The Complex System of Our Colour Vision

The Complex System of our Colour Vision
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By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/CP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014.
Copyright © 2020
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As has been explored in part before, “The Structure of Color Vision”. There is a lot more to colour vision than has been explored before, nor understood very completely. The system is necessarily complex system (Cx Sys) and thus is amenable to the best description by using the Kategoria to describe it’s many different aspects and colours.

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For instance, comparing (Comparison Processing, CP) the visual system of colours to that of the electromagnetic spectrum of co-lours is very, revealing and shows many disparities and interesting observations.
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Structure of our colour vision, here.
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First Kategoria is the EM spectrum, and we then compare that to the ROY G BI mnemonic listing the colours we ID and name by CP.  That creates data by the differences. The EM spectrum is linear, & thus leaves OUT a very great deal as linear methods do. The Structure shows that starkly. Where is brown, white, grays unlimited and black? Where is Dayglo? Thus in order to complete better our descriptions of colours as we see them, we use the Kategoria. and that yields very interesting insights, Plus we use structure/function (S/F) relationships to further extend our understanding of HOW color vision arises.
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Next Kategoria is 2. Black, the Grays unlimited, and White. What is this? Animals do not always see in colors. They have a black/white system, like B&W TV and photography (Platinum Methods are the best). Simply, this is the number of photons reaching the retina. The more photons, the whiter it is, the less, the fewer & grayer. and at the border zone of detectable, it’s black. The structure/function (S/F) is that of of the rods. Those are the detectors of the black and white colors, and the unlimited grays. The rods quantitate the number of photons and then realizable change those into the unlimited grays from nearly white to nearly black, by a CP method. The top of the photon numbers scale is the white out we see with looking at bright lights. Much like that seen with cameras, when the # of photons white out the image. The lower end is the detectability of the dark grays to black, and we know there are very human limits to that. We use CCD’s to detect photons which we cannot otherwise see. Which is what David Malin used to find the Low Surface Brightness Galaxies (LSBG), which our visual telescopes had missed, using lenses and mirrors. And as a result we found over 1 trillions more galaxies. The limits of our eyes had been once more, as in the IR, UV, X-rays, been extended to see MORE of the universe by using those new technologies.
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So, we have again, another Kategoria. which is explainable by S/F relationships.
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3. Brown. This is NOT on the EM spectrum, like white-gray-black scales. And this huge CP disparity creates many, new insights into our understanding of our visual system. We know that by darkening yellow we get browns. By lightening browns we get yellows. In addition, when we combine red/green we also get browns. By adding a bit more red, we get an interesting set of colors which are those of the red hair colors, as well. Auburn, red, light brown, viz. blond, and red-brown. A combination colour set.
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In addition there are the red/green color blindnesses, X-linked recessives. Those persons cannot see red/green. They cannot see which light, or sign is red, or green, tho they can detect the light from those events. The real problem for them were the horizontal signal lights. They could not see if the light lit was red or green, and until the stop lights were standardized, to red on top, then yellow, then green on the bottom, they had lots of trouble driving!!!.Consequently increased driving accidents results (ed).
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But what, we might also ask do they see if not red, or green? And here again are the values of the kategoria of Cx Sys descriptions as first explored vastly and fruitfully by Aristoteles. (The Kategoria of Incompletenesses, for instance.) Or the unlimited, CP driven/created, read, and modified kategoria of our vast hierarchical organizations of knowledge by the many means of doing so, as also discussed before.
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The red/green blind, deuteranopes (as oppsed to normal trichomacity, 3 pigments) see browns. When asked what they see, they say that most people see brown, and so do they. NowTHAT is interesting is not? By CP of normal colour vision with that of R/G blindness, we learn something about brown.
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Have we ever seen a brown light? Not very often, and why not? We see red, yellow, green, orange lights, and blue even violet lights. Why not much brown, by CP?  Brown is thus created by both darkened yellow, and by combining red/green. The two colors cancel each other out, except when there is a bit surplus of red, & we get hair colours by those combinations from auburn, to red/brown, which is then red many cases. Then we get the default colour, Brown. So we learn that in colour blindnesses, brown is a default color. The red/green in normal vision cancels out red/green to give us brown.
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Thus brown gives us insights into how the colour system works. Now, if red/green blindnesses, can see browns, what is going on? Thus in that case it’s a dark yellow. and that accounts for the rarity of brown lighting. In the natural world it’s most often seen in biological sources, such as brown bark, leaves, skin colors, and hair. It’s a special color, because it’s NOT on the spectrum, and for that reason shows us how the color vision works. Just as a genetic disorder compared to the normal, show us good information by that cognitive dissonance, that disparity, that CP, does it not? Info is created.
