The Kategoria of the Incompletenesses

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/CP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014.
Copyright © 5 Aug. 2019
The Kategoria of the Incompletenesses; Our Limits to Growth
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Originally wrote about the Continua of the Emotions. And then found that was a linear good start which could be easily modified into an hierarchy, but required more information. Linearity is not the whole story. But the Kategoria of our knowledge is far, far more complete. Thus if we want to understand our limits, or incompleteness of our knowledge, we must build up a Kateoria of Incompletenesses, which can describe more fully, what’s going on. & how to escape and break out of our current abstractions.
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Logic is necessary but not sufficient. Logic does NOT of itself describe events very well, BUT, the logical fallacies as they have been found, Also can apply to comparison (CP) and Least energy (LE) processing of information. They are necessary but not sufficient, because the Empirical corrections of logic, and maths are the case. Logic is NOT complete. Godel showed that Logic eats itself. Hostadter in Godel…” showed us a major aspect of how that came about. Also, the false dichotcmies and related multi-chotomies, the multiplicities of Complex Systems (Cx Sys), which is an empirical corrector, are the case, as well. Everything is NOT binary, duality, yes or no, true or false, A or ~A, or black and white. It misses the unlimited incompletenesses of our mental outputs. It misses the unlimited shades of grays. The Linear EM spectrum MIsses a LOT of the grays, the pastels, the colour combos which the more complete Hierarchies of the paint chips show us about events existence better, including Day Glo!! & browns.
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Thus the limits to knowledge are defined by the completeness of our knowledge. Thus, we must have a Kategoria of Aristoteles to more completely define and list those incompletenesses, which limit us. & Escape, Break OUT of those!!! And use the empirical correctors we have found, such as statistical sampling errors to show that. The Word is NOT the event to which it refers. It’s not complete. There is a huge gap between our ideas/words (the fallacy of Idealisms) And events. And those are the limits to growth as Herman Kahn was interested in. And the Break outs of Whitehead, as well. Almost anything which breaks us out of our current abstractions is a good thing.
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Any society, (or group), which cannot break OUT of its current abstractions, is, after a limited period of growth,  doomed to stagnation. And that is an asymptotic complex S-curve with exponential barriers at the top. Thus confirming the nature of the Expon barrriers, too.
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How do the Kategoria work efficiently? They take Cx Sys, and break them up into parts, and then deal with each. That piecemeal method deals with the whole. It’s efficiencies, without doubt. and the best division of the whole into the parts has the best LE outcomes. It organizes and then helps explain and understand Cx systems. Thus, the Parts of Speech, Grammar, And the “Elements” of Geometry of Euclid. And the Body parts and organs which we divide up into the specialties and specialists of the Cx Sys human body, in order to better  organize and better understand what’s going on. It’s efficiency at its best.
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The Ancient Egyptians did that first, cf: Ebers Medical Papyrus. and then the Greeks advanced the methods substantially. & so has the West.
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So where we go.
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This is a huge section which can be organized hierarchically, to show the general connectednesses of our knowledge; & that of the universe of events which is likely most all interconnected with the rest, as has been shown in “Depths Within Depths” and “Explananda 5”. & to which Whitehead, also was acutely aware of and addressed.
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Essentially, it’s a cameo of how and why we use Kategoria of Aristoteles, and why he used those as well, a VIPart of what he found 2300 years ago. It was a very efficient way of handling & describing complex systems (CxSys).
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The first of course, is incompletenesses of our methods, knowledge, etc. This has long been a huge concern. Bell discusses is QM incomplete? And Feynman answered this very simply, as was his wont, by stating, yes, because we cannot generate biology from QM. Einstein stated that QM was incomplete, but not wrong. (altho incompleteness IS a kind of not being “quite” right, is not?), and Bell found it was the case, too. Thus we have multiple confirms of the likelinesses of that “incompleteness” being the case.
