Understanding Psychology With S/F Methods

Understanding the Brain;  AKA Using S/F Methods to Create Beyond the Limits of Psych, Maths & Qualia:
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By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/CP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014
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Essentially, this problem of psychology was created deliberately by behaviorism, which refused to look into the Black Box, the human brain, recognizing that was a tough problem, nearly intractable at the time. & Repeatedly stated by both BF Skinner and Watson. Father  Freud, who created those fields, largely and the psychiatrists have done much the same. So they mostly treated the outward appearances and functions of visible behaviors, organized them esp. in the extensively detailed DSM series, and ignored most of the other half of what was going on. The Structure which CREATED and creates the multiplicit, complex system brain functions, the totality of information processing, emotional systems, and their complex behaviors, in part.
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That simplification took them a ways, but just. Now let’s look at what’s much more likely going on from a comparison process standpoint. We have in the clinical neurosciences the clinico-pathological correlations which are very, very deep, and show us a good deal of what’s going on structurally in the brain. Sometimes specifically and sometimes in a general way. Before CT & MRI brain scans, that was a very laborious process of making slides after preserving and formalinizing the brain (taking weeks).Then looking at the gross pathology by sections (often missing a lot of tiny lesions), then staining said often thin slices, & lastly microscopically examining them in detail. But this is what was found, grossly. When we find problems with speech and word processing we look in the well known speech centers, which about 97% of the time are in the left hemisphere, specifically the Wernicke’s post temporal, sup. temporal area & a bit forward, from there, too.
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Those areas are Hardwired but only incompletely. Once they start to work about age 8-9 months when language starts being generated & processed, and the functions of the ideas are turned into words, and thus more stabilized, we get speech. This occurs by protein synthesis observed with puromycin studies, which create dendritic proliferation & synaptic lay downs. Those pathways are the well known memory tracings, as well as motor tracings of Dr. Wilder Penfield’s work in the 1950’s at McGill Uni, Montreal. These cortical columns then recruit locally to expand motor programs and memory, & then widely connect, as well. The latter mostly organized and set up by about age 12-14 when the logical reasoning becomes possible near puberty. This is Piaget’s well observed and confirmed logical development stage of personality.
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& so created are Wernicke’s to Broca’s areas & the connections as well as other sites in the brain which for descriptive purposes can access the speech centers, to describe & create information about what’s going on internal and externally, too.
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Thus, the clinicopath is more succinctly, more widely applicable & NOW known as the structure/function relationships of brain. When a problem is seen in brain output, or functions, we know there are parts of the brain which do that. And when we we see structural damage in many parts of the brain, visual, sensory, motor, speech, facial recognitions and so forth, we know what functions are highly likely to be abnormal, or even absent. These are the structure/function relationships which used to take a lot of time in the path department to find, which are Now very much easier to create information about, identify & confirm with a fast CT brain scan, or even better, an MRI of brain. Often in a very few minutes compared to weeks. These two scanning methods have resulted in a very great increase in our S/F relationships about how brain works. But the fMRI is even better. Those set off the current S/F revolution.
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Further, S/F relations are very, very widely used in most all fields. Chemistry, esp. organic, biochem, neurophysiology and the functions of the cells are thus understandable, by these means. Kekule’s famous dream of how he found the structure of the benzene molecule with so lovely a correlation that is, compares with its functions, as a carbon bonded hexagonal ring, & so forth. We have the structural relations of the enzymes, of the mitochondria & the very basic functions of the chromosomes, the specific genes on each chromosomes, the DNA, polymerases; the endoplasmic reticula, the tubules, the nucleus of the cell & so forth. Even the nerves and muscles have S/F relationships which describe, delimit and largely give us an understanding of “how brain events” work.
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In addition the fields of comparative anatomy, comparative linguistics, comparative ethologies, comparative theology, etc.; and the whole relationships of the vast tree of life are most all comparison process driven & created. These hierarchical arrangements of organized vast amounts of knowledge have already been treated. & This is no accident, because that’s what the cortical columns largely do in processing higher functions of brain. How info is carried by the sensory nerves and transmitted by the 90-95% white matter of the brain which is axonal, is yet another kind of information, which at this time remains a coding enigma, mostly.
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And if we look at it, this is the problem with psychologies and psychiatry. Where are the S/F relationships for all of those behaviors? For brain functions of other types we have huge amounts of details. Yet, in psych We don’t have many of those. We have those detailed functions & diagnostic criteria, but very little idea where most of them come from and how those arise from the brain. What specifically in brain structures generates those functions? That’s the problem with behaviorism. It ignored the S/F relationships so necessary to a more complete understanding of brain outputs. The same with psych, And the same with the qualia. What do those correlate with? IOW, what do we compare those with? And we have very little, and thus very little understanding in those fields.
