Part 1: An Historical Genealogy of Tom Horn

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/CP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014.
Copyright © 2019
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Part 1: An Historical Genealogy of Tom Horn
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A Genealogical History of the Notorious Killer, Thomas (Tom) S. Horn, Jr.
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There are two biographies of Tom Horn we may use by comparison and contrast to more fully understand the life of Horn. The first is the best and most definitive, and comes in two editions, the original by Gary D. Ball, named, “Tom Horn In Life and Legend” published. 2014, and is the Definitive, modern work on Tom Horn, by an very fine historian

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The other in contrast is by Chip Carlson “Tom Horn: Killing Men is my Specialty”, publ. 1981. Recommended by endorsing/writing of some persons, that he “knew the most about Tom Horn.” He is not an historian, and provides most of his narrative from Tom Horn’s autobio written while in jail awaiting execution, very remote in time from the events Horn writes about. Sadly, comparing Carlson’s work with Ball’s, which military, legal, civil  records information has been there for at least 100 years is a huge contrast in scholarship, historically referenced military, and local histories with vastly more facts, and  every where best compared to that of Carlson. Nor even is his “Blood on the Moon” revision, substantially better.
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And we can tell that by the facts. The basic point through these two Parts articles about Horn, are that for ANY biography, those cannot be complete without checking the totality of the Genealogical data and sources. Without those, a biography alone is too incomplete to be historically state of art and credible. No bio of any kind is acceptable without a very complete genealogical section which tells us where the families came from, who they were, where they lived and the other, highly formative, origins information necessary for the fullest possible understanding of the subject of the biography. IOW, without as Complete as possible genealogical information, with that left out, it’s not a very good, historical and by scholarship acceptable work.
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First of all, Thomas S. Horn, Jr. was born traditionally on 21 Nov. 1860 near Granger, Scotland Co., MO. the 4th or 5th child of about 10-12 by Thomas S. Horn, Sr., & his lawful wife, Mary Ann Maricha Miller. There are NO known church, baptismal, or birth records even referenced to the date of his birth. He’s not found on the 1900 census, either, which often listed the month and year of birth. but his brother Charles’ date, was there, however.
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If we are to believe Carlson, which is dubious, as he bases a huge amount not on historical records but the highly inaccurate, and highly self serving autobiography of Tom Horn, Himself. & he’s a notorious liar, as well, manifested in his killing history, drinking, and thus Sociopathic behaviors, repeatedly, very likely. Clearly, the jury never believed him, and his employers didn’t either. The immensities of false stories he wrote started when he said he left the farm forever at age 14 after being abused by both parents, physically. His mother was a kindly person, but he states she was not. His father, likely an alcoholic like Tom Jr., was the one who may have abused him. Well, he related he was driving a stage, on cattle drives, and many other tasks which are not seen with 14 year olds, nor can be. And as we read thru the details of his life in Ball, comparisons show this repeatedly.
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So we first check the historical records. The censuses 1860, 1870 and 1880. He’s not on the 1860 census, just before the CW, because he was born months later than that. And we First find him with his parents Thomas, Sr. and Mary Ann Horn, & oldest brother Charles, who was very important to him. in 1870 & 1880, Scotland Co., MO.
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1860 census MO, Scotland, Harrison; 25 July, near Memphis, MO
Thomas Horn, 35 OH farmer $6K
Mary Horn, 29 OH
Charles Horn, 6, MO (sic); Wm. 4, MO,
***  Nancy B. 2 MIssouri ; (she’s there!)
PG with Thos. Jr. at the time?
Because Charles was likely born in OHIO, 1852-3, then they moved to MO in 1854-5 or so. Check Charles’ place born dates 1900 census, et. seq., showed b. OHIO. Father didn’t list that Ohio birth place to hide why/from where the family left.
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Findagrave on Charles Horn
B. 1 Jan. 1852 in Coshocton Co., OH, d. 7 Nov. 1930, Boulder, CO
Bu. Columbia Cem. Boulder, CO. (Carlson states Pioneer Cem.) & ONLY gives Charles as his brother, None of his other sibs, and NEVER his mother, and only that his father was Thomas, not Sr., Jr., or anything. Something is remiss there at once. NO other family members are EVER given. Ball does give the family data, however. and some ancestry, too.
