A Mother’s Wisdom

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014

“Seek and you will find. Ask & it will given to you.”

“There is more in heaven and earth Horatio than is dreamt of in your philosophy.” ”

“Knowledge is good because from knowledge comes wisdom, and from wisdom comes many good things.”

“Those who have eyes and do not see, ears that cannot hear and mouths which cannot speak.”

1. Efficiency in driving and development of skills and understanding
2. Comparing outcomes, creating the higher abstraction and hierarchies of knowledge.
3. The Least Energy Principle (LEP) and efficiencies. The compound interest advantages of the LEP, driven by the comparison process.
4. The outcomes of ethical behaviors and longer, healthier lives, as comparison process underlying morality and ethics.
5. Thinking about observations and educational skills. Preparing a life
6. Biological and mechanical engineering
7. Observational skills and biological engineering and medicine
8. Travel being an important kind of education.
9. Incompleteness of knowledge; always keep on learning
10. Comparison Process is global and everything can be compared to much else. The comparison process builds the hierarchies of knowledge and understanding.
11. The relationships of the LEP and incompleteness, and thermodynamic efficiency. Efficiencies via the LEP create compound interest growth and highly advantageous capabilities.
12. Quantum technologies of the English robin are LEP
13. Improving scientific models are also LEP, Kuhn’s “The Structure…” shows this clearly
14. The most complete theory is also the LEP model. those models are favored and succeed over less complete models, driven by the compound interest advantage.
15. Final completeness is not possible. Thus there is no real answer to Bell’s incompleteness of QM possible.
16. the LEP is an unacknowledged but effectively a Fourth Law of Thermodynamics.
17. Why photons and physical systems must follow the LEP, but living systems do not follow it strictly.
18. Breaking up the unlimited feedback loops of behaviours.
19. There is no limit to improvement and progress. Virtually everything is possible for us.    20. A plea for the sanctity and value of life.

1. Over 50 years ago, I was riding with my mother, and she’d been talking about driving skills. As both parents drove probably upwards of 50K miles each year, she had some very good driving skills. She’d been telling me that if the light were red, not to drive quickly to it, but hold back, so often times it’d change to green and you could glide right through the intersection. Saves a lot of time, stopping by braking, saving brakes ,and gasoline, too. “But,” and she looked at me, “when you’re right here on the street, if you’re driving the speed limit of 35 mph, by the time you get to the light up there on the corner of Western and Lima, it will be green. You don’t have to stop, unless there’s lots of traffic. So, you can save time, starting and stopping, too. And if you get into the groove at that point, by going a bit faster, or slower,then you can make the light easily too.”

Let’s examine a mother’s driving skills & wisdom. Essentially, the goal was to save gas, time, braking time and effort, by making the green light. The alternatives were a lot of stopping, starting, wearing out brake pads, and so forth. It was in fact, what she knew intuitively and did not express, a Least Energy Principle(LEP), which was being used to guide her driving. But how did she arrive at those efficient conclusions? Clearly, she had compared what happened to driving at other speeds and at other places approaching that light, but had noted that this certain spot on the street, if by going 35 mph would reach the light after it turned green with good margin, if the red light was on at that point on the street.

Always thinking about such things while driving, by trial and error (T&E), she had found this rule, or rather created it. So I’d used that rule many other times while driving in the future at many, many other commonly driven past intersections, so it was general rule with unlimited applicability, too. If a bit behind such a sweet spot, then I’d speed up. If behind, then slow down a bit. It was a good, general rule to use. And she had thought about it, done the outcomes comparisons and found this stable rule which worked. It might sound trivial to some, but in a nutshell this cameo of experience is the way in which most of our driving skills, and in fact, most all other of our skills are developed & created. Recognizing the light, the speed of the car & the relationships of driving too fast meaning getting there more quickly, compared to driving slower and arriving a bit later. then using that estimate, to most of the time get there when the light was green and not having to stop, but cruising through the intersections to go straight ahead or make the right turn.

2. That is the issue here. the recognition of these relationships, and then comparing outcomes by T&E to arrive at a general rule which gave predictive control of driving. She taught me that general rule for driving, which can in many ways be easily adapted to other skills and other outcomes by comparisons. I didn’t know at the time about LEP and comparison processes, or comparing outcomes as a way of learning how things worked, either. But it surely prepared me to recognize later what was going on, when the comparison model was used. It’s easy to apply in day to day life and the interesting point was, she’d learned that little driving rule so well, that it was automatic for her in most cases to make that light while green. And she would do it coming down the Lima road. even if she were coming to the same light from a northerly or southerly direction. She’d charted out a number of commonly used intersections to use this rule. and the more she used it, the more it was ingrained and automatic, too. It had become a skill. & it rewarded itself again and again, which further reinforced using it.

And what’s more the more she used it the more time, gas, brake lining she saved as well. Every time it was used, the advantages of using it built up in a compound interest kind of way. and so the LEP drives the compound interest formula which creates long term advantage and effectively creates in time, irrefutable gains and competitive advantage compared to other methods. More on this recognition/observation, later

3. Furthermore, if we only go thru a certain intersection very rarely, it’s not much of an advantage to use. But if going that intersection as we did almost daily, often several times, it became a real time saver. The next general rule up the abstraction level, the hierarchy of understanding, is that if we do virtually the same act, multiple times per day, or in the week, the more often we do that skilled act, saving time/gas, braking, etc., then the more often it’d get paid back. Suppose it were 10% more efficient to use that timing rule. Then every 7 times it was done, it gave a two fold advantage by the rule of 72 of compound interest. The method paid itself off every 7 times it was done!!.

And that’s the key to understanding, here. When a task is done repetitively, the more often it’s done more efficiently, the more time/resources, energy are saved, and the more it pays back. This is a secondary rule, which can be created by simply observing what happens with each skill we develop. Not only does it get easier to do with practice, but it pays itself off relative to the increased efficiency it gives. This is the next hierarchy up from the driving rule app of least energy. And that is a good driving, time saving, gas saving rule. All built up by the comparison process with respect to the comparison method of the LEP. She had not only taught me the LEP rule, which can be generalized to unlimited other cases of action and use, but had taught me a general method by which I could create further methods, too, Such as the more often you do something, and save time/energy, then the more you get back by making that action more efficient!

These are the hierarchies of understanding. Recognition of events and how they relate. The creation of the rules of efficiency, & Then recognizing that if the rule could be applied more and more often, the benefits would be greater, and thus by using such a rule where the most benefits could be gained repeatedly, the rule compounded the advantage of LEP efficiencies that much more.

4. A next thing she taught me was, and I recall this as if it were yesterday, from over 50 years ago, we were driving down Main St. at Lincoln, and she pointed out this older woman sort of hobbling across the street.
“How old is that woman?”
“She looks about 60-70.” I said, comparing what I knew about persons I’d met and their appearance and known ages.
“She’s my age. I graduated from high school with her.”
Mom was 41 years old. She let it sink in a bit. “That’s what happens to you when you smoke, drink, carouse around, and don’t get a good education by spending your time badly. She’s had a rough life and it shows, doesn’t it?”

Again, my mother was comparing consequences and outcomes of behaviors with the events that most often accompanied them in the long run. “By their fruits you will know them.” is a phrase which leads to wisdom. And “The days of the righteous will be lengthened and those of the wicked, (the old looking woman on the street) will be shortened.” This cameo, again, shows the bases of our morality and ethics and rules of living.

in other words, look to the future for what your actions will do to you,. And gain wisdom to do those good acts which result in longevity & healthy living compared with those which will prematurely age and cause early suffering, crippling & death. Again, recognizing what we are seeing, comparing outcomes, and making a general rule about health. As mother was an Registered Nurse, she was acutely aware of what created health and what harmed life. No one in our family smoked. There wasn’t a bit of alcohol in the house, EVER. So another comparison process series of recognitions, combined with comparing outcomes, as while driving, about how to live. Mom never lost the chance to teach, either.

5. When growing up she wanted me to go into medicine, She knew I had the abilities to become a nurse or more, as she had become. But she knew, intuitively, one highly important fact: If a medical professional cannot observe and see what’s going on, and understand the implications of it, just like the older appearing woman on the street, then he cannot examine, treat and determine outcomes of treatments very well, either, because of a lack of observational skills to do that.

So, it started early. National Geographics to learn a lot more about the world. 3 sets of books making up a rather complete encyclopedia, which I devoured when only 9-10 years old. And when I was reading through them not understanding it all, but learning still a great deal, she’d bring in cookies and milk for me, as a 10 year old, reading for hours, to make learning sweet, you see?

Then when I was 11 came a chemistry set. Dad had already gotten us an erector set, so we could learn how mechanical things worked and could learn to build things from the nuts and bolts which came with the nice set.

We eventually wore it out making things, developing our tool using abilities as well as mechanical skills. and then he found a rather larger, more complicated but older erector set from the 1920’s, which had a lot more interesting parts to it and which could be used to teach us more about mechanical engineering skills, too. Round objects, more complicated pieces and such. Motors and how those worked, with a transformer to convert wall current to usable DC voltages. The reason he did this was obvious and Mom encouraged it, too. I even used that to create a very powerful bar magnet, too. Not in the instruction manual as it involved using a bare copper wire from the DC output. I was thinking ahead and applying what I’d learned.

In addition came the train set, which ran on safe but electrified low DC current,. We could set up the tracks with one cross over with two tracks built into it, and plug those into the other straight or curved tracks, too. Then there was a special set of 2 with had a train track changer and a track coming off the main track, which could do a lot of things such as side tracks. The major problem was how to make the train go the other way around. Otherwise, it’d always go around the same way. I found out how to make overpasses using books to steadily raise the tracks up. We devoted the entire floor of the living room to that, until Mom had had enough of it, because it was hard to sweep up and clean the room with all those tracks all over everywhere.

6. Dad was a car mechanic and good one. So he was all for us learning mechanical things to work in his business. So was his brother & both made their livelihoods cars, bikes, motorcycles, etc.. So was their father, my grandfather, a car mechanic and watch maker/repairman. And so was his brother a mechanic, my great uncle, in the car business and so had been my great-grandfather of the same surname. So when I became a medical professional, basically a biological engineer, I had the family background for how and why things worked the way they did. What was more, I married a woman whose father was a civil and mining engineer. & she eventually became an electrical/electronics engineer with a degree, at my persuasion. Because I knew that electronics and computers were the coming, highly important profession. Again, tracking the course of a society by comparison processes. So did my oldest son become IEEE, and then my younger son a computer science programmer and systems analyst & engineer. & both knew the ins and outs of computers very, very well. My sister partnered with a brilliant mechanical engineer, who was also a contractor, spoke a number of languages, and they worked together at a major defense industry company running the computer section, electronics and mechanical engineering department in LA. Then my youngest sister married another biological engineer, an MD, and completed the trend, as she was a university trained biologist. There is little doubt what at least 2-3 of my grandchildren will be but will be, but engineers, either biological, mechanical, or possibly more likely, electrical/electronics.

And Mom and Dad set this all in motion in their wider wisdom over 50 years ago, as above.

7. In addition, mom got me a telescope and was soon observing the stars, planets, moon and other bodies with it, too. Not always good viewing days, but occasionally in the summer season there were those rare, cool, dry, clear days where if we went out into the nearby countryside, we could see the band of the Milky Way so bright and clear, we could almost touch it. Needless to say in medical school there were four of us who went out stargazing, because they’d done some of that as well when younger, Our parents knew about observing skills and how important those were for medical professionals.

I did well in the state tests in biology and general science, and our resident high school biology, Doc Phillips, put me in charge of the insect collection, a nice series of cedar boxes which contained the various bugs, beetles, butterflies, moths and other classes of the Insecta.

He taught me how to use a written key to ID the insects, and esp. the Coleoptera, because he was a trained entomologist. So with my 3rd butterfly net that mom helped me make up, I was off collecting during the day and at night when the line of widely lit car dealership made it easy to collect the nocturnal insects drawn to the lights which were on for hours.

8. In addition, we went on camping trips, which saved a lot of money, overnighting in tents, cots, blanket & sleeping bags, lanterns, and white gas cooking stoves. So not only did we have a good idea about how to pack things, and how to set up tents and sleeping bags, but we had a good idea about how to build fires, cook on those. Then we’d hike around quite a bit improving our navigation skills, paddling the unsinkable canoe Dad got for the family, & learning some boating skills. In addition to practicing our swimming skills that Mom made sure we all had.

There’s nothing like hiking to bring out the biologist in some, so when in the Black Hills I took off solo, with a backpack, and hiked over hills and yon, scaring a porcupine almost as much he scared me, & finding a 5# block of pure rose quartz. I had a method of hiking setting my sights on a single landmark, a line of a hill, and knowing where I was in comparison to that the whole time. I wasn’t lost, but was free hiking of the trails, too. Eventually ran into the trail to Harney Peak, climbed that and then back by that trail to Sylvan Lake campground where we camped.

We traveled a great deal about the USA, too, to Adirondacks, the Finger Lakes, the NYC 1964 World’s Fair, Expo ’67 in Montreal. And all over the tri state area, extensively. All of this prepared me well to observe and have basic skills to become a medical professional. Travel is a very good kind of education, which my mother knew and again, combined many useful outcomes from going on many camping trips.

9. But the last and most important lesson she taught me was “keep on learning”. Because if I did, by the time I got a lot older, I’d use almost all of it. And she was right. Interestingly enough the best collegiate teacher I ever had, a biologist trained at Woods Hole and Brown Uni, said much the same thing and we learned a LOT more that year than ever had before. And in addition, the best teacher I’d ever had, told me “Keep on learning. You don’t know enough.” I said, “Mark, do you?
“No, and that’s why I keep on learning, too.” he grinned.

Within these admonitions came an intuitive understanding that our knowledge was & is incomplete. & the only way to learn more to make it more complete, was to keep on learning. Since then have learned that the limits to knowledge are indeed a very critical part of knowing and epistemology, and perhaps here have made a bit of contribution to decreasing our abysmal ignorance as a species. The universe of events is far, far greater than we are, and as Lincoln said, “The Big pot doesn’t go into the little pot.” But we keep trying to get as much as we can of value into that “little pot”, the brain.


All of these efficiencies my mother knew about and applied to her work, to make it more efficient, effective and to take less time, so she (& we) could gain that compound interest, exponentiating method to do more and more. To never stop learning means there is more raw material to work with to create more comparison knowledge, which is comparison —> knowledge. Thus it’s exponentiating in most cases, as the advantage by using it repeatedly creates more compound interest & growth.

She knew this intuitively & gave this to us. My comparison process has extended that knowledge of the LEP to well past what it has been before.

For instance, why is our knowledge incomplete?

The comparison process and its major tool/method, the LEP, can give us a more complete, and deeper understanding, looking within the depths of understanding. Beauty is truth and truth is beauty. Thus, in this sense is a deeper understanding of events. IN that sense, it’s a discovery which releases dopamine. And when we look upon that which is most fair, we also get that dopamine release. & so in the same sense that we are rewarded by gazing upon beauty, we are rewarded by finding truth. So the bard was correct. IN the same sense that love, hope, faith and charity boost dopamine and positive things, so are beauty and truth. The depths with depths, we see, once again.

And in the same way, completeness is a real problem as Godel’s proof discussed in special cases of axiomatic and recursive systems, which have much in common with thinking and comparison processes. In the same way Bell’s completeness theorem in QM can be considered simply more of the same. Are there events which QM cannot discuss and describe? And we must turn again the Wisdom and insights of a quantum specialist, and have stated this before, by Dr. Richard Feynman. “Biology cannot be understood by QM. We cannot develop biology from it.” He was correct.

In the same sense Ulam stated :”Calling the universe non linear is like calling biology the study of all non elephants.” He was remarking upon the excluding going on. & the use of the negative, as has been discussed before, is very global exclusive. A or NOT A, is too broad in many cases to be helpful. The comparison process is not as globally exclusive, but as it can still be exclusive, as has been shown before because while we walk we cannot swim, while we talk we cannot swallow, and on and on in unlimited characteristics of most of words. But this kind of exclusion is hardly global and far, far more unlimited.

10. But the comparison process can be applied to anything!! It’s global, universal,and there is nothing it cannot be used for. We can compare apples and oranges, and find the similarities and the differences. We can compare comparison itself and find more comparisons by doing so. We can compare a comparison, and compare the comparison of that, and that again, endlessly, in a cause and effect chain, as well. Thus it’s a universal tool. But does it have limits? And the answer is, it must as it’s a structure. Therefore, as in “Beyond good and Evil” and “Beyond the absolute,…”, we must look for some things the comparison process cannot do, and in “Beyond the Absolute” this is partly answered, but not completely, because as will be shown below, how and why this is the case..

11. But the key to understanding our understanding is that comparison process is what drives understanding. & that for our understanding to be ever more complete, we must reach very close to better LEP solutions of thermodynamic, theoretical completeness. The least energy rule must be more closely approximated. The solutions must be more and more efficient than those before. A highly efficient method which will outperform the others, and over time by compound interest and exponential growth, rises over anything against which is far less efficient. Thus this efficiency both drives it and stabilizes it, because such efficiency excludes effective competition by ANY other, known means. But those methods which are significantly more efficient, the compound interest advantages exceed what other methods can create.

Thus completeness, that is the highest explanatory power for a new method, is LEP, and by measuring the quality of that information using Shannon’s information theory, we can reach a deeper understanding of understanding and creativity. This is the point: deep within the concept of efficiency and exclusion and negatives, lies the LEP. The most efficient system is the one which is the most complete. Should we be able to find a method which accomplishes a goal far, far more efficiently than do others, then that one will win. LEP, again. Thus completeness and LEP are intimately and necessarily tied into each other

12. Compare then the English robin’s quantum magnetometer consisting of 2 entangled atoms/molecules within a molecular cage, which tells the robin where north is to a high degree of accuracy. Humans can build such quantum magnetometers using superconducting systems the size of large closets, and weighing a better part of a tonne. But the robin does the same task, in a space so small it’s microscope and on the molecular level. Which system wins? The Robin’s by 250 millions times in terms of space alone, not to mention cost of creating and maintenance!! Robin’s solution is LEP. This shows how far we have to go. & how very incomplete our knowledge about quantum magnetometers is. by comparing the two.

13. Let us look specifically at Kuhn’s “The Structure….:” once again. He stated the earliest forms of planetary motion were very incomplete. But Ptolemy’s was far, far more complete using circular orbits and in fact was a lot more efficient in describing what was then known, compared to the Babylonian method. Then along came Copernicus and his model was even better, being more simple, and thus LEP, too. Occam’s Razor fits in here as well. The simplest hypothesis which describes most All the data without using too many other new hypotheses, is the one most likely to be correct. & thus Occam’s Razor is LEP!!! Unsuspected, but there all along, if ONLY we knew how to look at it and what to look for. simple, elegant, multiplying explanations from a simple starting point, hugely increasing efficiencies of understanding, & compounding the advantages every time it’s used, the comparison process method of the LEP!!

Kepler came along and introduced 2D ellipses and found his 3 laws. Those worked and were far more efficient when included with the solar centered model than anyone else had found. Again, LEP. Whenever his method was used, it was so much more efficient than epicycles and circles and earth centered models, it won out in the least energy contest. And every time it was used that efficiency rewarded the users by compound interest, again, and again, and again.

But, and this is the point, when Newton described all planetary orbits using his laws of motion, he reached again, a very high efficiency, because his method could describe very accurately the planetary orbits by relating them to mass & distances. These could describe orbits far, far more efficiently galaxy wide, indeed universe wide, than even Kepler’s methods, Again LEP. His methods were far, far more complete, thus LEP. Currently we use elements of orbits which describe orbits, esp. of Mercury much much better, in 3D than the Newtonian methods, tho they are more complicated, they gain by being far, far more accurate. Thus LEP, too. These are the depths within depths which we can still mine from Kuhn’s “The Structure….”

14. Therefore, to generalize from specifics, when a theory reaches the point where it, or another similar model achieves that goal of thermodynamic high efficiency, because it’s the most complete, it wins. And thus if we can compute by some means, what the theoretical efficiency of a model is compared to a run up the exponential barrier, it will tell us not only how efficient it is, but give us an idea of how far we have yet to go to reach that goal. LEP is a measure of completeness, therefore. But often we do not know of a better method, to compare it too. Thus there may be No ultimate theoretical efficiency level, no absolute, But to compare the various methods and see which most efficiently describes an event under consideration. It might be we must make a judgement about diminishing returns, before we try to find a better, rather than climbing up that expon bar again.

Clearly, if we run up the exponential barrier, or more practically, a set of “s” curves each of them exponential growth to some limit and then falls off, we can get some idea of how far we have to go. As most all of these comparisons and measures are necessarily bound by relativity, that is they are not absolute, it may be practically impossible to tell, except by the rule of diminishing return, if that model is the most efficient or not & Possible within a realistic goal of our ability to measure it.

Frankly, we cannot know this in many cases. and thus completeness very likely must be completeness with respect to some standard, which is arbitrary and frankly not complete itself. Completeness absolutely is not possible, because that would imply a system which worked by using virtually no energy at all, clearly violating physics. Neither is least energy. We can never get to nearly no energy at all to do something. It’s the same expon bar of trying to run up that greased slide of light speed, or absolute zero, or to make a perfect circle, or a perfectly straight line or other such fantasies.