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A similar problem is seen with the completion of the human genome. We have all of those 20K some genes, but not very much information about what they all actually do!! The structure is there, but how they interact with the other genes, gene products and the 1000’s of internal and external chemicals and what they do, that is the function half, is most often NOT there! & what of epigenetics, which can markedly modify gene expression? & to the discomfiture of the pharmacologists who thought the genetic information would give them a vast largesse of 1000’s of gene targets to work on, they find they must wait for most of that unknown functional information.  Which is proceeding by brute force of trial & error testing, sorting and trying to figure it out.  Proteonomics has helped, but simply complicated the sorting, and hardly solving the problems of regulatory genes, either. It’s still brute force T&E.
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The same conundrum nearly exactly, is being created by the short sighted people who want to create the Connectome of the Brain. Fine. Do all that. But what do all of those masses of pathways do? What are their connections, their functions, their work and processing? Again, half the answers, and the not so important half either, because the Functions are the important outputs, not the detailed incomprehensible connections, utterly incomprehensible because of the billion billions of digits of possibilities from the 10’s of billions of interacting nerves, glia and brain modules. Which structure/pathways are important? We don’t know. So the cart once again finds itself in front of the horse. So Mother Nature once again skips aside, & once again eludes our understanding.
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We have some basic pharmacology of the psycho-active meds, but not specifically HOW most all those are processed to emotional states. Those are S/F relationships, too, be it specifically and importantly noted. The structure of the molecules is often, but not completely related specifically to their functions, as well, to show ever more so, how important, and nearly universal are the S/F relationship and processors.
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In the coming “Towards a Complex Systems Pharmacology”, those problems will be more exactly addressed to understand how and what’s going on.
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That’s the problem. When we want to see recognition we look for evoked potentials in the brain. The brain compares the incoming sensory information with the LTM, largely visual, as that’s how the brain is organized, and it then decides if it knows or likely knows, that is, Re-cognizes what it’s detecting largely visually. Which handles a vastly greater amount of information than do the other senses, of which there are scores of them, not just the 5 the ancients so mistakenly believed.
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So, we have this problem in psych. There is very little in brain structure which correlates very exactly with the psychological vocabulary, ideas & concepts used with real, brain functioning. It’s  why the field is so backwards, limited. & dreadfully incomplete.
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However, with the newer fMRI we are getting better insights, and when we add the evoked potentials, auditory, visual, sensory, & cortical EP’s we get lots more information.
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And when we do the baseline MRI scan, which we know is normal state, we Compare, massively that with the new MRI of each patient and then by these massive comparisons, “read” every image, to see if it’s normal, or not. By massive, developed methods/skills of “reading’ images, in most every case, comparison processing against the fixed, relatively stable descriptive, relativistic standards of normalcy.
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CF: How Physicians Create New Information.
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So we compare the baseline fMRI, against the changes in brain function to be studied, and those changes light up in the brain by contrast & in comparison. Thus we have created new information by CP, and have found a significant S/F relationship(s). That’s the beauty of the MRI method. When we combine/compare MEG CEP’s with the same fMRI, we see even more. and we know about where those CEP’s are going to arise by this very same comparison,  S/F  processing of information. Thus Information is created by the physicians in this way.
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See article: The Praxis
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Then we organize and process that info into our understanding. That’s basically how it’s done.
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Now the qualia do NOT correlate, nor compare with ANY known sites in brain, either. Where does colour come from? We know it’s a construct of  the brain.
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Where does numbness and tingling come from? We don’t know. Pain and Freud’s pleasure are from where? Then they call this the “hard problem” because they can’t figure out to use CP and S/F relationships where we compare structure to function & function to structure for additional information. Input/Output, and then again, and again. & we compare fMRI to CEP for ever more information, too. CP, CP, CP. S/F S/F S/F.
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And that’s exactly how simple it is. But we have to do the work to sort thru the possibilities to find good, but rarely complete answers, plural, by trial & error, to find what’s going on in this rather largely complicated brain. It is as Gazzaniga so well states, brain is a “Modular complex system”. So are the cells and their organelles, the mitochondria, etc. So we have a virtually universally processing method, S/F, to find out more and more, too. And that’s what’s going on and how to problem solve, too.
