The Comparison Process (COMP): Explananda 4

The Comparison Process (COMP): Explananda 4

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

Contents
1. Neurophysiology of the Comparison Process, anatomic location in brain.
2. Use of the COMP in dictionary reading/creation of dictionary order; phone book listings the same; street addressing using a map to create the addresses and to find/read them; most all maps as COMP.
3. Creation by the COMP of the taxonomies of all known genus/species, the Tree of Life; creation of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of all known stars types;
4, Organization/creation of the Periodic Table of the Elements/isotopes by use of the COMP; the classification of the known sub-atomic particles, also by the same means, the COMP; IUPAC listing of known chemical compounds organized by same comparison processes.
5. Mathematics as a comparison process creation; how does each number compare to the others, generates basic arithmetic; algebra, geometries, plane and spherical, as well as trigonometry.
6. Language as a creation by COMP; Discovery as a COMP function.
7. The major function of the COMP is re-cognition using the LTM as a stable platform upon which to build up the complexity. underlies all learning, informal and formal learning, called education. COMP is active in trying to make sense of what is being sensed.
8. Humor/jokes arise as creations and being understood by using the COMP; the dopamine kick in humor, discovery, curiosity, and creativity which re-inforces the success of each performance; building design uses the COMP as well as construction.
9. Recognition as a common biological trait seen in most all animals; neurophysiology of animal COMP like ours in higher primates, analogous in mammals, and birds/reptiles, down through the fish and more primitive forms.
10. Koko’s ability to use Ameslan (American Sign Language) as a demonstration of higher primates’ similar cortical neurophysciology to ours.
11. Porpoise intelligence/communication as a form of mammalian recognition showing COMP
12. Recognition in sponges and other similar early forms of life.
13. DNA as a biochemical form of comparison process at a biochemical level; complementarity and copying are forms of the COMP; ancient origin of DNA and biochemical recognition.
14. The COMP in decipherment of lost languages, a sort of decoding system, a Rosetta stone in and of itself; cryptography and the COMP.
15. Creativity and the COMP
16. Medical examinations, differential diagnoses, treatments and therapies as forms of the comparison process.
17. Art as a form of the COMP be it visual, musical, dance, etc.

Die Gotterfunken
18. “Ode to Joy” by Schiller; use of “Joy” inspiring Beethoven’s 9th Symphony, Scherzo and Choral finale, especially; inspiration as the COMP capability.
19. Religion unlocks the feeling of the Gotterfunken; the effect of increased dopamine in creating Die Gotterfunken.
20. The similarity of psychosis and mania, being high levels of dopamine activity of the Dopamine 2 receptors, which impair cortical functioning, creating
21. Relationship between madness and creativity solved–dopamine 2 receptor site overactivity.; music releases the dopamine via COMP
22. Love and dopamine/COMP relationship. Re-infroces love; Power of dopamine release mediated by COMP.
23. Heightened feelings of increased dopamine 2 receptor site stimulation.
24. Dopamine release as the basis for great movements of all sorts, including religions, political movements (Marxism/National Socialism) ;
Dopamine can be very damaging if not properly controlled.
25. All the good and bad of the COMP coupled with dopamine effects shows the huge capabilities, the vast multiplicities built into the COMP either with or without dopamine release effects. Die Gotterfunken.

The Comparison Process(COMP) is a high level function largely located in the 100,000’s of cortical cell columns in the human brain, which anatomically make up the gyri of the brain, and where speech/language, creativity, visual imaging/processing, sensorimotor functions, musical functions, etc., including most high level memories are stored.

Because each of these cortical cell columns are very much alike, this explains how the same, single function, the COMP can account for in multiplicit ways, neatly, parsimoniously most all high level processes. The COMP generates language, math, movement, sensation, visual images, hearing and music, and a great many other functions using the Comparison Process.

The Comparison Process can be very simply demonstrated by taking out a dictionary and looking up the word, Comparison. The brain organizes the search, again the comparison process, and we look for the C section in the dictionary, usually finding it by trial and error. But when we find ourselves in the “C’s”, we look for “com”. Finding that, we continue to move down, comparing each letter, one after the other, until we get to the “COMPA-” and then finally find Comparison.. We compare what we find, to what we search for, find the match, and we’ve found the word. Comparison is then given meaning by strings of words which explain/define “comparison”. Words are defined in terms of other words, esp. high level abstractions. In other instances, they can be compared to images of the word’s spelling, or as an image for “bird” for example (comparison). But overall, it’s the comparison process which is being used to both find, and well as build up the dictionary of words, one at a time. By using the same comparison process. the writers using the COMP have created the dictionary’s order. The COMP creates order from disorder, also. Look at a Thesaurus. It’s also organized by finding how words are similar, or different, i.e., the synonyms and the antonyms. Then there are the homonyms, which sound alike, by using our comparison processors, and can be the source of many puns, jokes and double entendres. Humor is also created by the comparison process, just as language is.

Look at the listing of the entire phone book, which order is created again by the COMP, listed by names in alphabetical order. It’s created by the COMP and it’s read and used millions of times a day by all of us, using the same Comparison Process. Doing the same task over and over, listing the names and numbers to create the phone book, and then using the same COMP to read it. The same is true fo ALL dictionaries and phone books and indices in any book and in any language.

Look at our street addressing methods. Same system, numbers in sequence followed by street names. We find the place we’re looking for by finding out where it is on a map, which has been created by finding & writing down all of the corresponding streets/features and how they are related to each other on a geometric grid. You read the map and find the street and street number. This is yet another form of index, created by the COMP. All the same processes, looking for and finding street addresses as the system of COMP we used to find words, etc in the dictionaries, thesauri, encyclopedias and most referent texts and others with indices at the end. Then there are the gazeteers which listing alphobetically where the names for places are, same system. The COMP.

The same is true of the how the extensive lists/descriptions of all of the known forms of life on our planet, called the taxonomy by genus and species. Each belongs to families, then orders, then phyla, then plant, animal, bacterial and other forms, such as viruses. All are related to each other because all of been compared to each other, and those which are very similar, such as the beetles, representing millions of species alone, have been organized to create this vast, compendium, the “Book of Life”. It’s all put together by one single process, the Comparison Process, which has compared and found which species are alike and put them toegether based upon appearances, functions, sizes, genetics and many other factors. All the same, simple function, the COMP.

The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram in astronomy organizes into an interrelated whole all of the known star types, both seen and as yet undiscovered, which can be assigned a place on the HRD. The COMP has by itself organized and ordered into a comprehensive whole, by comparing every single star to the others to create a chart of the natural development of stars during their lifetimes,the main sequence, and finding out where each fits. That’s the COMP. It’s read the same way any dictionary is read, by the COMP. Untold, unlimitted numbers of stars can fit into the HRD, each placed there by the COMP.

In the periodic table of the elements/isotopes all the known elements, both naturally occurring and synthetic are listed, and in groups of associated families with similar characteristics: the noble gasses, which are largely inert, the halogens such as Fl, Cl, Iodine, Astatine, etc., and the alkali metals such as Li, Na, Cs., etc.; the ferrous metals, such as Co, Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo, and related metals. The lanthanide series of rare earths, the the Uranium group, and the gold, silver, Platinum group metals, too. All showing their relationships by the COMP which has created the order in terms of number of protons, which creates atomic number, average weight of the elements found on earth, and imploying the electron levels which determine the bonding chemistries of each element and group. All by the COMP.

There are 4 stable known particles, the proton, the electron, the neutron, created by the combination of 1 proton and electron, and the neutrinos. The first 3 make up all of the atoms known. This is the COMP at work, and has also created the entire classification of all the known elementary particles, most of which are unstable, and break down into electons and neutrinos, and occ. protons. All organized and created by the COMP

Then we have the Int. Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry which lists in a huge compendium all of the known inorganic chemicals/organic compounds, over 32 million by last count. Same comparison process, which organizes and orders the whole, endlessly repeated and referred to. the COMP. The COMP is ubiquitous and has so many complex forms, it’s been disguised for quiite some time, & hard to realize that this vast complexity can be created out of one simple process, but it’s there, if you know how to see it and what to look for. And it’s created in our cortices.

In all databases, in all known pagination systems, in acts and plays organized by acts/scenes, the Opus numbers of musical compositions, and on and on, without end. All the myriad ways. The Bible is organized chronologically by books, and then by chapters and verses, in the same way. The Koran by the surahs. The Bhagavad Gita also into chapters and verses. This is no accident. It allows any person to read any part they want to find, simply by any method of pagination/’indexing.

Mathematics is the comparison process. It’s simply arithmetic, that is, how all numbers are related/compared to each other. 4 is related to 12 by being 8 less, and 12 by being 3 times 4. Adding is the comparison process. When you compare things, you have to have at least 2 to compare to. So comparing items/words, etc., puts them together in combination. Recombination is yet another face of the COMP. Even numbers are all divisable by 2. Squares, cubes adn so forth, all have the same relationship. The same with the reverse, the square root. Algebra is essentially ratios/proportions. Geometry is very similar using shapes. Pi is the ratio of how a circumference compares to the diameter. Trigonometry is how right triangles’ 2 legs compare to each other, with the angle between, which creates the other leg’s length. Simply, the COMP. More complex math is more of the same. It starts out simply and becomes very complex and large, but that’s what the COMP does. and by making it so large and complicated, it hides the extremely simple, capable process, the COMP, which underlies a the foundation of language, math, geometry and much else.