15. Thus there cannot BE, very likely, or EXIST ANY final completeness. The solution to the problem of whether QM is complete, is insolvable. The only thing we can do, is what we have always done, find more efficient methods by trial and error by which we can continue to climb up the series of discontinuous “S” curves, which will continue to improve our ideas. Final Completeness does NOT exist!! It cannot be found! And the measure of completeness of our theories relates to the LEP of informational theory and thermodynamics. This is the answer to Bell’s completeness explorations. QM can most likely never be complete. No theory can. There are very likely no absolutes in our measurable universe.

16. As far as this is concerned, the LEP should be considered the FOURTH Law of Thermodynamics as it’s universally seen from particle physics and photon paths, to the arbiter of the galactic orbits and paths taken in the largest known clusters of galaxies. Therefore being a universal macroscopic principle, which also works at the quantum event level, it should be considered a macroscopic law of thermodynamics and a real, probabilistic tendency towards events at quantum levels. The LEP is therefore a corollary of entropy rules, for least free energy and for efficiency of complex systems, the least energy paths, too.

17. The interesting point to make is that we human and animals do NOT follow in all cases the least energy paths. Photons MUST, in most all cases, but we do not. We take exploratory ways which take a lot more energy than least energy. We get bored doing the same old routes all the time and branch out to find new and more interesting ones. This fits in well with habituation and boredom/ennui concepts. We get bored, and we change the way we do things, the way we arrange furniture in a room, the kinds of things we do all the time. We adopt new habits and new hobbies. I became a kitchen gardener & Egyptologist at about the same time. These broadened my knowledge, making it more complete and enhanced my understanding of western culture & origins, which again, improved my models of how our own culture came about and from where, being Egyptian, Ellenic culture, then Hellenistic back in Alexandria. then Roman culture, which gave rise to our own. Thus breaking out of the ways we do things, keeps us learning, growing and developing newer, more inclusive and thus complete models. This kind of least energy violation may in fact be explorations to find more LEP methods, and so is allowed.

18. In the same way, we easily get into feedback loops of repetitive behaviors. Some of these unlimited, dopamine reinforced feedback loops can be very dangerous such as drugs addictions, cigarette smoking, overeating and the manias of fanaticisms. Becoming bored, and having normal habituation responses built into our systems can break up and block such feedback loops and activities. It may be that boredom and habituation are ways in which becoming locked into counterproductive and even damaging habits is broken up, to prevent those endless feedback loops and keep us out of trouble. There are probably more brain mechanism, so far unsuspected, which also tend to block more of these untoward, unlimited feedback loops in our behaviors, as well. Thus boredom and habitation can be healthy. So are curiosities, a self sustaining, self reinforcing behaviors which make us look into new things. “Never stop learning” is yet another one. So is the love of travel, which is a very important kind of learning, which can again, as it did for me twice in Egypt, lead to very deep insights as to the origins of Western culture, which trends continue to this day, as well, in our lives.

19. Thus as far as we humans are concerned, improvement is endless. There is no final completeness. Our universe is that complex due to the probabilities of QM creating unlimited possibilities for us, too. Just about everything we can conceive of, as long as it does not violate a clear law of physics, can be done. There are plenty of loopholes aroudn those as we can fly by 15-20 different methods, compared to 300 years agao and the English robin can create a molecular sized quantum magnetometer at room temps. There is no mathematics, nor conceptual approach which can give completeness, any more than it can give certainty, either. or finality. It’s looking for a chimera, a fantasy, an inane search of folly within a pitch dark room for a black cat which doesn’t exist!!

There is NOT a final or finished solution to the problem of completeness. We find again, ways around the expon bar, the asymptotic limit, the rule of diminishing returns, and move on. These are the depths within depths of a mother’s wisdom. There is not final or end to progress or advancement. Our future is unlimited in this universe as far as we humans are concerned. Virtually everything is possible, in fact, and it’s only those limits between our ears which limit us. This is what Rhizobacter teaches us. This is what the English sparrow’s quantum magnetometer which is microscopic tells us. While our own magnetometers are huge things which require supercomputer superconductor devices the size of a large closet. Compare THAT inefficiency of ours to the extraordinary tiny size and completeness and LEP efficiency of the English robin’s molecular sized quantum magnetometer. It’s extraordinary!! So many times where we first try to go, living systems have been there before us tens of millions, even billions of years before. “Observe the wisdom of the ant.”

This is what all those many ways of flying, still being added to tell us. There are NO effective limits to anything, other than a few set laws of nature, such as expon bar of light speed, absolute zero, etc.!!! We can climb that series of exponential “S” curves quite a bit longer than we can ever foresee. Around every new corner there are yet other, unlimited numbers of emergent phenomena to find, yet another new antibiotic family, yet another new way to do tasks, more efficiently, more effectively, more least energy than those found before. & with the taking up of Quantum technologies, those will exponentiate as as they must, & we are with our quantum tunneling electrons in our transistors, matching the next generation of quantum computers, taking the first and hardly final but only the beginning of moving inwards. Ad astra, to the stars. & into our unlimited universe and the universes beyond that within the “Depths within Depths” of our own universe.


We have now the knowledge leading to the wisdom to know, for us, there are no limits. Why stand we here idle? This is “Human Wisdom”. There are no limits because there is no final digit to any event’s measurements. There is no precise measurement and events are irrational numbers without a final digit, either. There is not certainty, because most all is very likely to be possible, like humans flying 15-20 different ways and more coming. To flying in low gee in flight caverns in space, acting not only as exercise, but for air storage, too. These are the massive possibilities created by a NOT deterministic, not linear, but complex system universe, of which we only understand but a little at present. Our future is thus unlimited here. We have but to seize it and win our heart’s desires. We give up our absolutes & certainties, but with the higher likelihood that everything is possible. It’s very likely a fair trade.

20. There are far, far deeper meanings in all of this as well. Nanotechniology seems to be a coming thing, but an essential, critical, omnipresent piece is missing from this puzzle. Engineers are using linear, mechanical methods to try and create it. and have largely failed. But the wisdom and how to create and efficiently use nanotechnologies are all around us. Those are the living systems of of virions, cells, and multicellular organisms, which like the English Robin and Rhizobacter can do a very great deal with their “complex systems” of biological nanotechnologies. This has been developed to an ultra high degree of efficiency over billions of years, and sits there, waiting for near sighted, money pre-occupied experts, who are all but totally ignorant of biology even in their own lives, to take advantage of the limitless capabilities of the life-giving, complex system nanotechnologies of life.

Within every cell and multicellular organism, there are high efficiency complex system nanotechnologies of high power, & capabilities which can do a VERY great deal with very, very little. Far, far more than linear systems can EVER do. And for each of the species on earth which dies out, and cannot ever be replaced in most all cases, that vast wealth and storehouse of nanotechnology is being lost, probably forever. Species die out all of the time due to human ignorance and carelessness, and yet this vast treasure of information and nanotechnology goes unnoticed, unseen and ignored by most all humans, even as they destroy DAILY the richest treasure house of useful information on the planet. How do get almost anything & everything done, efficiently. & for every species we destroy, we are damaged and perhaps even destroyed, as “Medicine man” so poignantly and virtually unappreciated showed, with the brilliant, lyrical soundtrack of Jerry Goldsmith behind it. Our knowledge is incomplete indeed, and we have and are doing it to ourselves!! As we destroy life, so we very likely destroy ourselves.

As Cousteau has written, as we destroy the oceans, we also damage and destroy ourselves. Massive dead zones of 10,000’s of sq. kilometers lie off our coasts and port cities, expanding this zone of death yearly. Planet wide. the richest estuarine, intertidal zones which create more food and more livings systems compared to anywhere else on the earth. & they are dying by our dirty deeds massively off the coast of Fukushima, China and the entire west Coast of North Am. The Orca, a highly intelligent species, being extinguished down to only 70 individuals and few females, are all that’s left of vast populations in the 1000’s. & probably doomed to extinction because there is a minimal breeding, self-sustaining population needed. And it is GONE!! And no pups have been seen for at least 3 years.

We are likely next, if we do not stop this ignorant madness of species and habitat destruction. For we are not just destroying life but ourselves and our very futures here on the planet earth, which we are, whether we like it or not, in charge of. How shall we defend & characterize our custody of these children of the earth in the inexorable courts of history? The future will not think well of us, at all. If we have a future at all. For in destroying life, we have very likely destroyed ourselves, as well. The equations & balance of this universe MUST be observed.

But with wisdom, not greed. With compassion not taking from others. With love and respect for most all living things, because those lives are so very rare. AND thus life IS truly the most precious of all that which exists in all of the galaxies and the universe.

“Respect most all life.” to paraphrase Dr. Schweitzer. This is love, maternitas, AND wisdom.

How to Cure Diabetes (AODM-2)

How to cure AODM. (Type 2 adult onset diabetes)

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014

This is the first of several articles which will show how to potentially “Win a Nobel Prize”. & will be written about 2-3 per month to show creativity at work.

Within a few years AODM will become a far more serious problem because the incidence of it is markedly increasing every generation, possibly due to more person being overweight and lack of exercise, also.

From the American Diabetes Association:

“The diabetes epidemic is taking a devastating physical, emotional and financial toll on millions of people across the nation. Currently, in the U.S. there are nearly 26 million people living with diabetes and another 79 million with prediabetes. The national annual cost of diagnosed diabetes is an estimated $245 billion, representing a 41 percent increase over a five year period.””

See more at: http://www.diabetes.org/newsroom/press-releases/2013/2014-legislative-priorities.html#sthash.EZjvpxuX.dpuf
But there is a very real, potential cure for diabetes coming. It’s very simple, actually, and holds the key to a cure for AODM for most if not all who have it. What has been seen any times and is well documented and scientifically reported, is that when the distal 2/3 of the stomach is removed surgically, or otherwise bypassed or compromised, that within 2-3 months most of those with AODM no longer need medications. Blood sugars in almost all cases return to near normal. This is unexpected to say the least. Even those who get gastric sleeves, which decrease the digestion in the stomach also find their diabetes gone in several weeks. This does not mean the potential for diabetes is gone, but the damaging high blood sugar goes away.

How and why does this occur? No one completely knows, but it’s where the potential for a Nobel Prize in medicine and Physiology must very likely come.

But why does diabetes have such a high incidence in the first place? and the answer might be had from looking at the condition in native Americans in Arizona. Among the Pima Indians on the American side of the border, the incidence is about 85%, one of the highest in the world. It’s known that in most cases the AODM gene is a dominantly inherited gene, which means a person only needs a single gene change to get diabetes, although there may be other factors which influence the expression of the gene, both environmental and genetic.

But why should a gene which can be potentially lethal exist at a high incidence? It’s well known that in thalassemia and sickle cell disease, the diseases exist in an environment with epidemic malaria. And both those conditions provide a modest but significant resistance to malaria in those persons with one, recessive gene. This is an example of genetics which contributes to reducing mortality because it has beneficial effects, too, although it can be very bad to carry both recessive genes.

The same is probably true of AODM. Why it exists is very simple. The brain and rest of the nervous system can only survive if there is blood sugar, glucose, present in high enough quantities to keep the nervous system working and undamaged during famine. In cases of famine, which is also wide spread and endemic, if a person is moderately diabetic, this will spare the person’s nervous system from serious damage, esp. in cases of short term famine.

On the Arizona border area, this is exactly the case. On the American side there are more than adequate food supplies in most case, the person can grow obese with the rich American diet and get diabetes. On the south side, food is much less available and more traditional diets low in sugars and starches, and most importantly calories are found. Thus those south of the border are not as likely to get diabetes. But since they are essentially the same genetics, the food rich north side gets diabetes and the food poor south side does not so much, and they survive better in famines to have children and pass the diabetic gene on to their children, who also are more likely to survive. The border acts as a kind of controlled study comparing diet and obesity to incidence of diabetes type 2.

In the diverse American population, for example there is a typical Caucasian gene for diabetes, tho there are also central Asian, Suomi as well as Magyar forms of the disease exist which are not the same gene as in most of Western Europe in those of not Asian ancestries.

But everyone in all societies in the past 10,000 years has experienced famine and thus the widespread development of the gene in societies, about 30% in most, although it’s not always expressed. Thus the high prevalence of the gene in Eurasian peoples, because the diabetes is, during child-bearing years, rarely expressed. It is expressed at later ages, and thus individuals survive through the child bearing years to have children and pass it to the next generation.

The characteristics of AODM are that there is an insulin resistance in the disease, which is associated with higher insulin levels and occasionally hypoglycemia, which is often an early sign of AODM. In addition, this form of diabetes comes on with aging, usually above 45, with obesity, that is large fat deposits, and in many cases with high starch/sugar intake. In order to explain these findings, then the following hypothesis is likely to be correct.

Clearly, in the case of blood sugar control, the body has many, many mechanisms to raise blood sugar. The liver can create glucose from Muscle use glycogen stores to raise blood sugar. Release of adrenaline and cortisol during stress raises blood sugar also, as well as the obvious, taking glucose/sugar containing foods in liquid form which can raise blood sugar levels within minutes.

But where is the control on insulin levels? When blood sugar goes up too high, insulin levels rise to control that. But where is the control for too high blood insulin? Simply cutting back insulin release by the beta cells in the pancreas does little to cut back the too high insulin levels in the blood. No one knows how insulin levels and activity is controlled. As is so often the case, the absence of something is often an important clue as to what’s going on.

The stomach is a very active hormonal and biosynthetic organ. It makes gastrin, secretin, VIP’s & GIP’s of many types, and intrinsic factor, among others. These are all polypeptides. Because removing the stomach and even the distal 2/3 of it effectively eliminates high blood sugars in those with AODM type 2 within several weeks, that means a substance is being taken away which the stomach creates. Something which can compete with diabetes on insulin receptor(s). And it takes a number of weeks for those receptors to be turned over, recycled and resynthesized, thus eliminating the insulin-like binding polypeptide/protein which is blocking the insulin for control.

Interestingly, AODM is insulin resistance. In other words there is a lot more insulin in the blood than expected and it’s not as effective in acting to reduce blood sugars. This is consistent with an agent produced by the stomach which is blocking insulin on the insulin receptor(s). All too often in AODM one sees hypoglycemia, as a manifestation of this. We also know of ILGF, insulin-like growth factor, which also binds to insulin receptors, so this model has solid support from existing mechanisms.

Thus, we must look for a polypeptide/protein which is insulin-like, which acts as part of a mechanism to control too high insulin levels. Thus completing, at least in part, the other side of the equation in blood sugar control. The insulin receptors must be specifically investigated to find what else besides insulin is binding to them. This will in time show the polypeptide/protein with insulin-like activity/binding which is being synthesized by the stomach.
Simply blocking this factor will abolish the insulin resistance, which will act effectively to cure the AODM.

The surgical approach to curing diabetes is a brute force method full of problems and even can be lethal. Blocking the specific polypeptide cause of AODM is a technical finesse which is far, far safer, simpler and to the point. & by this new knowledge of what it is in the stomach which causes AODM-2, we will gain a great deal more understanding about how insulin works and is regulated, too.

Curing most all AODM with this new knowledge very likely will result in another Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology for the person/team who finds the insulin-like agent which causes AODM. And that person(s) will have the distinction of curing/highly controlling a new epidemic in mankind which will undoubtedly become much, much worse over the next generation. For which tens of millions of people will owe a huge debt of gratitude, and a Nobel Prize.

One caveat is that it’s unknown why AODM waits until middle to older age person to present itself. Finding the right polypeptide/protein which becomes more active/binding in those age groups, will be confirming evidence that’s what is going on and what, specifically, the agent or agent family is.

Complex Systems, Boundary Events, and Hierarchies

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014

“Mathematics must make great advances in order to understand complexity.” —Stanislaw Ulam

Have frequently mentioned and discussed the Tree of Life of the immense taxonomies of the living millions of species and viruses, the Plate Tectonics Model in geology, and Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram, the biochemical receptor sites concepts, before, and how mathematics does not describe very much of verbal statements, no poems, nor much else which is complex systems. This will create a better understanding of why this occurs and the place the Comparison Process takes in these events and ideas. Have also discussed these events in “Depths within Depths” as well as the “Continua and the Dualities” articles It’s now time to show how more of it fits together.


Sort of a biological field trip format again, beginning with something odd in north Phoenix which puzzled me at the time, and from this simple cameo can come a basic new model of how the universe is organized as is our brain cortex and how that works to understand complexity of all sorts.

On north 51st Ave. in Phoenix there is an odd event there. The road jogs to the west, without much warning. Just why that should be was interesting enough, but the deeper meaning of it becomes clear once we begin to think about boundaries of the macroscopic world, geometries and related subjects. Our generation is the first to have enough information to try to figure out how things work on a deeper level that has come before. The science have become so specialized that it’s hard for many in those fields to begin to understand each other. Or as has been so comically said, “We are now learning more and more about less and less until we will soon know almost everything about almost nothing.”

The hugely expensive search for the Higgs boson, supposedly found for about $15 Billions in new equipment and running costs, cannot be confirmed by a different team because it’s so outrageously expensive using current technologies to do so. These are the Exponential Barriers discussed before. This is crisis in physics, too. We cannot afford to do science this way, either. These are boundary events, just like has been found and so well discussed in Kuhn’s “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.” These show the structure/function limits and capabilities of current methods, systems and understanding.

See sections 6, 10, 11, the Exponential barrier.

This is how those unexpected findings create a world change in our views of most which is around us, in short, a massive epistemological change which is ongoing currently. It’s what Kuhn so brilliantly wrote about and about which we are still mining and learning more to this day, some 50 years later.

Thinking about 2 dimensional flat planes versus the surfaces of spheres gets us to an understanding. The surveying methods used to make maps and lay out our grid patterns of roads are based upon plane geometry, that is flat, 2 dimensional lines and the surfaces connecting those. So if we try to impose a flat plane on a round one, tho of great size, so that the roundness is at once visible, what do we get? We get a mismatch, a problem.
Try taking a flat piece of paper and wrapping it around an orange. We can’t do it. It makes folds in the paper. The two surfaces are NOT commensurable. This is the problem we get when trying to impose a flat surface grid pattern on a round surface. And that’s why 51st Ave. had to jog, to make up for this imposition and it does it all along Bell Road for miles. The longitudinal lines approach each other slowly, and if the system is not carefully adjusted every few miles to that fact, the road will need to be adjusted over to make up for it. This is a mismatch. The systems do NOT compare.

If we think about that carefully, then we realize that it could have been proven easily centuries ago that the world was not flat. Because if the world was flat, then there would have been no mismatch. Because it’s round, as every surveyor of large areas knows, the baseline MUST be adjusted. For centuries that’s been done without realizing it was going on. They just ignored it, and adjusted it. Because map making of considerable accuracy has been going on since 2800 BC, esp. in Egypt, they no doubt saw this in their very long northwards going baselines and also corrected for it. It meant the world was round, just like the sun and moon, but it took Western Europe until the time of Cristoforo Colon to figure it out again. Careful, accurate surveying using long line of sights in clear air could have established this fact in flatter regions 1000’s of years ago. It’s as much a cultural and human mental state observation as it is a scientific fact.

In the same way, just these mismatches between the Ptolemaic model of the solar system, which put the planets in perfectly circular orbits, had to be corrected by adding epicycles, as Kuhn so well points out. Because ALL planetary orbits HAD to be perfect circles, therefore they could accept little circles to correct the measurements. As Kuhn pointed out, the epicycles approximated the ellipse, too.

Moving onward to Kepler, he saw much the same mismatch. and using Tycho Brahe’s extremely accurate measurements of the orbit of Mars, found a significant discrepancy from circularity of 8 arc minutes. That discrepancy justified and created the Keplerian elliptical orbits model and a much better and easier way of calculating planetary orbits. His creativity was a Least Energy solution.

With better measurements, it was discovered that the orbits were ALSO in 3 dimensions and the same mismatches between planar ellipses were found with the modern figures. In fact, Mercury circles the sun in a complicated rosetting orbit. So “elements of orbit” are now used which are better matches, but in fact, in the long run, the measurements of the orbits of the planets are such that they cannot be predicted more than about 50K years into the future without having real loss of accuracy. Prediction fails due to variations of the orbit.

In fact, the solar system is a complex system, not a series of easily computed orbits. If Jupiter were suddenly taken out, the inner planets steadily would spiral into the sun. The problem is that of the N-body problem, which mathematics no computers can solve, because it’s simply too complex to do so. Gleick points this out in his book, “Chaos”.

This greater overview is the problem of the sciences today. They cannot understand complex systems using linear mathematics, algebras and logics. There is a huge mismatch between predictions and outcomes. For an N-body problem of N= or >3, there is no clear solution possible. For interactions of 8 major planets in our solar system, plus the asteroids, the solution becomes of astronomical complexity, (pun intended) and unsolvable.

Now consider the problems of the some 25K genes’ interactions in the human body. It’s impossible to solve, and adding the many thousands of other compounds such as foods and gene products, it becomes even more impossible to solve.

Consider the complexities of the single eukaryotic cell. It contains many thousands of compounds in it, all interacting, many organelles such as nucleus, ribosomes, cell membranes, mitochondria (plus chloroplasts in plants), etc., that the N zooms up to the number of molecules interacting which is a very huge number, also. Essentially, modern mathematics cannot practically, or intrinsically DEAL with those complexities. Effectively the way is closed. The doors to understanding are shut. What are we to do?

The traveling salesman problem was a deep problem for mathematics for years. As the number of places to visit increases, the complexity of the problem gets harder and harder. No computer can solve it, either, even by the brute force approach. It was very expensive for any kind of large delivery system to just guess as to which routes to use for their multiple deliveries. Theoretically they could not approach within about 20% of what they figured was the most efficient route, nor could they compute it.