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A Neuroscience of Problem Solving, where the not polynomial descriptions become the linear, polynomial maths. That’s how it works, very likely.
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& that shows how we take psych, psychiatry, neurochemicals, and neurophysiology to an understanding of brain.
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Moreover and more deeply, we compare pain meds against the “morphine sulfate standard” of reports of good pain relief, compared to dosages in milligrams & duration of relief. Thus we have created a good standard about how much meperidine, AAP, codeine, tramadol and others are needed for pain control. & we can tell how well, relatively, by comparison, new pain meds work, too. The MS standard becomes the efficient, stable, useful standard to judge the pain relief powers of most the other pain meds, naturally occurring endorphins, and synthetic analgesics, of all kinds, too. It’s another yet again, Einsteinian standard to use. It’s relativity in Pharma.
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Thus in the same way we use another comparison process using the most important and ancient  neurochemical, dopamine (DA) ,AND all its some 20 receptor sites, which by comparison as a stimulant, to the most ancient circadian rhythm, largely serotonin/DA balance, to figure out serotonin. By this larger, comparison process of what DA does compared to what the sedative, 5HT does. & then extend that model’s findings both to the rest of the neurochemicals, norepinephrine, adrenalin, GABA, neurokinins (for pain understanding) & so forth.
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&  the article,
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Using those relatively efficient verbal descriptions, which are limited and created by the epistemology of comparisons processes, that is relativity, we learn, more and more. Information is being created by comparison processing, as it most always is and does.
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Now, how do we mathematize these?  Well, we understand the structure/function of math. It arises out of the Left post. superior aspects of the Left temporal lobe and related areas just above it, and extends forwards connecting to Broca’s area, too. Math interdigitates with that speech area. What damages that speech, damages math, as well. This is well worked out, already.  S/F relationships most all.
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But please note this. We can speak & teach nearly all of math with ideas & words, but we cannot speak very much of words with math. Mathematize the semantics of “How sharper than a serpent’s tooth it is to have a thankless child.” Can’t do that with math. Because math is derived. & that’s how information is created, primarily by the sensory apparatus & sensory cortex. It’s comparison process all the way, against a relatively set, stable & efficient, least energy systems.
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 Also the motor cortex sits right next to the sensory cortex for high efficiency (TD) & does much the same with closely rleating the anatomies of motr/sensory sites in the body. Those use the extension/flexion limits as the standards for motion, the abduction/adduction, etc., limits, all over the body, to comprehend, memorize via LTM and control movements, too.These summations of muscle movements details how those limits are memorized by the sensory system, to create learned muscle movements which we call the skills.The standard are how far the muscles and body parts can be moved in many directions & against those limits & standards, the entire muscle/sensory cortex is standardized.  That is simply kinesiology, is it not? So the fundamental insight into what creates that science, has a deeper application, therefor. Standards of the limits and kinds of movements of muscles create the basic motor programs of motion.  It creates the many set points of muscle movements which make skilled movements possible, and learnable.
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That’s how it’s done. Ideas/words, descriptions come first & THEN we mathematize it. Which explains neatly, and confirmably what Newton did, what Einstein did with Minkowski, and we do every day when we convert words into math forms. Again, how we linearize temperatures compared to the water standard scale of freezing  (0 deg.) & boiling, 100 deg. C. How we measure length by hands, feet, & stepped off distances, & so forth. How we create color scales by comparing to the rainbow, ROY G BIV, from the refraction of light at sunrise and sunset, and the green leaves, the brown trees and other organics. This color is then combined with the black or white, lots of photons being white & black, almost no detectable photons. & the unlimited shades of the grays in between. There arises the hierarchical palette of the colors.
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CF: The Structure of our Color Vision, comparing our visual color system to the EM scale of light frequencies.
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This is how it’s done. the Moh scale of comparing to commonly found, thus efficiently found & used minerals, talc, limestone,, etc. to quartz, corundum (sapphire) and finally diamond for determining, measuring hardness. That creates the information of relative hardness efficiently. Then the GPa system came along which mathematized that further, and provided More information by creating a scale of the hardness data. by comparison processes, again.The creativity of mathematics, found by comparing a method to the senses of hardnesses. Sensory system becomes a workable system, and then is fully mathematized. That’s creativity in action, and the processes of T&E which create it by comparison processing of the sorting outcomes.
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Those processes & events are all that simple. So in order to comprehend psych better, we MUST create comparison process scales & standards based upon structural events in the brain.THAT will create the correlations, the comparisons, the corresponding information. & thus more understanding of the emotional & personality functions & their disorders.