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The next, 2nd, is that of Einstein’s Relativity, that there is not any absolute space & time. There is no perfect synchronization of time, either, because most all knowledge is relative to the stable, fixed, efficient, yet arbitrary standards by which we measure time (most all else, too). This physics is highly likely to be the case, as the success of Relativity has shown. This also relates to the lack of absolute sea levels, or altitudes, does it not? No commensurate sea level determinations except at specific locations, relative to a set, fixed, arbitrary set of standards. The same is true of absolute currencies and stabilities, as well.
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But by extending this model of Einstein, and thus his model of relativity we see that the CP and LE create the verbal standards, words, which also are “standards” arbitrary in many respects, fixed, yet stable and efficient, too. By which we describe events, too, both inside and outside of us. Thus language of descriptions which is most all of it, come within the purview of relativity, too. & yet, arbitrary by the ways in which we assign meanings to sounds, spellings, words, usages, etc., in all of the languages, as well.
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“The Relativity of the Cortex”:
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3rd. We have the physics of thermodynamics of which the 2nd laws (CxSys) is the vastest part. There can be no perfect heat engines. Combining this with Shannon’s IT model, thus we cannot either have any perfect descriptions. Those must as far as we can perform and do them, are not complete, either. This is the next Element, confirmation of the Kategoria.
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Fourth, we have the probabilities of QM and Complex Systems (CxSys). Those are mostly all of the processes going on in our universe. And those such as weather, solar systems, living systems, and so forth, cannot be figured out completely because they are way, way too complicated for us to do so. N is =/>3 which creates that complexity. Thus, we simplify dice into probabilities. But we lose any certainties in fair dice with what will next be thrown. We simplify as did Ulam’s guiding findings, that in CxSys when we see repeating stabilities, which are likely TD driven efficiencies, which then create those repeating events in existence. Those are then  reinforced into our LTM, and which we can then reach Some, but partial understanding of Cx Sys, too. So while we cannot understand nor describe CxSys completely, our brains/minds CAN sort through, by simplifying a very great deal of it by seeing the patterns which arise in Cx Sys. And the recognition, pattern recognition, PatRec, PatRec, etc., is seen without limits, too. This is a basis of scientific confirmations (repeated findings by others of the same events), as well.& those hierarchies so created are far, far more complete, than without. Using Ulam’s Monte Carlo method we can also import empirical info into some equations, which can also help us there, but not completely.
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A rather peculiar part of this has been shown before. We do NOT need to know HOW penicillins or the other antibiotics work in molecular terms, to know that they DO block infections, more or less. That can come later. This is the case with almost all of our pharma, methods of treatments and so forth. Exactly why & how this is the case that it works is simple to understand. Outcomes research is the start, but not the completion of most of our understanding. The incompleteness of our understanding, is the case, yet again. It’s very clear cut. We see through a glass darkly. There is always, as Paul Harvey built his successes on, “The Rest of the Story, ” very likely without limits, too. It’s Cx Sys.
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We have the knowledge of what works, but then must develop an understanding of HOW it works, is the natural progression. As Einstein once more guides us, Knowledge is good, but understanding is better. As a great EEG technologist & teacher, Ms. D. Brittenham told me, “We do not teach our students only what buttons to push, but WHY they are pushing those, why they are doing what they do.” Yet again. If we have not organized our knowledge and understood it within a larger framework, it’s incomplete.
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Next, we have Godel’s Incompleteness theorem, which showed that our logical, mathematical and related systems were NOT capable of complete descriptions of themselves or events, and also most all logics/processes, too. Just why the mathematicians are still using the limited, failed logics to “prove” is an inexpressibly peculiar and contradictory finding. But then when they call it “Godel’s Proof” and elide over the “Incompleteness” we largely know why.
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“As far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain; and as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality.”  –A. Einstein. This is it again.
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Successive approximations by series in maths are yet another. Walking is yet another by which a series of repeating steps gets us to our goals. Assembly lines are massive examples of this without limits. Successive Approximations are also elements, but we never quite get there!! The Paradox of Zeno shows us this, for math. But, and the engineers know this, We can “tweak” our designs and get so close as no matter, in a practical, empirical sense.