But how was this solved? “Observe the wisdom of the ant.”

Ants and bees had solved that problem 100 Million years ago, or before. And they did it with a very simple algorithm and process. The bees went to the nearest flower, took nectar, then went to the next nearest flower, took nectar, and after doing that several times their memories, in the neural networks we call their minute brains, collections of a million neurons, achieved a 75% solution of the problem, consistently. Ants did it by laying down a pheromone trace which they could follow, and sequentially the most efficient (least energy principle) route was created by following the pheromone trace that was the most traveled on, because it was also the fastest. Then the line got straighter and straighter to the nest, as well.
Using computer simulation of these two strategies, even better solutions to the problem were eventually found. The UPS and FedEX deliveries are now about 80% of the theoretical maximum, using these methods first found by the ants, bees and termites, perhaps as much as 100-200 of millions of years ago!!

And just how was this done? Complex systems solved it, those found in the bee and ant brains, and trial and error. Complex systems of millions of interacting neurons out computed and out performed any computer we’ve ever had. This was humbling to say the least, but it shows the immense power of complex systems to do what humans cannot do, given time and understanding. This insect solution has in the meantime saved the national and international delivery systems many 1000’s of extra miles/day and 1000’s of hours of less travel time per city, too. It’s a least energy principle in action. Again, the COMP. Comparing the outcomes of the traveled routes for the best one, the least energy solution.

And how did the observing scientists find this out? The same way Von Frisch figured out how the bees told the other workers to find the flowers yielding nectar. HE COMPARED what they were waggling, pointing and buzzing, etc., to where the bees were going and decoded the system they were using. The comparison process, in fact. It was the same way the ant method was decoded, and comparing where the bees went to find the fastest route. Same method was used to understand the ant pheromone system, the comparison process. The same method Champollion and Young used to decode the Rosetta stone. The same method used to translate and decode ANYTHING written, or any event. The Comparison process.

That is the key point. And it can be easily proven to be the case, again and again. Let’s take plate tectonics. This is a complex system, which cannot be solved by mathematics. Nor can it be created by same. The description of it is almost all verbal and visual. Cartooning has been used to show how it works and what the land world looked like 100’s of millions of years ago. Wec an look backwards in time to recreate this because of the remnant geological observations which allow it to be pieced back together in many cases, although it’s large;y approximate. All of the some 15 plates (16 if the East African plate is considered one, as it’s splitting off from the African plate) are all interacting with the others. This creates an impossible to solve 3-D, roughly spherical, N-body problem.

Essentially, the parts of the tectonic theory are the upwelling, sea floor spreading zones, the same on land from the Dead Sea to the south down the center of the Red Sea, inland at the Afar triangle and southwards to the Rift Valley zone of East Africa, too. East Africa is splitting apart. Africa split off from west Asia about 20 M years ago. There are a great number of plates. They are upwellings, subductions, faultings in complex patterns and so forth. The subduction zones often create volcanoes where the plate edge goes into the magma layers, is melted and the lighter rock rises up again, to create volcanoes. There is no center of the plate movements. There is no privileged space. Everything is pushing against everything else. It’s impossible to predict with any certainty how things will look in millions of years, because the computations can’t deal with all of these complexities. The plate tectonics model is a complex system.

The same is true of the weather. Of the stock markets. Of the economy, of social systems. The same is true of trying to understand the human brain and the complexities of each of the millions of known species, let alone all of the extinct ones. As Stanislaw Ulam stated, “Calling the universe non-linear is like calling biology the study of all non-elephants.” The problem is everywhere. 99.9+% of the universe’ events are alinear, complex systems.
So how could we have even developed plate tectonic model?

By studying, looking, thinking creatively, describing/measuring to find the patterns of sea floor spreading, of subduction, melting, etc., leading to volcanoes’ creations and eruptions, of the fault line movements, and so forth. How can we predict when a volcano will erupt? Or a fault line will rupture causing a great quake? We can’t. It’s a complex system.

And this is the key, clearly we have developed a coherent description about earth surface movements. It was done largely by using the comparison process which can handle alinearity. The same comparison process in the bird brains and other brains, which can handle complicated movement problems of flight and highly skilled activities and movements of human beings, viz. alinear systems, totally without mathematics.

Even more complex systems are found in the human body. We have a high incentive to understand these complex systems. Those are the very serious issues and problems of living and survival and reducing suffering, and increasing function. And we have it, the huge corpus of medical conditions and information built up over the last centuries of observation and study. It’s called anatomy, physiology, medical pathologies and the study of those, the differential diagnosis and the treatments. It’s almost all verbal. It describes almost entirely verbally what is going on, with some assistance from math and measurements. It uses observations, history, physical examinations, and then careful reasoning to figure out what’s going on and then bases the treatment on the outcomes of scientific studies, (the Method of Comparison) to find the best possible, current treatment methods as well as to continue to explore and find better ones. And it works. It’s verbal, visually descriptive and the examination, history, and differential diagnoses CANNOT be mathematized at all. Perhaps in the future, but perhaps not at all for most apps. Mathematics is an assistant, but NOT even a major player in the ways in which we diagnose and treat the most serious medical conditions. This fact has been overlooked for some time and it’s time to set the record straight. Mathematics alone is incapable of making the diagnoses and treatment protocols. Almost all of it is Verbal description We use verbal descriptions from comparison process methods throughout.
This is the key to understanding. Comparison processes CAN handle and deal with complex systems. Logic, math, and linear methods cannot do that task very well. How can this be? And the way to understanding it is again by using the comparison process to see what is going on.

Hierarchies have been discussed here a number of times. The massive taxonomies of all known living species, living and extinct. There is the physical reductionist method, starts with particles, then goes to atoms, then to molecules/compounds, then to chains of carbon atoms, organic and biochemistries. The simple to the complex method. Then there is a discontinuity, and we go from single cells, to multicellular living species and the larger multicellular systems with organs in them. Finally we get to neural networks, then larger collections of same in the birds, mammals, then to primates, and then to higher apes, of which we are a closely, the latter with 100,000’s of cortical cell columns, previously addressed and described, which underlie how our brains work.

Boundary events are those events which occur unexpectedly. These are the surprises we find when we carefully investigate, examine, observe, (that is, COMPARE) events around us. Flight is just such an event. We see this massively in our biological world, but not elsewhere. We see spiders using their silk to create flight in the winds. We see the maple and other seeds which spin and take off in the wind. We observe seeds surrounded by a great deal of fluff in huge numbers of species of plants, from dandelion, to cottonwood seed, to Kapok, and even the fluff surrounded seeds of the Chorisia tree, with its incredible flowers. Those can fly in the wind. This is a boundary event.

It’s seen with sugar gliders and flying squirrels. And in its most developed form with millions of insect species, 1000’s of birds and 100’s of bats, not to exclude the ancient birds and flying reptiles, the Pteranodons and the incredible colored, downy species. But how do these species actually fly? The dynamics of gliding were well worked out by the Wright Brothers and many since, but true, flexible wing gliding and powered wing flapping is a boundary event which creates the most successful and widely varied life on the earth, the insects. No one knows how this works, except that it does. Again, a complex system. How can any computer simulate a changing wing dynamic? It’s beyond math. Using complicated 3 dimensional photography it can be studied and perhaps some understanding can be created by those observations and study. But so far, little else has helped. There are many theories, of course, but none of these works on most species which fly. It’s simply too complex to figure.

Boundary events are events which mark the transition from one hierarchy to another. They may be small, or major and hardly trivial. In the tree of life, the Taxonomies, they are those which mark the creation of legs which allow animals to live on land. This transition is also marked by lungs, and skin changes which can conserve water. another boundary event would be the creation of sex, that is male/female in a single species, in all the myriad ways in which this can be done.

Binocular vision, hands, and a complicated cortex are what marked the change from primate to higher apes. A boundary event which created humans were upright posture, which freed the hands, and better enabled long distance sight. Another would be opposable thumbs. Another would be complex speech and vocal cords. The last of course, is the creation of human consciousness, similar to that of the great apes, but vastly amplified by the greatly enlarged human cortex, those 100,000’s of cortical cell columns which give us the capacity to process large amounts of information. Color vision would also be included. Each of these were unexpected and found.

In cultures, esp. in the sciences, boundary events are the discovery of radioactivity, as an aspect of elements’ isotopes. This created an enormous change in physics and everything that has touched including nuclear power, nuclear medicine, dating methods and so forth. If we review “Depths in Depths” cited above, we again see those boundary events which marked major changes in the sciences and our understanding of the unlimited complexity of the universe of events within biological systems and outside of them.
Events change, the rules change at the boundaries of the hierarchies. When the first hydrogen atoms were formed early in the universe’ history, it was the creation of the compounds and molecules from these new kinds of elements and atoms. When the first supernovae exploded, they created 1000’s of new isotopes among the elements higher than carbon atoms, too, and these were flung out into space. From those eventually came living systems. Again, boundary events.

When the massive carbon chains were created using hydrogen and hydroxyl groups, etc., this again marked a boundary event, we call organic chemistry, which then became biochemistry and living cells. From there it became multicellularity with complicated, specialized cells, and so forth. The creation of the worms, with their many, repeated, segmented bodies, each of which could create legs, and were capable of massive specialization, eventually resulting in the notochord and then the backbone, still segmented, resulting eventually in fish, amphibians, marking the transition from marine to land life, to reptiles, birds, and then mammals. Humans are still segmented animals. We need only look at our backbones, those repeated segments derived from adding on again and again, simple parts. Even the dermatomes of the skins and nerves show these segmentations throughout.

In cultures, boundary events are marked by new religions, new belief and political systems, and the sciences. Each of these subtypes, unexpected from the previous forms, just as feathers were used at first for warmth and then made flight possible in the birds. These are transitions from one form to another, and the characteristics which mark those transitions, which can be very complex.

Plate tectonics is just such a boundary event, created when enough lighter rock, viz. granite and quartz differentiated out from the more common, more dense basaltic rock. Again just piling up a great deal of isotopes of the lighter and heavier elements would not have given necessarily any idea that such a thing as continental drift was possible. And yet it exists and is real.

Taking the hierarchy of the change from Atoms to molecules shows this very clearly. Bonding of atoms is real and is due to the electron level characteristics. Simply knowing the structure of atoms does NOT give the necessary knowledge that atoms can bond with each other and create vast, almost unlimited numbers of chemical compounds. Nor does it show, without actually testing and trying it out, that carbon atoms can create very long, relatively stable chains of atoms, which is the basis of organic chemistry, biochemistry and the complex polypeptide/protein chains so necessary for life. The rules change at the boundaries, and these rule changes are the boundary events which mark those edges.

For instance, polypeptide chains can be used as biochemical signaling devices. This is not clearly known from the study of molecules alone. It takes a very large, very advanced cell organization to see this. A simple poplypeptide chain can produce very important hormonal and regulating effects, such as insulin and gastrin, for example. They are 100’s of such examples such as pituitary hormones, GIP, VIP, gastrin, endorphins and so forth.

In addition, certain organizations of complex proteins chains of amino acids can catalyze chemical reactions at lower temperatures than would be expected. Humans create nitrogen fertilizer, essentially ammonia and ammonium by the Haber-Bosch process which requires 100’s degrees of heat and 100’s of atmosphere of pressure. Then we look at Rhizobacteria, one of my favorite bacteria, which live in the roots of legumes, the bean and pea family. They can fix atmospheric nitrogen at soil temperature. And why? because they use protein chain chemistry called enzymes. These are the boundary events from complex biochemistry to living systems. Those new, immanent, unexpected surprises which await us when atoms are connected into larger and larger groups. No one could possibly have imagined that enzymes could have created complex chemical transformations by looking at bonding.

Indeed, the problem is this. We cannot build up biochemistry of enzymes from physics. That’s a boundary event. Physics can’t build up a system of understanding of living systems, simply because of those boundary events, such as complex interactions of the amino acid chains which can create hormonal effects and the enzymes which literally create all metabolism. The Quantum mechanic equations do NOT include those boundary events, which marks the next hierarchy from biochemistry to living cells, let alone complex division and reproduction which gave rise to each cell. Quantum mechanics is incomplete. ALL scientific models are incomplete.

This is why mathematics cannot follow. It’s simply too simple to do it. We cannot model nor describe anything past basic biochemistry because the rules have changed at each boundary event of the hierarchies. It’s why complex system are beyond the ken of even the most advanced mathematics. That’s why they cannot deal with plate tectonics, or solve the N-body problem. Nor can mathematics use its symbology to translate much of anything spoken or written into entirely mathematical symbols which are meaningful. It’s too limited. And those are the facts.

So we have the elementary stable particles, which are then assembled into the next hierarchy, the atoms and elements and isotopes, and then the next hierarchy created by chemical bonding. Then comes organic chemistry of the carbon bond, and then the biochemistry built upon that. And then the complex protein/polypeptide chemistries at a next hierarchical level. And finally comes the cell, the multicellular hierarchies we call multicellular organisms, which contain the next hierarchies of the organ systems.

And finally, comes the neurons, the neural nets, the ganglia and finally the brain. And at the top of this, some FIVE levels above the biochemistry/protein boundary the human mind based upon the complicated neuronal networks of some 50K-60K interacting cortical cell columns, yet another hierarchy, from which arising at the brain interface of the interactive CCC’s, comes the mind itself, of which no math can possible understand, nor describe in very much detail.

At the top is the comparison process, which creates signal detection, recognition, pattern recognition, language, visual imagery, sensory integrations, thinking, analysis, long term memory, the emotions and much else.
If mathematics cannot even tell us how and why enzymes work, and how to understand those processes at the biochemical level, allowing us to design new enzymes and so forth, from the immanency, the boundary events of chemical transformations, then how can it possibly, 4 more levels up describe and understand the mind? Let alone plate tectonics, a complete and accurate solution of the complex orbits in the solar system, nor understand the living cell? That is the boundary problem of the hierarchies. From the simple biochemistry which at first is more understandable and stops there dead cold at the protein chains, and the even more complex organelle and unlimited N-body problems posed by the complex cell. These are the limits of mathematics. We need a much more advanced kind of mathematics which can describe and give us measurable numericity to understand those systems, first. Such methods do not exist.


But time and again, from the immense taxonomies of the millions of species, to the millions of chemical compounds, to musics, to language, and speech, to creativity and beyond, the brain/mind interface can understand, comprehend and build and grow. This progression then leads us inevitably to the comparison process, and the next installment in these articles.

What is the COMP? How does it work outside of normal logic? How does it give rise to logics? How does it avoid the pitfalls of Godel’s proof and normal logic? Is it exempt from the limits of verbal and mathematical logic? Very likely. And that’s why it works where verbal logic and mathematical logic, the very basis of our linear maths, cannot follow. The following article will discuss the major Uber characteristics, the boundary event characteristics of the comparison process and why and how it works and creates the mind.

A Field Trip into the Mind

A Field Trip into the Mind via the COMParison Process

By Herb Wiggins, M.D. Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014

1. Empirical introspection
2. Commonality establishing validity in introspection; Rule of Commonality (RoC); related to confirmation of scientific findings;
3. Structure/function relationships in brain as a basis for commonality; common cortical cell columns in most all persons
4. Comparison Process (COMP) as the basis of the mind’s higher level cortical functions.
5. Recognition as intrinsically COMP; mental tasks basically similar from person to person, and this establishes the commonality of reading, indexing, etc.
6. The immense complexity of the CCC’s and the impossibility of understanding all of the details/complexity of 10K’s of neurons and interactions of 1000’s of synapses of a neuron with other 10K’s of neurons.

7. Our field trip begins in ancient Sumeria with the Epic of Gilgamesh and his emotions; philias and emotions; Flood stories and possible sources of the myth.
8. To Joseph of the many colors coat and ancient Egypt’s prediction from observation
9. Limits of science which cannot verify our history very well; The past cannot be studied in all cases; no valid scientific evidence that Julius Caesar, ever lived ever lived; The grieving of Achilles like the grieving of Gilgamesh.
10. Cassandra of Troy and prophecy/prediction; a new understanding of forecasting and credibility; the meaning of some myths exposed as deeper than understood before;
11. The antiquity of human emotions. and abilities; The Calculus of Archimedes and of Newton/Leibniz 2000 years apart as a measure of commonality in creativity; Non-euclidean geometries, created FOUR times over.
12. Basis of the COMP by comparing moral laws, scientific laws, legal laws and the conscience in our frontal lobes.
13. Emotions, speech, creativity, moral laws, all comparison processes seen over 5500 years.
14. Motor vehicle laws as a complexity created upon the Pauli Exclusion principle; from the simple comes the complex.
15. Dreams and dream interpretations possibly valid in some cases by empirical introspection; dreams exist by the rule of commonality.
16. Medical substantiation and proofs of introspection being real and valid.
17. A field trip into dreams and the validity of the reports.
18. Substantiation of Freud’s repressed/lost memories by two dreams.
19. The magical, unreal qualities of dreams versus their basis in memories as well as their basis in creating stories and imaginations. flying in dreams; willful telekinesis in dreams
20 Mental processing speeds and computers; do computers make people think faster?
21. Consciousness’ complexity based upon the interactions, organizations and outputs of 100,000’s of cortical cell columns and processes.
22. Stream of Consciousness, Ulysses, and the demons of madness/mania; dreams and madness; delusions and the CCC’s output, the COMP, goes wrong; speaking in tongues as similar.
23. Where do good ideas come from in problem solving; the masses of voices of the CCC’s.
24. Recognition and when it goes wrong; illusions and delusions related; critical thinking necessary to deal with the COMP gone wrong; Pareidolia as a COMP experience and evidence of the COMP.
25. The recognition continuum from madnesses and delusions to accurate and valid recognitions; highly probable brain/mind recognitions imitated by Bayesian statistics in computer models of recognition
26. Dopamine and formation/facilitation of long term memory (LTM).

As a field biologist for over 50 years and experience and training in the neurosciences for 45 years, that field was remarkably similar to field biology in terms of discoveries, approaches, learning and methods, It’s a comfortable way to travel about. So here we go.

1. Essentially, in the article, “Empirical Introspection”, it was shown how to get inside our heads using the Comparison Process (COMP). Basically, human science and medical practice use the same method of observation, testing and then discovery of new findings, or in the case of medicine, diagnosis followed by treatment if possible or necessary.

Observations are reported in journals in the sciences and an equally legitimate report is filed for each patient, all of it documented as to findings, leading to conclusions called diagnoses, with a treatment plan, and so forth. The findings can all be verified by others following much the same methods, if they are true, and more can also be learned about the conditions/events being studied. It’s a valid method, scientifically. Or is most medical practice scientifically invalid?

2. The issue is commonality. That which exists in our universe is that which we all can detect in common. In other words, if that tree in my back yard is real, I can prove it by documentation, images and so forth. It exists despite/independently of my documentations, of course, but that makes it more real for those who cannot see it directly. In the same way events in the universe can be studied by the scientific method to show that they exist and are real by the carefully done, scientific studies, published in good literature, and then confirmed at least twice by other, credible, independent groups to establish if what was found is indeed real. These confirmations establish commonality. If the events in existence are real, then those can create technologies in most cases to take advantage of those real, recurring events in space/time. And they will work any where/any time in our universe, where the conditions are the same, for the last 15-20 B Yrs. and LY’s and in all spaces and times in between. & likely for billions of years into the future.

3. This similar kind of commonality can be developed for the human brain/mind. We know that the brain has structure/function relationships, which are stable and reliably there in almost all persons. If a person has a stroke in his speech centers, there will be damage to the speech output/function. The same is true for specific motor functions, & higher level functions throughout the brain. This has been established beyond all doubt.

In the same way the higher functions of language, thinking, music, facial recognition, visual information processing, movement, etc., have been localized to various regions in the brain. There is some variation in it, but it’s all pretty much the same from person to person. The same cortical cell columns which make up the outer layers of the brain, the cortex, when see on the microscopic sections show the same 6 layers, And over the cortex the EEG is the same, alpha, beta, theta, wherever tested. When the person sleeps the cortex is largely shut down, and we know that intact brain stem gives wakefulness to the cortex. The complex processes and abilities of the human brain/mind are found in the cortex. There are other connections, but when the cortex is damaged, the major functions may be lost forever, unless some healing is possible, but esp. in older persons, there is not much ability to recover completely from serious damage. This is fact.

The Cortex of the brain, the cortical cell columns (CCC) with their 6 layers invariant (except motor cortex is modestly different, lacking layer 4 and has Betz cells) are micrographically, virtually all the same from the the visual cortex, to the sensory, speech, hearing and frontal cortex, too. They do differ in function, tho, but given that each CCC, of the 100K’s of CCC’s, has 10K’s of neurons, with multiple and differing functions, yet still are almost all alike, save for, we assume, differences in synaptic connections, upwards of 1000’s per neuron.

Here we have a commonality of structure and therefore function. The Comparison Process is likely the dominant, high level function of each CCC. It’s the basis of the mind. It can function in many different ways from creating recognition, its basic function, to creativity, a form of recognition and much else, including language, vision, musical ability, motor performance, sensation, and is the modulator/mediator for the emotions via a dopamine system built into the CCC.

See the “Emotional Continuum”.