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As Feynman stated, if I can’t generate an understanding, that is process according to some set, relatively efficient standard, I can’t understand anything. Generation to him meant processing information to us, using Einsteinian stable, efficient (least energy, TD) processes. & that’s how it’s done. That’s how to create progress in psych. Find the brain correlations for the emotions and feelings, learn how to first efficiently describe them and then mathematize the lot!!!
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& how do we do that? We create a simple formal comparison logic of relationships, how specific processes show us the connections, the relationships, the associations between two events. This is Einstein’s “Physics  & Reality”. How we understand is by finding relationships by comparison processing standards, among events.
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That generating creates the information and data which create the knowledge once its organized to types by comparison, creating the categories of Aristosteles, the foudnations of the hierarchies of our understanding, very simply.
So we create an expression: A double tilde ~~, “r” to B. & that is, A is Related to B. & what is the process going on there? Is it height, temp, is it change over time, is it velocity, density, volume, or weight? So we use the proper math in each case.
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Is it higher or lower, or highest. Is it harder, or softer. is it taller, or longer? Does it take x seconds of time or hours, more time or less? Thus we linearize it to become mathematics, by the TYPES of processes, which have already been mathematized; and thus does the NP become P by adding information. And there that is, quite simply, & generally.
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Ulam stated that in order to model events of complex systems, math must greatly advance. And THIS is a beginning way to do it. Within each hierarchic level of our understanding math can operate. But when we change the levels, the rules change. Those are the scale changes in physics. & so we use different descriptive methods to create, navigate and emplace the members of each scale, hierarchy/ Thus maths must change to acknowledge those differing processes at each hierarchy. And that’s how it’s done, simply.
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 QM uses probability. Weather forecasting uses probability, scientific studies use a 95% probability of likelihoods, and we cast dice & to decide which actions to use by playing the odds, that is, the probability which we use to describe, generally, complex systems, which is most of everything there is.
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A r B, & we define the processor, use the proper math within that processing method, and we have it, a general method to mathematize events. Or if needed, to create, as did Newton and Einstein/Minkowsky, the calculus, or the 4-D space/time, to more precisely measure what’s going on. Or as did Schrodinger, the Hamiltonian operators, that is logics/processors which created the QM wave equations.
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Or again  as did Archimedes to create the comparison process, ratio of mass/volume, AKA density to handle that problem. Or Pi, the ratio of circumference, that is comparison of circumference to the diameter. But we note that we don’t use diameter over circumference, which is a tough fraction to use, but  but that C/D so as to have at least 3 and a fraction instead.
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That’s how complex systems are mathematized, that’s how NP > P. That’s the basis of creativity visual, using Whiteheadian process thinking. It creates the S-curves of Einstein’s universe of light speed, at the top velocity end, exponential; to ambient temp of brownian movement; to the extreme low energy asymptote, again an exponential barrier, of the Bose Einstein maths. & we live within those,  the highest velocity of particles, light speed, or CEE, versus Zero K, neither of which are reachable & are exponential Wells of particles, fermion limits. Those are S-curves within which we must dwell.
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Now, mathematize the complex system model of plate tectonics, next. Grin.
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This is the system and where to go with it.
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“Any society, which cannot break out of its current abstractions (that is, to grow), after a period of limited growth (the exponential aspect of the S-curve), is doomed to stagnate.” The top of the S-curve asymptote, of capabilities of the methods, which limit growth due to the things a method cannot do, either. Growth coming from TD process of least energy advantages, which create those same growths. Thus we taken the words and mathematize those to the cubic S-curves, noting the high similarity between Whitehead’s description and the maths of the S-curves. That’s how it’s done.
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Stabilities of events within this universe. which are repeating. And stable because they are least energy. Thus by sorting we find the Lyapunov numbers which correspond to those, a la the redoubtable Dr. Friston, who found the math to describe the verbal events, and give us the fine math advantage of precision, & more information which descriptions verbal, tho efficient but alone cannot give us. Thus the advantages AND limits to maths.
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That’s how it’s understood, organized, & developed. CP, LE, complex systems, and S/F which show us the complex system characteristics, and then the unlimited methods which we can develop to describe our universe of nearly unlimited complex systems.
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Simple, elegant, highly fruitful & the essence of unlimited creativity, the wellsprings of human creativity, itself. Comparison process of the cortices driving the least energy outcomes of modeling events in existence.