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6. Our linear models are not complete. They cannot be, essentially due to the structure/function (S/F) nature of linear processes, methods. This has been shown repeatedly & without limits, as well. We must use multiplicities and CxSys if we are to advance in our understandings.
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Oversimplification may be often a key sign of CX Sys in action. Linearity misses those, and so when someone states, likely truly, that some are overly simplifying what is going on, it often, likely means that a Cx Sys is being discussed. Yet another clue about limits to knowledge.
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Habituation likely arises as a part of the DopAmine inhibition by GABA and 5HT, both inhibiting the stimulant, or catecholamine (or neurokinin as the case may be). It’s often missed, and then we don’t know that we are doing it, and it becomes a Subconscious process or action, as well.

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This is responsible for our missing that shopping all over the world for goods and services is CP with LE guidance writ large. It acts as THE largest, most uiquitous confirmations that CP is at work as we go for food, for instance at the market. First, we know what & how much we need. That sets the sorting goals for T&E, goal directed methods. We look for freshness, or if the can, package, or other product is outdated. Then we look to see if the container is intact and not damaged, thus. Then we look to see if the quantity/quantity is enough for the price

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All of those many, interacting factors make such decisions “Complex System” and NOT amenable to math solutions because N=/>3. Thus we judge by experience, viz., Empirical Outcomes which foods, packages, brands, laid up into our LTM’s, meet our needs best. We do this ALL the time and thus it’s not scientific, but Widespread all over the world. We do this finding food, clothing and much else. In fact most all shopping & is massive comparison processing done in the billions of times world wide while shopping.

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And those specific tasks which each of us use while shopping show again, in comparison to the specific skills we use in EACH profession, what’s going on specifically, detailedly & which can be delimited with what we are doing. Thus decision making can be largely described by this method, because it’s the Heart and Core of How we make decisions!! We then have the means to study decision making in detail with this model and this VIPoint will be addressed in a forthcoming article about Shopping and Decision Making. A near universal cameo of HOW we make, each of us the decisions we do, day to day, hour to hour, without limits. And how to optimize those decisions for outcomes, without limits & virtually without any limits to growth, as well.

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Next, Uncertainties are a major part of this as well, and the Heisenberg Uncertainty model shows, yet again, An empirical corrector, the many parts of a more complete understanding of events, intrinsic to the Kategoria.
Further,  The absolutes, finalities, ultimates, certainties, determinisms, perfection, infinity and the rest of the Idealistic and highly mistaken anti-empirical beliefs, are the problems, too. If we are to understand best, we must rid ourselves of those, as Galileo did.
” E pur si muove…..”
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The same with Einstein’s, “God does not play dice.” referring to the probabilities of QM. To which Niels Bohr applied the empirical correction. “Albert, stop telling God what to do.” QM uses probabilities because it’s a Cx Sys descriptor. The Solutions to the wave equations are LE !!! IOW, the primacy of events in existence is superior when compared to our mental functions. The essential empirical correction which drives the sciences’ creativities and corrects the incompletenesses without limits. As Thomas Kuhn very detailedly showed with the cameos in his “The Structure….”
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The fundamental fallacy of the idealisms is the false, empirically unlimitedly driven case, a Fallacy that our mental ideas/words, etc., are identical with events, or have anything necessarily to do with events outside of us. Unless those are carefully compared, tested & checked (CP words) to do so, but unlikely to be completely the case.That’s demonstrably true. And that expectation gives rise to cognitive dissonances, and how in Kuhn’s “The Structure…” empirical sciences advance and become better. & why the pagan poison of Platonism, fails. It just ain’t so!!!
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In our ideas, images, drawings and photographs,The Details are missing. It’s simplified down, massively. Thus we can tell ideas/words from events they refer to. Thus we can tell the differences between a good photo or image and the events it refers to and arises from. It’s NOT the same! The false ID of ideas for events, is once again, demonstrated empirically, to Be NOT The Case!!!  Our dreams are of the same. This empirically refutes Taoism’s core belief.