And here is the situation, when the COMP goes wrong we find delusions commonly, or mistakes in speech, or even mania and psychosis, too. But it can mostly be traced back to the cortical mediation by the COMP. If we want to investigate the mind/brain interface, we look to the COMP to give us guidance and insight as to what to look for, because the COMP is the basis of recognition via a tie in to the Long Term Memory (LTM), or with working memory in many cases. If we see someone we know, it triggers a feed of information to the visual cortex, creating a brain image, which gets observed by the Right inferior temporal lobe in the FFA, and we re-cognize that person. That is we “KNOW again”, based upon the COMP, comparing the image from the eyes with the LTM image. That’s what creates recognition of images. The exact physiology is way more complicated than we can imagine, but recognition is an established fact in the mind/brain interface, and we commonly accept that as a working model.

5. Recognition also works for language, and many other tasks, such as hearing, identifying voices and music by comparing with the LTM in the hearing centers. Speaking and reading by matching/comparing word sounds or written words, and meaning is given. If we want to look up a word in the dictionary, we use the COMP until we find the word, if it’s there, and the dictionary was created, order from disorder by alphabetizing the words by the comparison process. This we all have in common with others. We read and organize dictionaries, lists, indexes, phone books, maps, etc., by the same process, the comparison process. It’s universally used as it’s the basis of recognition, by the simple method given above. That is a part of empirical introspection.

What about descriptions and measurements? This has been treated before:


But suffice it to say the descriptions verbal are qualitative kinds of measurements. And descriptions using numbers are quantitative. There exist far fewer examples which can be measurements with respect to descriptions, which are far, far more adaptable, but of course, not necessarily mathematical.

6. As far as understanding HOW the COMP arises from those complicated CCC’s, that would involve solving the N-body problem for 10K’s of neurons with 1000’s each of synaptic connections to other neurons, too. That cannot be done, because the possible combinations which need to be understood in these complex systems is in the range of 10 exp millions or more. No computer, no matter how fast currently existing, or conceivable can sort thru all of that complexity of virtually unlimited size. But the commonality of functions of speech, language, hearing and so forth can all be located in the cortex as the primary information processing area for the higher functions. We therefore look at the CCC production being unable to comprehend the complexity of the neural networks in most of their details.

7. Let us now, having stated that, move backwards in time to the Mesopotamian area around the Sumerian civilization about 5500 years ago. From there we get the epic of Gilgamesh, which is the oldest known work from that area. In it we learn of Gilgamesh, a mighty man, and his friend, wild, untamed, yet still human, Enkidu. They were close friends. And here we find philias first, that of brotherly love, the same Philias from which Philadelphia was created, the City of Brotherly Love. This was not Eros, or other forms of love, but philias. And then Enkidu died. Gilgamesh was torn up by his grieving and loss. He grew angry and destructive and the people appealed to the gods for help.

But the point is this. Here was friendship which we know today, and there was anger, and loss and grieving over 5000 years ago. The tale is credible from our standpoint. We have seen and felt the same emotions ourselves and in others. Gilgamesh and Enkidu, regardless of their technological backwardness were noticeably, emotionally human. This establishes an historical continuum of the existence of recognizably modern human emotions to about the middle 4th C. B.C. It establishes the commonality of those emotions within most humans, whether then or up until today.

Gilgamesh even went so far as to meet Utnapishtim, who was the Sumerian equivalent of Noah. The Flood story is an ancient one and by means of the Atrahasis and Siusudras, as well as the later Greek Deucalion story of the Flood, we know something happened then, about the middle 4th C. B.C. Whether it was from an extended monsoon, or an asteroidal oceanic impact which put 10K’s of cubic miles of water into the atmosphere, which rained down over the Middle East and possibly elsewhere, we do not know. But there the first rainbow was also reported, which extra-ordinary depths of the rainbow have explored before in “Depths within Depths…”.


The brain is also like that. Depths within depths, the mind at the top, the CCC’s next and then the entire complex anatomy and cellular metabolism of the cells which supports it. The mind on top, the CCC’s doing their mysterious neurophysiological magic, which we are hard pressed to understand, although we can see the COMP working there during waking and occ. during sleep in dreams. Recalling and remembering dreams and even creating dreams through lucid dreaming, too.

So in the absence of any kind of detailed neurophysiological understanding which defies our limited sciences and math, we are left with the COMP to show us what is going on in the mind. And it works. Posit the COMP and we can understand better most languages, creativity, recognition and the metaphor/analogy/anecdote word cluster which arises, is produced from the comparison process, too. It provides a look into the mind. And we use the commonalities of experience to understand others’ minds, too.

8. From Gilgamesh we travel to the Palestine area about the year 2000 B.C., before it was known by that name and find the story of Joseph, son of Jacob, AKA Israel, with many brothers. His father favored him and it drew the envy and anger of his brothers. We can understand those emotions, too. Those are common enough today. So they took his coat of many colors and sold him into slavery in Egypt, where his father would not find him, thinking him dead. There Joseph had an experience of lust with Potiphar’s wife and was thrown into jail. But he was let out by his good character. And Pharaoh, the Per Ah, Great House, had a dream of the 7 fat cattle and the 7 lean Cattle.

Joseph knew the Nile flooded every year, but occasionally. there were serious droughts when as we now know, the monsoon failed in Ethiopia, which supplies the Blue Nile with most of its water, and thus Egyptian Nile, giving life and flooding and volcanic, rich silt to the land of Egypt during the yearly inundation there. He made this connection to the Per Ah’s dream. The story goes on. But we know those emotions, they all had. We each have seen them.

9. Science can give us very little information about history. This is a failing and limit to science. How can we study that which is no longer there? How can one experiment on and observe the past? Archeology is about as close as the sciences get to history, but what do we have but commonality and preponderance of evidence to know if Julius Caesar ever lived? Or Jeshua Ben Joseph or Mohammed or the Buddha? Nothing. The sciences cannot answer. So we rely upon commonality again. We recognize those emotions in Gilgamesh and Joseph. We recognize them in the Iliad of Homer, the Trojan War epic. We recognize those feelings and actions and their own recognitions of each other, throughout.history. And we see the grieving of Achilles over his lost friend, Patroklos, very similar to we saw in the Epic of Gilgamesh, over 2000 years before.

10. In Troy lived Cassandra and her brother, Alexandros, pious to the gods, young persons, the children of Priam of Troy, or Wilios, as the Mukenens (Myceneans) called it. They were given the gift of prophecy by the gods. But some gods, realizing it was too powerful a gift, gave them a compensating curse. All would know they could predict the future, but few would believe them. Here again is the power of myth, tho it’s real and true, unlike some other wild speculations. We see this again and again. “A Prophet is without honor even in his own land.” Prophets are not always/often believed, many have had that experience a few times. Who believed Churchill, that great statesman and a very rare person, a seer, who knew what Hitler was. and who knew before the end of WW2 what Stalin was up to in taking over eastern Europe? Though he was not believed until after those events had occurred and then many people didn’t care to acknowledge his rare talent, as related in C. P. Snow’s “The Variety of Men”.

That is the deeper meaning. The myth of Cassandra is a piquant and good reminder that people do not want to hear prophecies and even after being told the truth, and it occurs, they will not acknowledge it. It’s no myth. It’s a deep psychological insight as true today as it was 3300 years ago. Some truths are universal, esp. if the human emotions/mind have not changed very much in the long years of intervening time. Many of the Ancient Greek myths such as Sisyphus, or the Bed of Procrustes have deeper meanings. This shows the power of the COMP to understand, to creatively find truths and meaning. How many here reading this have EVER considered the deeper meaning of the myth about Cassandra and prophecy? Yet, we can see it’s true. We can understand it. and how? We have the same COMP working in our brains.

11. We see much the same feelings and emotions in the ancient Greek plays of the 5th/4th C. BC. up to present times. From the Oresteian trilogy of Aeschylus through the “Lysistrata” of Aristophanes, we see them in full display 2400 years ago. And again, from the histories and stories preserved right from the Roman times, to Chaucer and up into current events.

Therefore, by the evidence of commonality, the Rule of Commonality (RoC), we know that human emotions have been very much like ours for the last 5500 years. We see recognition in them as well, as they all knew each other, too. They had CCC and the COMP then, very much similar to us at Present.

What is responsible for this stability in the emotions? Human brain structure and genetics. By the COMP we see across all cultures, all times for the last 5,500 years, the same emotions and the same recognition processes in the human brain. On the basis of the RoC, then we know those are likely real and true. Love exists, grieving exists, crying and the emotions exist in each of us and everywhere for humans for at least the last 5500 years. The sciences are silent upon these facts. yet our long, detailed histories, literature and the RoC established them as true. The sciences are silent on morality and many other spiritual matters. Does morality exist, tho the sciences cannot study it and tell us if “You will not kill” is good or bad? Shall we kill and steal and create damage because the sciences cannot study these and give an empirically true and well confirmed answer? No.

Did Archimedes create the Calculus in about 300 BC? Yes. Did Newton and Leibniz create their very similar versions of the calculus 2000 years later? Yes. Commonality, once again. The same COMP function from the same genetics/brain structures of the cortical cell columns. Virtually the same insights leading to the 3, independent, very similar creations of the calculus.

The Rule of Commonality establishes the Comparison Process in our cortex, too. We do the same COMP as our neighbors do, and as our ancestors did, also. We can understand Hittite and ancient Sumerian even this day, tho some of it is over 5000 years old, using the COMP to translate dead languages, even as were the Linear B tablets from old Mukena of the Trojan War, and Hittite language from the time of the Trojan War, as well. In those, we see the same emotions, the same recognitions, the same COMP working in the past and up to present.

We organize and read phone books and dictionaries and all those similar forms by the same process, the COMP. We all read English by the same means, too. Recognition of words, tied to meanings in our LTM. By the RoC which establishes the validity of the sciences, and the validity of most modern medical practice, as well. It’s not certain in all cases, but does not have to be. Or are we to deny the existence of migraine headaches and pleasure and pain, too?

Or will we deny the same process in the creation of the THREE(perhaps 4) independently created non-Euclidean geometries of Gauss, Riemann, and Lobachevski, as well as the same process of creativity documented in the evolutionary model by Wallace and Darwin, each some 25 years apart? And of the 12th C. monk who also created the basis of a non-Euclidean geometry 500 years before Gauss?

12. Let’s look into how the COMP was discovered/created. I’ve studied these matters for at least 45 years. It’s reasonable to conclude that my insights have a good deal of knowledge, experience and judgement behind them. The insight came with the thought that the structure of our moral laws based upon religion, was very similar to the structure of our physical laws. This was sort of interesting. How is it possible that our Judeo-Christian moral laws, could have created the similar physical laws? Something in common must be acting. For what do we find in moral laws? We have prescriptions for specific actions we can and cannot do. And how do we know what those laws are, sitting there thinking? Because we COMPARE Each of ours and others’ behaviors to the moral laws, and see if we break them, or obey them. We compare in our minds the physical laws to events in existence, which we have established by careful testing and observation, both COMP tasks, and those events do correspond.

At first came the thought that it was the J-C moral laws’ structure which created the same, stable form of the laws which describe the universe’s working. This was why science first arose in the West, because Physical Laws correspond to the structure of moral laws. We compare in each to see if events work that way. There is a commonality among them. If that were the case that only cultures created the two systems of laws, Moral and Scientific, then no one else could figure them out unless Jewish or Christian. Clearly, something else was going on, because persons of all persuasions anywhere on the planet can be converted to Christianity and observe those laws, and persons of all races and cultures and languages can also do very good science and understand it from learning in schools, as well.

13. And this common element is the Comparison Process in our brain cortices. Common to all humans, everywhere, for 1000’s of years, because the emotional systems within which those moral laws can only work, has been unchanged for 1000’s of years, too. Stability & commonality. Very similar moral and religious laws, the same mind/brain processes working for 1000’s of years, across many, many widely differing cultures, languages and places, means a common process is working in the human brain. And that marked the discovery, and realization of the COMP. The Comparison Process is the lowest common denominator of most all higher level thought processes so far tested. Analogies, metaphors, even logic and mathematics all arise from it secondarily. The COMP is very likely the primary thinking process..

Again, a creative insight by the comparison process. Completely consistent with the COMP model. We can use the COMP to look into the minds of our creative people and see what’s going on in there, the same as they read words, read dictionaries, and maps, and street addresses, too. If it does the one, it can do most all, potentially. It’s the same process, allowing for the many variations, which is easily acceptable.

Our consciences are little more than an internalized moral code in our LTM, accessible by our brains. With that we test and check our behaviors against our own actions and those of others. This is the COMP because testing and checking are the COMP, also. In the Legal laws, the cops police us and govern us by them. They and WE know when a car runs a red light, or when someone hits another person, or otherwise injures them. Most all of us have the comparison processes to recognize these actions as illegal.The conscience in our frontal lobes corresponds very well to moral laws, legal laws as well as physical laws of the universe in the way they are created and set up to be read and applied by the comparison process.

14. As an aside, the vast majority of our motor vehicle laws are based upon the simple Exclusion Principle created/discovered by Pauli. It’s easy to see. No two fermions, normal matter, can occupy the same space at the same time. If we collide there is bound to be damage of some kind, If we run over other persons or into buildings, other cars or objects, there will be damage. The most of vehicular laws are set up to deal with this possibility and try to avoid/minimize this problem by car lanes, traffic regulating lights and signs and other means, to prevent accidents and provide remedies in case such damage/injuries should occur.

By comparing the Pauli Exclusion Principle to our traffic laws, we can recognize/see/understand that this is true. We can replace most of the legal complexities and regs/rules by “Don’t run into any person/thing and cause damage.” That’s all that’s needed. The rest is just enforcement and remedies for damages. If someone breaks that rule, they get nailed by the laws as harshly as the damage demands. Simple. Basic. We don’t need any other laws, besides that one. The power of the COMP. Again, the Rule of Commonality can be invoked, honestly and truly by the Comparison Process. Working within all of us.

We can see inside our heads with the COMP. We can see ourselves reasoning and thinking to avoid breaking moral laws/customs, and seeing those who do so, as well. We can see legal laws being broken and know not to break them, ourselves. We can see what is going on in the brain of police officer who’s pulled over an errant driver. He can see into the driver’s mind and what he’s thinking by the same rule. This is empirical introspection made possible by the COMP. And it’s valid.

Thinking and other higher brain processes are very likely the COMP. This is what explains thought, those processes we go through when using the COMP for math, testing, comparing, recognition, creativity, reading, speaking, writing and so forth. Most all the higher processes are very likely the COMP. Our consciousnesses and our consciences are most all comparison processes.

Some have talked about where the self recognition, the self of each person comes from. This is very easy using the COMP. We see ourselves in mirrors, and we know that by comparing ourselves with others, what we are. Simple observation, making sense by comparing our faces, our arms and legs and everything in between, we know we are human and members of our culture, speaking each language of those, and behaving according those moral laws/rules.We know that each of us has feelings, and pain and pleasure as they have the same internal sensations as do we, within the normal variations.

How can legal laws proliferate at a rate of 50k-100K pages of new rules and regs per years? Is this not the endlessness of the COMP, its unlimited nature, tho gone badly wrong?

15. What of that real problem, dreams? What are dreams?
The problem of investigating dreams is the problem of introspection. How do we know what dreams mean has been the bugaboo of the entire field since Freud’s “The Interpretation of Dreams”. Most of it simply is not believed because of lack of substantiation for his approach. A great many New Agers also talk/write about dream interpretation with an equivalent lack of credible substantiation. The same is true of popular herbal books, which smack of folk medicine, poor thinking and lack of substantiation.

But there is a way and in the clinical neuroscience it’s been used for years. How do we know that dreams exist? Because of the Rule of Commonality (RoC). We know that pain exists in people for the same reason, everyone knows about it and has realistic appreciation for those injuries and related problems such as migraine headaches with also do exist. The same is true of pleasure and other findings, introspective.

Empirical Introspection

16. But in specific cases? That’s a tough one. When a patient comes in with numbness, either persistent or intermittent in the hand, we can tell if it’s real or not by several techniques. First, does it correspond (compare) to real sensory nerve distributions or not? If hand/glove kind it’s not always clear. With a careful exam we can detect numbness and tingling with specific methods and find on electromyograms (EMG) whether or not the reports of numbness have a concomitant injury shown by increased latencies and slowed nerve conduction speeds. The above can provide realistic, confirmable by others, and SPECIFIC determinations that the individual complaints are real. That is, the introspective reports are the case.
But how can we do this in dreams? We know they exist, but reports of dream content are colored by length of time elapsed between the dream and report, emotional factors such as social concerns about appropriateness, etc. But occasionally there are real cases where we CAN show this.

I’ve been a field biologist for over 50 years. My observational skills are developed. I have two cases. The first where a recurrent dream of walking along a weathered wooden pier with planks missing, and the green water below with waves sloshing against the piles and at times almost close enough to get my feet wet. In each case over 40 years, I was simply terrified I’d fall into the water and get drowned. In each case of these repeated nightmares, I was usually stressed by situational problems at work, etc.
But the key was, we were showing old family movies of the time we visited in St. Petersburg, FL., and on one of them it showed a movie of that same pier, same color water (all my dreams are in color). At once I recognized that THAT was the source of the dream. I’d walked on the pier with my father, and had been terrified. But I’d forgotten the event.
This was clearly Freudian repressed memory, because for some 45 years it wasn’t clear WHERE the dream had come from. Within a few weeks, that dream tried to recur, I just said while dreaming, this is that old memory and I won’t have this any more. And did not, and haven’t since.

Once the source of the terror was found, and realized what it was, in tandem with Freudian neurosis abatement observations (which argues that Freud’s rules are real and existing by the RoC), the dream stopped. It has never recurred, either. I had a similar dream with a swaying elevator, and once figured out, some 10 years later, when riding on the SAME elevator, the recognition came to me that THAT was where it had come from. It tried to recur, and I abolished it the same way.

19. That dreams can appear to be remnants of older memories many times, which we seem to have forgotten, not just repressed, seems to be the case. The fantastic elements of dreams, events appearing, disappearing and so forth, are simply NOT real and unexplainable at present

However, for this one. I can fly sometimes while dreaming. I lift up off the ground and take off. Sadly, no one who’s ever seen me having one of these dreams has reported any levitation whatsoever of my body!! But the one thing I do recall is that the flying was always very slow. I’d get caught up in wires, etc. and thinking about it, it takes a LOT of processing power to fly, creating all of that changing, cartooning visual imagery, esp. very high, because then the complexity of the surrounding scenery would take a LOT more processing power to recreate that. I am NOT a hang glider person, tho I have no fear of flying at all.

In this case of flying dreams, they are completely synthetic and cannot possibly compare to any real memories at all. In the case of lucid dreaming reports, the persons can also get control of their dreams and create fictional activities, too. Therefore it’s hard to believe the dictum that ALL dreams are based almost completely upon memories, only. Those memories might provide a groundwork, but the mind can build on that, actually. It can create dreams very much like how stories are created, using past experiences. We know this because the scene changes in dreams are NOT real because things simply appear and disappear in violation of physical laws. That is magical thinking, which isn’t real any more than one can fly or cause objects several meters from one, to move into one’s hand. That fiction my dreams have done a lot of. But telekinesis has never been shown to be real without instrumental assistance.

20. However, I was using computers about 1995, and at the time moved up from a low baud of a few 100 to a 2400 baud rate of screen scrolling. It exceeded the ability of my brain to read each line by a factor of several times. But bless my brain it DID try to keep up, tho never really succeeded. Within weeks of that time, tho, my flying dreams ALSO sped up, markedly, and I wasn’t getting slowed down or tangled up in wires again Since then, continuing to use faster and faster computers, I can fly a LOT faster and higher, too, even to this day.

Probably, visual processing speed in my brain sped up to its maximum by using the new high speed modem. And my dreams got faster. One suspects that using computers has sped up the the brain processing of we humans, where such is possible, too. As speed of intellectual processing is related to 85% of IQ, because the IQ tests are timed, therefore this creates a reasonable conclusion from my dreaming of flying, that computers may in fact speed up our brains and make us proportionately smarter, in that respect.

These are the ONLY realistic interpretations of dreams I’ve ever been able to make. Should OTHERS have similar findings, then we can begin by the RoC, to learn more about dreams. Until then it’s a lot of speculation as Father Freud first formally showed us by his very flawed, “Interpretation of Dreams”. We must have a LOT more testable, introspective data to compare with before we can more reliably decode and understand our specific dreams.

21. Let us consider yet another aspect of consciousness using the Comparison Process and the Rule of Commonality. We know we have 100K’s of cortical cell columns pretty working in tandem while we are awake, i.e. parallel processing. Most of these are doing tasks much of the time when we are thinking or going about our daily tasks and activities. But most of the time we ignore much of that blooming buzzing confusion around us. We ignore leaves on plants, rocks and stones on the ground, the complexity of grass leaves on lawns, etc.

All of that implies very clearly that we are ignoring most of the CCC(cortical cell columns) which are working, much of the time. Attention focused means that we are ignoring a lot of sensory input which is constantly going on and being processed. Then what gets our attention? Clearly, we have priorities. Loud noises, bright flashes of lights, hearing our names, a sudden source of pain, and so forth. This refocuses attention to such things. We can also focus on memories and how to type and read to compose lines like this, by ignoring a lot of other sensory inputs, constantly working while we do composition.

So we have a LOT of COMP going on all the time, onto which we can focus our attentions. Each of these are like voices/individuals seeking attention while we are awake. This is the stream of consciousness is it not? When we are not attending it, it becomes the subconscious, very much like that of Freud. We can shift to any of these processed data streams, the pain in a foot, the position of the left leg, the color in the background of the typing screen, and many other things. The totality of this is the consciousness, is it not? It’s awareness of the many sensory inputs and the many tasks our 100K’s of CCC’s are up to when we are awake.