A Basic Model of a Unifying System of Most All Knowledge

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/CP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014
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The basic understanding of how mind/brain higher, cortical functions work is lies in understanding the nearly universal basic processing our brains do when interacting with events in existence, which clearly, empirically are outside of us and which we can observe using our sensory systems. Exactly how this importation and learning of information from events cannot be completely ever understood because of the neurological complexities. However, the means exist built into our brains to understand a good bit of it. & that of the analogous nervous systems of the other animals, even plants as well, which mostly work and behave in the same ways as do we.

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Essentially, repeating events in existence are real, and outside of us. Those repeating events then by these very reinforcements, delimited by behaviorism, but NOT completely, create the long term memories. Those repeating processors in the cortex essentially model the repeating events in existence and create information by  comparing those events to LTM.  Fundamentally, the repeating cortical column processings model the repeating events in existence. Such as seasons, days, nights, persons, faces, places, and many other events without limits. And the processes & characteristics, alsto repeating, which accompany those events.
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Understand that Long Term Memory IS, provably, a least energy, thermodynamic event, and thus is real and exists, too, not just in an abstract sense, but has real correlates in the dendritic processes and the laying down of protein creating the synaptic connections, which lie at the root of the grid field system of memories. That is, it’s a structure/function relationship (S/F) of our cortices. & can be detected by the methods of Wilder Penfield, by fMRI, and by cortical evoked potentials (P300’s) when the recognition processes in the cortical columns are working, activated. AKA the theta activity of the cortex. “Now relax, don’t think.” says the EEG tech. And Theta goes away, replaced by the background activity, synchronized with the visual cortex, alpha waves.
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Our higher processing functions in the cortical columns use Pattern Recognition, as the majority rule to create the methods, approaches, skill sets, techniques, ways of doing things, the whole panolpies of the rich synonymic elements and members of the methods & skills, of the categories of Aristoteles.  Which of course reflect the complex nature of such events, as well, and are best described by such single scales and levels of the hierarchies.
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First, we see a repeating pattern of events, and because it’s repeating it’s also stable, in a thermodynamic sense. Then it’s detected again and again, and becomes reinforced naturally into part of the working, long term memory. Then we use those repeating events, those existing, empirical observations to create methods around which we build our skill sets of daily living.
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Exactly how this is done is seen in “A Mother’s Wisdom”, where a series of repeating events  utilizes, in a very much least energy way, to create a way to efficiently glide through most of the traffic lights exactly right, when riding, driving, or walking. & it’s a universal rule in such cases, too.
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And that’s the general rule as to how most ALL of our techniques and technologies are created by our minds, by massive comparison processing in least energy rules & forms. This general rule can be seen operating in most all the other mammals, adjusted for their sensory and processing systems. In Birds, reptiles, amphibians, arthropods and insects and fishes, as well. This creates a nearly Universal understanding of how even our DNA systems, immune systems, and much else, create what they do; as well as the huge vastnesses of metabolism, of virtually all of the plants, animals, microbes, the entire, greatly incomplete, tree of life of millions of species.
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This is what creates the pattern recognitions, and the means to predictive control, model and live, empirically, within events in our vastly beyond our understanding, universe.
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How recognitions are created by the LTM being compared to the richness of events, details in existence. A simplification, but still allowing such complex events to be recognized without limits, in all their richness. It’s how we can see a part of a face and know who it is. How we can be bent over a sink and recognize a friend who’s just walked up, without even looking at his face, our recognitions skills of the rich details of individuals can be so well developed, too.
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This basic comparison process information is then processed by similarities of those events in existence to each other, by comparing LTM’s against each other. Thus we see, recognize and detect those repeating events. Then our brains automatically begin to organize them according to NOT exact equalities, nor identities, but to the richer similarities among events, such as birds, person’s faces and characteristics, trees, buildings, the stars and arrangements of stars, for example. This process of organizing according to similarities is automatic, & built in. We do it subconsciously and because it’s facilitated and habituated, we are not even aware of it ongoing. We do a VERT great deal of our organized, mental processing work, automatically, subconsciously. This is working when Most all of us try much of the time to make sense of events around us, often mistakenly. Over time this cortical system efficiently creates organized systems of knowledge, which we call hierarchies of understanding in their most modern and developed forms. And they are everywhere within us and outside of us, too.
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& the internally created mental abstractions & hierarchies are very much as unlimited as can be, and differ in most all persons according to their rich sensory, largely visual systems & experiences. Not even the ID twins have the same memories and experiences, altho are often similar. These lead us to the categories of Aritosteles, but in a new way. We see the members of those groups as the  highly similar variations on the same themes, La Chanson Sans Fin. & this grouping, collection is highly efficient, as well. The synonyms are in fact yet another part of these rich collections of organized information. The analogy, the metaphor, allegory, simile, anecdote, story, fable, parable, koan, the entire mythos of explanatory & ancient relationships, and so on.
