Decision Making & Shopping: The Fundamentals


Decision Making & Shopping: the Fundamentals

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/CP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014.
Copyright © 2020
The basics of shopping are the essentials of decision making in a nutshell. Everyone does shopping for items. The decisions we make are ALL relevant to an understanding of decision making in most all of its aspects. As the largest general application of decision making, understanding shopping decisions is critical to understanding most all decision making in the markets.
First, we just realize the basics. Hows does the brain work in its higher Functions? It’s CP, LE, S/F, anatomically; and Complex systems (Cx Sys). The latter tells us why it’s so hard to figure out how decisions are made. We must FIRST have the basics of how the brain works by invoking the universal processors (nearly) as above. And then within that vast framework apply those methods of understanding Cx Sys to a more complete understanding of decision making processes, mostly, but rarely always & not completely.
Thus we have a solid framework for approaching shopping, the most universal of easily investigated decisions making and one of the most important, & common, as well, financially. When using comparison processing CP) with Least Energy (LE) guidance, we can optimize shopping simply & practically. & use those optimized outcomes to compare to actual shopping, market research to detect by those disparities, how Emotionality intrudes in most persons while shopping. This gives the essential standards by which we can not only understand the best shopping, AND decision making, but creates the means to see how people actually DO shop, as well. If we have the standards of how brain processes work, then we can better Understand what’s likely going on.
In addition we understand that there are the CP operations to make Both LE efficiencies the best possible decisions at one time for each of our various goals. Goals must be set to optimize what’s best to buy. Then we see at once that emotional factors of what people like, the fads and the fashions ALSO play a large role in this.
And the difference between the optimal decisions, relatively speaking and what people actually do, highlights the emotional, and ID’s those as primary players in most all of their aspects in decision making. Thus, we have a very large S/F system of Cx Sys understanding which gives us the optimal decisions, most important in business, corporate marketing situations. & then we contrast those, which exposes the emotional aspects as revealed by this limitless CP between what’s BEST for the customer, vs. what they Like the best, & choose, widely.
And that’s how it’s structured. This has also been discussed in similar detail using the Walking Cameo article, which shows the best, optimal decisions are made by goals of what we need to do, where we are going & HOW we optimize those routes, vs. what we need to do to meet our physical & emotional goals, too. Thus Cx Sys & LE drive the outcomes of walking decisions, to optimize getting there in least time, distance, energy, cost, least heat, cool routes, and so forth, which make the OUTCOMES research Identified as THE major way in which we understand what’s going on. We cannot calculate outcomes of Cx Sys. BUT we can quantitate the sums of the results of outcomes, and that shows us in detail how we make decisions in the Cx sys in which we work. This deep understanding allows us to solve, largely, optimally, as best we can, the decisions we need to make. & allows us to also to Study how experts and professionals make decisions & Learn without limits from those, too.
  The S-curves of growth are also basic to understand here.
Thus, we are able to better model, understand, project &  predict what’s going to happen in the long run with LE optimized decisions, versus the ones which are temporarily made & which drive fads and fashions, but inevitably yield to LE optimized outcomes in the long run. This gives a vast, flexible almost unlimited ability to understand shopping, thus marketing, thus most all decision making, too. The power of these nearly universal brain processes cannot be underestimated nor completely understood, but yet it’s an excellent start to a more coherent understandable, applicable & above all Empirically Practical model of shopping. This shows us the vagaries and multiplicities of “shopping decision making” processes ongoing.  It simplifies down vastly what we are looking at &  renders it far, far more comprehensible, but NOT absolutely, but optimally for a time, place & conditions. That’s what going on largely.