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We see the trichomy, which is normal color vision. But there is a third, which is also the case.
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Therefore we know the structures of what creates colors, it’s the cones, and when those are deficient, colour blindness is seen, mostly in men. This is a clear cut, S/F relationship.
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Now, we continue, 4. Dayglo, and this is an exceptionally bright color, which is there because of the specific colour pigments, which take UV light and by reducing the energy convert it to green, yellow, orange, red, & blue. So as the normal lighting is bright, the UV addition makes it visibly brighter, and thus more noticeable, There are more photons being created often of specific colours added by UV phtons by this method. Again not seen on the EM spectrum, at all.
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5. is the vast Kategoria of the colour combinations. Those combos are obviously unlimited. And none of those are seen on the EM spectrum, at all! This sort of like playing two or more musical tones, or chords at the same time. That is vision plus, and can be very interesting too. As stated before the complexity of those color combos is easily seen and explored in one place. The paint store methods, which organize the colours & combos by hierarchical means, we call the paint chips. THAT is the most easily found, complete Kategoria of the colours. The EM is a frail, linear, highly incomplete way of observing & understanding colors, is it not? And once again shows us the limits of linear processing, thinking and related maths, logics, and counting, very likely.
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The next is when we combine red with a bit of blue. It makes the color much more intense, and that is often used in lipsticks, and other signs, where the red must stand out, too.
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Next is 6. The Yellow/Green colors. Those are specific frequencies which our color vision creates by combining yellow & green, as orange is created by the combo of red and yellow, Or blue/green by the obvious. But there is green/yellow as a specific frequency of light, which our eyes, in simplicity, create Yellow-green by combining those. But there are depths within depths of this, as also reported in the “Structure…”. The brightest, most photons of light which are created by the sun which get to the surface of the earth, are the Yellow/Greens. And those are the most photons. And around the nearly exact center of frequncies of visible light, this high information content, are the colours. A high sensitivity to the most photons, gives the best visual distinctions, the most efficient way of seeing, because of the number of channels is far, far higher.
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Interestingly enough, as written before, our color vision centers around the brightest, normal light of our sun. Now if we, or another species lives around a more white sun, or a more red to slightly orange sun the colour sensitivities of our visual pigments would shift to the brightest frequencies for that sun. Thus if we humans and our domesticated species move to such a sun, very clearly, over time, our colour sensitivies in our eyes would shift to that new center of the brightest frequencies, would they not? So our colour vision is uniquely tied/directly related to the spectral characteristics of our sun. Which point has NOT been reported or seen before. Yet it’s of considerable importance in understanding our color vision as well as how everything is connected, too.
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Or if the spectral characteristics of our sun change over time time, then our eyes will also dark adapt.
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Yet another Kategoria is what happens if we wear red to pink glasses? The color vision adapts to this and the colours after a while appear to be normal. Also, if we take off those lenses after adaptation, most everything looks green, does it not? Until ti adapts back to the normal settings, for some reason. Another form of this illusion which shows us how the color vision works, is when we look at the so called colour pairs, such as red and green, Blue and Orange. If we concentrate & look at an image of those for a minute, then look at a white page, we see an oppositie visual image, an illusion of the blue where the yellow was &vice versa), and the red where the green was & vice versa! This is due to the visual image wearing out of the colour cones of our eyes, by sort of a light omission by the eyes, which leave the opposite colour, there.
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The last Kategoria is that of the RGB system for creating colours. In fact, it’s more the RYGB method, as playing around with the color buttons of colour TV sets can show. Our eyes create most all the colours from , red, green/yellow, & blue, not by entreating orange, green, and purple of those specifically, but by combining two colours to make a 3rd. Combining pigments does this as well. Taking yellow and mixing with blue, gives green. Yellow plus red give orange. and blue plus green gives blue-green. True with light, pigments, and colour video screens.

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Now Why in heck does this happen? Because colours are not real outside of our brains. The frequncies of light exist for all detectors of same. Brain uses highly efficient methods of detecting light frequencies by dividing them up into colors. For instance, we see the color spectrum divided into the colours every day, at least twice. And most persons do not know this. they see it so often they ignore it by habituation. & it was Newton using his prism spectrum to show the colour bands in the 1600’s, which showed us that the low frequencies were on the red side, and the higher, on the right, blue side. & that the lower frequencies were bent less than the higher, and thus the colour frequencies going through very clear glass prisms had those characteristics. And this, of course, also created the rainbow, too. altho that’s more than the prism spectrum because it creates accessory, reversed rainbow arcs of light when esp. bright sun shines. The other arcs being due to multiple internal reflections very likely due to the photons bouncing about in the roundness of the rain drops.
