Table of Contents

Table of contents. Updated 24 Dec.. 2020

1. The Comparison Process, Introduction, Pt. 1

2. The Comparison Process, Introduction, Pt. 2

3. The Comparison Process, Introduction, Pt. 3

3A.. Extensions & Applications, parts 1 & 2.

4. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 1

5. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 2

6. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 3

7. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 4

8. The Comparison Process, The Explananda 5: Cosmology

9. AI and the Comparison Process

10. Optical and Sensory Illusions, Creativity and the Comparison Process (COMP)

11. The Emotional Continuum: Exploring Emotions with the Comparison Process

12. Depths within Depths: the Nested Great Mysteries

13. Language/Math, Description/Measurement, Least Energy Principle and AI

14. The Continua, Yin/Yang, Dualities; Creativity and Prediction

15. Empirical Introspection and the Comparison Process

16. The Spark of Life and the Soul of Wit

17. The Praxis: Use of Cortical Evoked Responses (CER), functional MRI (fMRI), Magnetic Electroencephalography (MEG), and Magnetic Stimulation of brain (MagStim) to investigate recognition, creativity and the Comparison Process

18. A Field Trip into the Mind

19. Complex Systems, Boundary Events and Hierarchies

20. The Relativity of the Cortex: The Mind/Brain Interface

21. How to Cure Diabetes (AODM type 2)

22. Dealing with Sociopaths, Terrorists and Riots

23. Beyond the Absolute: The Limits to Knowledge

24  Imaging the Conscience.

25. The Comparison Process: Creativity, and Linguistics. Analyzing a Movie

26. A Mother’s Wisdom

27. The Fox and the Hedgehog

28. Sequoias, Parkinson’s and Space Sickness.

29. Evolution, growth, & Development: A Deeper Understanding.

30. Explanandum 6: Understanding Complex Systems

31. The Promised Land of the Undiscovered Country: Towards Universal Understanding

32. The Power of Proliferation

33. A Field Trip into our Understanding

34.  Extensions & applications: Pts. 1 & 2.

(35. A Hierarchical Turing Test for General AI, this was deleted after being posted, and it’s not known how it occurred.)