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1870, MO, Scotland, Harrison Tp.  dates of census, supposed to be there, not given, but usually spring to fall, rarely after October.
Thos. 45 OH, farmer,  2 K, (letters not dark enough but some readable  names, dates, with enlarging image)
Mary 39, OH
Chas. 16 (sic, b. 1852, OH), MO(sic), Nancy 12 MO  (b. 24 May 1858, MO)   (Wm. gone!)
Thos. 10 MO, so born in 1860, but not born in November, if correct, or if born in 1861, instead.
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Martin 8 MO, (rather b.19 Nov. 1862, Cochocton, OH); Hannah 6 MO, (20 May 1865);
Benny Markley age 12, Ark. (a nephew of Mary Ann’s)
Next page, not clear: Austin 3 MO, (ca. 1866-7, definitive BD not clear) male, & Mary 1(??) (Maude Ambrosia, b. 4 Jul 1869, solid)  Missouri.
Big gaps, some kids missing? From the birth of Mary, known, July 1869, we can guess that date of the census, approx. to within 1 month. IOW, June to Aug. 1870.
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1880, MO, Scotland, Harrison; Day/Mo. each census page, date of census page not given.
Thomas Horn 54, OH, PA/”
Mary A. 49, OH, OH/”
Mart(in) 17, MO
****Tom Horn 19 , MO; so was living there in 1880, too. and left AFTER 1880 census.
Carlson was wrong again.
Hannah 15 ; Oss (Austin) 12; Maude  (Mary Ambrosia)11 (sic); and Alice 5. all b. MO
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There is this interesting listing in the 1880 census
1880, CO, Gunnison, Gunnison City, 12 Jun. 1880
Horn, Thom’s 19 MO (parents b. OH/OH) single, Miner, which could be him. or not.
but that’s Very far south/west, 120 miles, of Leadville, too.
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And this:
1880, KS, Reno, Valley 3 jun.
Charles Horn 27
Elizabeth (Blattner)
Much more in Part 2.
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1891 Canada Census, British Columbia, New Westminster
Thomas Horn b. 1825, 66, ma., US, USA/Scotland   farmer, to Canada in 1889!!
Mary A. 60 US  Baptists.
A. H. (Austin) 23; Alice 16; both b. US.
No, Austin is born ca 1868, so as the estimated surround 1867, that’s a likely birth year.
Where were Maude? others?
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Able to locate a 1900 US, but no 1901 Canadian census on Maude, & the above disparity shows an important point, She was born in 1869. She lived most of life in Washington state, NOT with her father/mother after 1890, likely.
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Clearly, Maude Mary A. (for Ambrosia) was born in USA, and NOT after the census, too. but we see these things all the time, Info decays in time. And she was about 100 when she died, so who knows her date and year of birth? This requires then the historically tested, Preponderance of evidence.
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1900, WA, Pierce, Tacoma, 6 June;
Matthew O’Simpson, (sic!! Actually Matthew Oliver (O.), so the census take messed up!) b. July 1877 (1878 by  birth records, Can., thus wrong!!!!)  Ontario CAN;  parents Can. Engl,, MO/Ireland!!
Maude O’Simpson (sic) b. July 1869, MO; ma. 2 yrs. 1/1;  in US 6/12, since 1900!!!
Mary L. O’Simpson, 2 b. British Columbia b. Oct. 1898;   in US 6/12 mos, since 1900!!!
So Maude and family in BC, then moved back to Washington state, in Seattle/Tacoma
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Now, 1910 census, US, Washington state, Kings, Seattle,. 3  20 Apr.
Matthew O. Simpson, 31, b. ca. 1879, Canada Eng., Imm. to US 1883; ma. 13 yrs.; grip man, streetcar
Maude A. 40, wife Missouri (well, 1869, poss. as was born July) ma. 13 yrs. 2/1; OH/”
Alice M. 11 Minnesota; What?
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1920 Jan. 1920, Matt imm. 1887; Maude is 50., 1930, Apr. 24, also for Maude and Matt, but he d. in 1932.
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Children:
Alice M Simpson was born 15 Oct.1898, Port Coquitlan (Vancouver metro), BC, and moved to Seattle in 1909.
Mary Alice Simpson  naturalized 1926 in Wash, b. 15 Oct. 1898 in Port Coquitlan, BC.
imm. from New Westminster, BC. Where her G’pa. Thos. Horn Sr. had been living, too.