So let’s get going over to the supermarket, look & see what we are doing there, mostly & likely.
We know by past experience with the markets in the area which has the best, freshest, widest selection & best prices, by CP with most of the stores. We need some fresh fruits and veggies. We find the area there. We want some lettuce, green onions, tomatoes and related. The lettuce can’t be floppy, but is best when crispy, too. So we check for that, and then the price. Is it off season and high cost, or not? Is it locally grown as in California, or imported from the south? So we get a head of lettuce with no brown on it, as they don’t put expiration dates on the unpackaged lettuce. Then bag it up into the cart, and look for those tomatoes. Like some nice round, not bruised & fresh looking tomatoes, but not too pricey, either, as in off season. How many do we need? & 75 Cents/pound. good enough for here. sort out the not bruised ones which also look clean. & then for the green onions., Again, not stale or soft looking, and in a fair sized, good bunch, always looking for freshness, and good price. There’s some in a large bunch for almost the same price for smaller, and so we get those. We can always chill them, & they’ll keep fresh. We see all of the Cx Sys factors going into our purchases. It’s at least 3-4 characteristics we use for each item, which makes it Cx Sys decision making. We know by outcomes what’s fresh looking or not. by the comparative prices when we’ve been there before. So we have the fixins for a good salad.
Then to the fruit section., Oranges are in season. Best Vit C is the navels, but they are not as sweet as the Valencias., We pick up some of those. Are they soft or firm? Any green mold on them? Is it too dry or too light or heavy? Thus meaning been there too long, or picked too late (crystallization). But there’s a 5# bag of navels for sale at 1/2 the price of the unpackaged ones. Are they fresh in the bag, are they soft/ and no visible green molding? We get the best of that bunch.
Bananas always in season, as are year round grown, unlike the oranges which are confined as in the navels, tangelos & tangerines to later Dec. to about Feb./March. Any of those found very much after, must be imported from S. Hemisphere, where the ripening times overlap. And the Valencias take ripening from about April-Mar, as long as through Sept. for freshness. So sometime we can get valencias for the table or navels are better. Cx Sys decision making, again.
Oops, forgot the taters!! So we see the spuds there, big and nice looking, but the red skinned ones are cheaper, and not moldy, or soft, either. Not lots of dirt in the eyes, either, which adds to price being simply paying for dirt, too. & more time to clean up to eat. We’ve noted the Idahos at off season have lots of internal black mold below the skins, which we can’t see from the surface. So those have to be avoided. It’s the overlap times which make it hard to tell. and we can’t go cutting opening the spuds and the bags, to see that, either. So we guess what’s likely right. Are those above all in abundance, or too well picked over?
Are he bananas bright yellow, or black spotted, too soft and bruised looking? So the decisions we are making are Cx Sys for outcomes, mostly. And if we just shop too fast, we miss and make mistakes. We rush shopping we make too many mistakes, too. Bananas and oranges. We’re set for a week, or so, and those will keep that long if refrigerated and enough room in the crisper and bottom level for those, too. Otherwise they spoil faster. Esp. in the hot summers, which can be humid, or not in California, too.
An another line of inquiry, very relevant to decision making on a higher level.
My sis showed me this. She knew the backyard well enough, and saw some grayish smoke rising. Went out back to see better what it was, and then realized it was not a fire in the back alley, but wispy grayish stuff coming up out of the deep creek’s ravine behind the house. coming up, from the waters of the creek..
Being a field biologist for 50 years, I went out with her, and saw because the frost was thick and heavy, and the sun was bright and hot, was making the leaves with frost turn to water, making the leaves along the creek shiny from the water. The sun hit the leaves, evaporating the water, and soon as it struck the 32 deg. air, it turned the invisible water vapours to fog.