35. The Structure of Color Vision

36. La Chanson Sans Fin:   Table of Contents

37. The Structure of Color Vision

38. Stabilities, Repetitions, and Confirmability

39. The Balanced Brain

40. The Limits to Linear Thinking & Methods

41. Melding Cognitive Neuroscience & Behaviorism An Hierarchical Turing Test for AI

43.  Do Neutron Stars develop into White Dwarfs by Mass Loss?

44. An Infinity of Flavors ?                   

45. The Origin of Infomration & Understanding; and the Wellsprings of Creativity

46. The Complex System of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

47. How Physicians Create New Information

48. An Hierarchical Turing Test for AI

49. The Neuroscience of Problem Solving

50. A Standard Method to Understand Neurochemistry’s Complexities

51. Problem Solving for Self Driving Cars: a Model.

52. A Trio of Relationships and Connections

53: Einstein’s Great Subtleties:  Einstein’s Edge

54. The Problem of Solving P not Equal to NP

55. How to Create a Blue Rose

56. The Etymologies of Creativity

57.  A Basic Model of a Unifying System of Most All Knowledge

58. Understanding Psych with S/F Brain Methods

59. The Wiggins Prime Sieve

60. The Complex System of Love

61. The Limits of the Comparison Process

62.  The Bees, Cortical Brain Structure, Einstein’s Brain, etc.

3. The Wiggins Prime Sieve, Version 3.

64. The Prime Quartets Method

65. Is Goldbach’s Conjecture True And/or False, Conditionally?

66. The Magic of the Prime Multiples and Goldbach’s….

67 The Wiggins Primes Sieve:  Cycles of 30’s in the Primes

68. Winning at Solitaire, Basic Strategies

69, The Failures of Idealisms & Brain Hardwiring in the Sciences

70. The Break Outs: The roots of Growth & Unlimited Creativities

71. How to Find the MH370 Crash Site

72. Walking Shortcuts, a Cameo Einstein’s Quotes & Neuroscientific Insights on Creativity & Understanding

74. Towards a Model of Everything 14 Jul. 2019

75. Addenda: The Walkabout Article  22 Jul 2019

76. NP not = P, Second considerations

77. The Kategoria of Incompletenesses, Limits to Our Growth.

78. The Flight of Tennis Balls:   A Cameo of Creative Thinking & Understanding

79. The S curves of Growth

80. A New Possible Sunspot Duration Detector

81. 2nd Addendum to Walking/Decision Making article.

82. Part 2: An Historical Genealogy of Tom Horn

83.  Part 1: An Historical Genealogy of Tom Horn

84. The Power of & Great Age of Human Predictions/Prophecies

85. Four Short, Creative Insight Articles

86>  The Likely Indian Ocean Southern Equatorial Current Crash Site of Flight MH370

87. Our Eyes Cannot See Our Eyes:  The The Fatal Empirical Flaws of Socialistms.

89. The Complex System of our Colour Vision.

90. Decision Making and Shopping.

91. How to Find Primes Any Where in the Number Line , Fast & Efficiently, No Matter How Large ; 5/20..

92.   The Problems of Causality, & Solutions..


93. The Compendium: Towards a Model of Everything, Nov. 2020

94. The Roots of Money, & Efficiencies of Growth

The Roots of Money & Efficiencies of Growth


 The Roots of Money & Efficiencies of Growth

.By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/CP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014.Copyright © December 2020   

.There exists a massive Comparison Processing of values of one good/service to another. Value in money is  a CP, when we use money to buy something we compare value of the goods/services to the money it costs. When we create an exchange rate, this is  yet another CP, we compare the value of one currency to another, and use a ratio, a proportion, that is algebra to calculate the exchange rate. That is a purely comparison process at the root of exchange rates.


Thus CP is a nearly universal processor, and this proves it, beyond much doubt because of its vast usage, applicability & capabilities in markets and using money.
.Why do we Use money? That’s a huge question which has not yet been deeply and satisfactorily described. This article will show beyond all reasonable doubt that CP, LE efficiencies, and growth are all very much interrelated, too, in creating, use, and exchanges in most all ways of money.


.First of all, the first comparison, We will compare the most ancient form of trade of goods and services, that is barter, compared to money. The origins of trade are clearly in barter, at the most fundamental levels. These day to day exchanges by persons, throughout the millennia likely for 100K years or more, and down to today. The Ancient Phoenicians & descendants have done that using barter for over 3K years. As did the Achaean Greeks, the Egyptians, &  Babylonians, back to the Sumerians. These trade records are seen and clear. It was most all by barter.

.Now, the pricing method was to charge as much as possible, that is, buy low, and sell high. So the barters were all comparison process (CP) relationships.  Comparing the value (in money, prices)  we can potentially predict for a good amount of wood, compared to what it could be traded for; say, woven fabrics, like linens commonly found from Egypt and then spread across the seas to Anatolia, and the Greek areas, to Italia, and thence west to Barcelona, and North Africa. Will not write about East Asia and India, which were also large areas of trade by barter. Nor the Maya, Toltecs, nor Aztecans, or Incans. They all used barter, provably, early on. which they traded by comparison process means, using the value of each good to trade for a comparative value for all of the others. They had no money until the advent of Europeans. Barter is the basic universal process of trade. & it’s CP, LE modelled.

.Now comes the highest, important roots of the first efficiencies of currency over barter. When we trade goods, occ. services for work for other goods, such as food, clothing, skins, furs, and so forth, we must estimate how much each costs in terms of all the others. Market forces are efficient. Thus they optimize the cost of the goods to the value it can be traded for (or sold for in money) by empirical means of trying it out. Bargaining down All of this being an exchange rate in terms of the goods to be bartered. So wood was traded for foods of all kinds, chickens, meat, breads, grains, and so forth. All of those had to be denominated and bargained for in terms of all of the other goods,& services. Barter is a CP. But it’s extremely complicated.