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Check 1901 Brit. Columbia census for them and the dates might be there!!! A sister, Thomasita  b. Pierce Co., Wash in 1901; likely Tacoma.
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So after all of this, was the 1869 age wrong for Maude? & the answer is, we don’t know. but it’s easy to get bogged down in the complexities, too.
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Where were Matt and Maude married ca. 1894-1898? This missing info is more decay of info problem. But is resolved in Part 2.
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These disparities, cognitive dissonances, and comparison process points created are seen all the time. My ancestor was born in Westphalia 1820, and his tombstone in Lancaster showed his DOB at 1822. But the 1900 census showed he was born in the exact month and year, 1820. AND on the IGI records from Dielingen, Westphalia 1820 birth year, and that correct date of his brother, Augustus, 1824, as well. So in this case, as well as in the case of Tom Horn, whose stone showed b.1861, that info decays in time. Who’s more likely to be right? Yet again, a TD, LE principle. Those sources of info closest to the events, are likeliest. So Maude was born ca. July 1869, too. and that’s that, as well. IOW, the 1870 census, right to the month showed she was born in 1869-70, very likely. and Tom Horn was likely b. in 1860, NOT 1861, as his Columbia Cem., Boulder CO, stone showed, next to his brother, Charles, who got the body in Cheyenne after Tom was hung for murder; and had the funeral and burial there in Boulder. Otherwise he’d NOT be listed in 1860!! So he was born mid 1860, likely.
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Next there are land records of Thomas Horn Sr., living in Ohio along the Muskingum River, which became Coshocton Co., where Thomas and Mary Ann Were married in late 1850, clearly. What then happened, and Carlson ignored that huge move to Missouri. And the move to Kansas, near Grinnel in the 1870’s, where he lost that land too. And the indebtedness from a failed investment in Coshocton, OH, mid 1850’s, which Ball very clearly details. They left Ohio in the middle of the night, to escape debtors, ending up in Scotland Co., MO, which the censuses show, as well. Still looking for KS state census records of 1875, but not listed in Kansas, however. Absence of evidence is not likely evidence for absence. Where he lived for about 2 years, with family, before moving BACK to Scotland Co., MO, by 1880. Charles stayed in KS much later, however.
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The mid 1870’s was the time Tom Horn claimed he’d been out and about on cattle drives, stage coach work, and so forth. Which was clearly NOT the case. He was there in Scotland Co., MO with parents as shown above until at least later 1880. He was also in KS with his father &/or brother, Charles, when they moved there after 1875, only to fail and move back to Scotland Co., MO by 1880.
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Ball wrote that Charles Horn moved to California, but no records of that, and then back to Missouri. and from there to Kansas near his father. Then from there likely to Denver/Boulder, CO where he lived and died. Indeed 2 kids born in KS, as well. so that makes sense. Land records show those movements.
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And Carlson does NOT state why Thomas Sr. and much of his family, ever moved to, NOR ended up in the Pacific NW, either, some in Washington state, and Thos Sr. himself & Many of his many kids buried in Vancouver area, in Cloverdale, at the cemetery there, on findagrave for most of them.
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This is an excellent genealogical source, which shows what’s going on. William Horn, bu. 1856, was likely born in Scotland Co., MO. and died there, consistent with the 1860, 1870 censuses from there. And immortalized the mid 1850’s move from Coshocton to avoid debtors, as likely drove his move out of the nation, to BC, Canada, from Scotland Co., MO. Carlson does NOT even touch on this VIPoint, NOR the 1880 census, NOR the move to Kansas, as Ball so well documents.
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The state census records do not record any of those Horns in 1875 in Kansas. Altho the 1885 census likely will show something. Clearly, Thos. Horn Sr., was there  after 1875, and left Kansas to move back to MO before the 1880 census, when in MO. Charles was there for some time, however. & we know that from his daughters’ places of birth.
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Thus the whole story about stage coach work, cattle drives, etc. occurred very likely in Kansas with Brother and family there, &/or AFTER 1880, because the military records on Tom Horn start about 1882-3 in Arizona. so his whole story about being beaten by his parents, and then leaving are likely bogus. His actual independent life history began near his age of majority about 20-21 y/o. Then he may have done the cattle drives, the stage coaching & ended up in Arizona ca. early 1880’s, as above.