Had seen much the same on the roads in Rocky Mtns, where the snowy, icy black asphalt gets hot sun on it, the vapour pressure at high altitudes is much less, and thus the sun heats the ices/snow, turns that to vapor, which then rises and gives the impression of steam when it hits the very cold air. The roads steam in the Rockies in the winter with ices/snow on them hit by hot sun days.
Saw much the same in the back, not rising form the water of the creeks but evaporating off the wet, previously frosted leaves, giving the impression of steam rising. But it was rising H20 vapours, cooled down suddenly, which became fog, and that was winter fog, and how it often may come about. Some valleys in the RMtn. areas get covered with that kind of fog from related events, just like in back of her house, too. Now the frost that AM was very heavy, and from a rapid fall in temps to about 30, or so, the frost was thick on the grass & leaves, & the proximity to the creek water, meant more would freeze out on the leaves. Thus many effects, combined to give the illusion of “smoky air” rising up, when in fact, once we analyzed it, and CP’s processed and LE processed it, was simply fog in winter. Sort of odd, like the Moon at Noon, too. Rare, but does occur.
&  we had yet another example of complex systems of how fog can rise up, from many causes and create rime frost, thick and heavy, which was what the frosty grass and the leaves by the creek had been processed thru. Cx Sys processes all. & there it was. I could watch my sis think in detail, aided by correctives, knowledge & figured out what had happened. It WAS fog, but winter fog, and let that be a lesson to us. Cx Sys thinking works LOTS better than logical, math, linear methods. &  with CP/LE  methods, works very well to empirically correct our first impressions, too, that it was smoke, then that was water coming up off the creek which was WAY below and not in the sun, and then at last it was the frost melting  on the leaves, as witness the shiny wetness, and so forth.
 And then using T&E until we find the best, most likely right, empirical testing to arrive at the best conclusions. Not smoke, but fog. Not rising from the creek below OUT of the sun & very cold, but from the hot sun on the frosty, then wet, evaporating water on the leaves, which hit the cold air turning to winter fog. Rare, but the case, too. & that the CP, LE & the methods those create are creative, testable, & can be cameos of how we think, expactly, when we are being creative.
  Therefore, and VIPoint, CP, LE, S/F relationships as in the invisible water vapor going to frost on the leaves, then hit by the visual processing method of seeing the rime frost coat the leaves, then the hot sun melting those, creating water & shiny leaves. Then it’s evaporated  by the hot sun into water vapours, which become visible hitting the very cold air, and thus fog, again. & that’s HOW we best make decisions, using the inherently LE, CP methods at our disposal. and means that much better, more realistic, stable & FASTER conclusions can be drawn by those means. CP, LE, T&E  sorting, visual thinking in physical processes, all guided by LE and past experiences.
And shows the wellsprings of creativity in the CP, LE methods, how we test those, and arrive, at least & at last at the most likely conclusions about How events in our universe, being Cx Sys. very likely do work and in all of their rich complexities, multiplicities & outcomes which are totally suspected, too.. & there that is.
Decision making is a rough, hard question. First, it’s complex system, and found in nearly every field known, as very easily shown in my “Walking Cameos”. Multiple factors, found in decision making in all fields, clearly make it so. Thus it must be considered in those ways, and treated not with logic, math, nor linearity, but Cx Sys information processings. It’s often very complicated because many factors are involved. thus decision making is very complicated because it’s CX Sys of many interacting parts, which we integrate to make a good, reasonable outcome.
Understanding that, explains why it’s so complicated. But using a fairly simple set of methods, we can more easily solve. The problem is that of guidance. Our goals we pick need to be efficient, that is least energy efficiency chosen to optimize outcomes. That’s the key to optimization of decision making. Next, understanding that we must sort, pick & choose among those possible ways of doing things, using LE as the guide. This automatically empiricizes the outcomes, as well, making them much more likely to be the case, real & existing, as well as practical.