.Thus if we have wood, copper, water, bread, grain, linens, fruits, wines, clay vessels, and metals in bulk, ingots, or fashioning knives and other instruments (including the musical kinds) we must denominate each in terms of all the other goods by “comparative” values. Thus CP, again. This is combinatorial complexity, N!. For dozens or scores of goods, it is thus, 48! or even 84! for foods alone. That is a very, very large number, and had to be sorted through every time it was bartered. That took a great deal of time. Anything such as bartering skills which saves time, would be valuable. Doing much more with less. AKA, Efficiencies.

.So we find very early onwards, the standardization of the values of goods/services by Hammurabi, and in many other civilizations, to shorten and speed up, both tax collections and values. Sadly, this lack in efficiencies of standard prices is trouble, as food becomes more valuable in the spring early summer months, and then falls with the harvest of vast amounts of kinds of foods, esp., plants, too. Wool, sheep, mutton and so forth served as multiple usage goods & to store.  So the complexity of bartering goods is very, very real and time consuming. & is not efficient, either. This method was standardized via some kind of efficiencies, by the Phoenicians who gained great profit, driven by the differences by efficient comparing the cost to the trader versus what he was to get for it. Again, CP universally used.  Each time there was a bargain driven, there were many CP driven skills operating Those of themselves are millions fold evidences for the use of the CP to value one good in terms of other goods/services. And thus is a huge verification among all the other ones known, for the CP being a highly used, the likely universal brain processor of information.

.And everyone with any knowledge knows that price fixing and price controls acts mostly to drive goods/services from the markets, because the market forces prevent goods from being sold for less than their value. Doing that consistently destroys the markets. No one business can absorb losses for very long without collapsing. That’s why Hammurabi’s code for fixed valuations failed, very badly.

.Now we have that long term bartering system which likely got more efficient, over time, as both the buyer and seller had a good idea, as traders, what things were worth to them. The more time consuming the trading was in determining the bartered sales, was a limit to efficiency  of trade. Thus, they tended to use fewer goods, the commonest ones, to barter goods, to save time such as wood, grain, linen, all of which were transportable, easily stored and saved up.

.In addition getting goods to market was by transporting short distances with low friction sleds early on, and then as the wheel & axle spreading first by about 2000 BC widely, by transport of goods and services by beasts of burdens among roaming traders, & became far, far more widely done. The easier it is to do thermodynamically, that is comparing the cost of energy/time/distance used, the more often it will be used, is the key. 

.CF: The CxSys of The Second Law, driven by least energy efficiencies.  So the best they could do that was some standardization of what wood, cloth, wine, clay vessels, metal knives, and other goods were worth. This persisted for 10K’s of years, growing a bit more efficient esp. in the larger empires of the Sumerian, then Babylon, Egypt, and the others. They were all constrained by time, energy, efficiencies. were they not? 



.Now, why did they use round, clay pots & vessels to ship fluids? This shows why. 





.So how did trade grow? It grew by efficiencies of the trading vessels of the Minoans, the Achaeans, eventually Phoenicians. Each time they made a profit, the excess created growth and more wealth. Which could then create more wealth, thus market growth and development. Their efficient, light shipping systems which used rowers when the winds failed, were the case. They had to be excellent sun and starlight navigators, as those are the universal principles used. They knew the Mediterranean landmarks as standards they could compare to where they were, and where they wanted, predictably to go. Thus landmarks were the earliest rules which traders used, to compare where they were going to what landmarks showed where they were. Mediated, that is ,by Long Term Memory lay downs The more they knew the further and faster they could get around, another efficiency. Knowledge can be power because it’s more efficient than trial and error. If you know where you’re going using efficient landmarks, currents, and winds, then you will get there faster, easier, and with less risk. 