22. The Stream of Consciousness writing of James Joyce’ “Ulysses” has been mentioned before as a signal way in which consciousness can work. But let us look further. While dreaming we can hear other voices. This means that a voice recording/creation capability is there for us to play any time, but we rarely access it except when sleeping during REM periods. How is this any different from the Voices, or visions which many have reported during waking times, esp. if they are in manic/psychotic states? We have reports of people seeing visual hallucinations, also, tho rarer because that requires a LOT more processing power. How are the voices the madmen hear any different from the controlled words we hear others saying while asleep?

Clearly, the former are out of control and show us what’s going on in comparison. The brain isn’t working right, but the pathology shows us how the brain can work when things go wrong (the comparison process, again). There is a misapprehension and an accessing of memories and the ability to CREATE a conversation using normal imagination and then to imbue it in the manic/psychotic mind with a sense of reality, which it does not have. This is the fictional/inventive aspect of the consciousness at work is it not? And it does not differ that much from the looseness of associations seen, also manifested in Ulysses either? The very basis of creative writing.

How about the demons and voices which folk belief attribute to person who are crazy? The possessions by demons comes to mind. They say things out of their heads, and the COMP in people have falsely interpreted those as being of demon possession, when in fact they are simply expression of unsuppressed and controlled processes in the stream of consciousness which have gone very wrong. The person hearing those voices and what he says have been equally misinterpreted by his hearers as being of demonic origin, the demons of possession and by himself as being something more than the inventions of his own brain, mistaken by himself as being real. The frontal lobes are not doing their testing/checking work very well, and the system becomes delusional, on the part of the hearers as well as he who is talking.

22. Speaking in tongues is yet another manifestation of the COMP gone wrong in the brain, because persons actually think that gibberish means something, when it doesn’t. Anyone can speak this way. We simply set loose the ability to talk and say the biggest bunch of uncontrolled series of sounds, vowels, syllables, etc., we can. But to falsely attribute this to being of some significance is as silly as believing the loose associations of the manic/psychotic are meaningful either. Our Frontal lobe checker for normal, intelligible speech has been disabled voluntarily in glossolalia and by a sick neurophysiology in the mania. And that’s likely what is going on. Again, a problem with the comparison Process, not unlike that being seen in the psychotic, tho certainly not as severe.

23. Where DO all those good ideas we think of come from? And the answer is we parallel process to solve problems and find ideas. The ones which make sense to us we focus upon and ignore the rest. This not only explains how ideas “pop up” seemingly from no where, but gives a rational, evidentiary source for them from the 100,000’s of CCC which are doing the work, either together in connected clusters or in other ways.
These are simply more examples of what is going on inside our brains using the COMP and cortical cell columns which do the work.

Let’s talk about recognition. We know this exists very clearly because we see it massive in others, as well as animals and even some plants have a form of it. Recognition is the major production of the comparison process as stated before and shown by innumerable examples. It means basically that we detect a sensory input (or inputs) or idea/word/image, compare it to LTM and it makes a fit, matches, and so forth. It compares well to that internalized memory in our LTM.

24. Recognition continua can be seen of many types. We’ve all had that pseudo recognition when we’ve heard or seen something and when we check it realize our brain, that is COMP, was playing tricks on us. It didn’t stand up to repeated checking/testing. A sound which sounded like something else, a dark spot in the corner of our vision which disappeared when we tried to see it more clearly. These are the misfirings of the COMP, which create in more substantial cases, delusions, rationalizations, myths, false beliefs, superstitions and so forth. With good training in critical thinking, we can rid ourselves of much of this noise/nonsense parading as useful knowledge. As always, James Lett’s chapter on “Critical Thinking” in Frazier Kendrick’s well edited book, “The 100th Monkey” from Prometheus Books can provide good methods to clear out the “Balogna”, a la Carl Sagan.

24. The complex images of pareidolia, or seeing complex images in clouds, or grass patterns, or Jesus in a tamale of occasional appearance, too. These too are the COMP trying to make sense of things, and failing. Yet we don’t immediately become aware of it. Most of us see the “man in the moon” effect, but if you look, you can also see the native American’s rabbit, too. Rabbit Ears are where the face’s eyes are, to help us see it on a full moon day with minimal cloud cover. That’s the COMP working, though our checkers dismiss it as interesting, but not real, tho similar. Again, the comparison process in action.

25. That’s one end of the recognition continua represented as a part of the dualities of nonsense and errors, versus much more recognizable, real perceptions. I recall being in Raratonga where a great many persons ride motorbikes because fuel is very costly there. Standing on a roadside and saw something coming floating down the road, towards me, with very little noise as the wind was blowing towards it, muffling noise. As the image got closer I began to see a very large woman with a huge, flowing dress which virtually covered the entire motorbike she sat on. And then heard the sound of the small cylinder engine firing off, putt-putting as she came towards me. These are the illusions made by inadequate visual comparisons with audible sounds to make sense of it. Again, something very odd, becoming with time, something very interesting, but entirely real and existing, well within the normal range of recognition. It showed us how with very little data, our COMP is seeking to explain things and make sense of them with descriptions qualitative, which became better, even better as time passed.

And it’s easy to see how such inadequately evaluated images can become myths, that is, the illusions become delusions and very often damaging to our best interests, long term survival and benefit.

25. The other end of the continuum would be those images, senses, touches, audible inputs which are very easily, accurately recognized, such as hit tunes or classical pieces, coins, or books, or cars, etc. Those are highly probable events to some extent, although to describe them completely reduces the chances of the description verbal being completely correct. This is how, roughly, Bayesian statistics used by can imitate human recognition, tho in the brain’s CCC’s there is nothing definably mathematical going on at all. Qualitative matching, comparison descriptions are very different from mathematics, and much more flexible and useful, too, as has been shown in other “Description/Measurement” articles.

26. Let’s look at memorable events in our lives compared to those events we mostly ignore or don’t attend to much. Those events which are of importance to us, marriage, having a child, seeing a scene of great beauty, a tune of similar note, we have in each case a great deal of dopamine release. On the other hand, very unpleasant experience, such as when we broke a bone, or were burned, or badly hurt emotionally, or socially embarrassed are also recalled, due to the same process. This facilitates and reinforces the laying down of a permanent memory causing protein synthesis and synapses creation to make that memory trace long lasting. less memorable events, such as learning from books, we have to reinforce again and again to learn, esp. if we don’t much have an interest in it. Again, tying in the COMP to the dopamine release we see there also. This is easy to understand using reason alone. But the neurophysiological evidence also supports that conclusion. Again, our minds combine with known physiological responses to figure out what’s going on in our brains/minds.

Well, enough of these meanderings. My mental legs are getting tired. Time to get back home, have a bit of a snack and print out those images we took for our long term memory notebooks in our minds/brains. Maybe tonight we’ll dream of the Old Man in the Mountain in Vermont, or the Camelback Mountain, or even Les Grand Tetons!!

And maybe some reading this will find those many more valid interpretations and methods of introspection to open up further our understanding of the mind/brain.

“Scientists identify link between introspection and brain structure” 2010

The Spark of Life and the Soul of Wit

By Herb Wiggins, M.D., Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process Model/Theory 14 Mar. 2014

The Spark of Life and the Soul of Wit

1. The Spark of life within us. It’s the dopamine boost built into our cortex which can release it.
2. Its relationship to “chi” and other excited states of mind; a normal, not magical, natural function.
3. How to use and re-create this force, the endogenous dopamine release
4. Simple Biochemical and physiological basics of dopamine
5. Survival strategy of the dopamine boost; tiring, rest afterwards.
6. Simple conditioning exercises to release dopamine at will. Find those “special moments”. Mountain top experiences
7. Controlling these powerful dopamine releases. We’ve done it before with sex hormones in adolescence.
8. Dietary methods to increase dopamine. Weight loss from the dopamine boost

The Soul of Wit
9. Humor as Comparison Process
10. The pun, its value as COMP skill and training.
11. Jokes as self-perpetuating activities due to dopamine boost. Why jokes spread widely.
12. My Family of wits
13. My cousin’s gifts which sustained her against her heart condition
14. Grandfather’s family’s extreme longevity, mid 90’s usually. The family predisposition for humor.
15. The Jones’ family’s funny bone and longevity.
16. High dopamine may mean low addiction potential.
17. The modern malaise, drugs, depression, rock concerts/raves, and obesity.
18. Haydn’s “Surprise Symphony”, overeating and endorphin release
19. Dopamine, adrenalin appetites suppression; activity boosters.
20. Why do humans suicide alone among all other animals?
21. Potential treatments/course of action to bring modern societies back into health, revealed by a simple pun. It’s simple, universal and true.

1. The life force is within us all. It can be felt by any of us, when we feel that awe, that amazement, that most deepest and profoundest sense of wonder. No matter what it’s from, be it good love, be it good sex, be is that Eureka! moment of creative discovery. This living force is within each of us, but most of us have forgotten it, tho we’ve experienced it. It has value of multiplicity of purposes and uses and can be renewed and recreated by training to provide the inspiration we need to live, to survive, to perform well, and whatsoever good use we seek to use it for.

It’s real. It, in short, is the dopamine elevation which we can create using our cortical cell columns. Behind loves, emotions, good feelings, the humor and comedy of our species, behind all religions and underlying and creating all social, political, commercial movements & organizations, be they good or bad. It lies there sleeping in most of us. Yet we have all felt it, and felt its power. We remember it.

2. This is not to be confused with the Chi, or other spiritual energies, which have been mythologized from the Spark of life. This is real and existing, but those spiritualists and others have created divinity where it was not and beliefs regarding it which are not true. Not being scientifically trained in medicine and psychology and the biological chemistries of life, they have elevated a simple internal process, tho of great power, to some kind of divine event, which it clearly is not and does not have. Nonetheless, they have recognized the power of it, and can create it at will, tho they are mislead as to its origins in the body, and where it comes from.

For this reason they have not fully comprehended, or as much as we humans can comprehend, from where it arises and how to use it. They have not fully recognized through ignorance its limits and its capabilities.They do not realize its fullest potential to cure and heal, and create long life and the good. They have surrounded the elan of life with a lot of false beliefs, mummery, fluff and distracting, let us be blunt, delusions, both philosophical and religious, which hide and obscure a normal, natural living force inside of each of us which creates the will, emotions, inspiration, love, great music and art, great science and much else, endlessly and repeatably.

3. This work will show the normal physiological basis of the elan vitale and show each of us how to use it for our greater good. It will show the limits of it, and the potential of it to create a modern renaissance of life and health and well-being for all the peoples of the earth. Because you see, we carry this force, this powerful wellspring of all emotions and feelings within all of us from birth. There is nothing mystical about it. But it is real and we can each of us use it to create what we need best to live a good life for us all.

4. This driving force is the release of dopamine by the cortex of our brains. Dopamine, as has been previously shown is very likely the physiological neurochemical behind our emotions (The Emotional Continuum). Like its chemical siblings, adrenaline and norepinephrine it creates arousal, wakefulness, excitement. The heart pounds, the blood pressure rises, one is ready for anything and everything. To fight or for flight.

Dopamine is created in the brain by the substantia nigra, and probably on a microsynthetic process in various other parts of the brain. Where we find dopamine, we find adrenalin (epinephrine) and norepinephrine. When we get excited, or are seriously threatened, there is an immediate release by nerve stimulation from the brain, from bilateral cortical adrenals. This is the so called adrenalin rush. But dopamine is ALSO released with it. This is a very serious thing to happen, because people can die from heart attacks, strokes, and the general mania which can arise from this physiological, flight or fight reaction.

5. It’s a survival strategy which can result in persons doing incredible feats showing great strength, great abilities and even fanatical activities, which can do great harm to themselves and others. We recognize it in the suicide bombers, the kamikaze, and in the early Christian martyrs who could suffer unimaginable tortures and deaths for their faith. It is the power of the Jihad. That is the power of this physiological catecholamine release.

However, it’s very tiring, it uses up a lot of energy in a very short time and one must necessarily rest afterwards. Like good sex, there is always that let down afterwards and of which many women comment on to their snoring men, who literally pass out and sleep for the 20′ or so until the dopamine, endorphins, etc, can be metabolized away. Almost every one in his teens has had some experience personally, or vicariously with it. It’s very powerful, and the love it can generate can bond/bind persons together for a very long, even life time.
These show the natural life force of dopamine release and the related adrenaline rush seen in mania and psychoses. We are playing with Living Fire here and it must be carefully controlled if we are not to harm ourselves and others.

6. Be that as it may, this energy of inspiration, of love, of great feelings can be released by each of us, by simple conditioning exercises/rituals/meditations, to put it to use whenever we need it. There are many cases of this. An inspiring leader be he political or military, can talk to the troops and his party members to get them “up”, so to speak. This he does by carefully selected appeals to their feelings which all humans have in common. A wonderfully awe inspiring scene outside, such as a total eclipse of the sun, with its paradoxical and awesome darkness during the day, which inspired amazement in those who could both predict it as the Druids could, and others. A beautiful played rendition of a great piece of music, be it rock, or classical guitar, or orchestral music of which the great marches, symphonies, suites & so on are known by all. “The Glory and the Grandeur” a percussion suite comes to mind. And if we hear that one played well, we will never forget it.

Simply walking in the wilderness in the mountains, with wonderful scenery around you. Any kind of “mountaintop experience”. Looking down from Hawksbill Peak, under an intensely blue sky, seeing near dusk the sun glinting off the reflecting loops of the Shenandoah River in teh distance, with the Massanutten Mountains, darkly blue in the westering, dimming light. The trees below in their reds, greens, yellows and oranges, like a colorful carpet of pompoms. These are the scenes we can never forget. These are those special times where the dopamine highs are released. “Rocky Mountain High.” Do you see John Denver’s dopamine release event? It’s been there all along and we missed it. We see now his source of inspiration. And it’s a dopamine burst. And we can return to those again and again by teaching ourselves how to recreate that special feeling, and then put it to good use. We, too, can see it raining fire in the sky. a grand meteor shower, very rare, but still awesome.

These are the ways we can learn to access those feelings any time and anywhere we want to. Each of us has his own, special times, where he/she has felt those intense feelings. We remember them, we can recall them, we can use them to train ourselves to re-create that feeling. We put ourselves, basically, in a quiet sitting space. We recall that special time, or we put on some music which is great in its own way. Then we remember how we felt, and we let the music, the memory, the situation fill us with that same feeling. There are many ways of doing this. There are many approaches to creating this state. We each of us carry within us these powerful feelings in our memories and in our cortices. Practice this from time to time during the week. If we do it right, then we can induce this feeling again, and again, until, when we need that extra inspiration, we need that extra lift, when life is getting us down, we can recreate this surcease from threats, anxieties, and the rest of life’s “slings and arrows of outrageous fortune. and the “1000 tiny shocks flesh is heir to.” When we learn to reproduce those goosebumps at will, that feeling of awe and excitement by the force of our wills, then we are there.

Just like meditation, right? Similar. That’s the key. We’ve all heard of it. We’ve all seen it done. But we never “got it” nor understood, comprehended, nor made the connection, nor ‘SAW” it because the effect has been surrounded by all that mummery and fluff. We didn’t see the unlimited forms of it because those disguised this simple, basic, normal physiological response to dopamine/catecholamine rising levels. Going to rock concerts (or raves), etc. is not an efficient way, nor probably healthy way to bring out and develop a self-conditioned response from a normal biological process, rising dopamine levels in our brain.

It’s nothing divine or spiritual. It’s the same feeling people can get at a religious revival, or a great sports event. The thrills of victory or the agonies of defeat. We see where it comes from. It’s built-in biologically within all of us. We’ve felt it many times and it can be remembered, then recalled and then recreated at will to find the inspiration, the will, and determination and purpose to do what we need to do for our betterment. It’s not magical nor mysterious. It’s simply normal human physiology. And if we want it, we can use this training for our best interests.

7. When young boys become men at puberty, the effects of testosterone levels rising can be seen. They get wilder, more aggressive, the muscles grow and get stronger. They have trouble controlling their feelings. We males can recall those times when we felt that huge, internal rush, where we felt like gods come to earth. That incredible feeling of power. That’s part of the dopamine rush created by androgenic steroids. When using too much of those, bodybuilders can get “roid rage”, which makes them crazy for a while. They can ram their fists through wallboard and wooden doors and barely feel it. It’s very similar to what happens when we get an adrenalin rush when in times of great danger. They can go frankly psychotic and require hospitalization in a psych unit, and sometimes never get back to normal from the psychotic break. Many of us have seen this.

But we learn how to control over time these strong feelings created by rising androgens in our adolescence. And we learn how to use it towards our own best interests and advantages. The control of this power without diminishing it is the key to success.

8. Diet can increase dopamine. Certain foods are higher in L-dopa, which is converted to dopamine by dopa decarboxylase, an enzyme in brain. Fava beans, esp. the younger beans (even stems are higher in L-dopa than riper beans. Exactly when to pick the younger pods seems not to have been stated. Steam or microwave for best results.

It’s not recommended to take L-dopa outside of a physician’s careful management.

The Soul of Wit

“Gnothi seauton.” (Know yourself) —Socrates, 5th C. BC, Ellas

“To see a world in a grain of sand and a heaven in a wild flower.” — Wm. Blake, 18th C. England

Humor is clearly part of the Comparison Process, and the tie in with the dopamine is also highlighted by the COMP. This is just more depths within depths, too. See:

First, the pun is an easy way to look at humor. Puns are as common as homonyms, words/phrases which sound alike, though the words are spelled differently. The longest pun phrase known is a quadruple one, “Let Us Pray.” The first is a group of lions, looking bored and feeling hungry, “Let us prey.” The next related to the grocery vegetable section, where to restore the leafy greens, the grocer says, “Let us spray.” The last is left to the more creative in the same store.

When we hear puns, some call the lowest form of humor, tho the greatest writer and playwright in English, Shakespeare preferred them. One reason was his incredible creativity and verbal ability. THAT was because punning makes us find relationships among words, which can be uncanny and interesting. “But Hamlet ’tis common to die.” “Aye, it’s common.”

If people have a predilection to puns, they are far, far more likely to make the connections among many OTHER ideas, words and images to BE creative. If we do it every day, it increases our abilities to see unusual, unexpected relationships among words. This kind of skill, punning, is highly creative. It will even re-organize the brain’s structure and predilections to become more creative.

But the pun, like any form of humour is likely to make us laugh, or at least smile, and occasionally groan. It does elicit that good feeling which is the sign of the dopamine boost, so often pointed out here. Because of this, the pun is the quintessential event by which most humor can be understood. It makes us laugh. Dopamine is a “feel good” chemical, heightens awareness, improves mood, lessens depression and some even have read/stated monthly “Humor can be the best medicine.” Given the antidepressant effects of dopamine, it’s not surprising.

11. We note that jokes are passed around a LOT. We see and hear them in often different forms, even those which are different variations on the same basic joke. Again all myriad ways, the endless, unlimited Le Chanson. Years ago Tom Swift and Polish jokes were all the rage, and those made huge rounds, even going international, too. For instance, “Do you have to go ASAP?” Yes!” said Tom Swiftly. Then there were the elephant jokes, the Smurf jokes, the mucous jokes, endlessly, again, the variations on the theme.
“Do you know why elephants paint their toenails red?”
“To hide in cherry trees.” (picture an elephant in a cherry tree).
“Have you ever SEEN an elephant IN a cherry tree?”
” NO.” laughing.
” Works, doesn’t it!!” (Both laughing)

Then we recognize(COMP) at once the violation of logical principles which is blatant and that’s what makes it funny plus the elephant weighing 5-10 tons, balancing precariously on a slim branch in a cherry tree an utterly absurd sight, too. A visual image makes it even sillier.

Again, this is empirical introspection. We don’t HAVE to see others laughing to know they are. We can see inside their heads, recognizing the absurdity of the joke. Again, EI. This is how the COMP shows us the commonality of how most all humor works.

Slapstick is often violation of moral/social conscience. The joke, “How is a baby different than a sea gull? Well, the sea gull Flits along the Shore.” Again, the grin, the use of a not clean word, the joke, when we process the phrase by comparison, by exchanging the “F” for the “S” in shore, and vice versa. This is the COMP once more at work, getting the joke by COMP substitution, then reading the change and laughing at the result. There are huge numbers of jokes like this. There are huge numbers, unlimited numbers of all kinds of jokes.This is the Le Chanson at work, once again. It’s all recognition, too, yet another hallmark of the COMP working

But the point is we get that COMP related dopamine release, that smile, even guffaw. Dopamine is moderately addictive. So we tell it again to get that good feeling once more. And some persons tell a lot of other persons, each tells more and so it proliferates, exponentiating. Again, the multiple replications of the COMP. And so it gets done again and again and starts out small and can get national attention in time. Endlessly, again, the sign of the COMP.

13. In my family we have a lot of wit, esp. more clearly seen on my maternal side. Two of my uncles and two aunts were funny people. Spend much time with them and you’d be laughing too. My mother’s full brother was the living image of his father, in appearance and personality, too. Yet his father died when he was only a few months old, and he had no memory of him, either. Familial predisposition, heightened dopamine effects. My G’pa was a minister, his oldest son, was, too. My other grandfather was a minister. My step grandfather’s brother was a minister, same church. A boring minister doesn’t bring them back to the pews Sunday after Sunday as often, either. We can trace ministers back into the German reformed churches as far back as a Hessian soldier’s son and our Swiss Mennonite ancestors who founded the sect in Lancaster in the early 18th C.