Time is a major part of this. If we save cost, materials, and so forth, the materials costs go down. But we can always buy more of those. But if we save, above all, a significant amount of time, by picking the right choice among our options, that we cannot buy. and further, we then have more time to do more in less time, as well. Thus the key goal is time savings, and then costs, energy, materials, and so forth.  Using the walking cameo as a guide, we tend to walk at a constant pace. So we take a short curt, a shorter route, then we save time, maximally about 30% by a 45 deg. hypotenuse in distance, for instance, Or the longest hypotenuse under most conditions. That not ONLY saves energy, and movements, but it also saves that which we cannot buy, more time.
Thus professional drivers know that. They can take a longer route, use more energy, but if it routinely saves them 5-10 minutes, esp. if that route is repeatedly used in a month’s time, then they save a LOT of time, as the outcome. And that pays for itself, by using that time to do more, over all. Thus saving time is foremost, unless the route is too long to do the outcome correctly. Time, distance, energy are Cx Sys, that is N=3. & it’s why such decisions are not easily reached, but can be measured AND to distinguish the best, and sort it out by Outcomes, the least amount of time usually wins. And doing more with less, is exactly an important part of efficiencies, which as is known, drives the markets. Again, thermodynamics in action..It guides our decisions.
Decision making, therefore, in most all cases can be made better, faster, more likely, more empirical, & more creatively using CP, which gives us LE, which gives us creativity, and that which solves for us our problems.
This empiricizes, simplifies & describes most ALL decision making down to simple methods, which we can all use, & usually have no solid, or plain ideas we are, as my sis did not. & I was able to dissect, analyze and make sense of each step, which she could not do, not  having an effective, efficient, universal methodology, widely applicable.. And that’s the key to understanding most ALL decision making as well. It’s that simple. and it can be then scientifically tested because the CP, LE, S/F and visual thinking processing converts it into testable hypotheses, which can be successfully created, and solve most all problems. But only so far.
Decision making, in a nutshell, can now be very likely most all of it, broken down into the above mentioned model & we can see brains making decisions as they solve problems in front of us , thus we can Read Their Minds, improve the processes & power of those decisions being made. Without limits, with endlessly creative means and those can be now cast into a form, which descriptions & occ. mathematically can be tested and shown to be the very likely case. But not quite…..
This is how CP, LE, S/F, visual thinking, Cx Sys, and all of the methods, approaches, techniques & technologies, ways of doing things, devices, tools, & instruments are created & work, in a nut shell. And it’s simple, fast and ca be done without limits, too.
THAT is the power of these new methods and models. And how it can be easily adapted to creating General AI, is a matter of simple doing it. Most All of the major problems to unlimited advancements, are now on the table and can be used without end. That’s what has happened over the last few years. and it’s very simple, workable, & has been so driving our creativity & advancements, quietly without us knowing, or suspecting it, all these 1000’s of years, too, at least.
And the animals use much the same basic systems as do we, so it describes a very great deal with very little, endlessly and empirically, testable as well.
Decision making is best made using the Empirical testers of CP and LE. CP finds the LE outcomes,and lets us choose those & this empiricizes the problems faster than much else, too. It makes he solution far more real and practical. CP & LE analysis naturally give a least energy, very rapid analysis which can be tested for outcomes, be it math or verbal descriptions. It ensconces empiricism of the universal processor of LE in most all its Cx Sys forms, as well.