.Thus efficiencies throughout by using CP of landmarks for sailing and knowing conditions changing with the seasons, too. And that also explains why paper maps were enormously efficient means to navigate and sail by, travelling both on land, and sea. Efficiencies spread quickly, as did paper maps, too.

.Sailing the winter Mediterranean Sea is very perilous due to storms. Sailing in spring, summer and fall, much less so. So they efficiently prepared and collected their goods overwintering to when it was earliest to sail and make money.

.Eventually as the efficiencies of the cities got very high, they concentrated lots of population, skilled people, horses, ships, and wealth goods. That left them open to the “sackers of cities”, who themselves could be sacked, too. Thus the well built walls of Troy which resisted their defeat for 10 years, until finally they were betrayed, & fell.

.So we have the big traders, & the Pylos records showed many goods & services as well as slaves, which counted as wealth. They bartered with each other for goods, grains, wood, groups of the skilled to build & fashion walls for protection. Thus masonry became an imperial service to each of the city states.

.As they grew in population, & thus ability to defend, and build up goods, they got wealthy. They listed the kinds of wealth hierarchically, that is goods in types of wool, linen, sheep, slaves, metals, and such. Each a comparison process of types ID’d & sorted & created by a simple, obvious CP of lists of similar wealth types.

.And at the time, the most efficient ruling systems were kings and nobles. Noted by control of power, which created wealth, & wealth which was power if used right, and so forth.  History is a series of efficient developments and growth, Who does the most with the least, in the long run succeeds, too. That TD outcome is the way of the universe.

.So we had the trading going on with more and more efficient sailing, barter, making of goods to be traded. More efficient agro which created larger populations; Plowing where a blade was drawn by oxen, or anything else, which could till the soil faster than humans digging. Thus the plow was created initially of wood, then with some metals for durability, and so forth. Plowing did a LOT with a little, altho it took enough wealth to have the beasts and the skilled laborers who could make the plows, and yoking required for the teams, just like chariots. During Phoenician and Achaean/Philistine times, those rose to very high levels. Growth occurred from their increasing efficiencies.

.Most all trading was barter & stable, that way to the time of the Anatolian, Asian Greeks, of which the Lydian empire, vastly influenced by the Greeks came about. There, some genius, likely who knew of similar smaller bits of gold being used to trade, but carefully weighed, began the process of making money. The info on who that person was did not survive. But these methods had a lot of gold and silver to  use & trade. Esp. for goods and services. So the first coins by the Kroesos’ family were developed. As they controlled the only money which could be used, that is his gold coins, he became amazingly rich, then powerful, and then made a huge trading empire, too. Their mining/smelting efficiencies were also some of the best, most efficient, at the time.

.Now why all that growth? Complex system evaluation via CP shows how.
.Let’s once again compare and contrast bartering with the use of money. They had to overcome the traditions of barter, and that meant they’d found a highly efficient way to trade gold and other metals for goods/services. It was so efficient, that it compactly gave value which was intrinsic for the coins. It was also a standardized kind of value, easily stored or hidden, transported and usable. Gold and bronze coins could denominate ANY goods and services within less space and weight. The intrinsic value of money also created stabilities. There was no longer any need except when necessary, to barter but for how much gold, bronze, was worth how much wood, how much grain, how much services, and so forth.  But bargaining for prices still existed as it does to this day.

.Suddenly bartering was becoming obsolete. The gold and bronze coins stabilized the values, and markets. and further, the number of coins were easily counted, & then accounting became possible. They didn’t; have to keep but an inventory of what one had, then denominate it all in gold coins. & sell & buy for gold and bronze coins, which lowered denominations to the best & lowest levels of prices. Thus most all the inefficiencies of barter, became obvious, and using coinage, cut the complexities of exchange down by orders of magnitudes. Not suddenly but steadily & slowly this system developed. That was the key process of efficiencies which drove then the creation of coins, whose intrinsic gold/bronze value supported and capabilities of the standard weights, which they could test, check very well. & then CP, CP, CP to value goods and services, very quickly and easily. & because it was so clearly efficient, it spread very quickly over the Greek world & eastern Mediterranean.

