the thing is a system of interactions of the plates. and is thus complex system
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In the same ways, therefore, Einstein’s complex system visualization of events in existence ALSO is able to summarize and use a very great deal of visualization of data & details, more so than either verbal descriptions, or math/measurement, and thus is able to more realistically portray events.
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Let us once again, to confirm the value of this approach to Darwin and Wallace. And we can easily show how they could process image what was happening to a series of species, 1000’s of miles away from each other; that a single species would get established on a remote isle & then begin to speciate into the various, but similar forms. And indeed in terms of Darwin’s finches, and other events he saw, he concluded that. & then Wallace in a very similar system of the many isolated isles of the Indonesian archipelago, he saw the same patterns, of simple forms of life, speciating, again and again, in very similar forms. Which also drove evolution.
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That is the essence of visual processing, of visual cartooning akin to dreaming, as well, which can drive our most creative persons.
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And one more to confirm this, not neglecting the many instances used by Einstein to show what he was doing. When Feynman was solving his QM equations, it took some weeks to do the computations. however, he found a visual, diagrammatic way to write out those outcomes, briefly and visually, the Feynman diagrams!!! And these were very efficient to guiding him as to which outcomes were realistic and which were not. Even today, those are used, even tho the equations can be now quickly solved with efficient computer programs. Thus we see the minds of the great creative scientific leaders of our times, using virtually the SAME visualizations of processes, in a very realistic, empirical way to better understand what’s going on, and to short cut and cut through the complexities of the nature of space/time and gravity, evolutionary processes, and QM processes as well, such as the decay of neutrons into e-, p+, and an anti neutrino.
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All of this magic, as it were, is visually, process thinking in a very empirical way, which led to those deep and creative insights. And very likely that is the human edge, as well. Why do we dream? Kekule saw the source of his finding that benzene was a ring, by a metaphorical dream about the snake which, like Ouroboros, ate its tali and became a RING, just like benzene. Visual thinking again!!
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And those many examples confirm and are our greatest and important insights into how the Mind of Einstein worked.
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Then we must therefore ask ourselves about the structure of his brain, which did those functions and we find Einstein’s frontal lobe on the R, being developed into 4, instead of the usual 3 major gyri. And that the lateral 4th gyrus, was very, very near to the FFA, the frontal lobe which does visualize, ID and recognize human faces!!!
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Thus we now know where to look to see in humans who are doing visualization thinking. It will highlight the visual system, the parietal areas, and the Right lateral, inferior frontal brain areas when those processes are ongoing, very clearly.
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Ask persons to do the visualization which show the radiation of the species on isolated isles to the many species. Ask them how to visualize the plate tectonic movements, which are complex system like much of Einstein thinking. and ask them all of the other unlimited visualizations of empirical events which our brains are capable of, both during sleep & waking, too.
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Those are the structure/function relationships relevant to how Einstein’s brain/mind worked and that of  other persons, as well.
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Detected the disparities by CP, then investigated, and by sorting thru possibilities by Comparison Processing, found better and better solutions.
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THEN, by his visualizing, thinking processes, SAW the confirmations, plural, which meant his model was correct. The ability to create a good reality sieve system, and set of methods of confirmation, made it clear to him his Gravity waves, his photoelectric effect, his relativity both special and general, and his Bose-Einstein work was all correct, as well.
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He did similar confirms for the bending of light, as was worked out before him, and he was able to integrate that and include it in his relativity work. & then Eddington found a way to test & confirm it by recording the positions of stars near to where the sun would be in the coming solar eclipse in Madagascar, and then during the solar  COMPARED the positions of those stars without the sun to where they were WHEN those interstellar photons would pass closely thru the sun’s gravitational fields.  & by THAT comparison disparity, SHOWED the 1.9-2.0 arc second discrepancy, which proved Einsteins model was correct.  & that this was a great subtlety which would have been missed, but for Einstein’s light bending work. But would have to be explained when the Hubble Telescope found those by the unlimited numbers!!!
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& in addition, this was confirmed by repeating evidence done a few years later, and THAT made Einstein a world figure in physics, which his past work had laid the groundwork for.
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The confirmations he was able to visualize by thinking using good reality sieves, were what he was sure about, in most all respects.
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And that was some of the major ways of how he did it, in short.
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