Living systems classifications are based upon the same processes exactly. As all living systems can be organized and understood, at least in part, based upon the COMP, then their basic functions are also built upon it. The biochemical reactions, the structure of the cells, our understanding of it is created by the COMP.

In Language, the child is taught basic words, and how these are compared to each other. In teaching the child we use imitation, mimicry, & other comparison methods all to teach it. When we understand the words, it’s by definitions and showing how the words compare to each other and gives meaning. When we perceive a new word, it’s a discovery for us and we get a bit of a rush. When a child finds something new, he may say, “Daddy! Look what I found!!” The thrill of finding something new, which he knows is new because it’s not like anything he’s seen before. It dosen’t fit with repeated COMPs. It’s new, it’s novel.

Recognition is all the COMP. it means literally, re-known, and that is what the COMP does. When a word has been seen again and again, it’s stored in Long Term Memory. When it’s seen again, it’s re-cognized and what it means also tumbles out of the memory cache in the cortices, often stored in more than one place. Thus Long Term Memory creates the basic stable platform for all of our ideas/words/images. When we find something new, we’ve done a COMP search and not found it. So we find out what it is by observing it, reading about it, asking about it, and getting taught about it. This is education/learning. The COMP processes therefore underlie all critical parts of learning and education of all kinds. It’s all the same process of recognition, or not recognizing it. When we recognize something, we Re-Cognize” it. It’s something we’ve seen/heard, recorded before and it’s alike or the same, or a similar sort of. That’s what creates recognition. We might get a kick of dopamine from it too. Kids are curious because when they find something new, they get that novelty rush, dopamine release, mediated by the COMP in their cortices. So the COMP reinforces learning and doing acts again, such as learning.

Our Cortical cell columns actively are seeking to make sense of and understand what we sense around us all of the time. The COMP is actively seeking to make sense of words it hears, events around us all the time. It seeks connections, it seeks understanding in terms of what it already knows and is fully capable of finding new events, observing them, descriving them in terms of words already known and then adding that new event to what it already knows, so the cache of understood terms/ideas/images grows.

Humor is of the same type. We get a dopamine release from wit, jokes, humor of all kinds, including puns. At the core of each of these is the recognition of novelty, of the word which means two things, or a slightly ribald, unexpected discovery of something new in the joke. All humor is the COMP with that dopamine kick. Same with discovery.

The same is true of creativity. When we create something new, or find something new, we get that same kick, that same re-inforcing jolt of dopamine, depending a good deal upon circumstances. It’s contextual. If the comedian has “warmed up” the audience they are more likely to laugh by the reinforcing done before hand. The COMP can be reinforcing, with discovery, humor, creativity, or seeing or hearing something awe-inspiring. The COMP is self-reinforcing and that’s what created curiosity, too.

So we have it here, from a very simple cortical cell column function, the Comparison Process, We have developed great complexity and a huge number of more complicated functions, building up from parts a whole, just as the cells build up a larger organism.

That is no accident. Recognition is a biological trait which is not comfined to humans and our cortical cell columns. It’s a natural process with many other forms, from animals recognizing each other, their mates, to landmarks and territories, to nesting & food and predators. All recognition means is they have seen, heard, smelt, detected an event before, stored it in their LTM and when they detect it again, it triggers the recognition by means of an analogous COMP.

When we design buildings, we use the COMP and then closely compare all thru building against those master plans, to make sure it’s done right, it’s done to specifications in the master plan. When we design anything to serve as a master plan, we use the COMP, be it buildings, manufactured items, automobiles, or even our legal and moral systems. It’s all the COMP.

Animals may use different neurophysiology than we in many cases, but in the higher primates, our cortical cell columns are very, very much alike. But in that COMP we are all alike, regardless of it being an ant who knows her sister by touching antennae, as they do along ant trails to food,toand from the nest;; of wolves who smell each other (as do all dogs); or cats; or birds who hear calls, etc., etc., etc. It’s all the COMP

Let’s look at Koko, the gorilla who was taught American Sign Language. Does she have the capability, neurophysiologically of learning language? Yes. She has very nearly the same learning capacities of a 2-3 year old child, and also very similar cortical cell columns, which she used to learn and also used, by imitation, mimicry and reinforcement methods. And she was even able to expand her vocabulary by creating new signs/words by putting them together in novel ways. Creativity is a function of the COMP. She had it so she used it to learn how to communicate with her trainers. Why is this so hard for so many to figure out and accept? Clearly, the gorilla has functioning COMP, a cortex, which can learn how to communicate, where NO WORDS AT ALL existed before. Very similar to our multiplicit, highly capable, highly flexible Cortical Cell Columns which can do so much, too, with so very little.

In porpoises also, the COMP has been used to find porpoise language, by which single whistles, when compared each to each invididual in the porpoise pod responds to it, we can see the recognition by the individual of his own name by the COMP. The porpoise brain is intelligent and it, too, works by the COMP.
This is no accident. It’s the power, the unlimitted recursivity, creativity, repeatabilty of the COMP. Le Chanson Sans Fin,, the endless variations of the single theme, the comparison process.

If you take a red sponge and a white sponge, and separate out gently the individuals cells making up each sponge, mix them and then wait while they sit in a seawater, they simply re-assort themselves into two clumps, one white sponge, the other Red. They have a comparison Process which they use to know self and others. Songes are among the oldest living animals on the earth, going back at least 600 millions of years. They can recognize self and others, biochemically. That is the COMP we see in ants, we see in birds, and we see in humans, uniting ALL living species we have so far found in a great chain of life.

Take the DNA molecule which is the genetic basis of all known life forms. It’s found in all living things in slightly varying, but essentially very similar forms. The DNA polymerase which duplicates the DNA for reproduction in ALL living cells, first identifies the DNA strand to be duplicated, biochemically, then when it detects, that is recognizes, a Thymidine (T), it joins it to a Adenine DNA nucleotide, or vice versa, and when it finds a Cytosine nucletide, adds to it a Guanosine, or vice versa. Then it builds up the entire duplicate DNA strand, very very quickly and accurately, using this biochemical COMP. All reproduction in plants and animals is done this same way, using a biochemical form of the comparison process. ALL of them, from the most recently developed strains of varieties of plants and animals we have domesticated, to the algal stromatolites which date back 3.5 Billions yrs, or more, and today still live in the oceans now as they did then. it’s an extra-ordinary system, to have survived all of this time, because it’s also highly capable and efficient, doing so very much with so very little.

These facts show, again and again, how the COMP in molecular or sensory recognition forms are all very similar, universal and part of living systems. The COMP either biochemical or sensory, or neurophysiological, or of the immune systems, are found in all living systems and cells, regardless of how simple they are or how complex. It’s an endless form of the same process.Each is one more variety of the variations like a theme found in music, among most all the variations of forms found in species and kinds of life. It’s a unifying concept and biochemical process. It exists everywhere on the earth.

The COMP has been shown to be able to decipher the Rosetta Stone by comparing words in known Hellenistic Greek in the bottom section to unknown Ptolemaic hieroglyphics in the top line, by trial and error creating a reconstruction of the written and oral language of the ancient Eygption by Champollion and Young. Much of this creatitivy, learning, education, giving meaning, and translation can be seen in the movie, “Stargate, which brilliantly shows Rolland Emmerich’s craft, understanding and skills in movie making. The COMP can create translations from one language to another, simply by the comparison process. This is an existing and almost trivial and daily repeated activity. It can recreate dead language such as Hittite, cunieiform Sumerian and Babylonian, to the very difficult Linear B translation of ancient, Mikunan Greek into English.

When we do cryptograms, we use the same, trial and error, Comparison Process to decipher them. As we do ANY code. We have built up the laws of the universe by using the COMP in the sciences, which are massive testing, checking, numericity using, measuring, comparison methods, too. We have begun successfully to decode the universe, using the COMP and with no end in sight as the COMP creates creativity as well. With the COMP it seems likely that most all things in time will be shown to us.

That creativity is due to the COMP has been already established beyond all reasonable doubt in previous explananda and Le Chanson. There are literally 100’s of millions of specific instance of it, virtually daily, confirming its existence. For each newly created method/idea/word from the COMP, others can be created. Comparing the COMP functions to everything else which it can be compared to has shown all of this. But there is yet more, far, far more.

When medical professionals do their physical examinations, they know what to look for and what those physical findings mean, by comparing to their large body of knowledge. It creates the differential diagnoses which allow medical practitioners to recognize all known medical conditions. It’s essential to diagnosis. It is responsbile for all measuring and testing and thus underlies those diagnostic tests, as well. It underlies treatments and therapies, and the creation of new methods to treat diseases. It underlies the very methods of the sciences, as well. & it;’s also capable to recognizing previously unknown conditions, studying them and figuring out what they are caused by and how to treat them. It’s more of the same, just another of the endless varieties of the comparison process template. It’s very easy to show

When art is created, be it movies, paintings, music, or any of the other forms, the COMP is there in full panoply, creating complexity from great simplicity. The arts at their very fundamentals are the COMP. Thus the science & the arts and all language, and all cultures are at a very fundamental source, created, sustained, and built up by the COMP in our cortices. This is a grand unifying process. It unites us all. It unites us with all of the other life on our planet. It unites us at the deepest levels to our universe itself and shows us how most everything is related to the rest.