.Some barter we still have today, altho most goods are values as the prices, which then vastly speeded up trade, money to be made, more sold in less time, thus profits, and the markets expand rapidly, and grew from all of those efficiencies create by money/coins.

.Kroisos’ father created electrum, a silver/gold alloy which was both heavy and concentrated form of wealth, and the gold would not tarnish and thus electrum was possible.  And it occurred Ag with Au in the ores, so it did not need to be mixed much, except to standardize the weight of the coinage with set %’s of Ag/Au. Percentage being yet another ratio, another proportion, another CP of Ag/Au. And they knew of algebra by then to figure out the exacting proportions, again CP, massively. Coins were weighed, determined, and they made each coin of the same weight as the others. Standardizing value, and making a more universal value of gold for trade possible. Every single measure, a CP to standard weights on the scales. Massive proof alone of the universality of  CP.

.So we find the origins widespread of money.  The first coinage by Hermodyke of Kyme, a rich coastal city and thus trading was important there. She married Midas, who was rich in gold, By the time of Allyates, father of Kroesos, massive wealth had been created by coinage, a state Monopoly of coins. & usage of standard coins was very well developed. Then used the wealth from the Ag/Au ores of the region, created even greater growth of wealth as they made more efficient their mining, smelting of the ores and then storing and fashioning the Au/Ag into coins. 
.Thus the origins  of the first coins largely used & widely spread. & grew their wealth proportionate to their methods and efficiencies. 

.It was done largely using bronze and Au/Ag coinage, which was stable and easily transportable and compact, compared to wood, grain, glass, pottery & and foods of all sorts. Coinage made them very, very rich. Until the gold mines failed, after Kroesos was conquered by the Persians. 

.But the coinage spread by that time to the rest of the Greeks, of which the Athenian silver owls were the widest spread and known. Their mines created an expansion of wealth in economies, as the amount of silver coins vastly increased, and thus their wealth, too.

.But why? And we can detail the major efficiencies of coins compared to barter. It was compact and easily transported, used, and stored, safely. Thus everything was denominated in bronze & Ag/Au coins, easily, tho barter could be used, but much less often efficiently.

.So efficiencies of coinage drove out and spread widely because of those massive savings in time, energy, and processing of trade. Denomination of most everything in terms of bronze/copper and gold coins made that the case. So wherever it was, barter died back, and trading vastly increased due to standardized coins. There were always those paring off the coins to debase the coins , or mixing with more copper and less silver, but simply weight the coin, showed that. Still, it created a larger economies, and thus more stable, and efficient, too.

.That is why coinage spread widely from Western Lydian areas, teas to the Persians, and to the Indus river and then more eastwards to East Asia all of whom by land and sea, had trade with each other.  Bronze coins from China are likely known by that time, too. The carefully made images and denomination of values on those are well known and early. The Persians conquered the Lydian areas, but the Greek efficiencies won over them. As Alexander was quick to show.


.Whenever enough metals could be found to make gold, silver and copper/bronze coins, trade vastly increased in terms of rapid trading, and the stabilities of such coinages, which they created. The complexities of barter were vastly simplified, then to barter of coins for goods and services, and money became more efficient by at least 50% at first, and then as the coinages grew, faster & faster. An exponential growth curve, ending in a slow tapering off. 

.& these conditions persisted for a very great time. spread to mainland Greece, to Egypt where coinage was used in Alexandria and thence to the Magna Graecia, and into Roma, where the empire spread world wide, their world, anyway. & all over the Seleucid, Persian, Macedonian, and then the Roman world to today.