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These genealogical correctives are NOT used by Carlson, but Ball documents the extensive Military records there in Arizona, over that time from Tom Horn’s work there, which was again, highly embellished and falsified, because he failed to relate his serious problems there, as well. When working in Globe, Gila Co., now Arizona, and near the San Carlos Ind. Reservation nearby, which work records are also extent, but NOT mentioned at all by Carlson except in cursory passing. Carlson was NOT the/an expert on Tom Horn’s life. He would not do the work to find the data, which Ball showed was very clearly available at the time, too.
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Thus Ball’s superior scholarship and military and civil records from AZ, show what likely happened, there in AZ. Horn writes he found Geronimo, was an acquaintance of the Apache chief, and then was a interpreter for him. But that’s not the case. He was in a group of men who did, but he knew no Apache and others did that work. Again, embellishments & lies.
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He left Arizona and was in Colorado, by the early 1890’s, at which time his father had moved to escape debtors, ca. 1890, very likely from Scotland Co., MO. Debt Collectors/enforcers can’t cross international boundaries, very easily. So Thos. Sr., ran away the last time, starting in Coshocton, where his wife’s family had land, which he worked, and then lost to indebtedness. That was why Carlson never mentioned the family, because it’d have exposed the problems of the father. A sad, but true omission and why Carlson’s endorsements by many are simply not credible, either.
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So when Tom claimed leaving Scotland Co., aged 14 in 1874 (by his lies in autobio) they were still in Granger, MO, farm area; & in actuality no evidence that he never left at all. He moved with parents to KS, near Burrton & they were there  until Thos. Sr. lost the farm again in about 2-3 years, (EtOh again?) and back to near Etna, MO, by 1880. where he’s also listed. Tom left there about 1881-2 for Leadville, CO, as his brother was in Colorado by then. & thence by 1882-3 to Globe, Gila Co., AZ territory; and also worked on San Carlos Indian reservation going by name, James M. Hicks; apparently wi. a common law Apache wife, & perhaps 2 kids. No census or other documentation of that, either. NO mention of that by Tom, either. Carlson leaves it out because it’d show Tom Horn was not a good man, and that being the case, casts serious doubts about his unsubstantiated claims that Horn was innocent of the murder for which he was hanged.
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Tom Horn left San Carlos area, joined up with Pinkerton detective service in Denver in 1890. He likely left the same way his father, did. Got into local troubles. & Then to WY and range wars by Pinkerton sending him to Johnson Co., about 1892, and thence to of Cheyenne, and Laramie, WY, until death.
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In the meantime he talked about his “detective work” which was in fact tracking down rustlers & eliminating them by long distance shooting. This established his bad reputation and notorieties. Eventually he killed a child, Willie Nickell, near Laramie, WY. & likely not the first, as Meldrum called him a “child killer”, too. So his lethal work for the cattle associations was a euphemism called being a “Detective”, which he was not, except when working for Pinkerton’s which stopped in 1892-3, when he apparently, voluntarily found work in Wyoming, along the same lines, with the cattlemen’s associations. He left Pinkerton’s under a cloud.
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He’d tracked a robber to California, lost him, then robbed a casino/bank on Reno, NV. Pinkerton’s had to bail him out.
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This is how we know what’s likely going on. Rarely with complete certainty, in historical records, or family history records, either. But we do weigh the repeating records, and find clearly the gaps and inconsistencies in those.
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As far as Horn’s sojourns in Colorado, Ball again documents those well, and Carlson misses most of it, except to mention the Pinkerton appointment to Denver, Colorado, in 1890. He seriously messed up his detective work & altho Carlson shows a Photo of Tom at the time, states it’s Tom Horn and totally ignores the 2 other Pinkerton men, dressed  up as usual in suits, which marks them as Pinkerton Agents, BTW!!!  By ignoring and avoiding clear cut info and sources, Carlson ruins his credibility and conclusions. So, there we have it.
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Horn said he moved to Wyoming in 1894. But the records are clear, he was there by Pinkerton records from  Denver, to Johnson Co., Range wars, in 1892, problems in which Pinkerton had a vested, fiduciary interest. Shortly thereafter, because he’d robbed a casino or some such place, in the early 1890’s in Reno, NV, while on a failed hunt for robbers, (which Carlson also ignored, for the same reasons as usual) and Pinkerton saved him from prosecutions. This all well documented by Ball.