We’ve seen Paranoid shizophrenia and how it and bipolar disorder are related, genetically and by the COMP. Psychosis is the same as the mania in bipolar disorder, clearly. Fanaticism, religious conversions, visions of the saints, and all those similar hallucinations, including both the aural and visual of dream states, are created by the COMP. This is no coincidence. The COMP lies at the foundation of all higher level brain functions. Paranoid schizophrenia is due to a Dopamine 2 receptor site being overstimulated. The same can be seen with PCP, amphetamines and cocaine and other manic states. When the D2 receptor is blocked by using haloperidol or any of the other major transqulizers, the delusions, the paranoias, and the rest of it often go away. All of it features of the COMP gone awry.

When we hear the stirring music of Ravel, or Linda Eder, and many other great singers, such as Oum Calthoum of Egypt, who can induce a state of great pleasure. When we are in love, we get a very similar emotion. When St. Paul underwent his conversion on the Road to Damascus. When we read of the ancient Saturnalias, the Bacchanalis, the mystery religions, we see the same thing.

Der Gotterfunken

“Ode to Joy” by Friedrich Schiller, set to music by Beethoven in the last, great choral movement of his 9th Symphony

“Daphne et Chloe Suite”
— Maurice Ravel

“Do unto others as you your have others do to you.”
— Rabbi Hillel 1st C. BC.
— Jeshua Ben Joseph, 1st C. AD.

“There is faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love.”
–1st Corinthians

The COMP arises from inspiration, and can be a cause of inspiration, also. All the great religions, from the ATMAN, the oneness with the universe, to the ecstasies of the mystery religions of the Greeks, to St. Paul on the road to Damascus, and the proselytizing fervor of the religious zealots. All of these have the COMP as the means by which these emotional states can be created. Be it humor or comedy, or awe-inspiring music, or great writing and poetry.

When we see Buddha under the Bodhi tree, where he was enlightened to great joy. When we read of the All in the Atman. When we see the proselytizing of the Christians snd Muslims. When we see the cults which create the same, awe-inspring, great relgious feelings, both ancient and modern. Then we seen the COMP with it’s dopamine releasing potential. It’s all very much the same, all the myriad ways, all the endless variations of the COMP major theme, which can unite all humans, and all plants and animals known from the very deepest biochemical levels of reproduction of self, to the brilliancies and inspirational moments of arts and religions. The comparison process enlightens us about the richest complexities inside ourselves and other life, and to the richest complexities of everything outside of us. It’s all related, you see. It’s mostly the same source. The comparison process.

We’ve seen Paranoid schizophrenia and how it and bipolar disorder are related, genetically and by the COMP. Psychosis is the much same as the mania in bipolar disorder, clearly. Fanaticism, religious conversions, visions of the saints, and all those similar hallucinations, including both the aural and visual of dreams states, are created by the COMP. This is no coincidence. The COMP lies at the foundation of most all higher level brain functions. Paranoid schizophrenia is due to a Dopamine 2 receptor site overstimulation. The same is true of PCP, amphetamine, cocaine and other manic states. When the D2 receptor is blocked by using haloperidol or any of the other major transqulizers, the delusions, the paranoias, and the rest of it often go away. All if it features of the COMP gone awry.

There is a relationship between madness and creativity, and it’s the COMP. There is a relationship between the overactivity of the D2 receptors of the Cortex and Schizophrenia and mania. The same is true during religious conversions, visions, and so forth. We get a dopamine kick from jokes, from discoveries, great music, good comedy. great art, outstandingingly awe inspiring scenes such as the Yosemite Valley and Falls during the maximum spring run off, with 3 of the world’s highest waterfalls, among 12 others. These are creations of the COMP.

When we hear the stirring music of Ravel, or Linda Eder, and the other great singers, such as Oum Calthoum of Egypt, who can induce a state of great feeling, the “tarab”; When we are in love, we get a similar, deep feeling. When St. Paul underwent his conversion on the Road to Damascus. When we read of the ancient Saturnalias, the Bacchanalis, the ecstasies of the great mystery religions, we see the same thing.

But whence comes love? Be it agape, eros, philias, maternitas(mother’s love for a child), love of country, love of a man for a good woman, which can be the best and most enduring form of love, tho rare. Where does love come from? It’s dopamine in origin, and comes from recognition of a loved one. That good feeling we get when we are around them. That sense of emptiness which arises upon absence or death, and its withdrawal effects, and in the latter, the grief which it can create, which can cause a person to die, too.

What of the martyrs for Christ, who would give up their very lives thru the most cruelest tortures and deaths for their faith? Of the men who would die for their country? What of the enormous power of the Jihad, which is a similar thing? What of the charismatic leaders who can create devotion and followers, which great persuaders can stir the emotions against all reason, such as Lincoln, FDR, and more recently, Steve Jobs, with his reality field distortion persuasions?

These show the capabilities of what can be released using the COMP. And they are all related, too. It can be used for good, or for bad. The Buddha under the Bodhi tree, and flood of sensations created by his “Enlightenment”. How Christians feel when they are converted and go on to proselytize others. The great religious impulses and feelings. All, the COMP, the dopamine agonist responses, too. Recognition of a lover, can create the emotion of love, which is dopamine related. Creation of new ideas, or a new, great song can do the same. The power of humor, also. Each of these recognitions, discoveries, creations, can give rise to this sensation. The Awe inspiring sensation which Einstein most respected, which can give rise to great creations, such as Beethoven’s 9th.

Standing on the edge of Glacier Point for the 1st time, gazing out over the entire Yosemite Valley’s magnificent scenery, seeing the spring runoff at its maximum, from 3 of the world’s greatest waterfalls in full glory, among the other 12 there, too. Hearing that great roar of the voice of Yosemita Falls. & how many other scenes, situations? That sense of Awe as Einstein wrote it. The Pleasures of Philosophy written of by Aristotle. The sense of the Gotterfunken of the major religions and that Oneness with God. It all is connected too, and can be created by the COMP.

The inspiration of the great leaders, Churchill, Alexander the Great, Jesus, Mohammed, the Buddha, and many, many others, including Frederick the Great.
All of these are related to the COMP, because the COMP can release them.

Seeing that bright bollide which illuminates the clear skies of our reason, creating enlightenment from what was once confusion and darkness. But that light does not fade.

This may be what starts many great movements and religions, be they good or bad, from Christianity to cults; from the Reformation, to the National Socialists; from the fight/right for Revolutionary freedom in the US and France, to the ignominious start in Petrograd from 1917, to 1991 end of the USSR. There is a commonality in our minds/brains. The inspiration to greatness or the worst. That creativity/inspiration built into all of us.

Religious and political zealots and fanatics can also come from the dopamine release which can be created by the COMP. The Kamakazis, the hashish manias which created the assassins, the mania of the Terrorist suicide bombers. The Creators of religious cults know how to create this feeling. and because it’s dopamine related, we can figure out how to block it. Dopamine inhibitors like haloperidol, and the other dopamine blockers can stop it, because the mania/psychosis we see is related to the same thing. Combined with an environmental template surrounding the one so allficted, it can be controlled, then generally ablated if it’s not too well fixed and the person is not too old. This is generally called de-programming.

from madness and creativity and some of the highest values of inspiration can come from the same source. We cannot have the one without the other. They are all parts, uniquely created inside of each of us, old far beyond the ancient and highly capable, from the complex neurophysiology which gives rise to the COMP. Every person carries the COMP neurophysiology. Everyone is capable of creativity, as our common use of all languages shows every day. It unifies us, it holds us together. It’s that divine piece of God inside of all of us. That capacity to create, to know, to love, to inspire and be inspired to greater achievements and goals. Those deepest feelings of awe and mystical experiences: The Gotterfunken, built inside of all of us, which draws all together at the most deepest fundamental levels with our fellow humans, and all the other life on the earth and outwards to all which is in our universe, the Spark of God.

Optical/Sensory ILLusions, Creativity and the COMP

Optical and Sensory Illusions, Creativity and the Comparison Process (COMP )

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

Optical illusions are “glitches” or errors, in our visual system’s processing of retinal images. This can potentially give important insights into just how our visual cortex processes images from the retina. In the same way that a genetic error can give insights into how normal gene products function, by providing a comparison to normal, so these visual processing errors can also provide insights.

Several of these optical illusions have been presented before, but will go over them once again to provide the foundation for new insights into visual cortical processing. First, the lunar illusion is seen when a full or nearly full moon is just above the horizon, It appears to be larger than when it’s in the sky. The dispelling, correcting, or comparing step is easy to do in this case. Hold up a meter rod, or something similar to it which is graded, and measure the maximum width of the moon above the horizon and then when it’s up in the sky. This will provide a comparison method which will show that it’s an illusion.

Second, there is an illusion which is created when several regular off centered boxes are interposed between straight lines. It creates the illusion that the lines are not straight. Simply laying down a clear plastic straight edge on a printout of the illusion will by Comparison show that at least 2 of the lines are straight, dispelling & correcting this illusion.

http://brainden.com/optical-illusions.htm
Go down the list to the one just under “Jesus illusions”, called “Line illusions”. The one you see is referred to here.

A motion illusion is created when sitting stopped at a light, while in a car, next to a large truck or bus. If the large vehicle begins to move forward, we get a motion illusion that the car is moving backwards. By comparing this illusion to a street sign or something fixed next to the road, the illusion at once is dispelled by the correcting comparison.