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9. In the “Emotional Continuum”, wrote of the simple line of dopamine from high levels/activities, to low, which largely was organizing of the emotions. But it was not satisfying, either, altho, it did work, but was not complete. The Emotions can be categorized & classified along that line, but by using Hierarchical structures, the Kategoria, & instead of being a simple line, completes it much, much better.
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10. Linearity of the EM spectrum being complete is an illusion. In “The Structure of our Colour Vision” this was decisively seen. & by CP and LE means, showed the lack of colour combinations, black & white, and the unlimited shades of the greys, there, plus no brown on it, either. Thus, most all linear systems are not complete, either. Because too much is left out. But which the lowly paint chips, in all of their, again, hierarchical details, shows most of all, to allow us to mix and match almost any colour and combo visible to us. It’s Far, far more complete, yet again. Linearity doesn’t empirically work that well. And because logic is linear, & maths,   oops.
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Ulam: “Mathematics must greatly advance before it can describe Complex Systems.”
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11. This weighs in highly to the model of confirmation of an empirical nature. In the science of evolution, Darwin was able to find case after case that life arose from earlier life, that the whole of the living systems of each species & the unlimited variants in each, were reducible to evolutionary organizations. & he very deeply showed how the binomial nomenclature, yet another hierarchy of the Kategoria was, & Wallace largely confirmed this model in the Archipelago of Indonesia. Thus our understanding of how most all life was related to most all other life, has arisen. Most all of life is interconnected. Adding to Darwin’s model, and extending its incompleteness, Genetics and paleontology have massive shown this to be the case. yet we do not have a complete model. Information decays in Time!!!  TD again. Recently Least Energy methods created a very much better and deeper understanding of evolution from the lower and to higher events levels. LE extended our evolutionary model, greatly, because it’s a universal processor.
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Cf: “Life as We Know It”. Dr. Karl Friston, UCL
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We do not know how largely organic molecules and early physiological structures became living, altho we have some, not complete ideas. Yet, we know it’s incomplete, but very, very much more descriptive and hardly mathematical, or logical, at all. It uses massive CP and LE methods to organize the members of each of the Kategoria/Nomenclatures efficiently, and is extendable without limits, as well. Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genera, species & variants, is the case, empirically, too  Thus if we want to confirm that an event is the case, we must build not only a continuum, but the hierarchies of our understandings to show how that works, in all of its rich CxSys details and “multiplicities”. & each part is yet more of the massive amount of CP descriptions which show those to be, likely, the case.
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Plate tectonics is complex system, as well.
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Thus time is NOT linear. but hierarchical. Each choice, each option, each alternative paths lead to different outcomes, altho those are likely as Processes to be Least Energy. History is likely to be LE driven, Cx Sys, as well. Emergent events are likely the same.
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How did Einstein, for instance, know that his gravity waves, relativity, Bose-Einstein condensates, Brownian movement, and gravitational lensing were correct? He never Saw any empirical, experimental signs of it, except in his Mind’s Eye. He rarely told anyone much about those specific personal confirmations, or his references. Yet he overwhelming stated that he was a visual thinker, not logical, nor mathematical, not verbal. In his Mind’s Eye, was how he saw those physical processes model by his mental processes, to understand our understanding. As Sagan so brilliantly & acutely shows in his “Cosmos” regarding the “Thought Experiments” of Einstein.
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& when asked about how to do good physics? He stated, “Never reveal your sources.” There it is.