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But the sunrises and sets are the same. Sunlight is differentially bent by the atmosphere, and creates the deep black, then the deep red, then red, orange, yellow a bit of green and then blue. So our colours are set every day and evening by those, and the clouds and darknesses set the whites to grays to black. Green we see in the plants, commonly and brown often the same, most often. So the colour spectra are set, reinforced in our brains from an early age, as well. But why it took so long to figure out that the normal frequencies of less energy of red light compared to those further along in the spectrum being higher, each than the previous, is NOT figured out by our eyes.  However, the colours are separated out by this sort of detection of higher energies by the rhodopsins which permit color vision in our eyes.
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There are yet more depths within depths in this as well. How is color created by the eyes and is the colour it is? Some for that reason not simply gave it a name, the qualia, which is like assigning planets, winds, water, the sun, a god’s name, and thinking that explains those, but does not!! But by instead we should be using the empirical methods, widely applicable and nearly universal useful, called S/F relationships. Those universal processes create the colours by the means which we know them have been found, so far. Colours are brain creations, & are illusions, hallucinations created by our visual nervous systems, They, like the emotions and touch, hot, cold, tastes, etc., are Not real but internal creations which reflect real characteristics, in fact, both inside and outside of our bodies. Those correspond fairly well, except for the illusions, which show how sensations are created, and are in fact, not real outside of the structures of our brains. But, they DO correspond to more deep, existing events in our universe, which we share with other livings systems.
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If a tree falls in the forest, exposes the deep idealistic fallacy here, does the tree make a sound if no one is there to hear it? Yes, because, we can see the pressure waves which each tree falling creates,k and record them independently of our brains. So, the idealisms fail & fall to the empirical facts. and the animals run from those, falling trees as do we!!!
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This can be done more completely, esp. in terms of pain, which arising largely as a neurokinin, among a few others, with interesting effects. Pleasure is the same, being a chemical consequence of dopamine like Cx Sys events, or mu receptors of the endorphins and mimicked by the opiates. Thus the S/F relationships show something of how they come about. And to interpret more about how the visual system creates the images we see, the visual illusions must be understood better, as those provide insights into how that is done by the brain. Illusions of all kinds are insights into how the brain works by comparison Processing (CP) of information.
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Have discussed this before, but it needs to be stated once again. The pain centers in the brain, as described by the 9-10 sites (Pain matrix)  in the brain which likely mediate pain, are the case. We know where they are by what lights up on the function MRI (fMRI) scans when pain is induced. However, we have only part of the system figured. Sort of like, when we know what the genes DNA structures are, but we do NOT know how many functions or even what functions the genes have. Yet another, S/F relationship, and why about 20% of the genes have resisted figuring out, is yet another problem, too. That can be done by seeing when the genes are abnormal, what happens to what normal functions by CP them. using the contrast from normal, to abnormal genes, we figure our more of how their multiple Cx Sys functions work.
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In the same way, by the S/F relationship of how the brain works, the language centers, the motor, sensory parts, the recognition of faces (FFA of brain, we can thus learn more by a new kind of instrumentation initially inferred from the Praxis, which shows the various kinds of international neurophysical tests, which so far, in a limited way, gives us more info about the senses, and how the brain works, very likely.
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And that, is the magnetic point stimulator. We can use mag stim grossly to block brain activity by depolarizing the brain with a large paddle, or specific nerves with a smaller device. But it’s large sized and give only very large depolarizations, which are not helpful in the parietal, sensory/motor strips, and forth. It’s all depolarized and the specific areas, such as Broca’s cannot be specifically depolarized. But with a point stim, easily created, then we can selectively depolarize tiny spots in the cortex, or deep structures & see what happens, as well, to functions. Thus we are given a CP to what we know occurs in some parts of the brain AND with the mag point stim, we can specifically explore up & down the cortices & find out what functions disappear, or are modified by comparing the two.