If we have a bit of metal in our pocket on a cooler day, & we reach into the pocket and touch part of the metal, we can get an illusion of wetness. Only by feeling around for wetness/liquid and finding none, and feeling the metal’s shape, such as a coin, is the illusion dispelled by this correcting comparison.

If we hear an echo and we move towards it, we can dispel the echo by finding out the actual source of it, the correcting comparison.

Another interesting illusion is that called the Checkerboard illusion, of a green(or gray), stubby cylinder resting on a shaded checkerboard square.

http://www.slate.com/blogs/bad_astronomy/2013/12/07/optical_illusion_shades _of_grey.html (Phil Plait’s great website.)

Scroll down to this one and the one above, which ALSO, the Cornsweet Illusion, shows the correcting comparison, which, as predicted by the COMP model, corrects it.

In the Checkerboard ILLusion two of the squares, one inside and one outside of the shade from the cylinder, look to be different gray shades. The correcting comparison is created by joining the two squares with the same shade of gray, thus showing they are the same. The comparison derangement is created by each square being simultaneously compared to a different shade of gray, the one being in the shade, the other outside of it. This very Clearly demonstrates the comparison process which has gone awry, and why it’s a very good demonstration of the COMP going on the visual cortex, where all optical illusions are imaged.

All illusions, be they visual, hearing, touching and so forth, are capable of being dispelled by a simple comparison test. Sometimes there is more than one kind of correcting comparison which will work. All visual illusions are created by the comparison process operating in the visual cortex, even if it arises in the retina, in the case of looking at opposite colors, such as purple and yellow objects which are persistently gazed at, and the gaze at once shifts to a white paper target. Simply by waiting for the rhodopsin color pigments of the retina to normalize, the illusion just fades away. Again, the correcting comparison.

The comparison process creates these sensory illusions and can correct them, too. Each illusion can be categorized simply by the kind of illusion it is, and the way in which the illusion is comparison corrected. Once the comparison correction and its corresponding illusion type are categorized, broadly, pattern recognition, will be created by our cortical comparison processors. & then we will begin to understand more and more about how images of all types arise, i.e., edges, lines, shapes, colors, shading, etc. & will give us very likely a much deeper understanding of what kinds of processes are going on in the visual cortex which create the images we see.

Literally, tho, an unlimited number of visual illusions can be created, just because the comparison process is capable of working in an unlimited way every time we see something. This has created a huge number of illusions to work through, but by using this process of illusion/correcting comparison method we should begin to see patterns, and then be able to understand more.

Once we understand visual comparison processes, then we will be given insights into all sorts of cortical comparison processes, such as language, hearing, creativity, memory organization, and so forth, endlessly. That is because the human cortical cell columns, with the exception 2 changes in the motor cortex, are all fundamentally very similar in origin and structure, created out of 5 layers of complex neuronal connections and kinds. This organization must relate directly to function in some way, a structure/function relationship, a COMP. This will allow us to further investigate the exacting neurophysiological processes and connections going on the cortical cell layers of the visual cortex. And that will give us insights into the functioning of the slightly different cortices for the major, functioning areas of the brain. This will give us the structure function relationship between the neurophysiology and how it’s converted to what we see. That is, it will begin to enlighten us specifically as to how the mind works from a neurophysiological basis. This will further permit a good, scientifically valid and reliable understanding of the mind/brain interface. That is the power of the comparison process.

Our cortical cell columns (and similar ones in the great apes and dolphins) exist in 100,000’s of numbers in the gyri of our brain, doing basically one process, the COMP, but with many different variations which can lead to hearing musical notes, or speaking or understanding language, reading (where dyslexia is the key to understanding reading COMPs, again the error of dyslexia can show us the way to understanding normal reading processing by the COMP), our sense of conscience, our consciousness insofar as that uses the Comparison Process.
It will be a LOT of work, trial and error, but that’s how our brain works, and with a better understanding of comprehension, will come many good things in education and medical applications.

Creativity and the COMP

Where does creativity come from? What exactly is the mental process which creates it? The Comparison Process can provide some very good insights. First, consider Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, which includes the COMP in it. Einstein held and proved that all distance and time measurements had to arise from having a single, arbitrary point from which we measured distance and time. There was no absolute space or time. When we measure distance, we start at a specific spot in space, and measure from that. Using a ruler, we set it down next to what we want to measure, and COMPARE the length of the object we are measuring against the ruler. It’s a comparison process. With the tape measure we can measure longer distances by making the same comparison against the tape. With an odometer we can also measure this by subtracting the starting distance from the ending distance of the trip. Using a trip odometer, we simply push the button to zero it, thus establishing our starting point from which we compare the distance. In most all cases, measurement is a comparison process, a COMP.

Relativity is called relativity because we measure relative to a fixed point, either in space, or time. Time is a COMP, also, and has been addressed in the Intro of “Le Chanson Sans Fin” Part 1″, already. Relativity is thus a Comparison Process.

When Einstein realized that all measures of distance and time were related to a fixed arbitrary site he got rid of Newton’s absolute space and time postulate. That was his first creative insight & creative leap. It was his first major creative breakthrough. From there things began to get interesting. In “Cosmos” by Carl Sagan, we were taken through Einstein’s thought experiment of what things look like riding on a photon, compared to a normal spot on the earth. He showed that the Lorentz-Fitzgerald equations were in fact what happened when one moved faster and faster close to the speed of light. Time slows down relative to the earth. The Twin paradox was found to be the case. This was based upon a Comparison between time and events on earth compared to speeding up to near light speed.. Again, the comparison of the two created his understanding of a real, physical process.

Then he realized that being in a gravitational field of 9.8 m./Sec.Sq. was the equivalent to accelerating in any vehicle at 9.8 m./sec.Squared. He compared the two and realized it was the same. Again, the COMP. & from that came the rest of his Relativity model. When one is on the surface of the earth, processes operate at a set, fixed time compared to a standard clock. When one is on a high earth orbit, gravity is lessened, and time speeds up, compared to that on earth. Again, the Comparison Process.

Now look, is this a coincidence, that most all measurement is a COMP, that comparing time/mass effects at great speed compared to those on earth, another COMP, and that gravitational forces/acceleration are equivalent, yet ANOTHER COMP, and that time goes faster in a lower gravitational field when compared to a higher gravitational field, yet another COMP? Of course not. Einstein’s creativity rested upon the realization of the importance of 4 basic findings, each of them arising when he made just the right COMP, to create his Relativity. Therefore, Einstein’s creativity which led to Relativity is based upon use of the COMP.

When Charles Darwin on the Galapagos Isles, by his own writing, said that he saw the Finches there, which when he compared them to each other, were very clearly related and in thinking about it, had clearly come from the same, initial species, it was when he had his Eureka moment, just like Einstein. Again, the Comparison Process created the insight. Wallace, who created his version of Evolutionary model from his observations on the isolated isles of Indonesia, found the same thing. By comparing many different species of plants and animals and finding that they too, had common anatomy and forms, and this meant common ancestors. Again, the COMP.

When Archimedes eluded death from the king of Syracuse, who believed his goldsmith had adulterated the gold in his newly made crown, it was again, clearly the COMP. He was threatened with death if he couldn’t prove the crown was adulterated gold or not, the goldsmith having stolen the difference. When he sat down into his bath, his body displaced a volume of water. He at once realized that all materials have volume, and that by measuring (COMP) the volume displaced by water, he could determine a new quantity, called Density, which is mass divided by volume, or grams/cm.cubed. in today’s physics. Not only were his measurements the COMP, but so was his basic arithmetic and algebra the Comparison Process, as was his realization at that historical “Eureka!” moment, that he could solve the problem by displacing the same weight of gold with water and doing the same with the gold crown, and by COMPARING the difference, determine if gold had been replaced in the king’s crown with a base, less dense metal.

Now look, is it reasonable to conclude that the Comparison Process clearly used throughout this creative discovery of density by Archimedes is a sheer coincidence? No! The COMP lies at the heart and core of most all known, testable creativity. It’s simple, it explains a very great deal and very efficiently, too. It can do a very great deal with a single, basic form of processing, the Comparison.

One more case: that of Thomas Edison’s extraordinary career as an inventor. That is, his creativity process. When Edison found the electric light he transformed human life. Darkness was dispelled and illumination efficiently created without risk of fire and with ease of use. It was his greatest discovery. But what was the creative leap which he took, which created the electric light? The Comparison Process gives us this insight. He used a lot of electricity. He had seen that when electricity of high voltage and current ran through metal wire it made it glow. And he reasoned, using the COMP, what if we use a lot more electricity, and make it glow very brightly? THAT was the creative leap, comparing a bit of power making the wire glow red, to a lot of power creating a bright light. It took him much trial and error to find the carbon filament which lasted some 80 hours, but he did. It took longer for us to find tungsten filaments which would last even longer, using the same trial and error seeking the outcome desired, by the Comparison Process. But there it is.

By extension, using the COMP, most all creativity is COMP, creative writing, the use of language to create meaning and explanation, composition of music, creation of all art. It’s the COMP. Creativity is at its very roots, its very wellspring, the COMP. It’s arrived at with all the great inventors of new ideas, they simply have that moment, when they put the right ideas/observations together and out it comes, the new, revolutionizing idea. Be it Relativity, or Quantum Mechanics, or the electric light, Evolution, or the creation of the idea of density. It all has the same, common source, operating in the cortices of our brains. If we can speak language, we can create a string of words which makes sense and describes formerly unknown events/ideas. If we can understand this new string of words, then we have made a discovery of something new, too. It’s all the same cortical process, the COMP.