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And his great omissions, yet again an incompleteness of our understanding, stands out to the carefully empirical like a vast void. We see it by its huge absence!!! He found those likely findings & confirmed them by building up a set of process thinking, relevant outcomes if true, very likely. His own Kategoria as we have done above. And once we know that, we can see, empirically introspect further into how his mind worked. THAT’s how, even 100 years later, we are still confirming, what he already HAD confirmed. And to the point, he said he’d never make a “cosmological constant” mistake again. & that shows, very likely HOW he was SURE of those discoveries, which have now just recently been largely confirmed. His mind prophesied, predicted, foresaw our future. And that is a very rare gift as C. P.  Snow presciently wrote about Churchill, too, in his “Variation of Men”. generations ago. More confirmations.
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Next, we have the families of our ignorances. Yet another incompleteness.  Name all of the stars in our galaxy, the sizes, shapes, colours, ages, positions, trajectories, associations with all other bodies & stars, etc. Then all of the other 1-2 trillions of galaxies. Ooops…… Names all of the interactions in the human body of the atoms, molecules, structures and genetics. Then the other likely 100 millions of species which do and have existed. Oops!!!
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There is Ignorance of Ignorance They do not know they do not know. Children, dements, brain damage, strokes, etc., can all show these. It’s also called the Ignoratio ignorationis; one of the major aspects of not knowing.

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And then,  we have the Mind Traps of our limits. The dements who do not know they are forgetting things. The narrow minded philosophies and religions which cannot see outside of Nor themselves. Our eyes which cannot see our eyes. “Oh, that we could see ourselves as other see us!”, wrote the immortal bard, Robert Burns, centuries ago. And still likely the case, today.
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The logics & maths which are not, clearly, complete. The “Grand Design” of Hawking showed this. TD, Newtonian/relativity physics, plus QM are not complete, nor do they interact consistently with each other. But he missed biology, CxSys, CP and LE thermodynamics in all its CxSys forms. His model was not complete.
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A major article about the clinical neuroscience of “Mind Traps” is forthcoming, as well, also describing how most all of us are in Mind Traps and how to recognized and escape them. As Whitehead knew, but needed a S/F basis to find those and realize more about it.
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Years ago, in addition, had two teachers, one English class & the other Civics. Both gave us long lists of information to learn and memorize to describe how best to spell and work in English; and how our political systems were organized. They were using the Kategoria to teach us!! And it’s taken me 50 years to figure out how Efficient and Effective those listing methods were. & when we go shopping, we make lists. The Kategoria again. When we plan our day, we make lists of what we must do those days. The Kategoria!!!! Efficient, ubiquitous, and ancient.
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Recently created an efficient method to sort out the Primes. It’s beyond logic/math to create that system. But shows HOW almost unlimited methods can be created to solve our problems, as well. It find new, universal patterns to ALL the primes and details a method to sort out the composites to find the primes. & generates the primes, too. Thus, yet another instance of HOW, in order to make progress, we must Simplify and Break OUT of our mind traps. Our solutions are NOT linearly nor logically driven. Creativity is Cx Sys.
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But in order to efficiently develop that system, needed to memorize the Long lists of the known primes and wrote them down through about 2000. & then suddenly realized, because I’d memorized those prime numbers, it was far, far easier to Learn to recall 4 digit numbers by that method. The List of Primes, the Kategoria, once memorized, became a big framework which increased substantially my powers of recall of numbers!!! Quite unexpected, emergent, growth related outcome, too. Again, the power of the CP, LE methods.
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Just like our memorization of the alphabet allows us to organize information much, much better, too. By CP to that list. And memorizing the number line, allows us to organize most everything way better. LE of Long Term Memory, indeed!! And the math tables…….
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& in order to Solve our problems, we must ADD information. Had he had those, then we could have seen it more. But being bound by logic & maths, we must fail. And thus the larger picture, why NP is Not = to P.. Missing the Forest for the trees, seeing outside the box. Seeing more of the whole elephant, not just its parts. Going beyond the absolutes, IOW.
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On this Einstein guides us. We cannot see solutions to our problems within the box of our logical mind sets. In order to solve those, we use creativities (CP created) to See from outside the problems to solve them.