I can name a large number of cousins who are funny, too, each descended from my mother’s sibs who were almost terminally humorous. I recall my cousin, who’s a nurse, visiting with her best friend at university, and she got us laughing so much, I’ve held that memory for 45 years. I have the familial predisposition to it as well, as does my youngest son, the elan vitale spoken of above. This can be a clinical sign of it, too.

Such people can have profound effects on others. My cousin Trudie Ann, named after her G’ma, was that way. Humorous to the point of almost being painful from what she could say or do. Like her father, who was a practical joker, too. Yet Trudie was a very sad case, a baby born with Transposition of the great vessels of the heart, meaning the venous blood came into the left ventricle and exited through the aorta and was not aerated and red. The pulmonary artery oxygenated blood came into the right ventricle and was circulated through the lungs again. The body was cut off from oxygenated blood. She was a blue baby, with severe clubbing of the fingers and toes, and very, very limited ability to do much due to low oxygen to brain and body.

But, and this was the surprise, she had a big hole between the ventricles, a connection between the aorta and pulmonary artery which was large and open (PDA) and the foramen ovale between the two atria was open, also. So enough oxygenated red blood got into her aorta to keep her alive, barely.

It was a balancing act. Now if the holes were too big, the heart would have gone into failure. and if too small, she’d have died from very low cardiopulmonary reserve. Needless to say, very, very few survive more than 2 years and she was too old for the corrective surgery, which not many survived even when it did become available too late for her.

But she had that spark of life, that sense of humor. And she was fun to be with, and endlessly funny, despite her appearance, her short stature, all of those things which young people can be so terribly crippled by. She wasn’t pretty, but that huge smile made up for all of it. She was a delight to all who knew her. She knew she lived on the edge of death and had to be careful not to overdo it. Only very short runs, and no long walks. But she lived this way solid in her faith and good humor for 22 1/2 years!! She was not expected under any circumstances to live past 2-3 years old. She was a delight to be with, exceptionally joyous and liked people and others around her.

At the last, she was out with friend, and the strain on her big heart got too much for her. She overdid it, not realizing she was losing, yearly, critical cardiac reserve and her great heart stopped and she passed on, suddenly, while having fun with friend, as always. What sustained this amazing person, this miracle of life within our family? Her faith and her uncompromising good humor. She was our miracle girl, though many did not realize it until she was gone.

This can be the power of deep religious belief and the dopamine from incredibly good humor, extending life beyond all the probabilities, which made her life a miracle. Trudie Ann, we love you, we miss you, Requiscat in Pace.

14. My grandfather had 12 brothers and sisters, a good sampling for statistical purposes, 5 of whom lived to be in their mid 90’s. We expect about 40% of offspring to be as long lived as their parents. My great uncle, George, I recall specifically had the family funny bone. He kept me laughing and of course I tossed it back at him for 2-3 hours of family history and related while visiting him in Towson. I asked him where the family baldness came from, his Mom or Dad? It was late onset, male pattern baldness. “Well, he said, “That’s a sore spot with me.” being totally bald in his 80’s with a bit of white fringe above both ears and around the back. “But…”, he said, with a twinkle in his eye.” And got me two photos, one of his father who was bald, and one of his mother’s brother, his uncle, who was bald, too. “You tell me!” and we laughed. Good humor to the last.

It was a big treat to visit with my cousin, Margaret, whose mother was a Jones, also, being Saranda Jones, my gr-g’ma’s older sister. I’d asked her where Lillian, her sister was, aged 90, as Margaret was 91. “Out dancing with her Boyfriend.” she said. Again, there it was. She said she didn’t have a very good memory any more.
“What happened to John Valentine Jones? ” He’d died in his 30’s.
“Oh,” she said, “He was crushed up against a barn by a mule and he died.”
“Margaret, that’s 20 years before you were born!!” I said. And we laughed again.

She talked about not being able to garden any more since last year. I asked her where and she showed me the back acreage, 1 FULL acre a farmer friend of hers plowed up for her, at age 90. Instead she put out a lot of orange clay vessels in the back enclosed porch and grew many fresh veggies there.

“I call it my pot garden.” she said, that glint in her eyes. The family gift in full. I knew where mine came from, then, by an easy, simple comparison.

15. My gr-gr-grandfather was David Jones, born 1822, Pipe Creek, Maryland, dying 1901. His father was also David Jones, dying young about 1844. His father, as far back as we can trace the Jones’, was another David Jones living in 1870 census on Big Pipe Creek age 99, who ran a mill, as a millwright, on the same watercourse, his daughter, Elizabeth married to the man who ran it as well. ( None of our David Jones’ owned any lockers. Locks, maybe and perhaps for a short time, bagels.) For several generations in that family, they lived into their 90’s and my uncle today, a Jones on his father’s side, his daughter a nurse, is 93. With the family sense of humor in full, too. 250 years of longevity, also possibly due in part to the dopamine boost, that spark of life.

When I had an outpatient procedure done some years ago, where I was put under with Intravenous meperidine(opium like pain killer) and diazepam(Valium), I came out of it. and he sort of looked at me. “Are you a drug addict?”
“No, not ever.” I said.
“The amount I used on you was more than twice what is usually used, including 10 mg. of Valium.” he said.
“Hmm.” I said. “At the dentist’s it takes 150% the normal amount of local anesthetic to numb the gums, too,”
He was quiet “You must have a real resistance to drugs of those kinds.”
“Yeah. A buddy of mine was hit in ‘Nam, and he took 2-3 times as much morphine as normal to kill the pain in his upper arm bullet wound. John was straight as an arrow about drugs.” It was OK.

My dopamine level is high, normally. It gives a resistance to addiction, because I don’t need it. We get a natural high on life in my family. It’s in the brain.

17. And this is yet again, depths within depths. Because in modern life people are taking coffee for the stimulation to get them going. Again, modestly addictive, caffeine’s chemical structure is a dopamine imitator. There are immense problems with drugs. People are going to raves, horror movies, rock concerts, to get that feeling back. They’d lost that loving feeling, and just can’t get it back. There is a lot of depression out there on the street. Roughly 15% of people in our society are taking psychoactive drugs. A huge number of people are overeating, too, in order, most of the time to get that endorphin rush from stomach distension.

Haydn’s “Surprise Symphony” is based on this effect. When Haydn’s chief patron, the Prince Esterhazy, commissioned him to write music, he often played it after a big dinner. The Prince ate a lot and then went to sleep. The stomach is the most richly innervated organ in the human body and creates a LOT of polypeptides. It’s an endocrine gland due to how much it produces, one of which is endorphin, which acts like morphine, tho not as long lived. So the Prince ate a lot, his stomach distended a lot, releasing much endorphin and bingo, like morphine he went to sleep right in the middle of Haydn’s hard to compose music.

Needless to say Franz was frazzled by this. So he created a work called the above symphony. At a certain interval, Haydn had noted the Prince falling asleep, so at those exactly timed intervals, the quiet music was marked “Sforzando!” which in Italiano means, “play as loudly as you can,” literally translated. And then was loud for a good bit of time afterwards, to keep him awake. Then it went on and on and he was treated to the wake up sections a couple more times. Again, the commonality, we can see why people fall asleep after eating. and why they overeat many times, too.

The catecholamines, adrenalin and dopamine are appetite suppressants. Those of us with higher dopamine don’t eat as much and are far, far more active because of the stimulant effects of dopamine. My father, grandfather and I have been lean persons. Adrenalin can even make some persons throw up.

A higher level of dopamine will also reduce weight by the increased activity it creates in normal persons. It acts as above to decrease appetite, increase activity, and can be a very helpful adjunct to weight loss and treatment of overweight persons. This might well be one of the life extension effects of normal/modestly elevated dopamine levels. My grandfather was lean all of his life. So is my father, both lived into their early 90’s, though my father is 91 and healthy. The setting of increased activity in him was higher. This might well promote longevity.

20. Consider that no animals and certainly no plants can commit suicide. Why is this? Why do they live? They cannot do anything else. Those species which auto-self-destruct are eliminated by the normal evolutionary processes. They must have a normal life sustaining metabolism built into them which will fight to survive. They will not commit suicide. Humans do, because our cortex can interfere and create the means and the impulse to do so. Much of this can come from mania and severe depression brought on by maniacal and lack of control of the self. Usually, the person who suicides has a profound and serious delusion about his condition. He cannot see himself surviving, although many others have lived despite being in worse conditions. Suicide, in most cases, can be seen as a clinical delusion where the comparison process in the cortex has gone very wrong combined with low dopamine/serotonin levels or imbalance between the two. A simple anti-depressant will often change this. A dopamine boosting regime will also in many cases.

21. So a cure for part of the modern malaise and problems in western societies already exists within us. Elevate those dopamine levels to a more normal level, and find what is lowering them abnormally and cut back that inhibition. Then a great many of those illegal, fattening and dangerous activities will get a lot better. The answers, as usual, lie within us and without. We simply have to put it together. From the simple lowly pun, a world’s problem can be helped and/or solved. These are Blake’s “seeing a world in a grain of sand.” It’s a prescription for social improvement, widely. This is the power and the endless, unlimited capability of the Comparison Process. Use it well and use it wisely.

Empirical Introspection and the Comparison Process

Empirical Introspection and the Comparison Process

By Herb Wiggins, M.D. Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014

“Progress in physics is always preceded by an epistemological advance.” — Albert Einstein

“Least energy rules.”

1. The Comparison Process COMP) as the basis of recognition and cognition, arsing in brain cortex, working in tandem with LTM. The COMP hallmark is recognition. seen in all major classes of advanced animals.
2. Territoriality as recognition and the COMP.
3. Lower life has biochemical forms of the COMP. Reproduction is a complementary form of it.
4. COMP creates language and meaning, COMP as universal decoder.
5. Empirical introspection (EI), insights from medical practice which prove this.
6. Basis of empirical introspection in the sciences, and scientific medicine
7. Pain and EI.
7b. Dreaming, dream interpretation and introspection
8. Reading, creating dictionaries, indexes, phone books, all empirical introspection. (EI)
9. That which is real inside of us is what we all have in common. That which is real outside of us is what we have in common with what exists in the universe outside of us.
10. Measuring as a form of the COMP
11. Confirmation of the existence of EI and the COMP: 100’s millions of times.
12. The commonalties of the creativities.
13. The source of creativity of computer programming.
14. Mathematical creativity and the COMP by Empirical introspection
15. Creativity as a form of recognition. Seeing inside the minds of creative people using the COMP
16. The LEP and origin of feedback systems.
17. The massive capabilities of the COMP, endless, unlimited.
18. Stabilities and their importance.
19. Empirical Introspection of movie making.
20. The dopamine boost built into the COMP
21. Problems of modern society related to loss of the secret of the dopamine boost and attempts to replace it with drugs, raves, etc.
22. The ubiquity in brain of the dopamine boost structure/function; Our solutions to problems are inside of us and also outside.

1. One of the Comparison Process’ (COMP) major tasks is recognition (although it is a multiplicit, complex system with many other capabilities), that is, Re-knowing, and lies at the basis of cognitive activities in the brain. The COMP in the cortex is able to create a memory of stable events, existing both within and without the nervous system. It can then compare any future event to the stored Long Term Memory (LTM) event for further processing. The function is identifying or calling up the LTM event and comparing it to that which is being seen, thought about, or interacted with to establish similarity, identity, a match, or common characteristics, associations, and/or relationships, connections. This is some of what the COMP can do. But the basic task is the recognition function. It can do this endlessly, without limitations over time. It is how we recognize speech, the sounds we call words. It is how we recognize written words. It is how we communicate with each other. Indeed if humans were not social there would be no need for words much at all, beyond a few vocalizations and grunts, etc. which many animals, including our nearest relatives have.

The recognition function is a major hallmark of the Comparison Process. Whenever recognition is seen that marks a COMP being used. We see this is the major kinds of animals, from our nearest relatives the great apes, through the primates, the rest of the mammals, the birds, reptiles, down to the fishes, all of which display an ability to recognize their fellow species, for purposes of mating and protection if heard/flock/schooling kinds of species. They have territories as well, and must recognize landmarks, scents and other features, including the sun for navigation, and moving about.

2. Territoriality of itself must necessitate the use of recognition. This means that all known animals have it, in some form or another, even down to the lowly anemones, who know self from not self and are capable of defending territory. It’s necessary for reproduction as well, surely a convincing argument for the presence of recognition in all known species above the level of sponges.

But even sponges recognize self from not self. The experiment where red and white sponges were gently broken down into their constituent cells, and then in a nutrient sea water bath reconstituted themselves once again into red and white sponges shows this.

In the immune system the cells of the body know self from not self. And it is constantly on the hunt for foreign proteins and chemicals which can disrupt function. This is a biochemical form of comparison process, just in the same way sponge self-recognition was.

The higher animals know each other, and they know where their nests/dens and territories are, they know family from outsiders by sight and scents, and they know food and dangers and predators, too. These are all recognition and necessarily imply in each animal showing those characteristics, the recognition capacity which results of their own, analogous to ours, COMP. It is a universally used process from the highest animals in the great apes down to the lowliest sponges and very likely lower.

The bacteria and algae know food, and they have protections against attacks, too. And because those very likely date back at least 3.5 Billion years, these biochemical recognition methods are very, very ancient. They extend through the entire chain of life, from the very lowest to the highest, and unite in a very real way, all life.

3. Our means of reproduction using DNA/RNA replication of the basic building blocks of the genes, the nucleotides, also is a form of the comparison process, where when the DNA or RNA polymerase during replication detects a thymidine, it adds on an adenine and vice versa (uracil in RNA, which distinguishes RNA from DNA), and the same with guanosine/cytosine pairings. It must recognize each of those nucleotides, biochemically, and then complementary processes add on the one of the other.

When the cell reproduces it duplicates the DNA chain, while it also is creating more proteins using RNA to replicate the gene sequence by complementary processes and that then goes to the ribosome where 3 DNA bases are coded (codons) into a specific amino acid, which chains build up the basic, essential proteins/polypeptides of the cell, without which the cell would not survive metabolically or structurally. These are yet other Comparison processes, albeit biochemical on the part of the DNA/RNA polymerases and their transcriptions and then creation by a similar comparison process into proteins, etc. From the very start of life to the very present, the COMP in one form or another has been essential for all life. It binds all life together from the lowest to the highest, and is a unifying characteristic of all life. That is the Comparison Process, be it replication of DNA/RNA, be it protein/polypeptide synthesis, be it knowing cellular life from other cells, be it the immune system, be it recognition of other species or self and same species, be it territoriality, and be it the highest known form, human, higher primate cortical cell columns and cortex, the Comparison process of the brain.

4. It’s very clear then with this kind a ubiquity, in animal behaviors alone that it should be found in human brains. But there it has been able to create language, by simple recognition of words, meaning by comparing those words to each other in unique contextual forms. And in creating every single kind of language, which can be translation and related using the comparison process into every other kind of known language. The COMP is a universal decoder of language and it allows every person on earth to develop their own unique ways of stating those languages, as well, our idiosyncratic speech patterns, unique to us all, that our fellow humans can identify each of us by, too. All the myriad ways of all of the languages, each stated in unique, individual ways, but each the same. From simple to enormous complexity. Understanding this fact allows us to enormosly simplifiy the complexity around us into unifying principles/observations. It sees through the “buzzing, blooming confusion” and orders it.

It has allowed us by trial and error comparisons to translate and understand the Rosetta Stone and many other extinct languages, too. It allows us to decrypt the newspaper cryptograms and more complex codes,. It has allowed us to decrypt the genetic codes as well, and even to decode the universe’ events into the natural laws we have found. It does not just create language and recognition, but it also much more.

5. It allows us to create an empirical introspection into the very innermost workings of our minds. Because the COMP is the major function of the cortex, in almost every case it gives us the critical insight into what to look for. In the medical field, this is a common practice. It’s very simply done, and it’s empirical introspection, where the mind can look at the mind. Where the mind can comprehend and study by observation the workings of the mind body and nervous system. Where we can detect and apprehend thoughts, themselves. And the exact internal, mental processes leading to language and its use.

Take the scientific method and confirmations for instance. There are scientists who find an interesting observation and they carefully describe and then publish their findings. If other scientists can observe and find the same events, then it is considered confirmed. But why that? Because the universe is what we all have in common. If others see the same events we see, and record them, it’s likely those are real and existing outside of ourselves and we are not just seeing what we want to see. We use double blind, carefully controlled, prospective studies to be sure we are not looking at what we want to find. For that reason, confirmation of events is the sine qua non of sciences. If and when others observe and describe the same acceleration of masses in earth’s gravitational field, then the 9.8 m/sec squ. value becomes established as the case and scientific, empirical truth is found. This is how it’s done. That establishes carefully done observations as true and real.

Let us extend the same method to empirical introspection. Here are some basic examples of how it’s done. When a person comes to the doctor for numbness and tingling of the fingers, we know the anatomy and the function of the nerves in the hand/arm which are clearly, provable related to those tinglings. If the thumb, forefinger, middle finger and part of the thumb side of the ring finger tingle, or are numb, we know it’s the median nerve, because that’s what has been carefully and confirmed to be the case in unlimited numbers of humans so far studied. Unless the person is medically sophisticated they would not know this and when a person states the truth, we can tell. By comparing their symptoms which they sense, to that which we know to be the case about nerves and so forth, we KNOW it’s a median nerve problem. That means we have looked by examination and history into those person’s minds and found that their statements correspond/compare to real, existing events. That is provably empirical introspection is it not? This can be done with almost all of the nerves in the body, everyday, in every nation where there are good medical professionals. It’s a fact. It’s common to all humans. There are other tests such as the electromyogram which can also independently confirm what the patients says is going on. This is valid, empirical introspection

Let’s go further to a more difficult problem, looking at pain. People can have pain in certain parts of their bodies, and we know what is commonly seen by building up huge databases of medical information. Suppose the person reports a bad, throbbing headache, periodically, which her mother also had, and a sister has, too. Further, the headache are often presaged by spots in the eyes, or scintillations of light, which are called scotomata. We do an exam, find no neurological abnormalities, compare the signs/symptoms to our differential diagnostic tables, and make a working diagnosis of migraine headaches. Often then we do tests to see if there are brain structural abnormalities, hypertension, etc., which can cause similar headaches. We give a triptan medication and if the headaches are frequent, a med which will likely prevent a lot of them. If the triptans work and the headaches abate, then it’s very likely migraines. This method can be extended to other kinds of pain, as well. This yet again, is another empirical introspection into the senses, the most difficult one of all, pain. But we have tests and many other ways of telling what is real and what is not.

The same is true of foot pain, back pain, chest pain, etc. The same can be easily extended to the vision, and touch sensations, too. We can even investigate loss/absence of gravity sense, also. This is all empirical introspection, because we know that all humans have characteristic states and conditions which they report by introspection which correspond very well to known anatomy and common reports. Because we all have these organ systems in common. Just as we all have events in existence in common. It’s the similar analogous process to scientific investigation, observation and reporting, and is used very day all over the world. What we have in common is real, within our bodies or without. That’s the key. A trained observer, the medical professional, relies upon his OWN introspective, trained methods, to make a diagnosis of a condition reported by the introspection of the patient. This is completely legitimate and practical. It’s not just that introspection of the patient, it’s also the introspection, and recognition of the condition by the medico, which is at play here. And it’s valid and reliable. It’s not perfect, but nothing in this world is. But it works and is practical.

7b. Dreaming and dreaming states

The problem of dream interpretation is the problem of introspection. How do we know what dreams mean has been the bugaboo of the entire field since Freud’s “The Interpretation of Dreams”. Most of it simply is not believed because of lack of substantiation for his approach. A great many New Agers also talk about dream interpretation with an equivalent lack of credible substantiation.

But there is a way and in the clinical neuroscience it’s been used for years. How do we know that dreams exist? Because of the Rule of Commonality (RoC). We know that pain exists in people for the same reason, everyone knows about it and has realistic appreciation for those injuries and related problems such as migraine headaches with also do exist. The same is true of pleasure and other findings, introspective.

But in specific cases? That’s a tough one. When a patient comes in with numbness, either persistent or intermittent in the hand, we can tell if it’s real or not by several techniques. First, does it correspond (compare) to real sensory nerve distributions or not? If hand/glove kind it’s not always clear. With a careful exam we can detect numbness and tingling with specific methods and find on electromyograms (EMG) whether or not the reports of numbness have a concomitant injury shown by increased latencies and slowed nerve conduction speeds. The above can provide realistic and SPECIFIC determinations that the individual complaints are real. That is, the introspective reports are the case.

But how can we do this in dreams? We know they exist, but reports of dream content are colored by length of time elapsed between the dream and report, emotional factors such as social concerns about appropriateness, etc. But occasionally there are real cases where we CAN show this. I’ve been a field biologist for over 50 years. My observational skills are developed.

I have two cases. This first where a recurrent dream of walking along a weathered wooden pier with planks missing, and the green water below with waves sloshing against the piles and at times almost close enough to get my feet wet. In each case over 40 years, I was simply terrified I’d fall into the water and get drowned. In each case of these repeated nightmares, I was usually stressed by situational problems at work, etc.