The COMP unites all sciences and the arts. It unites all languages and mathematics. It unites us with all the living creatures on our planet who use the COMP to recognize territories, to identify food, to see predators and avoid them, at every high level function, to survive. At the biochemical level, the creation of new life, reproduction, is at the DNA level, a form biochemical of the Comparison Process. It’s very simple, but it does almost everything important to us. This is no accident, as has been described more fully before in “Le Chanson…” And it gives us a very unifying, deeply comprehending, with simplicity above all, about how to understand/comprehend, speak, read, order from chaos, organize almost everything we do. From the very elementary particles, to the atoms, to the elements, to the tens of millions of UIPAC compounds, to the very classification of the millions of genus/species of all living forms and viruses, to the very trillions and trillions of Stars (Hertzsprung/Russell Diagram), to our millions of words, dictionaries, thesauri, all indices and encyclopedias. It creates life, it organizes life taking chaos and creating order, it organizes and controls our minds and the very cells which make up our brains. It is the Comparison Process, unifying, universal, generalizing, comprehending. And when we travel outwards into space over the next 1000’s of years, we will meet other space faring species, eventually, and we will create an understanding of their languages using the COMP, as will they create from ours. The COMP unites us with all the universe. It’s a universal decoder of all languages and events. The Comparison Process.

The Comparison Process: Explananda, Pt. 2

La Chanson Sans Fin: The Comparison Process: Explananda, Pt. 2

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

21. In terms of the Comparison Process what are skills? From first hand experience in a number of fields, they are short cuts, algorithms, &/or methods will allow the user to function faster, more efficiently, more carefully and above all, more creatively in the field. Discovery hones the perceptivity, the COMP , because you are always searching for those events and ideas which will give you the answers. You get better and better at it, with the better methods built into your skills.

22. Let’s take counting pennies as a way of showing the various skills which can be developed and created by using the Comparison Process, showing the abundance of creative new ways we can do our tasks. Then understand how this example shows how, in its each unique way, the skills of all professional trades and professions can be developed.

We have many coins. So we see pennies, nickels, dimes, quarters and even a few half dollars. Using the Comparison Process, and previous learning of what coins are what, we can sort out the pennies from the rest. Sorting is a Comparison Process. Now we have to get the pennies into coin rolls. So, how do we do this? A direct approach is to simply count out 50 coins, 1 thru 50, and then drop them into the roll and seal it. But, let’s ask how a professional would do it. He’d may count them not one at a time but by 5’s, simply seeing the number by grouping 2 and 3 pennies. Then pile up the first groups into 10 penny stacks. Then count it up again and pile into the 2nd 10 penny stack, until there are 5 of them, and then putting them into the penny coin roll. Then the next. But there are other ways, thus showing the complexity of the skill and how it can be used in different ways to count pennies. He has to check and test at every point, to be sure of his count, too.

He has the first coin stack of 10 pennies. He notes that since all pennies are closely struck to be very much alike, any stack of 10 pennies is the same height. So using the 10 stacks he puts up 4 more without even counting. and by using the COMP, makes sure they are all the same height. He has counted the coins, without counting the coins!! Comparison Process, a Powerful tool. And so he does this again and again until the pennies are all counted & in rolls. & saves a LOT of time, again, the Least Energy Principle (LEP).

Other tools for coin counting would be plastic coin cylinders for 50 pennies, 100 dimes, 40 quarters, etc., each marked for the right heights of the different coins; or use a mechanical coin separator which does it lots more quickly, for those who must save lots of time, such as banks, supermarkets and large businesses.

23. In every case a skill can be improved using the Comparison Process to find faster ways, better, more efficient ways of doing a task. This is called, when more fully developed, having a skill, a profession, because the practitioner knows very much faster, better ways to do all the important tasks, having learned of these creative methods by teaching, or in many more cases, having created more himself, for their each unique way of performing the “skills upon skills” seen in skilled work of all types. Exactly how words are built up, exactly how language is created, exactly which underlies all the musical styles, and artistic work, too. Same process, endlessly repeated in education and training, and so on and so forth. Comparison Process. & there it is. Le Chanson Sans Fin.

24. Let’s take musical composition, for instance. Each composer has a set of methods, or skills, which he uses to create music. These determine his style of composition which we can easily hear. The composition of music uses the Comparison Process to create the lyricism, the flows of melody and rhythm which mark his style. Each major classical composer is at once recognized when listened to by a musician or experience amateur. The same is often true of popular music of all sorts. We use the COMP to do this, time and again. Beethoven’s music is often richly rhythmical, esp. in his 5th and 9th Symphonies. The music of Rachmaninoff has many richly lyrical and drifting melodies, esp. in his 2nd Symphony. He starts out the section just after the Scherzo with one of his most lovely and beautifully orchestrated melodies. It just drifts on and on, making one variation on the theme after another. The music of Ralph Vaughn Williams in his 3rd Symphony does much the same. And it’s a free association of one melodic variation after another, just like in the Rachmaninoff section. It just flows, a moving, streaming melody. A sort of stream of consciousness in melody.

And good writing is a lot like that. It flows from one idea to the next, cleanly seguing one segment to the next, triggering association after association, which can show one Comparison Process idea after another. Because if you know the COMP methods a composer uses, you can recreate his style of music, then if you know the writing styles, even Shakespeare can be recreated. Each style of music shows a uniquely individual way of writing music. The Styles of music, like the styles of writing, show the methods the author uses.

25. The style of our individual speaking and gait, our ways of walking, are often unique to each of us, and arise from this same use of varying kinds of algorithms which create these highly unique and thus identifiable, recognizable characteristics. So much so that we don’t often need to see the person, to ID him. In the same way, we don’t even have to know which piece it is of Chopin, to ID it’s him. The styles reflect their unique configuration of methods used to create or even play music, too. In art it’s a lot the same. We learn to recognize the drawings of Leonardo daVinci, of the impressionism of Monet, of the Picassos we see. Each reflects their methods and each set of methods gives them their styles. This is what the Comparison Process can show you, because it cannot only give you recognition, but show you patterns, associations, and other methods, too.

It’s the endless richness of the associations which creates the method of creation. The flow of associations called up by our Comparison Process from LTM. The COMP monitors everything, from language, diction, grammar and vocabulary, to position of our limbs when performing a skill, to the appropriate activities we do socially. It watches over our morals, our consciences, to keep us out of trouble.

26. The Comparison Process controls our focus of attention. It blocks out sensations irrelevant to current tasks. It orders the course of the stream of consciousness, too. It’s the main gate keeper of consciousness, and it’s probably active in the frontal and associative brain centers (parietal lobes), too. & thus creates our sense of consciousness as well as our conscience. This is no trivial task or observation.

But what happens when the Comparison Process goes awry? When the streams of associations get too loose, too sloppy, too fast, too socially unacceptable? That may be a characteristic of schizophrenia & mania. Not only does the flow of free associations called up get too fast, causing the pressure of speech, & the looseness of associations, but it becomes socially unacceptable, too. The COMP gets overwhelmed, the behaviors become inappropriate with yelling & screaming and so forth, and it’s flagrant psychosis, or perhaps mania.

The checker, the tester, the main controlling mechanism of the brain, the Comparison Process, has broken down,probably from too much dopamine D2 activation, & a speed up of the flow of information from the LTM and senses. This is associated with schizophrenia and the main dopamine receptor family. The anti-psychotics work, too, to control the disorder, by depressing the dopamine activity. This shows how powerful a tool, the Comparison Process can be in terms of understanding not only normal behaviors and creations, but abnormal psychology, too.

27. Again, a very simple system or the cortex, the Comparison Process can explain more about psychosis and mania, & the association between the two, telling us where the problem is, the cortex of the brain, and how to treat it. It’s known that in many persons, the same gene which causes bipolar disorder can create paranoid schizophrenia. And it’s simple to see how. mania can be a temporary psychotic state. When the control system for D2 overstimulation fails, we get psychosis or schizophrenia. When it’s only partial, we may get a bipolar disorder. Not only does this Comparison Process model show that mania and psychosis are two aspects of the same thing, but it also explains the depression often to the point of suicide, seen in psychoses. & probably indicates that psychosis also has a form of major fluctuation underlying the psychotic state, too, the hallmark of bipolar disorders,. That is, psychosis compared to a bipolar disorder, also has its up and down moods, somewhat camouflaged by the psychotic state. This is not a trivial observation, either. We know that the breakdown of the cortical Comparison Process is a part the problem and thus we know the schizophrenic gene’s abnormality is probably active in the cortex, itself.

28. We get a kick when we see something new. We get some modest excitement at novelty and discovering something new. That’s a bit of dopamine activation. When the brain gets too much excitement from dopamine activation, it can create a psychotic break. and that can be seen with PCP, amphetamines, and cocaine, also, any of which can create a permanent psychosis. The rush of activity in the free associations speeds up to much, the Comparison Process is disabled, and the system breaks down. The checker and tester lose control and the system stops working Pressure of speech, loose associations, inappropriate thinking, anti-social behaviors are all unleashed by this breakdown of the COMP .