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Yet knowing that we do not know, gives us the capabilities to find out more, of what we do not. We KNOW it’s there, by its absence, do we not?!! So we seek to find, explore events, cast our nets widely, and by their outcomes/fruits of what we find, we will know them, is not? Again, universal processors, which can create the sciences, as well. From so long ago……
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When it was realized that there was a great disparity between the numbers of known, visible galaxies, when graphed against the total known numbers, Again, a cognitive dissonance. That number was still in the billions!!! Thus the LSB Galaxies were found of which Malin once again proved by finding them. So, the CP via CD created new information and progress, in a Kuhnian sense, as it most always has to this day.
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The final major element, a member of the huge Kategoria is that of the Empirical “false dichotomy” of logics. All is not A or not A. A or only B, Black or White, Good or bad, true or false (math errors of logic) Goldbach’s is BOTH true and not true. Or probabilistically true. So very likely may be MUCH of the unproven Rieman’s Hypothesis, plus many others unsolved math mysteries, too. We must “step outsides of the box of logics” to solve those.
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But in fact, it’s the case, very likely, A can be B, C, D, F, FH, IJ, Alpha, Beta, Gamma Delta, and all the richness of the Kategoria. Which we see in the biological receptor sites, largely vast evidences of the Dopamine/catecholamine Kategoria of our understandings. It’s not Side effects, y’all, but CxSys Effects!! That bit of adjustment makes possible a n unlimited revolution of understanding of pharmacologies without limits, which when combined with S/F methods, too.  Until we reach the S-curve of growth of those limits, as well……..
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Binary logics can’t do that. They must fail. Either/or is NOT used by our DNA to efficiently code information, but a CxSys of A & T and G & C, and with RNA, Uracil (Quaternary system). PLUS the complexities of the amino acids, as well. The codons of DNA for the Amine Acids are also organized the same way, efficiently. We must advance to the Promised Land of CxSys of the Undiscovered Country, IOW, by developing the more highly capable Multiplicities & methods herein implied and largely found.
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The organic chemistries are NOT the simplistic, strictly linear, algebraic stoichiometries of the inorganic reactions, but Cx Sys!!!  2 H2 and 1 O2 with heat go to 2 H20. A single carbon plus O2 goes linearly to CO2. But adding an organic reagent to an organic compound, against creates the Cx Sys outcomes of organic reactions. Do you see this?
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 See by comparison of the enzymes by CP how those are masterful methods of doing a single CxSys reaction to avoid the complexities of our simple organic chemistries & outputs of vast numbers of unwanted products, which we see by simply combining base organic compounds with a reagent, is not? Enzymes are highly efficient, and by those each and every one created growth, “evolution in action”. The organic outputs combine with more outputs, endlessly complicating the outputs, as long as the reactions go on. Enzymes and related biochemistries side step these problems, and do so so very efficiently, it’s notable, but often missed. The more efficient an enzyme is, the more that system will grow and develop. Again, missed with linear methods.
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This Kategoria, hierarchically arranged, creates a much more complete, but not quite (no perfect heat engine description) of what’s “Likely” going on. And that’s the last of the Kategoria, major, here. Probabilities are the case. Not certainties. & with the probabilities of QM and CxSys, come the “UNLIMITED” possibilities for growth of events. We remove Infinities of idealistic nonsenses and state the highly likely, highly confirmed, “unlimited”, the incompletenesses of our knowledges. And realize that we can therefore with work, find almost unlimited solutions to most all our problems. But not quite……  It seems a fair trade, and a bargain very likely. And a far, far more complete and universal set of models of “what’s going on” both inside and outside of us.
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The near universal drivers, processes of CP, LE S/F, CxSys, and all of those unlimited methods, models, approaches, techniques & technologies, devices, tools, and instruments, etc., which can create very well a far, far more Unified, simpler, vaster, more capable set of understandings of what’s going on. Universal processors create universal models, very likely. But not quite.
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This Kategoria of “incompleteness” paradoxically makes, and can make most all of our knowledge Far, far more complete, very likely. Which is very interesting, too.

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