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Using this method we can thus vastly improve our knowledge of the S/F relationships of the brain by reading up and down the cortex, where the major functions of high level info are processed;  thus increase by 10,000 times fold our S/F knowledge about how the brain works. For instance use the point stim on each of the pain matrix and see what aspect of pain is temporally abolished. And that will give us a pretty vast improvement of the specifics, of what’s going on, even in the visual processing of info in the visual cortex. This is how to get past the “qualia’ into the far more empirical meaningful, actual S/F events going on in brain. And represents a very real conceptual advance in terms of understanding how our senses (even colours), and emotions are created, modulated, and work, does it not?
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Or the mag stim can be used within the deep matter of the brain because magnetism passes through living matter, easily.
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There are many other subjects in the category of Colours. One is this, the Qualia, so called, of colours. Does that term tell us anything about the origins of colours, created in our nervous system? Of course not. So, like naming the Moon, Selene, the Earth, Gaia, Saturn and the planets after the gods, it tells us nothing of how those work. Empty pagan, deifications, which act as pseudo explanations, and thus are irrelevant to our understanding.
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Jettison the qualia & use the well developed concepts of CP & S/F comparisons. Then look at colour vision and its loss as well. Then at Synesthesias as ways which elucidate those. We know this: There are structures in the retina which create colour coding by frequencies. If those structures are damaged, such as in red/green blindness, we see Brown instead, if so afflicted. If there are no rods, we do not see white, grays unlimited or black either. So the S/F relationship is the key to understanding where the colours come from. The colours are ways of detecting the different frequencies/energies of light. If low, red, if high, the blue to UV, latter of which can be seen by some.
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Thus we have a simple S/F relationship here. The detection of colour means the retina can detect the differences in the frequencies. Thus, detected, colours are assigned which grossly & arbitrarily divide those into colours. This arbitrary designation is a colour standard, which is also used by the eye & visual cortex, and becomes language, as well. We can further divide up red and yellow combos into orange, and red/orange, too. Recall that those colours are the standards by which we name, ID, and detect colours.
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Thus we have internal, retinal/visual cortex standards which can detect AND see colours. So in order to name those, we arbitrarily designate those colours as the ones we use. Thus naming is relativity, to using set, arbitrary words, and which we arbitrarily assign to colours, and then divvy them up repeatedly. The ability of humans too see such vast shadings of colours, is given here. See if you can get at least one correct, perfectly. You have both intact color vision as well as the discrimination to assign gray/purple/red/blue sequence.
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Now, What are the colours? They are a complex system set of events which we see. Red roses, or blood. For that reason Red is very important (as is the metallic, blood taste tongue receptor, which has been ignored), because if we see it on people, we know there’s trouble. So it’s very critical to know that. Also, the red light at dawn & sunset tells us dawn is coming, & Dusk is nigh, too. Red is there for many reasons, & is arbitrarily assigned as Rote, red, Colorado, or rose. The assignation of red is important because of those reasons. The sounds for words we use are arbitrary as well, but stable, set fixed standards of the descriptive epistemology of Einstein, as well. The relativity of colour vision, in fact.
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With THOSE standards set, we then ask the question how does red differ from orange or yellow. Orange is NOT as red, comparatively, either. If the sun is red at sunrise, and sunset, or from ash and much dust/fire smoke, then white turns red. All turns red. Red is indistinguishable from white, as well. Our brains are then fooled. This CP gives us critical info about how we detect and ID red. When the sun is Red, we cannot see that the rose, or blood are red, either, because white in those cases is red too, and many others are as well.
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We see this the same when we look at tree leaves in the sun. Those are green. But when we look at the same tree leaves in Na+ vapour lighting, the leaves can be yellow! Now, what are the colours? They are based upon arbitrary standard of sunlight, which as it’s there all the time during the day, sets the colour standards for us. Thus the arbitrary standard for colours are sunlight.
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If we use Hg Vapor lighting, we do not see much pink or red. The hand appears pale.Greens &  violets/blue are more prominent. Incandescent lighting can afflict colour schemes in interior paints and designs, as well. As the Interior decorators well know!!!
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So, when we see the various frequencies, and the brain does NOT know, that red up the spectrum to blue/vikolet are in terms of frequencies, either. BUT the Photopsins which are colour detecting proteins in the retina, ID the differences in energies, & report those to the visual cortex. It compares redness to those frequencies, and reports those as reds, and then we see red. The same with the other systems. Thus are the colours created by the nervous system.
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 We see red, yellow, green & blues, from which the others are created, by those synthetic means. It combines red and yellow lights or pigments to create oranges. It combines red/green to create brown, or alternatively dark, deep gray yellow to do the same. It takes green/yellow and we see Chartreuse. And then yellow and blue to create Green, as well. & with 4 simple combos, R, Y, G, and Blue  (RGB, simplified), all the rest comes about, does not? And even purple or green/blues are created by this combining process.