29. This consciousness of ours is thus understandable in terms of the free associations called up from our LTM by our Comparison Process. The COMP sequences these to keep the flow under control. It’s what creates attention and inattention. When we sleep & dream, we dream of really silly things. We can fly, objects can appear and disappear, and on and on, but it’s not real. This may be an underlying free association of the brain called up by the Comparison Process from our LTM. & we know this because the cortex is activated during dreaming. When we are not dreaming we see slow activity in the cortex. When we see REM, the cortex changes to a higher rate of acitivity. When the checker is off, we get crazy dreams, but we can while having an awareness of dreams, tell it to stop and it does. Or even order the dream using lucid dreaming. The severely psychotic person is unable to stop this. The COMP is unable to work normally. The cortex has become deranged.

In the normal person, this stream of consciousness from our vision, sensations, memories, and so forth is controlled. In dreams, it’s not very well controlled, as we see during dreams a lot of impossible events, which once we realize it, can be controled using lucid dreaming techniques. Thus we see that the Comparison Process in the brain can not only create control of inappropriate behavior, but can as well, using the same comparison function, control dream states.

When this control breaks down, we can get mania and psychotic states, which can be largely restored by using judicious amounts of major/minor tranquilizers. Major tranquilizers if used early enough can completely control many psychotic breaks, and if used long enough 2-3 years, can even cure some psychosis, permanently.

30. Clearly, the Comparison Process is one “ruler of the brain”.It not only measures and tests by comparisons, but it can keep things under control. The COMP is seen to be important, general and widespread because it truly reflects existing cortical structure(s), which performs that action. It can control people from getting out of control, by other persons appealing to them. In the psychotic it can work too, but not as well, and occ. not at all. A child who is misbehaving, is taught discipline by the COMP, learning & then enforcing by internalization in the LTM. In cases of persons who have had a frontal lobe injury, we often see lack of social appropriateness, they get slovenly in appearance, they cuss, swear loudly and lack the social graces, to say the least. The frontal lobe has a cortex, and this area is where the Comparison Process in the frontal lobes works. If’ it’s damaged by some means, be it a genetic cause(Huntingdon’s), or trauma, or drugs or other cause, then the person becomes antisocial or even sociopathic. This is the power of the COMP function. It’s universal, it’s general, it applies to almost every major cortical function. and it governs our conscious activities like no other.

In the language areas of association, it’s responsible for creating speech and learning. It underlies creating new words and descriptions to cover new events and new ideas. In the musical area, it watches over the playing of notes and the recognition of melodies and the very creation of music. In the spatial relationships function of the right parietal lobe, it observes events there, testing, controling, comparing, measuring. In the motor and sensory areas, it does the same. In the Visual cortex, it’s constantly working to compare input to analyze by some means how the visual data compares to its set and learned algorithms, to find meaningful shapes, and so forth. It sees motion by comparing the positions from time to time, and detects motion by comparing the changes in positions of similar events.

31. As an aside, most of the illusions we see result from the visual system Comparison Process getting fooled. For instance, when we watch a bicycle wheel & shiny spokes spinning. At a certain speed when its spin slows down, our visual cortex shows us the illusion that the spinning reflection may move clockwise, then paradoxically, as the spin slows down more, it moves the other way. If you measure the speeds of the wheel when this change takes place, in the middle of that change from rotating clockwise or counter, that measures the rate of the impulses going from the retina to the visual cortex. It’s a stroboscopic effect, which measures the rate that the retina send impulses to the cortex. No one has ever really explained that before. But as the stroboscopic system can, by certain measured, definite rates determine speeds, so do the rotating bicycle tire spokes measure by spinning rate, the retinal impulse frequency to the visual cortex. It’s a COMP .

32. But even more important, we know the important principle, that if an error is made (such as in the genes), it can often tell us something about the structure which is creating the error. It may tell us how normal function of that genetic structure works. We often learn more from metabolic errors, than studying normal functions, too. The Comparison Process gives us something more to compare to, and we find more about normal functioning. So, too, a careful study of all major kinds of visual illusions should reveal important clues as to how our visual cortex compares inputs to create realistic images, those same images which we see in our dreams. Understanding how the COMP works can give extremely fruitful insights into our visual system’s processes of nerve impulses from the retina. And given these, nearly without end, as the visual illusions can be created without end. A sensory illusion is based upon the same process, an error in the Comparison Process used in the sensory cortex.

In fact, this tendency to compare and try to find shapes/images can go wrong, too. The cortex is always using the COMP always trying to make sense of what’s around it. When it goes wrong, & creates an image, it’s called an hallucination. & we see this prominently in psychosis, too. The Checker is off duty to some extent. In the auditory cortex, which we know by physiological MRI is activated in schizophrenic auditory hallucinations, the same is seen. It calls up the sounds of remembered voices, and these are interpreted as real. In the same way, the calling up of images in dreams which can be manipulated and controlled in Lucid Dreaming states, probably by a system the Comparison Process influences, & then we have dreams.

You see the method. One association leads to another. One comparison with a normal state can be made to an abnormal state, to elucidate how the systems work. That’s a how much a very DAMN powerful tool, the COMP function can be. It opens up vast new areas of insights into both normal and abnormal psychologies.

33. The delusion is a false, persistently unsubstantiated belief/idea, which is strongly held (LTM) and which resists the facts and all reason. The checker isn’t working again. The control capability of the Comparison Process is turned down. It’s no accident that schizophrenias are associated with delusions, either. The gatekeeper of social morals, rules, beliefs and behaviors, the COMP is damaged. So the COMP can explain in part, where the problem is in the cortex, in those cortical cell columns, where the Comparison Process is created by the neurophysiology of the brain.

Delusional states outside of shizophrenia can also be created. In those, if not too long standing, pyschotherapy can often intervene and restore the balance. This was how and why psychoanalysis occasionally worked. The checker, the Comparison Process was still working well enough that it could be reconditioned by psychological methods & insights to restore control and get rid of the delusion. In other cases, medications are far more effective. But in many delusion states cannot be treated with meds. This is another problem entirely and will be addressed later with potentially curative methods in an article on “Brain Hardwiring”.

34. You see the power of the conception, the Comparison Process. A sign of a good, fruitful model is its wide explanatory power from a very simple process. How it shows how humor comes about. How it shows the source of creativity in the “Aha!” moment, when a comparison is made with the punch line of the joke. How the same “Aha’ is seen upon recognition, upon discovery, upon creation of something new and novel. The COMP brings so very much together. It’s a powerful tool, because not only can one use the Comparison Process , but it can be held aside, and other, high level, cortical functions can be compared to it. To learn more, such as what creates consciousness, the LTM, the COMP and the constant call up of data for checking, comparison and other functions, such as motor and speech output are invoked.

It’s very simple recursive system which creates the complexity in our brains, from language & to most all our skills. It creates our understanding and even creates creativity. Being recursive and self consistent, it can comprehend understanding. It’s a simple, but powerful method used by the cortex to develop personality, and everything else, including the control structures which create our consciousness and conscience. It’s broad, it’s general, it may well be universal in scope in humanity

It’s a powerful tool, it can be used again and again, and it very likely represents something very real and working in the Neurophysiology of our cortical cell columns. & you can see above, my method of creative writing, and the free association (comparing 1 idea to another) of one topic to another, also. It’s an inexhaustible source of new discovery, creation & understanding of complex systems. It gives us important insights into how our brain functions at the higher cortical levels. It’s virtually unlimitted. Everything in the universe can be compared to everything else. Everything in our sensory outputs and LTM can be compared to the others & a great deal can be learned in many cases. “Gnothi seauton”, indeed!!

It models the universe’ own recursivity with recursivity of its own. and it does it everywhere, and can do it everywhere in our universe, too. Isn’t that interesting?

35. In the immune system, we have found many of the same, basic components. But let’s think about more of this, creatively, using the Comparison Process function. Essentially, the immune system defends the body against foreign invaders, such as bacteria, virions, fungi, etc. But how, exactly does it do this? Very simply, it builds upon knowing, biochemically, what is self, and what is not self. Each of our cell surfaces have on them as do all other cells, the HLA protein/polysaccharide molecules on the cell surface in many places. The cells recognize each other by these. They are in constant biochemical communication with each other. They all have the same HLA surface features on the cell membranes.

Let’s give a real and existing example to compare to. A study has been reported some years ago where a small white and a small red sponge were each broken down mechanically into the cells which made up each sponge. Then those cells were mixed together & compared to what happened. They were observed over hours. The sponge cells organized themselves back again in clusters of white and red sponge cells and re-grew the sponge of each type. Biochemically, they knew which cell was self, and which was not self. So these HLA identifiers on our cell membraines are not new, as sponges go back to Precambrian times. This method of identification of self is very, very ancient and again, something which all living organisms have, even the protozoans. This common link connects all living cells from the smallest known to even our brains, and they way they were. They can ID biochemically, “the self” and know what is foreign. It the Comparison Process on a cellular level, you see.

36. And this is essentially THE main organizing characteristic of the immune system, of all immune systems. It, just like knowing the essential characteristics of plate tectonics, can be used to understand much more of the complexity of organization of living systems, perhaps even all systems. The Immune system has a biochemical ID method for self and not self. It does not attack self, except where the system goes wrong, that is the autoimmune diseases of Multiple sclerosis, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, Guillain-Barre, and others. It’s in the identifying part, i.e. the Comparison Process of the immune system where this goes wrong. Something which needs to be & is yet to be found.