Table of Contents

Table of contents. Updated 10 Nov. 2020

4. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 1

5. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 2

6. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 3

7. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 4

8. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 5: Cosmology

9. AI and the Comparison Process

10. Optical and Sensory Illusions, Creativity and the Comparison Process (COMP)

11. The Emotional Continuum: Exploring Emotions with the Comparison Process

12. Depths within Depths: the Nested Great Mysteries

13. Language/Math, Description/Measurement, Least Energy Principle and AI

14. The Continua, Yin/Yang, Dualities; Creativity and Prediction

15. Empirical Introspection and the Comparison Process

16. The Spark of Life and the Soul of Wit

17. The Praxis: Use of Cortical Evoked Responses (CER), functional MRI (fMRI), Magnetic Electroencephalography (MEG), and Magnetic Stimulation of brain (MagStim) to investigate recognition, creativity and the Comparison Process

18. A Field Trip into the Mind

19. Complex Systems, Boundary Events and Hierarchies

20. The Relativity of the Cortex: The Mind/Brain Interface

21. How to Cure Diabetes (AODM type 2)

22. Dealing with Sociopaths, Terrorists and Riots

23. Beyond the Absolute: The Limits to Knowledge

24  Imaging the Conscience.

25. The Comparison Process: Creativity, and Linguistics. Analyzing a Movie

26. A Mother’s Wisdom

27. The Fox and the Hedgehog

28. Sequoias, Parkinson’s and Space Sickness.

29. Evolution, growth, & Development: A Deeper Understanding.

30. Explanandum 6: Understanding Complex Systems

31. The Promised Land of the Undiscovered Country: Towards Universal Understanding

32. The Power of Proliferation

33. A Field Trip into our Understanding

34.  Extensions & applications: Pts. 1 & 2.

(35. A Hierarchical Turing Test for General AI, this was deleted after being posted, and it’s not known how it occurred.)

35. The Structure of Color Vision

36. La Chanson Sans Fin:   Table of Contents

37. The Structure of Color Vision

38. Stabilities, Repetitions, and Confirmability

41. Melding Cognitive Neuroscience & Behaviorism

42. An Hierarchical Turing Test for AI

43.  Do Neutron Stars develop into White Dwarfs by Mass Loss?

44. An Infinity of Flavors ?                   

45. The Origin of Infomration & Understanding; and the Wellsprings of Creativity

46. The Complex System of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

47. How Physicians Create New Information

48. An Hierarchical Turing Test for AI

49. The Neuroscience of Problem Solving

50. A Standard Method to Understand Neurochemistry’s Complexities

51. Problem Solving for Self Driving Cars: a Model.

52. A Trio of Relationships and Connections

53: Einstein’s Great Subtleties:  Einstein’s Edge

54. The Problem of Solving P not Equal to NP

55. How to Create a Blue Rose

56. The Etymologies of Creativity

57.  A Basic Model of a Unifying System of Most All Knowledge

58. Understanding Psych with S/F Brain Methods

59. The Wiggins Prime Sieve

60. The Complex System of Love

61. The Limits of the Comparison Process

62.  The Bees, Cortical Brain Structure, Einstein’s Brain, etc.

3. The Wiggins Prime Sieve, Version 3.

64. The Prime Quartets Method

65. Is Goldbach’s Conjecture True And/or False, Conditionally?

66. The Magic of the Prime Multiples and Goldbach’s….

67 The Wiggins Primes Sieve:  Cycles of 30’s in the Primes

68. Winning at Solitaire, Basic Strategies

69, The Failures of Idealisms & Brain Hardwiring in the Sciences

70. The Break Outs: The roots of Growth & Unlimited Creativities

71. How to Find the MH370 Crash Site

72. Walking Shortcuts, a Cameo

73. Einstein’s Quotes & Neuroscientific Insights on Creativity & Understanding

74. Towards a Model of Everything 14 Jul. 2019

75. Addenda: The Walkabout Article  22 Jul 2019

76. NP not = P, Second considerations

77. The Kategoria of Incompletenesses, Limits to Our Growth.

78. The Flight of Tennis Balls:   A Cameo of Creative Thinking & Understanding

79. The S curves of Growth

80. A New Possible Sunspot Duration Detector

81. 2nd Addendum to Walking/Decision Making article.

82. Part 2: An Historical Genealogy of Tom Horn

83.  Part 1: An Historical Genealogy of Tom Horn

84. The Power of & Great Age of Human Predictions/Prophecies

85. Four Short, Creative Insight Articles

86>  The Likely Indian Ocean Southern Equatorial Current Crash Site of Flight MH370

87. Our Eyes Cannot See Our Eyes:  The Mindtraps
90. Decision Making and Shopping
91. How to Find Primes Any Where in the Number Line , Fast & Efficiently, No Matter How Large ; 5/20.
92.   The Problems of Causality, & Solutions.