But the key was, we were showing old family movies of the time we ere in St. Pete, FL., and on one of them it showed a movie of that same pier, same color water (all my dreams are in color) and at once I recognized that that was the source of the dream. I’d walked on it with my father, and had been terrified. But I’d forgotten the event.

This was clearly Freudian repressed memory, because for some 45 years it wasn’t clear WHERE the dreams had come from. Within a few weeks, that dream tried to recur, I just said while dreaming, this is that old memory and I won’t have this any more. And did not, and haven’t since.

Once the source of the terror was found, and realized what it was, in tandem with Freudian neurosis abatement observations (which argues that those are real and existing by the RoC), the dream stopped. It has never recurred, either. I had a similar dream with a swaying elevator, and once figured out, some 10 years later, when riding on the SAME elevator, the recognition came on me that THAT was where it had come from. It tried to recur, and I abolished it the same way.

That dreams can appear to be remnants of older memories many times, which we seem to have forgotten, not just repressed, seems to be the case. The fantastic elements of dreams, events appearing, disappearing and so forth, are simply NOT real and unexplainable.

However, for this one. I can fly sometimes while dreaming. I lift up off the ground and take off. Sadly, no one who’s ever seen me having one of these dreams has reported any levitation of my body!! But the one thing I do recall is that the flying was always very slow. I’d get caught up in wires, etc. and thinking about it, it takes a LOT of processing power to fly, esp. very high, because then the complexity of the surrounding scenery would take a LOT more processing power to recreate that. I am NOT a hang glider person, tho I have no fear of flying at all.

In this case of flying dreams, they are completely synthetic and cannot possibly compare to any real memories at all. In the case of lucid dreaming reports, the persons can also get control of their dreams and create fictional activities, too. Therefore it’s hard to believe the dictum that ALL dreams are a result of memories, only. Those memories might provide a groundwork, but the mind can build on that, actually. We know this because the scene changes in dreams are NOT real because things simply appear and disappear in violation of physical laws. That is magical thinking, which isn’t real any more than one can fly or cause objects several meters from one, to move into one’s hand. That my dreams have done a lot of.

However, I was using computers about 1995, and at the time moved up from a low baud of a few 100 to a 2400 baud rate of screen scrolling. It exceeded the ability of my brain to follow by a factor of several times. But bless my brain it DID try to keep up, tho never really succeeded. Within weeks of that time, tho, my flying dreams ALSO sped up, markedly and I wasn’t getting slowed down or tangled up in wires again Since then, continuing to use faster and faster computers, I can fly a LOT faster and higher, too, even to this day.

Probably, visual processing speed in my brain sped up to its maximum by using the new high speed modem. And my dreams got faster. One suspects that using computers has speed up the the brain processing of we humans, where such is possible, too. As speed of intellectual processing is related to 85% of IQ, because the IQ tests are timed, therefore this creates a reasonable conclusion from my dreaming of flying, that computers may in fact speed up our brains and make us proportionately smarter, in that respect.

These are the ONLY realistic interpretation of dreams I’ve ever been able to make. Should OTHERS have similar findings, then we can begin by the RoC, to learn more about dreams. Until then it’s a lot of speculation as Father Freud first formally showed us. We must have a LOT more testable data to compare with before we can more reliably decode and understand our specific dreams.

8. Let us now extend this introspection to the recognition processes we see when people read a dictionary or thesaurus or map, etc. Do we not have and see the same activities in all persons who refer to those lists and texts? Do we not see the same process which creates those texts and indices and the taxonomic Tree of Life of all the species which exist? Each of which can be read by anyone, using the same process. Of course we do. The Comparison process is what we all have in common, be it reading a text, finding a word in a dictionary, or finding something on a map, or the creation of the map, besides. This yet another kind of empirical introspection. It’s valid, and meets the criteria for validity. it can be done again and again and provably is the same process both in using the dictionary and creating it. The same, Comparison Process each time.

9. This is confirmation of the existence of the COMP in our brain cortex, that it’s a higher function, as well. Because when those areas are ablated by strokes, trauma or other damage, those reading, speech, and comprehension functions are gone. The structure/function rule of the brain has been shown to be true without limit, so far. For every function of the brain, there is a corresponding structure which creates that function. There is the speech center for talking and reading and writing. There is a right inferior temporal lobe for face identification. There is the visual cortex for interpreting signals from our retina which reproduces with extraordinary accuracy events which we look at in all their shades and colour frequencies and corresponding colours. The same is true of the other senses. Same is true of our feelings. We all have these in common. We all have the same emotions in common and all of these can be related to a structure in the brain.

We all have consciousness in common. This is the awareness and knowledge of that which is around us and inside of us. Ideas/words express this knowledge carefully and fairly accurately too. We have those words in common do we not, in one language or dialect or the many others? This establishes those ideas/words/images as real and existing in our brains/minds. The reports are real, both those inside and outside. The words and knowledge are the same. When we say something, we know it, and can communicate it. And in all of these cases, the Comparison process is working. The writing and the reading of those words is of the same origin, the COMP.

We have our consciences in common, located mainly in the frontal lobes, by which we internalize society’s restrictions and acceptable activities. We compare that to what we do and what others do. In the laws of nature, we compare the behaviors and descriptions of events in existence outside of us, comparable also to the same structure of moral laws, which we use daily, all of us in common. The Legal laws are the same. The templates/forms/structures of logic, math, and others are of the same kind, readable and creatable and modifiable by the COMP.

10. In measuring it’s all Comparison Process. This has been proven time and again, for everyone. Anyone can take a ruler or tape and measure lenghts and distances. Anyone with any training can read a map. The COMP is real because of these unlimited, repetitive, confirming facts. The organization of the Tree of Life by these endless COMP events, that of the periodic table of elements, that of the Hertzsprung/Russell diagram (which organizes into a coherent whole the trillions of observable stars, each a confirmation of that comparison/correspondence to the HRD), that of the repetitions of the same measurements of time and calendars, and our words, images, and the written words which exactly correspond/compare to those mental ideas/words/images. This same commonality of use by the same/similar variations on them, shows they are real.

11. The 100’s of millions of telephone books and dictionaries. The endless listing of street addresses, and the 100’s of millions of maps and templates of all sorts. Endless in its variations, and all real and existing, as the that single, simple Comparison Process existing in all of our cortices which does the thinking, information processing and understanding and speaking and reading. Each and every one of the 34 million known chemical compounds (of an estimated quadrillions possible, (mostly in what’s left of the rain forests) has been named, classified, organized and indexed by that. Is that enough evidence, or are we dealing with what the British justifiably call bloody mindedness?

The Comparison Process is confirmed by these events in the millions and even billions of examples. If several thousands show it, 100 millions show it beyond all reasonable doubt. And any variations among us in reading/writing those lists, is simply the endless variations on a common theme.

12. Let us take creativity. Because we know what to look for, the COMP, we can see inside the minds of those being creative. They have often told us how they did it, from Kekule to Einstein, whose 5 discoveries created Relativity. We know that Newton found the spectrum and realized what it was by comparing it to the rainbow. We know that Newton AND Leibniz both found the calculus, slightly different forms of it, but essentially the same. What were the insights and creativity which led to both of their insights? They’d be comparison processes very similar to the insight of Archimedes whose text showing the calculus from 2300 years ago we now have, also. Compare those 3 men’s insights. That is the mathematical form of Creativity using the COMP.

We have brilliantly creative computer programmers. What are the exact means by which they create new programming techniques? How did Borland create resident pop-up programs? What were his insights as to how to do that? Take every major advance in programming and find the ways in which those insights arose, and compare and cross check them with the number of very similar creative advances made by other programmers. In this way we can again look inside the heads of the programmers for the COMP which creates the creativity of programmers. And then we can model that using a computer system, and create a creative computer, which creativity can proceed at speeds of millions of times faster, than we whose COMP works at about 100-200 msec., compared to a potentially unlimited speed of the quantum computers now working.

14. Gauss, Riemann, and Lobatschevsky almost simultaneously created non-Euclidean geometry. So did a 12th Century monk, but thought it was so silly he didn’t continue it. ALL FOUR found the same thing, that the parallel line axiom was NOT necessary to build up a consistent geometry. and so developed that from which the modern space/time geometry is used in physics today. This is a very similar comparison process creativity in four mathematicians. The same is true of the rest of mathematical creativity and describes how Ramanujan and all the others performed their creative magic.

The same is true of scientific creativity, or verbal creativity, of creative writing. The COMP model extends itself by logic and by proxy to every other field of the sciences and arts, and music, as well.

15. Because we see that these creativity events are ALSO recognitions of the value of that which is created. Creativity is a form of recognition. The recognition by Darwin and Wallace, that on remote isles, a single species tended to diversify into many species and when those diversified enough it’d lead to every species known developing from previously existing forms, that is, evolutionary model which is now scientific fact. Evolution has been confirmed literally 10 millions of times. If evolution is confirmed by those many instances, then how much more confirmed is the comparison process in our brains by the 10 billions of times it’s confirmed every day when 7.5 million humans use it?

We can see inside our own brains/minds this kind of COMP which created the same findings by different men at different times. That commonality of events, which is the key to empirical introspection. We can actually get inside the heads of our most creative people now and see how their minds are working. We can SEE the creative acts. We can see the organizing power of the Comparison process as it organizes each and every part of our dictionaries, our maps, our indices, our everything. Organizing to create knowledge. Organizing to create prediction and control in our consciousness and our consciences, as well as control of industrial production, agriculture, etc.

16. It underlies the Least Energy Rule because that is a COMP. Compare the outputs and costs of each method being studied by the LEP. The least energy one is favored, by the COMP, which is yet an LEP, too.

It’s the feedback loop you see, the original one. It processes and creates a product, which can be endlessly and consistently fed back in, to create more output. Each fed back in. The Comparison Process even explains, uniquely, and cleanly, the feedback systems. How’s that for practicality and utility?

It organizes, unifies, simplifies and yet allows all complexities and endless variations within itself and those to be more clearly understood. Simple, yet complex. Easy, yet surrounds itself with endless variations of incredible size and complexity, which hid/hides and camouflaged(s) it from us for 1000’s of years.

17. It’s all very similar, we see now. Simple, powerful, endless in variations, and because it does a very great deal with only a little, it’s least energy rule obedient and complete amenable to thermodynamic analysis. Because it does the same in every field, it’s a huge simplification, but allows endless complexity to be developed, and understood and explains in details those endless variations on a theme, be it living forms, be it mathematics, be every language and the dialects, be it visual arts, music in all its endless variations of rhythms, styles, scales and modes, and even fashions and design of cars, architecture and much else. It even explains each human’s, each living form’s genetic and personality and behavioral uniqueness and yet commonality with all other living species, alive or extinct. It does a LOT with a little. It’s efficient.

18. What are stabilities, the Djed of the ancient Egyptians? Those are maintained similarities, samenesses. We see this in trees, rocks, stars, matter, and the repeating, reiterating process by which those are built, maintained and broken down. Stabilities are created by the Pauli Exclusion Principle and chemical bonding. Stabilities are Least Energy Principle forms. CO2 and H2O are stable because they are least energy. No chemical energy can be obtained from those molecules. And upon those stabilities of water and carbon dioxide molecules, plus nitrogen and trace elements, all life has been built, within the endless cycling of CO2 and H2O molecules’ stabilities.

The COMP is also a LEP stability, the most common denominator of our mental processes. That is why the cortical cell columns are almost exactly alike. That is why but for the motor cortex, the micrographic examinations of the 6 layers of the entire cortex, except for their neuronal synaptic connections to each other and cortical cell columns(which demonstrates their unique functions of visual, language, sensation, hearing, musical, emotional, etc., cortical functions) are almost exactly the same. That is why the electroencephalogram over every single piece of cortex reveals the same alpha, beta, and theta activities. It even explains the 14 and 6 EEG activity over the motor cortex which lacks layer 4 and has Betz cells instead.

19. It’s been easy to analyze films using the Comparison Process as well. We can use it to see inside the heads of the directors, producers and script writers, and how they are inside the head of the audiences. How they are using humor, surprise, action and creativity to entertain and enthrall their audiences so they keep coming back again and again to watch the movie in the theaters, on the Internet, or by buying a DVD at home or with friends.

20. This is why the COMP will succeed, in the long run. Not only is it backed up by the LEP, but it’s also reinforced by the dopamine boost. Once individuals rediscover this ancient boost and use it creatively for inspiration and better lives, and given the positive feedback nature of the COMP/dopamine system in our cortices, not much is going to stop this process. In the long run on earth and the rest of our universe, least energy rules.

When creativity and understanding are understood, as they now are, this will create, potentially a renaissance in the arts and sciences which can dwarf anything yet seen. In each of us, this massive, repetitive, endlessly/unlimited process is active. Understand it, learn how to boost and inspire yourselves. This creative Spark of Life exists within all of us. It’s the Gotterfunken, the veriest spark of God Himself, the “chi”, the Atman, the feeling of Enlightenment, those mystical feelings and states. And any of us can learn to call it up, learn to use it for ourselves and others. It’s very powerful and underlies all good leadership, all loyalties, all inspiration. It in its best forms it is love incarnate, be it agape, eros, philias, maternitas, or love of country, or our pets and possessions. It underlies the “AHA” or Eureka emotions of discovery/creation. It underlies our jokes and witty entertainment. It underlies all those feelings of awe, of astonishment, of childlike wonder. All the goodness of life itself.

21. We find that our modern societies we have a great many problems to solve. What better than to use the Comparison Process to solve those? It’s there within all of us, immanent, and working. Is this not a good solution? Everyone has the potential to do it. Because everyone has those same, cortical cell columns, the same structures and the functions, the COMP and the dopamine releasers built in.

We find the drug additions, which are simply attempts to feel better, to replace that “loving feeling” that good feeling which has been lost. These are many of the emptinesses of modern society, the malaise. We’ve “lost that loving feeling” and we can’t quite “get it back”. It’s the dopamine boost. In the societies we find the young turning to raves, and rock concerts and sex, and other self-destructive, damaging activities. Because the dopamine boost secret has been lost. People turn from the main stream churches to fundamentalism, to the exciting church services of the same, where that has been preserved. When most church services were once exciting and rejuvenation experiences, they are now too often boring and not re-inforcing, because they do NOT boost the dopamine in those who attend them. Staid, quiet, laid back and not interesting. They’ve lost that loving feeling. and just can’t get it back.

22. Yet it’s there inside each of us. Everyone has dopamine in their brains/bodies. Everyone has the Comparison Process which can release it in all the myriad ways. Dopamine boost is innate in our very natures. It palpably, provably drives the emotions, it inspires, it creates love. The dopamine boost we feel when with friends and loved ones. That’s the self-reinforcing system created by our minds/brains. Reinforce it, make it become part of the LTM, and you can have it any time you need it. That’s the key, regardless of how we find it, let the outcomes be good in the long run, and by their fruits we will know the best ways. The answers are there, our COMP is set up to find them. Here inside and within each of us are the solutions to our problems within and without.

Let a Revelation in understanding create a Kuhnian Revolution.

Language/Math, Description/Measurement, Least Energy Principle and AI

Language/Math, Description/Measurement, Least Energy Principle and AI

By Herb Wiggins, Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014

“Man is the measure of all things.”
–Protagoras 5th C. BC

Table of contents
1. Inability of Mathematics to describe language; inability to describe biological, taxonomies and medical language and processes..
2. The universe is NOT mathematical, but partly describable with math.
3. Flexibility of language in descriptions markedly superior to math; useful biological/medical examples
3a. The comparative forms of adjectives as incontrovertible PROOF of the presence of the COMP in all language/descriptions.
4. Measuring is ALL a Comparison Process (COMP): distance, weights, time, etc.
5. Descriptions mostly cannot be measured. It lacks numericity used in the sciences.
6. Visual tracking as a predictive COMP; Butterfly chaotic flight and tracking; missile control by math/geometry versus avian tracking systems; human tracking while driving is much the same.
7. Predicting the future and the Least Energy Principle (LEP); value of the rule of 72;
collapse of the USSR and the LEP;
8. Stock market collapse of 2000 and predictions/prophecies.
9. Understanding the structure/function relationship of the comparison process in the cortex of brain; why it’s very hard to understand complex systems esp. of the cortex;
10. Can mathematics, if it cannot describe language much at all, describe human cortical cell functions which arise from the cortex?
11. Can present day math learn how to speak language, or write creatively?
12. A COMP possible solution to the problem of re-creating by machines, human cortical creativity; increasing speed of human creativity by computer modeling.
13. How do programmers create new programs, new operation processes, etc.?
A new form of relational mathematics is needed. Math needs to grow a new form, more descriptive as are languages.
14. The COMP which creates language is more important than mere grammar.
15. The use of empirical introspection to analyze and model programmer creativity processes, as it has that of scientific creativity. Creating creativity on computers by studying how programmers do their work.
16. Empirical introspective study of programmers’ skills and how their cortex’ output creates new programming. Successfully nderstanding programmers’ creativity can leads to a creative computer and substantially speeds up programming progress. Creativing creativity by computers will then be directly applicable to understanding language, emotions, and so forth and creating true AI.

1. The real problem has been for years that language and mathematics are not consonant. We can say everything in language, even complex mathematics, and we can write a great deal in language and are NOT able to translate that into math. For instance, the entire taxonomy of living and extinct species of all life, all the kingdoms and phylae, cannot be translated into mathematics. A bit of the descriptions can, but very little of it, either. Images of the living species cannot either. This is a real problem. The math does not exist which can describe a living species, except in trivial measurements, either.

In the same way, the entire compendium of medicine, the texts of each specialty, the physical exam, physical findings, differential diagnosis, complex system of steps of testing to a reasonably secure diagnosis, and the treatment protocols cannot be mathematized. We cannot describe the intricacies of psychology and psychiatry, let alone the anatomy and physiology and structure/function relationships derived from neurology in math either. It’s impossible with math as it exists at present.

In the same way we cannot translate a dictionary into mathematics, nor a novel, nor a play, nor a movie. Yet we can say and speak about all of mathematics. Teachers do this every day all over the world. The descriptions using words can describe math, but math cannot describe very much which is verbal.

2. I recall hearing many years ago at university that the universe was mathematics. I just looked at him and asked, then mathematize anatomy, the differential diagnosis and the entire DSM3!! He got very quiet and muttered something rude, and also logically irrelevant to the obvious. The universe is not any more mathematical than it’s English, French, or Latin, and those languages esp. in the biological world describe it far, far better than math ever can. In the arts and religions of the world, we can defy anyone to translate the Bible, New and Old Testaments into math, or for that matter, the Koran or the Bhagavad Gita, or the Buddhist texts. It can’t be done. Or to translate an entire movie into mathematical terms, or an opera or symphony? Impossible!! Clearly.

There is an extreme limit to the abilities of math to take on physical descriptions, esp. images. A picture is worth 1K words. An image would take hugely more, a very great deal more, perhaps 10k’s more using math!!. And neither could the math identify what the objects were, either. Esp. not even famous places.

3. Verbal descriptions on the other hand are very, very flexible and useful, as anyone in biological fields, including medicine, know from working every day. Let’s describe a beetle, for example. We can tell about size, altho we can use measurement to describe in more precise terms. But we use colors, and patterns of colors for the overall description. There are 2 antennae, 6 legs, often swept back in the Scarabaeidae family..There is a hard, protective, chitinous covering over the wings called the elytra. There is the cephalon (head), the thorax and the abdomen. Each of these in many beetle families has its own shape, such as the Coccinelidae, the lady bug family, where all are conforming to the rounded shape, tho the 3 major body division still are there. We describe these often with a drawing or image, so when we see them we can recognize them. The entire taxonomy of all beetles, and indeed all species known has been described using words. measurement is useful, but incidental to it. These descriptions are in fact sorts of measurements, tho they are qualitative, not quantitative. yet there are highly useful in description of almost all living forms.

3a. The most convincing demonstration of the ubiquity and that the Comparison Process is at the core of language and its descriptions are the comparative adjectives and forms. Endless and unlimited, just like the COMP. Here is the proof. Good and bad; Good, better, best, the trinary forms of the dualities, the comparative adjectives. Nice, nicer, nicest. Lowest, lower, low, high, higher, highest. Here is a Continuum built of two continua!!. Very much so. Two together. Comparing, combining, ever additive, endless. Very nice; somewhat nice; very, very nice. Endless comparatives. Take each letter of the alphabet and start listing each of the easiest to think of. Above, almost, below; before, a bit before, just before; After, nearly after, just after. Cool, cooler, coolest; close, closer, closest. Dull, duller, dullest; very dull, most dull. Happy, happier, happiest, very happy, much happiness, more happiness, most happiness. Etc., etc., etc., etc., etc., etc., etc., right to the end of the alphabet and in any modern language, find the same. Universal, real, existing, and solidly evidenced AND confirmed by unlimited examples, which anyone can create, any time.

Again, the COMP, endless, unlimited, undeniable, incontrovertible, essential, ever present, at the very core of description and language. The Comparison Process creates language and is the engine of language creation and usage.

4. In measuring, we use the Comparison Process overtly and completely. If we are to measure distance, we compare that to a known standard, be it a ruler, tape measure, or in surveying the theodolite which measures against the known phenomenon that the further away something is, that the size of it decreases by the square of the distance. This can be very precisely measured and then compared to the known standards to establish quickly and easily the sizes and dimensions of large areas of land without dragging around long ropes, chains and other formerly used methods. Each of these cases shows that the measuring COMPARES to a fixed gradated standard to arrive at a unit measure.