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And we do these according to landmarks, conventions  and standards whose Einsteinian relativity standards and limits are the case.
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But the synonyms are incomplete & but part of the hierarchical nature of nature, itself, which will be addressed, shortly. Each synonym gives us some of the many aspects of those elements of the categories, but not all, by any means. And it’s incomplete as well. The stories, models, theories we tell are essentially NOT complete either, but begin to richly allow us to teach, explain, and understand the multiplicities of the hierarchies of our knowledge and understanding. These comparison processes allow us to navigate the hierarchies, as well as create, add to, subtract and often extend, them, too.
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In order to understand this hierarchical structure better, those have been stated in their many types, and wide variations. For instance the alphabetical hierarchies of the dictionaries, telephone books & city directories, our Bibles, Korans, etc, and the richer hierarchies of the living systems of plants and animals, microbes and unicellular species, as well as the virions are the case. & every entry, each part of the hierarchies are created by massive comparison processings in our cortices, of how each level is related to the next, of Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species and their variations.
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The family trees and groups are yet further evidences of those. The entire IUPAC hierarchy and indices of those (as are all indices) are 34 millions of examples of the vast numbers of known chemical compounds, as well. More confirming evidences of comparison processings.
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But it’s even deeper than this. The Scales of physics, which are marked by changes in how events are understood, are yet the same kinds of hierarchical organization. The most common, the reductionist method starts out as proton, electron and neutron, and then becomes the next higher level, the atoms, the elements, and the isotopes. The entire Periodic Table of the Elements is yet another hierarchy of elements ordered by the similarities to others, the alkali metals, the halogens, the noble gases, the ferrous metals, the rare earths & even the platinum group, all organized by their repeating, confirmable relationships to each of these vertical & horizontal lines & columns, at least.
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So the scale of our understanding of the next level, the molecules, then the organic molecules, then the biochemicals, and finally the cellular organizational and physiologies, are the next.
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And in EVERY case the rules at each scale, or hierarchical level, can be very different from those beneath or above. And in the case of the cell model show the emergency of the higher qualities & characteristics of each level.
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The point being, in the physical sciences, the same kind of hierarchies are being seen. As well as in the natural world. We see the branchings of the trees, and plants. from the trunk or stalk, to the smaller branches, then the sticks and twigs to the leaves which are hierarchically ordered but different, yet branchings still further. And when  we move down the trunk to the large, thick roots & these again divide into the smaller roots, finally ending up at the rootlets, too. But what is behind these near universal system, of the neurovascular bundles in the animals, of the nerves, the veins and arteries all travelling together, as they have been created, down the limbs? Then the arteries from their main trunks splitting apart into smaller and smaller segments, finally becoming capilllaries, and then becoming the larger venules. Once again enlarging into the trunk veins & with the arteries are all together. The similar nerve trunk of the spinal cord becomes the nerve roots, then the trunk nerves, which then in the arms, for example, become the  radial and ulnar arteries, and the median, as well. Shall we neglect the trachea, two main bronchi either? & the veins and arteries which do this branching again?
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But why these complicated, hierarchical patterns? & it’s very, very simple. We have to look to the rivulets,and springs, which become the small creeks and then streams, and then the smaller rivers, and then the larger and larger rivers, until we get to the Mississippi and then its major tributaries. the Ohio and the Missouri,among many others.
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All of this complexity!!!, but in fact, easy to understand. Water flows downhill following the least energy gravitational topography. The riverine systems are in fact, least energy topographies. & so are the neurovascular bundles, and the trees/stalk plants organizations as well. They are the most efficient ways of doing what they do, functionally. Organized by least energy forms.
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The same kind of electric power system hierarchies, of the natural gas pipes, the water and sewer pipes systems are going from the small to the large and vice versa. Exactly the same, least energy topographies and organizations, hierarchical, as well. It’s not absolutely least energy (for there is NO absolutely efficient heat engine possible), but a very strong tendency to be metastable, least energy. That is not accidental. But indicates the their rich hierarchies, organized by least energy principles, as well. Going down hill in a gravity field is a least energy route, simply, and repeatedly seen, and confirmed without limits,too. The other hierarchies above are simply the same, Complex systems, least energy forms.