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Have also looked into the so called by Carlson, Tom’s “girl friend’, Glendolene Myrtle Kimmell, Fortunately for us, her name was not Mary Smith, but a very clear cut, distinctive & rare name, making her VERY easy to trace!!!  She was an interloper and her claims to have known Tom Horn were likely bogus, from which we see from the census records, as well. She investigated him AFTER the facts, and as a stenographer, was a self proclaimed writer, but not very good, either. So much of what she writes can be easily dismissed, which Carlson for some reason never mentions at all, either. Checking the census and civil records for Glendolene Kimmell reveals in the city directories of Denver, exactly when she was there, doing what & so forth. Over 100 Miles south of Cheyenne, and ever further from Laramie!!! She was NEVER a teacher at all!!! She was nothing, and much of what she stated in a “addendum” to his bio, is not from personal, accurate experience, but simply bad journalism, in which she had no training or expertize either.
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We often call such persons Interlopers, poseurs, and opportunists. The data on the known sojourns and many, many addresses on Miss Glendolene M. Kimmell ARE very well documented in Part 2 at the end of the write up, just before the raw data section. This clearly allows us to dismiss Miss Kimmell as anything substantial, credible, or reliable regarding Tom Horn. The jury did not believe her, because she’d disappeared apparently libeling a Mr. Miller, fingering him as the man who murdered Willie Nickell. & she was not able to be found to testify, by deliberate hiding of herself, out of Wyoming for some years.
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Just why Carlson would miss those vast, genealogical evidences & documents about Miss Glendolene, and the fact she lived with her mother, was never married, and eventually moved with Mom to California, in the LA area, near where she died some years later. All of those facts are available in Denver, at the National Archives, too, near where Carlson lived.
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Checking the Denver City directories for the time of 1900 to ca. 1920 and the census records, reveals an astonishingly different story about Miss Kimmell. First at NO time is she ever listed as a “teacher” or anything to do with schooling. We only have HER say so she was in Wyoming. There is NO independent census evidence of that, either. While living in Denver she was a steno, a writer, or living on her own means, from 1903 to 1920. She was also listed in KC, MO, and in Hannibal (with mother), and a steno, both times. Where is the teaching?
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Clearly, the Carlson story about he being a school marm, is simply not substantiated at all, either. Nor does she have anything but “self education” listed anywhere. Those are not the qualifications of a teacher, at all. So what’s going on with Carlson, once again? He admits Tom Horn and Miss Kimmell only met once, and then builds up this fabular story about her knowing him and he simply did not, either. And her writing in Horn’s defense, was clearly dismissed by Ball, who stated she was not believed at all. But those things get in the way of Carlson’s “Tom Horn was Innocent” agenda, which he most certainly was NOT.
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 Those relevant omissions showed Carlson never checked much on her at all!!! The best informed of any on Tom Horn, indeed, NOT!!! Nor did Ball check on the known data, either, and sort of implies there was some kind of interaction. Possibly 1, but we have no solid evidence of even that 1, either.
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Tom Horn  was assigned by Pinkertons in 1892 by records, up to Johnson Co.,Wyoming, where the range wars were going on at that time, in order to move out a troubling employee, giving him one last chance, which he missed, yet again. He was drinking heavily from time, to time, very clearly and that lasted until his arrest for murder of Willie Nickell in Iron Mountain, near Laramie, and held in jail without bail until his conviction and hanging in Cheyenne, WY,. and from there taken by Brother Charles to a Boulder funeral & Cemetery in Colorado.
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Glendolene M. Kimmell had NOTHING to do with Tom Horn before the murder of Willie Nickell, and not much after, either, altho she did a very fabular “psych” assessment on him, for which she had not the slightest training, nor credibility. That is simply fiction by Carlson.
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Once again, check the section in part 2, which is extensive on city directories, censuses, and related records on her. This shows an extremely different, documentable, large sets of information about her, totally at odds from Carlson, and not much at all mentioned by Ball, sadly.
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Which once again proves the point. If the biographer has NOT collected and found the genealogical historical records on a person, he has NOT done a very good Biography. This alone establishes the standard of scholarship needed for most ALL bios, understanding the limits as imposed by “information is lost in time”, the universal principle of physics, called the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics. It cannot be ignored by serious students of historical work of ANY kind, logically, empirically, historically and scientifically.

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