But, let’s think carefully about how the immune system attacks foreign invaders. It first recognizes them as not self. When the lymphocytes, polymorphonuclears, phagocytes and others sense a complex chemical (even the chemical Urushiol, which is the contact allergen in poison oak),which is not self, it creates an antibody to it which attacks and isolates it and tries to expel it from the body. If it’s a bullet or shrapnel, it walls it off with scar tissue, removing it from immune system attack. If it’s bacteria such as Strep or Staph, it creates a walling off effect, immobilizes it and expels it by an abscess, which ruptures and the whole mess comes out, including any small foreign bodies carrying the bacteria.

The lymphocytes detect foreign compounds, which they “know” biochemically, by comparing it to their catalog of what is self. Then the lymphocytes move in, and create antibodies which then attach to that foreign body, bacteria, virus, etc., and THAT creates a massive cellular response which constrains, removes and destroys the invader.

37. But, using the Comparison Process , let’s look deeper and more creatively. What exactly happens biochemically when lymphocytes detect foreign chemicals? They must find, create and then massively re-create many, many specific, highly bonding antibodies, which will attach to the foreign molecule. But how does it find them? & That is where it gets interesting.

It must biochemically sort through trillions (quadrillions?) of possible antibodies, to find the one(s) which will permanently bond to the foreign compound, cell wall or membrane. And that complexity can take a LOT of time to sort through, again, a Comparison Process. If we tried in our labs to create & find those specific antibodies, which can best attach to such foreign molecules, sorting through the trillions or more of possible types, it’d take us millions of years, or more. The time it takes our immune system to solve this immense biochemical sorting problem is about 2-3 days. After that antibody production by the proliferation of lymphocytes all producing enough antibodies to attach and immobilize and target attacks on all the foreign molecules. We cannot do this in a finite time. Our computers cannot do this much sorting in a finite time. But look, the Comparison Process shows that our immune systems, worldwide, and in most of the higher animals, do this time and again, every day, for the last how many 100’s of millions of years? & it works. and that sorting & organizing process is, of course, a biochemical supercomputer method using the Comparison Process .

38. There is an immense computer, a sorter, built into our immune systems which solves this problem by some means. It uses the COMP and a whole bevy of extremely efficient, biochemical algorithms (or skills, sound familiar?) to do this. When this sorter is found in the immune system, then we will have found the biochemical supercomputer which creates our effective immune system. We know how it works, we will know where it works, and we can find it, too. That’s how the Comparison Process shows us what’s going on by organizing living systems using COMP structures. It’s universal. It’s general, It’s practical and it works.

Considering that our immune systems also know what has invaded before, and can attack those repeat strains of invaders, thus giving us lifetime immunity to many kinds/strains of viruses, etc., which is the basis of all vaccinations, then it must have a memory system of these previous invasions built into our immune system. A sort of LTM for creating antibodies, stored in the spleen, lymph nodes and other places, probably, possibly even stem cells.

This therefore should guide our study of the immune system, which can be seen as a Comparison Process working on the biochemical level, to ID self, and not self. Which is based upon simple ID system, based upon the COMP generator of a biochemical system within our white cells. From that simplicity, this enormous immune system complexity is built. & it’s capacities which exceed ours by at least trillions of times over.

39. Find the ID’g biochemical system Comparison Process governing structures in the immune systems, and you find the core engine of immunity. Where the immunity is stored, how it creates new immunities (the creativity function, the COMP function, again). The immune system’s cells on patrol must constantly be comparing self to find non-self. That comparison engine drives the immune system. When it finds not self, it attacks. If a former infection, it finds the cells which create the antibodies anew and attacks so fast, the system doesn’t get sick again. If not, it creates by comparing trillions or more of antibodies against the foreign agent, until it finds those which effectively attack it. It probably has some very efficient search engnes to sort out that problem. It’s creative, tho. It creates a fever which speeds up this process enormously, a sort of metabolic overdrive. THAT is the reason fever is often associated with infection. It speeds up often by 2-4 times the immune system attack processes.

Also, It must be sure the attacking antibodies do NOT attack self, either. And THIS part of the immune system is what goes wrong in autoimmune diseases

41. There is a clue here and it’s a big one. It’s known that women who have multiple sclerosis have far fewer flare ups, that is antibody attacks against the myelin sheath, when they are pregnant. The mother doesn’t but rarely attack the baby, for some reason. The fetus/baby are immunologically privileged. How this comes about shows us how the body doesn’t attack self. also. Thinking Comparison Process, and creatively, those drugs which reduce or block flare ups of MS, such as prednisone type, or meds of the interferon beta 1a and 1b types, or glatiramer acetate, etc. These block the autoimmune reaction of the MS type, also. Simply create a glatiratimer or interferon 1a &1b, and find out by labelling those molecues, injecting them, to find where in the body immune system & lymphocytes it binds, THERE is the library of immunocytes, and THERE is where the immune system problem is. It will simplify the problem immensely, because we will know where to look for the autoimmune creating problem, simultaneously finding the immunity giving library. By using the Comparison Process, which both gives insights and explanations as well as creative methods to solve problems. QED

The Comparison Process: Explananda Pt. 1

The Comparison Process: Explananda, Pt. 1.
posted 28 feb. 2014

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

Sensory Illusions

1. The various sensory illusions, from optical, to movement and motion sickness, including space sickness are readily explainable in terms of the Comparison Process (COMP). Further, using a simple comparison, these illusions are easily shown to be illusions.

First, the lunar size illusion is fairly well known. The moon at the horizon when it’s rising looks larger, compared to the moon in ascent, well away from the horizon. Why is this? Because the horizon provides a large horizon line to which the visual cortex can compare it to. So it looks larger. When in the sky, there is nothing to compare it to, either, so our visusal cortex gives it a “default” size. How this can be shown is when the moon is rising over the lip of a large, long canyon, it also looks larger than when it’s higher in the sky. A large building edge behind which the moon is rising also creates this illusion. Simply by holding up a long enough measuring stick horizontally, & comparing that to the moon in the horizon versus the moon ascended shows it’s no larger in the sky than it is when rising. It dispels the illusion.

Another visual illusion is that of one which uses straight lines intersected by jagged boxlike white and black, or colored shapes. The lines look curved. By placing a clear plastic measuring ruler in the middle of it, it can be shown that the lines are in fact straight and the illusion disappears on either side of the measuring ruler’s edge. Most other optical illusions can be similarly shown to be illusions simply by comparing them to standard edges & so forth.

There is a movement illusion which is also related to optical illusions. When one is sitting in a car, and there’s a large truck on the right side, both stopped at a light, or intersection, if the larger truck begins to move the car driver has the illusion that his vehicle is moving backwards. Because the visual system is comparing the truck to the car, this creates that momentary illusion of backwards movement. This is quickly dispelled by comparing oneself to a fixed object on the road, which shows the truck is what’s moving, not the car. This illusion can also be produced when passenger rail cars are moving in opposite directions, stop at a station, and the one may move, giving the illusion of backwards movements, once again in the stationary car. Which can be dispelled by fixing on the stable platform one is next to.

Most other simple optical illusions can be shown to be a result of a comparison illusion created by the visual system. And this can be shown by using a dispelling comparison, which does that. The reason why such illusions are created is that the Comparison Process is being used by the visual cortex, when it creates images and shapes from the retinal data sent to it. It should, theoretically, allow us to understand how these illusions are being created by the visual cortex on a neurophysiological basis.

Suffice it to say, that if the Comparison Process can explain neatly, efficiently most every sensory illusion thrown at it, then it must be correct, a widespread cortical processing method, and recursive and highly important as well. That it is very widespread appearing in nearly every testable circumstance, shows that it’s real, cortical, stable and universal in humans, as well as other species which show the Comparison Process traits.

2. This comparison process should give us insights about how our visual cortex creates images and shapes. The problem further is that we cannot necessarily assume that our visual system uses Euclidean geometry and for this simple reason. We do NOT find geometric shapes in the natural world, at all. And our visual system was created 100,000’s of years before geometry. Therefore, in order to figure out how images/shapes are created from the raw data from the retina, we must understand what kind of geometry the visual cortex uses, which will be non-euclidean, very likely.

There is no necessity that our visual cortex be Euclidean. Look at the shapes of trees and boulders and such in the natural world. There are VERY few straight lines, boxes, squares, circles and other such. There is therefore no logical reason to believe that our brains use human geometries to construct the world, either. Right angles and such other boxy shapes which mark human buildings, structures, roads, etc., are not seen in the natural world. Exactly what kind of comparison process geometries our brains use to show curves, rounded edges and such is not clear, but the optical illusions of these types will probably show us a great deal more about how the visual cortex, using comparison process methods, creates visual images & what geometries it uses.

3. There are illusions involving colors, which are very large in number as well. We often call this camouflage. Simplest are the white coats of snow hares, ermins and foxes grown in the winter to disguise themselves against the snow. In the spring they grow again their summer camouflage coloring and revert back to the usual surface colorations they use most of the year. The polar bears’ everwhite fur is another prominent example.