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It’s that easy.  Simplify, simplify, simplify; efficiency, efficiency, efficiency (Adam Smith’s “The Wealth of Nations); least energy, least energy, least energy rules.
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Taking the category of understanding synonyms shows further, esp. in English, this richness of descriptive power of the hierarchies of the categories. Comprehending, apprehending, knowing, seeing, visualizing (as we are highly visual creature structurally and in fact),
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Visual Brain Organization
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— then the word phrases, clusters, which have been so often omitted and ignored in mental, real time, as in figuring out, making sense of, putting it together, connecting the dots, seeing how things work, and further almost unlimited word groups which ALSO are synonymic & richer than those single words, alone. & is a very great completing & extending method of recognition, too.
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Thus we have groups of words which are lumped together. And the same is true, of our hierarchies of living things. Those mental structures are internal, artificial and a construct, but useful, because it’s efficient, exactly. The variations of each species, are seen as a category in those greater hierarchies. The species of each genus, the genera of each family, and up the hierarchies of our vast millions of species of leaves, of our tree of life of the animals, plants, microbes, and virions we go, for example. A place for everything and everything in its place. All navigated and created by massive comparison processes of external data into created information of very similar events which are grouped tougher, which is then organized further  by the same CP.
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That’s largely what’s going on. The entire IUPAC of 34 millions of compounds is so organized with like joined with like, efficiently. The Periodic Chart of the elements of atoms and isotopes, is the same. The star charts also organize into arbitrary collections of stars, we call constellations, entirely arbitrarily by pareidolic patterns, but highly efficient ways of doing so. The family trees, which show the exacting relationships among the family groups and family members, by massive comparing of each to the other. The rich relationships of a single male, as a child, young man, father, grandfather, cousin, husband, and so forth, again shows this richly, organized categorizing, which creates, by similarities, the entire family tree. Which is essentially, an unlimited, diagrammatical form.
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& the same is true of events in existence, which are naturally organized hierarchically. The tree with its trunk, which then above organizes itself into larger branches, smaller branches, the sticks, then twigs and in every leaf, the same rich hierarchies of Xylem and Phloem, analogous to our veins and arteries, of the leaves is seen as well. All abounding in their topographical complexities and richness. The variations without end. La Chanson Sans Fin writ large. Then down the trunk to the large roots, the smaller roots, and into the tiny rootlets which absorb water and nutrients, as well. Highly efficient, highly universal, mostly and thus empirically existing. And very, very real forms. Just like the riverine systems and their tributaries & deltas, exactly.
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And in humans we have the neurovascular bundles as a good measure of the same kind of highly efficient hierarchies of organizations. and so then the animals & plants  as well. Right down to the tubules, structures within the complex cells, too. Universally, but not quite. The huge aorta splits down into the clavicular artery, which travels down the arm, becoming the various smaller branches and then into the radial & ulnar arteries, which further divide into the not Euclidean geometry of the arterioles, and then the capillaries; which then reverse the process. Tiny venules become the larger veins, and at last again join the clavicular artery & vein, and thence the superior vena cava into the heart origin.
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& the spinal cord trunk becomes the nerve roots, which then further divide and become the radial, ulnar and other nerves, until they reach the fingertips in analogous patterns of the nerve endings. Then send up sensory information in the same way, combining once again into the spinal cord and onto and up to the brain, where the nerve impulse information is processed into the higher cortical functions of sensation, description and high level information.
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All of it hierarchical, and real. &the final kicker, which shows the innately efficient, thermodynamic aspects of these hierarchies, the rivulets & springs, which become the creeks, and then the streams, and the little rivers & then the larger rivers. ALL topologically, least energy flowing down the gravitational gradients, in a rich geometry, very similar to the plants and animal’s hierarchies. & those existing within our brains, too.
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Thus we have the major trunks of the Ohio and Missouri pouring into the Mighty Mississippi, flowing its “mile wide tide to the sea”. And then in the deltas, like in the tree roots, the great rivers of the Amazon, Nile, Congo & the Orinoco and the great Mekong all break down into the tributaries of their deltas, just like tree roots do.
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Again, those are the rivers in all their rich multiplicities & panoplies of their gravitational, least energy hierarchically efficient organizations. Down the gravitational topologies of each, in its own ways.
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Thus we KNOW that the hierarchies are very, very energy efficient, and that’s why they exist, too. Stabilities, repeating events, which we observe, describe, create LTM’s of and those pass into our organized bodies of knowledge, according to place, region, continent, ocean, hemisphere and so forth, yet more hierarchies of our understandings, based upon the N, S, W, E plan of a spherical globe. Mapping being efficient hierarchically, a 3 D structure of comprehensions. yet anther hierarchy created by comparisons, massively.