.& there matters stood for centuries  as coinage was the basis of most all trade, accounting, and storage of wealth, for about 2000 years, until a simple invention from the East came, Paper made efficiently and reliably from wood pulp came about. Papyrus was mostly even sheepskins, as parchment was also used. But paper was faster, very cheap, as cellulose is stable and universal material, But not quite as durable as parchment, and certainly not as stable of papyrus, which was highly labor intensive and paper was not so much. Thus paper drove out papyrus and parchment, because it was cheap, efficient, and durable enough. Just like coinage had done to barter.

.There had been letters of trade largely used for centuries, using papyrus, parchment, for some time.  And hauling around paper was more efficient than transporting metals such as gold, silver, copper and bronze. Thus the bank promissory notes were accepted, as economic activity became more stable, and widespread instead of coins. And that was the origin of the next major innovation, again driven by efficiencies of early coinages, to more efficient coining methods, and then letters of merchandise were next being used widely. 

.The then next great innovation occurred, again delimited, described and made possible by using wood pulp sources of paper, based etymologically on papyrus, tho it was not durable and far, far more easily damaged even burned. Paper money.
.That required very stable banking, governments, standardization of values, that is comparison processing, & so forth. So the gold & silver backing for currencies were created. Accounting methods made possible to coinages, which gave stable worth and transport, and storage, too. Thus banking arose. economies reached larger, more stable sizes, not seen since the days of the Roman Empire.

.Thus the promissory notes of legally processable value on paper, & were the first paper monies. As those were standardized in the west, with stabler economies of scale, paper became the next efficient comparison processors of vast worth. The banking promissory notes were often made by banks to pay out interest, and receive and send monies. Those made by banks were subject to all of the vagaries of inflation, loss of bank notes by theft, fires, accidents, bankruptcies and so forth. But with stabler economies of size, and net worth increasing, they became  increasingly stable against economic downturns, and so forth. & as great wealth could now be easily transferred by promissory notes, bank notes issued by banks came about.

.But those weren’t stable enough. As governments became stable, they decided to create wealth and take control of economies, & did this with wealth creation by the state using paper money. It was light, could be made rather durable, widely accepted and used, and thus became the most efficient form of trade known. By that time barter was hardly there at all, except in great need, or by theft and other illegal activities. Money had by that time virtually reduced the universal barter of the 7th Cl BC to obsolescence, because it was so incredible efficient. & so today still we use the efficient government issues, widely, & counterfeit resistant by various means, too.

.So that is the story in a nutshell about how efficient barter, simplified down to using standard items for barter, and then with the advent in 7th C. of coinage, began to eliminate barter, opening the way for paper monies, via banks.
.Money won, because it was found out how to make it stable, & regulated efficiently. and gave very great wealth  Then by the 20th C. the value of the economies became so great there was no possible use for the gold standard, which had been used, essentially since the 7th C. BC for stabilizing money as standardized by content and weight of Au/Ag in the coins.


Will not go into the huge increase of wealth in Spain from the vast mines in the New World, but that also drove the Renaissance trade, while the  inflation from that much gold/silver coming into the state damaged fatally ihe  economies of imperial Espagna, as is well documented. Even England got coinage from Espagna, most silver but some gold, as there was no silver nor gold in England, either. The enormous trade efficiencies gave them that.

.Thus we have massive comparison process bartering, then coinage another kind of bartering, and thus CP and up until today, when the massive currency exchanges, CP driven with LE guidance, are currently used. The proportions of the value of currencies comparison processed by the exchange rates/ratios, which are CP in every case, and thus the CP can easily be seen within the economics of the entire world every time money is used and exchanged age for goods and services. EVery exchange of paper money for goods is yet again, each a case of CP, and unlimited proofs that CP is universal.

.Thus CP with LE guidance are the most important universal standards for thinking, info processing, the markets, which give us wealth, survival and most all else.  Universal processes which drive our economies, and our growth in all possible senses most likely.

.And create wealth, and creativities without limits, very likely, as the market creates growth via the CP using LE as the major driving forces for most all growth, evolution, development and most all of the markets, driven by LE via CP methods, without limits.