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That’s where colours are created in the visual pigmented photopsins, which by their energies, detect the very narrow spectrum of light, because that is the ONLY way to detect which colours are which.  In addition, the visual cortex then uses a CP to arbitrarily create the colours. Exactly how that’s done is not clear, but using THESE S/F means, instead of the useless qualia, we can then figure out just where the sensations of colours come from. And from there, likely infer the rest of the senses of touch, hot, cold,positon & so forth, all within the S/F methods and by using CP which assigns the standards, too.
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That’s how we figure out where colour visions come from. from the structures which are lost, which create red/green, and other kinds of blindnesses. We now have the genes, the structures,and then we need now to find out how those are converted to the functions, that is, the sensations. It’s that simple. When we know WHERE we are going, then we have half the problem solved. Qualia are clearly worthless in clinical neuroscientific terms.
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The value of optical illusions in terms of understanding the visual system’s  geometries (Not euclidean) related to how the much more simple, sensory illusions has already been addressed.
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Notably, when we have 3 large bowls of water, first at 35 F, second & middle at 70 & last at 105, and we put our L & R hands into L, the near freezing water and the right, into the very hot water. We find this. Letting the skin equilateral to near the temps of hot and cold, we take the left and put it into the 70 deg. bowl. It feels rather warm. Then we remove that, put the R into the 70 deg. bowl & it feels cold. That comparison process (CP) shows exactly HOW the nervous systems works in terms of sensations. It’s all CP, from ambient temps of the skin, to the ambient lighting. And this shows us exactly how it’s done. From the 70 F bowl to the hot, it feels hot, from the same bowl to the cold it feels cooler. Same with the hot bowl. Taking the hand from cold, & into the hot, it’s extremely HOT even painful!!!
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Thus the arbitrary CP is the case acting here. using relative skin temps as the standards, we get the impossible hot bowl from the cold hand, and the impossible cold bowl, from the hot hand.
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That is the power of the CP in determining HOW the senses work, by the CP in our sensory, & visual cortices. & pain is largely the same, too!!!
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Now we have to deal with the synesthesias of the senses, & will use the most powerful, oldest system to work on those. What applies and derives from the vision, as it’s the primary, most highly developed sense, will show us what’s going on in the synesthesias of the rest.
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Many persons claim they are seeing emotions associated with colours. How can we possibly detect that? We cannot. however, we do KNOW of a synesthsia which is associated with the emotions. The visual senses can do that. We see a loved one or a friend. A sort of love, euphoria sets in. The affection for friends and loved ones is a visual association, is not? And that is a synesthesia in the commonest, more real sense. And we have those all in common, so it’s highly evidenced, without limits. The same is true for laughter, altho it’s very culturally dependent. But the same verbal jokes, or visual jokes (visual sensory) shticks work in that same way. “Oh, Honey, that’s our song!” has much the same synesthetic qualities, too.
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And when we hear the great Symphonies, and the anthems of our nations, we have that same welling up of emotions, do we not? Thus we are conditioned, by repeating events, to create LTM of those synesthesias, Der Gotterfunken, the Mountain top experiences, the wonderment, at the great waterfalls, and their power. The same of the grand sight of the incomparable Vale of the Yosemite, with 3 of N. Am’s largest waterfalls within view there, at the same time. The wonderment of Glacier Point when seem the 1st time, too.
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This all presaged in, The Explanandum, of the Dopamine boost, which creates the memes, the going viral on the Net, the wonderment, awes, loves, etc.
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Notably at the end, Der Gotterfunken of Beethoven’s magnificent Ninth. But presaged by the DA boost which creates those as above. the S/F relationships of the DA boosts, in short. Most all LTM generated, too.
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Thus then the existing synesthesias of the emotions, or the sadness of the dolorous tones, all of which we are conditioned to have, by social and musical means, are the case.
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Thus we find an understanding of the rarer synesthesias from the more usual, universal ones.
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Those persons have cross wired certain stimuli into having visual, colour outputs. The system is creating colours to correspond (CP), roughly, because those have been conditioned by events. They are rare, and they are NOT very valuable, either. But those explain the synesthesias, rather well, at least mostly.
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the issues of Tetrachomacity where person do have 4 color receptors in the eyes is the case. it’s very rare, but they can see colours which we cannot, either, very likely. And that’s easily testable using color comparisons, where they can distinguish many colours we cannot see.
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