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This is how it’s done. Efficient at every level, from the hierarchies of events in existence, including the planets, stars and the entire Hertzsprung/Russel diagram of the known stars, to the same of the galaxies, as well. From the tiny atoms, to the largest galactic clusters, all of it hierarchically, efficiently arranged and organized.
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That is the grand design upon which we can create a unified, almost universal model.
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But it’s deeper, far, far deeper, as well. Because we group the professionals in the same ways. The ethics, the rules they use in their work, the skills. & we can tell the differences among the professionals versus amateurs. And we use exactly the same hierarchic structures to do this as well. Why? Efficiency and thermodynamically rewarding. We gain energy savings and a profit every time we use them. And that creates growth and a build up of organization. We save a lot of time, and so forth, in all the complex system ways of the 2nd law of least energy, as well.
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Exploring this further gives the whole thrust of our understanding of this new model, and its unlimited capabilities, as well.
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Because HOW do we tell the difference between, by comparisons of professionals &  amateurs. & here comes the richness again, the endless panoplies & multiplicities of complex systems understanding. The professional has a series of methods, skills, ways of doing things, approaches and techniques to get things done. & each of those are very, very efficient compared to the amateur’s ways. & each professional has his own skill set of doing things as well. And each has their own rich, but very similar word skills & vocabularies to keep track of and use those methods, tools, devices and technologies, to create what they do. Process information and then events in existence create the professional, recognizable outcomes. Those being least cost, least time, best outcomes, best appearance, best life, and enduring, etc. The least energy rules.
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& that’s the higher point here. It’s largely hierarchical. By the outputs of the legal truths, and methods, the literary methods, the performances of artists and athletes. Those are all optimized by the application of similar methods and skill sets of the professional in ANY field whatsoever!!!
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And because every one of those methods, techniques or tools has it capabilities and its limits, as the professional knows his craft and best knows his tools, those are each capable of being observed, described, & measured in their own ways. And each can be studied, and improved without limit according to least energy rules, as enumerated above.
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Therefore, the difference and similarities among the skills of each kind of professionals can be studied, and the delimited in exquisite details. & then studied & improved upon within least energy limits, too. More methods, more devices/tool based upon those rich Techniques/technologies, in fact. Without limit.
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This method thus offers the ability to create a cultural expansion without limits in EVERY field. But we MUST do the work and that’s the whole point. There is a lot of work to do.
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And as we delimit the hows and why of using those concepts and idea, those words, which create the methods and devices, we can learn what are best and most of which give the best ways of doing each professional tasks. & then improve them using Least energy criteria without limit
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The students will then know who the best are, and the teachers will know as well. By their most fruitful outcomes. of the MethodS(plural) of Comparison by Dr. Paul B. Stark, Uni California, Berkeley.
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& that’s how it’s done. Cultural, scientific, performances expansions in all basic fields without limits. & the teaching of same to those interested and qualified.
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This is what the Basic Model of the higher brain functions herein can do, practically, workably and richly.
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Much more to be written about, because nearly the entire universe comes under these nearly universal applications, but that’s a very basic model of how the brain works, learns, grows and develops, and creates the skills and technologies which run our world. & it applies to the plants and animals, and the rest of life, as well. No matter where life might be.
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And it’s efficient and nearly universal, too.
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On a final note which shows the power and stability of this model is this:
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Upon those rocks of repeated events in existence, which are enduring &  appear to be very, very much the most stable we know of. Because Least energy rules and is everywhere observable for billions of light years & in all places and billions of years of times, We know, being the basis of the stars and galaxies which shine from 4 protons fusing the stable He4, that it’s real and eminently and endlessly confirmable  Being the very basis of the light and its emission lines, also stable, which create the Hubble observations of the very size and stabilities in our universe. That least energy rules.
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The same is true of the structure/function relationships in brain, in molecules, and most all else, besides. A universal.The same for complex systems, comparison processing. And upon those enduring, stable events in existence we can build  far more unifying, stable, nearly universal models.
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The very stability of events in the universe stabilized & continues to stabilize them; those methods, and thus supports them without limit. But not quite!!! There is NO perfect heat engine in TD.
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We found our beliefs, behaviors and knowledge upon THOSE rocks of the seasons, the rising and setting of the sun, and much else besides. Because those are always there and stable. & so that stability is thus built into our concepts and models, as well. & we can be assured THOSE foundations on the rocks of events, will endure.