When we measure weights they are measured most accurately using a balance scale which measures a highly graded tension which is standardized against (compared to) a known weight. We step on a scale it’s comparing our weight to what is already standardized. All weights are measured using comparison.

When we measure time, we do so comparing to the UTI in Greenwich, UK, where the time is known and broadcast around the world by radio so the actual time can be known in each of the time zones. For more precise measurement, we compare the second to the vibrations of a quartz piece in a watch, which is precisely known by counting the vibrations/second and constantly counting that to create an accurate time piece. For more precision, we use the transition times of microwave radiation which occur when electrons rise to a higher level when absorbing a radiation then release it when falling to a lower level. This occurs at a very precise rate and the earliest effective clocks were accurate to 1 part per 10 Billion. So time is measured compared to the electron transition times between 2 electron levels in a suitable atom, usually Cesium. Time again is measured by this comparison.

When we synchronize we use the comparison process Two times. First the clock is standardized to noon, where the sun is at it’s highest point. That’s why Noon is used because the day was always measured from noon to noon. For obvious reasons as overcast days, this method had to be modified. Thus we standardize to noon, even today, worldwide, where the center of each time zone is offset 1 hour every 15 degrees latitude for each time zone east or west of Greenwich. Then we look at the clock, usually with a second hand/digital readout and compare our watch to when the second had reaches 12, for instance, and set the watch to precisely compare to the standard clock time. Comparison all the way through.

When we read time we do so by comparing events to a standard time keeper. When we measure speeds we measure the distance divided by time, against two comparison processes to establish distance/time, giving speed in meters/second, or whatever units to be used. In every case, we compare the event being measured against fixed standards. Measuring is clearly, plainly a pure comparison process.

Now look, how is description any different from measuring except there is not the valuable numbering system? It’s no different in fact. So when we state something we are actually using a qualitative description to measure a known quantity without numbers. Whether it’s a color which corresponds (Comparson Process) to known frequencies, or brightness using a photometer to measure the number of incident photons, it’s all the same thing.

Descriptions can be compared to some measurements. But some descriptions cannot BE measured, for instance when we call something a leg, or tail, or head, or wing. Those do not carry numericity, which is so valuable in terms of measuring events in the sciences. And indeed, it’s very hard to introduce numericity into the normal language. It’s been the great breakthru which has created the science, where ingenious, creative (COMP) methods have been used to measure where we could not measure before. It’s the number use, numericity, which has made science so successful because it permits more precise description than possible with verbal descriptions alone. It also creates more predictive capabilities,

6. Consider tracking of an object. Our visual systems are esp. good at this and devote a good deal of the nervous system to closely yoking each eye precisely in line withe other, so we don’t get double vision. This double input allows us to estimate distance using a parallax method, depth perception). It also allows us to determine which directions flying or moving objects/events are going so we can estimate where the object will be in a few seconds (bird flight), minutes(cloud movement wind speed), or hours (movements of the sun, moon, or fixed stars thru the sky. Calendars.) Our visual systems can then predict where they are going.

Now this is an interesting thing when we think about butterflies, because they fly in such a very irregular, almost chaotic way. Most people have seen this but not figured out WHY does the butterfly do this? It’s very easy. Birds also have visual tracking systems, and they can predict which way an object is going to go, because of the tracking system in their brains. So they can intercept an insect flying in a straight line more or less. Yum!!. Butterflies are very much larger and cannot easily avoid a bird, esp. with their colored wings. But, if they fly chaotically, how can the bird brain track it? There is no regularity for the bird to recognize and then target the insect. They escape very easily and so cannot be easily caught. It’s a survival mechanism based upon the bird’s tracking system which has a very hard time following a chaotic butterfly wing’s irregual flight.

How this compares to missile interception and fire contol is much the same. Essentially it can all be understood in a series of comparison processes. First, there must be detection, usually by radar. The targetting mechanism figures out by comparing successive radar impulses where the target is moving in space, and how fast, by measuring the speed at which the radar pulse bounces off the target. If it’s moving to the left, or right, then the directional system figures this out by comparing the time and location in an internal system set up for that, usually a mathmatical program which relates to geometry, that is a comparison to a 3D system. Then it compares the differences between a series of carefully timed pulses to determine the speed, and when those are done, it has a “lock”. The system gives a series of beeps or light blinkings and the operator of the missile fires it. The missile homes in on the target using constant radar updates to figure its position and if the target’s evasive maneuvers are not fast enough nor enough, then it is hit and damaged or destroyed.

The bird does this, but we don’t know how. Clearly it has to have some kind of internal representation using a neural system which can model the changes over a few dozen milliseconds, arrive at an approximation to where the insect will be in a few more seconds and dive towards it, comparing each position to the ones previously to continue to update the approximate spot the bug will be in the near future, connect this into the wing beats for diving and speeds of approach and then grab the bug in its beak within some range of movement depending on how long the neck is, and how fast the beak can shut on the bug. We’ve all seen them do it. And their capacities for intercepting flying insects is remarkable. We cannot duplicate this system, because the birds are constantly changing their positions, directions and so forth and tho the bird might not always capture the bug, it often does. Yum!! Comparison processing through out. And the bird does NOT use mathematics to do it, but neural networks, whatever those are.

Once we undestand that this sort of thing, i.e., the comparison process, is going on to measure, move towards and intercept, then we can more easily figure out how to duplicate in some way, this process. In driving cars we do the same thing. We know that if we speed up too much we will get to the light before it changes to green, and so we learn an internal algorithm related to how fast we are going and how long it’ll take to get to the light at a certain speed after it changes to green. So we do the same thing as a bird. I knew a student who was so good at this he could pick out of the air a fly buzzing about. His comparison Processes were working very quickly and very fast. No math involved, but the superb tracking and predicting system his brain had using the Comparison process.

The Comparison Process cannot just predict speeds and directional velocities, but it can also predict to some extent what people are going to say, or do in set circumstances. It can also sight down time lines, extrapolate from current data, and make a prediction that some event is going to occur. This is in fact a kind of prophecy. For instance we knew, many of us, that the USSR/communism/state socialism was doomed. In Nixon’s autobiography he talked about meeting the Dalai Lama, who stated that the USSR was not acting according to the rules governing human greed and incentive and so must eventually fail for this reason alone.

7. The real reason the USSR failed was the Least Energy Principle. This is a comparison process method, purely. It measures outcomes, compares them and finds the one which uses the least cost, time and distance in accomplishing a certain goal. It’s the basis of efficient production, work and all known tasks. The entire universe uses it in terms of a photon’s paths which are the most direct and the least energy, even thru a gravitational field. The orbits of the planets are least energy. The paths which cows take back from the fields to the milking barns in the afternoons are also least energy. The conformations of series of soap bubbles are also. From the trivial to the mighty galactic clusters, all is Least Energy. The windings and bends of river courses are also least energy for flowing waters.

This principle is seen everywhere, and is a basic tool anyone using the Comparison Process must know about and utilize. Because if a method uses less time, and less resources, and less distance of travel to get a single, set goal done, for instance, mining coal and getting that to the customers, or creating electricity with the least amount of waste of production and transportation, that advantage will build up. Using the Rule of 72, which measures doubling times related to an interest rate divided into 72, if a process of manufacturing by one factory is 10% more efficient than his competitor, given a similar marketing condition (yet another comparison process), then in 7 years, his advantage will be double that of his competitor. In 14 years 4 fold, and in 20 years he will dominate if not own the market.

This was largely what went on in the USSR. There was terrific waste in food production, at all levels, from planting, quality of seed which determined % of sprouting, cultivation, plants, lack of harvesting machines and tractors and so forth. And they could not get the food to market because of bad roads, bad trucks and inefficient storage and labor problems, they had to Fight the “Battle of the harvest” every year” where even students and factory workers had to turn out to get the food harvested, stored and shipped. This took away efficient education and production and affected the entire USSR during harvest times. While US farmers were only 2% of the population, Soviet farmers were 30-40% of the population to grow about the same amount of food. Comparatively, as it’s an outcome statistic.

This problem occurred all over the USSR in all areas. It got so they could not drill oil wells much more than about 10K feet down, in several days, where the US firms would do the same down to 25K feet in only a day, thus giving the US a huge comparative advantage in efficiency of drilling, more drilling and deeper, too. As a result USSR oil production began peaking out in May 1984. The Russkies knew this would happen and built many large, cheap, simple, graphite moderated nuclear power reactors called the RBMK-1000 models, in groups of 2 to 4. This was Chernobyl, and SosNovy Bor as well, including others. Everyone knows what happened there, esp. when an estimated 30% of Soviet workers were drunk most days, which continues to the present.

Upon this basis of inefficiency it was predicted the USSR would collapse if we held strong. Reagan increased pressure on them using direct embargoes of computer and other strategic goods and then forced them into a massively costly arms build up they could not afford. In 1991, the USSR collapsed due to its inefficiencies, many of which have not been reduced even today. This was no surprise to most of us.

8. Before the stock market crash of 2000, the “Economist” of London had 2 front page cover articles about the USA’s stock market bubble, where prices were WAY in excess of reasonable, some with price/earnings ratios of 50-60 to one and some of mathematical infinity because of no dividends. I can recall those two front page cover article images. Further when sitting at a dinner meeting with some associates in March 2000 telling them the our stock markets would collapse and to be ready to get out quickly to cut losses. There were two responses. One wife said, “The stock market can’t collapse. All of our pension money is in stocks.” I looked at her and said, “How can I be overdrawn? I’ve still got checks!!” And another fat and rather overconfident person said, “No one can predict the future at all.” “The London Economist believes they can. and it’s good enough for me.” I said.

In April it collapsed, the Dow falling from $12+K to $7K and the NASDAQ from $2300 to about $700..Many suffered serious losses. None of those persons EVER acknowledged to me what had happened to the market. Another acquaintance of mine made $50K on the fall in prices. Further, “A prophet is without honor even in his own land.” The gift of prophecy of Cassandra, pious daughter of Priam of Troy, was well recognized, but the gods had cursed her. No one would believe her. This is the hidden power of the ancient Greek myths. Do you see how all of these things fit together, creatively using the Comparison Process?

Future predictions ARE possible using the Comparison Process. It’s the gift of prophecy. If you know enough and can wrap your concepts, creatively around events tightly enough to discern the velocity and direction, you know where the thing will land hard. LBJ had this gift. So did the seer, Winston Churchill as reported in C.P Snow’s The Variety of Men. This is another gift of the Comparison Process.

Understanding this, recall that Bayesian mathematical methods can create predictive values and are used widely in machine recognition programs using voice or image recognition. In this way, these programs are doing a simple, Comparison process. How we recognize voices and persons, the same way many other animals do, too. Recognition is a very important part of the COMP, as has been repeatedly shown before. Recognition of words, landmarks, the creation of maps, and so forth. The Comparison Process is Bayesian plus and resides in all human cortices, making recognition, creating creativity, creating and understanding language, math and many, many other tasks, constantly while we are awake, and often in dreams, too. But I have digressed in order to make more important points about the COMP.

9. A further problem is understanding the major functions of the cortical cell columns of human brain devoted to the Comparison Process. The next question is how does the neurophysiology of the 6 layers of the cell columns create the processes which result in the COMP? And that question is an insolvable one at present. Using the structure/function relationship and an analogy with E = MCsquared, it can be understood better. When Einstein wrote his famous equation relating matter/energy, it was in the 1910’s. Nuclear fission did not come along until the 1940’s and with fusion, about 6-7 years later. Now at last at Cardarache, France, the International Thermonuclear Exp. Reactor (ITER) will be coming on line well over breakeven within a few years. That’s 100 years of lag time before the Structure of the S/F relationship was solved on the left side compared to the right side.

Now, the Structure of the cortical cell columns creates the COMP. We know what that is. But what is the structure which does that, neurophysiologically? We don’t know, and there is an impenetrable block on this, too. It’s the N-body problem. We cannot figure out using current math/computation power what happens with N= or greater than 3 is, either. The equations go to such complexity/chaos, not even the best computers can easily solve them. Consider that the number of interacting neurons PLUS neurochemicals is in the 10K’s at least in the cortical columns. The number of genes interacting to create the human body is in the range of 25K, interacting with probably more than 25K MORE chemicals/biochemicals. When we cannot solve for N>3, how can that be done, when in fact each of those neurons might well be interacting via synapses with 1000’s of others?

So it will take a while to figure that out. The difficult we do today, the impossible takes a bit longer, to paraphrase the wag. It took us thousands of years to figure out what the cortex did, in a basic, fundamental way and will take us a lot longer to work out the unlimited workings of the Comparison Process in the cortex.
But the point is we have the mathematical Bayesian predictive values which can create basic machine recognition of voice, fingerprints, and even some simple images. But these statistical methods don’t give us language, but we have the functional origin of language, which has not heretofore been known. It’s the COMP, clearly, that repeating simple process which is the right side of the S/F equation. It will take a while before we can generate all the details of how the COMP creates a real, existing language, altho we have the E = MCsquared of that, the COMP. The same for personality disorders, let alone the emotional system, though some headway has been made recently. Now we need to solve the N-body problem for the neurophysiology/genetics/embryology of the brain cortical cell columns.

10. Let us treat description in the same way. Math cannot give us much in the way of translating all but the simplest language into numbers/equations. Describe the colors and sky of a beautiful Western sunset. Language can give us some idea. It can even give us with certain known landmarks, where that sunset took place, at Point Loma in San Diego or looking at the alpen glow in the Colorado Rockies in the Frazier River area. Math can create a digital summary of the image, as we use Jpegs all the time. But it cannot give a meaningful description of what is being seen using those numbers in the Jpeg. That’s qualitatively/quantitatively a wholly different task.

Consider this, and it’s the critical one. Can mathematics give us the way to create language? No. Can it at present give us a way to re-create creativity, modelling in some way how Einstein, Darwin and Wallace used the Comparison Process to create Relativity and evolutionary theory? No. Until it can, then true, complete AI cannot come about. Until math can create relational methods, comparison processes which re-create the complexities of language, which the Comparison Process does every day in our cortices, then math will not be able to handle meanings and much else. This limit to mathematics must limit its use in creating AI which can model realistically, human cortical functions.

Now consider measurement. We use rulers, tapes, etc. to measure lengths distances, clearly comparing the gradations on those tools to arrive at the values we get. When we measure colors of light, we can analyze the brightness with photometers and the saturation and amplitudes/frequencies of the colors. But that would take a very long time to do. Our visual cortices do that all the time with just a few 100’s ms. of work. When we compare images in our minds, while we are thinking about events in existence, such as Darwin’s finches, can the mathematics recognize what is going on? Would it have the judgement and sense to realize what this means, as did Darwin and then Wallace in his own way in Indonesia?

11. For the same reason that mathematics, even of the Bayesian kind cannot figure out language, tho it can detect targets, compute their trajectories and hit those targets, it’s a long way from that simpler task to understanding language enough to speak it, except in a stereotyped, pre-programmed, limited way. In order for that to happen there must be, very likely, a number of very important breakthroughs in pure and applied mathematics to make this happen.

12. Let’s consider an easier course of action. The Comparison process in our brains is a massive, simple process which creates creativity. It does this by means unknown to us. We CAN however describe what is happening by looking at the process using the COMP. We know there is stream of consciousness going on, where a lot of processors are doing the work, by associations and finding the relationships among events/words by the COMP. So if we can speed up this creativity, then we will be closer to creating a system which can model the Comparison Processes going on in the cortex.

How do we do this? The COMP is a self organizing, ordering system. It’s a big problem solving process operating in our cortex. It can look at a lot of comparisons, possibly using parallel processing, and come up with answers by this same creativity. The COMP can create a lot of ideas, but as one scientist said, to be good you have to have a lot of ideas. But good ideas are a dime a dozen. This implies some natural filtering is going on. The Least Energy Principle is a major one. The structure/function relationship is another. When progress is made in understanding language better, that can be translated into creativity, that is finding out what words/ideas/events have in common and finding bridging concepts, too. These creative recombinings of words/idea/images is the clue we need. When we create sentences which describe clearly what we have never seen before, that is creativity purely. The COMP does this all the time, tho. It’s uniquely creative.

What kinds of methods are used in programming to create recognition? What are the structure/function relationships of how those many programs compare to each other? This should give a common basis in which they are acting to create, roughly, the same process which can ID fingerprints, faces, or voice commands.

The Vocoder can convert an amplitude/frequency pattern of voice into an electrical signal, which can then be converted to microwave signal, be received by antennae, and then reverse translated into more electrical signals, shipped by fiber optics to the site nearest the receiving cell phone, which then receives the microwave signal, turning in back into sound by electromechanical vibrations which create the voice of the sender.

But this gives nothing useful about language, because the device does not understand at all the meanings and use of language. It does a greart job of transmitting with good clarity the signal and doing the job of translating microwave signals to sound and vice versa, but it’s empty of meaning.

What is the difference between this and the voice recognition systems being used? This computer can transliterate voice commands into written words, then act upon that word, producing the search which gives the answers to the person’s mobile phone. And then he can free his hands to do other things. However, meaning is still not there.

13. What would it take to create that meaning, that understanding of language? That’s why true AI has not yet been found. Math doesn’t yet understand the complex relationship among the words. Why we put words in the order they must be to create meaning. The words must relate to meaning. There must be relationships among those words to create meaning and the computer MUST understand/know what those are. When THAT can be done, and it can be done using the analyses using the COMP, then true AI using language can be created. That is the step missing, the step which the Comparison Process can give us. It’s the relationships among the words that give us the meaning of the word “can”. It’s NOT grammar of itself. The word string must make sense, it must have internal consistencies among the meanings of the words.

14. Take the sentence, “The Beans were in the Can.” This makes sense. “The can was in the beans” doesn’t make the same kind of sense. So it’s the sequence which determines meaning, too. This is the aspect of grammar, which is necessary, but NOT sufficient to create languiage, as has been shown before using the COMP. Knowing whether a word is a noun or adverb is not the point. It’s the complex relationship among the words which creates verbal logic, as well. And this is why AI has failed for now to create either meaningful sentences and to understand/interpret them, because the COMP was not invoked, which DOES give meaning by comparing words to each other. This gives meaning by context. Until the contextual sense can be performed by computers, by careful analysis modeling the COMP, then AI will not easily speak good English, or sensibly, either. AI CANnot understand the word, can.

15. Let us analyze using the COMP how the programmer thinks creatively. When that is done, using the COMP’s empirical introspection, then we will see how new programming methods are created. Programming is NOT science. It’s an art like creating a musical composition or creative verbal writing. It’s creative. There is no mathematical description of it possible at this time, because we do NOT have a mathematics of verbal relationships which creates meaning. However, we CAN study a number of creative programmers and learn what steps they take, using comparison processes which do that kind of creative work. and it will be a form of the Comparison Process. We can compare their work to each other and learn from those comparisons. Once that is known, computers can be programmed to create new creative computer programming methods, by trial and error, the usual way creativity proceeds. And once that can be done, progress in the field of programming will expand exponentially because each new method which is created, can be compared to the others and this will create more and more new programming methods to solve the problem of AI. We create the tools to create the tools which create the solutions.

This is what the Comparison Process model can give us. An empirical introspective approach to the living art of the cortical processes of creativity in the programmers. The computers don’t create programming progress, human brains’ cortical processors do. and if we understand that, then creating better and more methods to solve any problem will be much easier. and go much faster. Otherwise it’s all trial and error and it’s unlikely to go anywhere very soon, unless someone gets extraordinarily lucky. But winning the lottery is exceedingly unlikely in this case, altho many are willing to bet on it. As is said, playing the lottery is likely a voluntary tax on those who don’t know the laws of probability. We MUST play when the odds are for us, not against us.

As Einstein so wisely wrote, “An epistemological advance always proceeds progress in physics.” The same is true of AI. The Comparison Process is that epistemological advance in understanding the massive comparison processors in the human brain/mind interface. We don’t have to understand the complex, N-body problem of the brain’s neurophysiology, which creates the COMP. We HAVE the needed function already identified and it’s the COMP.

16. We only have to understand the Function of how programmers are creative and what skills they are using as any professional does when he works so much better and faster than others without those skills. We must learn more about programmers’ creativity. It’s a good bet a good many of those are already known. Those series of programming skills which make him a better, faster, more accurate programmer and creative besides. That is the key here. Understand the creativity of the programmers, and design that into a computer to create more computer driven/originating creativity. That by itself will give us AI far faster. There is no reason to believe otherwise. There is no theoretical reason, given the success of basic voice/image recognition programming methods to believe anything but that it can be done with work, trial and error, and an understanding of the basics. Otherwise, without the COMP it could take 100 years. And there would be little or no understanding of how it worked, either.

We know how Einstein, Wallace./Darwin, Edison, Archimedes and others created their new understandings. We need only to compare THOSE examples to those used by the programmers to find new solutions. When the COMP enhances creative progress by direct utilization by the programmers, then progress in creating computer/mathematical models of the human language will proceed very quickly because the same processes which create new creativity for computer programmers, will, create computer human language and language use and understanding. It’s recursive, self-reflexive and will likely work. One method of creating a COMP model using machines can create all the rest of AI. Create the tools which create the tools and the rest follows.

I wrote all of these creative articles simply by using the COMP, in less than 3 months’ time in a mid 60’s year old, who should not have much creativity at all. The COMP and its re-inforcing dopamine high can give that to many persons. And what could it do to boost that in a 30 year old, already creative computer programmer and analyst? The mind fairly boggles.

This is what the COMP portends. If we understand understanding, if we can create creativity, then there are far more and better answers.