Protective colorations of the insects are the most prominent of the same kind of illusions. A bug will make use ot its green color and hides among the green leaves. Some insects esp. in tropics will mimic leaves to avoid detection. Conversely some predators such as carnivorous larvae and preying matises will use the same to hide themselves from both their prey and predators.

Camou outfits worn by the military do much the same thing. Whether or not these work optimally in the widely varying natural environment is a matter of opinion. But at night, the skulkers dress in black to use the darkness as a way to hide, also.

These camouflage illusions can be readily dispeled by bright light and forcing, as in the above, the predators and prey to move, which is highly unlikely that leaves and twigs can do.

The Chameleon has a limited but significant ability to turn its skin to colors which can partially imitate the colors of its surroundings. We once in a biology lab put a purple sheet of paper under a chameleon. It took a while, but turned a sort of brown with some tingers of red, the closest it could get. Certain Mollusca of the squid and Octopi families have a very brilliant chromatophore system which can almost use every color in the rainbow from brilliant reds to blues. They use the same to camouflage themselves, and in the squid to show interest in mating as well as other signals to the other squid around them, a sort of color communication.

3a. There is mimicry, which is yet another illusion. The Viceroy butterfly looks a great deal like the Monarch butterfly, which is poisonous. The large eyes on some butterflies, some larvae and even the eyed Elater, a kind of large click beetle, have these to scare away predators. Syrphid flies look a great deal like yellow jacket wasps. These create illusions of being what they are not. And in doing so show that the Comparison Process is active not only in us, but in many of the other living animals and plants in existence.

Some plants’ flowers mimic insects to induce them to mate with them, thus spreading their pollen. Some flowers exude stench like smells in order to attract flies to. If it were not for the Comparison Process being active in insects, this would not occur. This gives yet another deep insight into how general and universal the COMP is, even tho the arthropods and birds are very likely not using our same neurophysiology to do the COMP, they are almost certainly using an analogous system.

4. The illusions of our sense of touch can be perceived when we touch pieces of metal in our pocket and it feels cool to the touch and for an instant, wet. Wet items evaporate water & can feel cooler because of that. But when we feel for water and a typical liquid sensation on our fingers, we feel hard metal and realize our comparing senses have, once again, by mistaking coolness for water, which further comparison testing with our fingers shows to be metal. Testing of this sort is also, like in other testing procedures, the COMP.

5. Likewise motion sickness of all sorts creates a real problem. Those found in amusement park rides are well known & Those occur while riding in cars, boats, planes & vehicles.. But why do these occur?

By understanding the basic nature of the balance system in our inner ears and our senses which tell us which way is down, that is, the gravity sense. Normally when we move our bodies and thus our heads, the fluids in our semicircular canals, by our ears, have, by inertia, a flow created in those canals. The flow gives the information which way the head is moving. That we have 3 of these canals, each at about right angles to the others, shows clearly the 3-dimensional nature of our universe & our balance system’s response to it. Each canal is oriented mainly to the X, Y and Z axes of a 3 dimensional space. From this architecture, the inner ear can detect the slightest movements in any direction, including up and down.

But resting, it does not detect anything, tho perhaps some gravity. It mainly detects change. This is a comparison process. It has very little to compare to, in and of itself. however, the eyes know and feed into the balance system their input. The eyes can see what is up and down and combining with the pressure sense on the bottoms of the feet, which are sensory cues also as to what is up and down and our body positions, can create a sense of what is down, and whether we are moving or not. This is a complex balance system and for this reason is not well understood.

But there is a gravity sense built into our feet and visual sensations & the Semicircular Canals, because of these simple facts. Put a person on a teeter totter & move him up and down on it. He will consistently orient himself vertically even tho the flat seat he’s on will change its angle comared to a flat surface as he goes up and down. In addition, when we walk on slanted surfaces such as hillsides, we immediately orient ourselves to down by changing the angles of our ankles & feet to match the hillside steepness as much as we can. We always know what’s down & up.

How this related to motion sickness is clear. When we move, the inner ear may give us signals we are moving, but if we have nothing very good to compare that to from the rest of our bodies, then we will get motion sickness. The system stops working temporarily, until the motion stops. This is what causes most motion sickness. We get dizzy, we have nothing to compare our movements to, because the feet are sending us no correcting signals, and the eyes can’t do it by themselves because of too rapid, changing movements, esp. when upside down.

Simply by fixing on an arbitrary not moving part of our vision, the disorientation can be partially abated. That is, we compare a fixed object or space in our vision & the illusion is dispelled. If not, then we can become rather ill.

6. This is seasickness also. If we fix our eyes on the horizon, then we can limit seasickness to a great extent. If nothing is there to fix our eyes on, such as on a foggy day, then we have to learn a new system, which is called “getting your sea legs” and so it’s abolished that way. We simply adopt another comparison method to avoid being seasick when the ship is rolling. Modern cruise ships use very large, long lengths of the boats to make them far less likely to rock and roll on the waves, thus minimizing the rolling of the ship with the waves.

It should be possible in smaller vessels, to create an electronic light bar based upon the plumb bob effect, which always points down, a sort of artificial horizon which if bright & large enough & easy enough to see, could compensate for the rolling of smaller ships and thus, visually help correct seasickness. The same would be true for aircraft and vehicles of all sorts.

7. Space sickness is yet another problem which results from a total lack of gravity, which our inner ears have some response to even in normal gravity. However, all visual cues are gone, the balance system has NOTHING to compare to, as gravity and sensory cues are gone, and so medicines such as promethazines are about all that work because they sedate the inner ear & brainstem.

But the Comparison Process shows us a way around this too. Give the space sick person something to compare with their visual part of the balance system. If 4 long, wide yellow lines were to be painted or somehow affixed evenly & symmetrically to the floor, ceiling and both right & left walls, the eyes could then have something to which could help the balance system orient itself. and the space sickness would abate ever faster than simply waiting for the brain to adopt these visual cues using arbitrary objects, walls & other shapes in the space cabins, themselves. Again the utility of the Comparison Process. It neatly and easily explains motion sickness of all kinds, and suggests ways to abate it.

8. The Comparison Process is self-organizing. Recall that the entire classification of living organisms, plants, animals, protozoa, bacteria, even including the viruses have been and are still being organized into a comprehensive whole, i.e., millions of species, by the COMP . This shows the power, widespread use, and the flexibility as well as the practicality of the system, as does the same for all known stars, the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The Comparison Process has organized into a comprehensive whole almost the whole of everything that existed and has existed, so far as is known. This is not a trivial task nor a trifling achievement. It’s clear, empirical testimony to the efficiency and ubiquitous presence of the COMP system.

9. Essentially, we use words to communicate with others, not ourselves.. It’s a social activity. The words created and then learned are then stored in the LTM, which creates a stable, recallable, recognizable entity, a word, which corresponds to a concept/idea/image or event in existence. These are models for events in existence and is the way our higher cortical functions in our brains are organized. It is nothing less than the fundamental way we process information, i.e., think.

This may well mean that in practice, language is a complex system. With literally 100,000’s of words in most technical and advanced languages, the interactions of these words with other words in sentences, often creating new meanings and new discoveries, very likely shows this.

10. The dialects of the major languages all show that there is NO single, universal standard for speaking. We use the standard midwestern American English against which the other dialects are compared. We can hear the other dialects of all English speakers, from Scotland, to London, from Capetown to Canberra and Auckland, all of which use slightly different pronunciations to mark their forms of English. Because the LTM (Long Term Memory) of words is a bit flexible (& all people die), the language can and will change over time, creating new words, new pronunciations, and so forth, altho the written word tends to create more stability or pronunciation than used to exist. We simply compare what we hear in English to ID the locale from which the other dialect occurs, be it Delhi, or Dover. There is NO absolute dialect in English, any more than there is absolute space or time, or measurements. However all speakers require the COMP to create meaning and understanding. It’s very simple & widely applicable in language, daily.

11. Let us consider time. Time is not absolute. We base all of our time measurements upon an arbitrary standard against which we compare and create those standards. Our year arbitrarily begins on 1 Jan., based upon the Roman Calendar, their year based upon the date when Rome was established according to their beliefs. We base the Western calendar upon year 1 AD. The ancient Egyptian year began on the heliacal rise of the star Sirius, which they identified with Aset (Isis). That usually marked the beginning of the inundation of the Nile within a few days, and when everything agricultural came to a halt until the flooding was over.

For every day we begin and center the day on noontime, or high noon, when the sun is at its maximum height. That’s why noon is 12 PM, and its counterpart, midnight is 12 AM. That’s the standard. It can be checked because it’s the center of most days in the center of each time zone. There is some wandering from that point, but it’s the standard upon which all the rest of the clock is based.

& again, in every case we see the usual repetition of elements, the second, of which 60 make a minute, of which 60 make an hour, of which 24 make a day, and of which about 30 make a month of the 12 months each year. Showing again, just like DNA structure, protein structure, atomic structure, they are created from repeating elements.

Every time we look at a clock, we make a comparison of that instant with the time, compared to our standard. The Comparison Process is an organizing, ordering process, and creates our time tables, schedules, plans and so forth, all based upon that creative process, the COMP. The COMP keeps us on schedule, and makes orderly production and work possible. Time keeping is little more than the Comparison Process at its deepest, most fundamental level.

Synchronizing our clocks is 3 times over COMP. First, we must have that standard time, which is kept based upon & compared to Noon. Second, there must be a clock which compares exactly to the UTI. And thirdly, there must be the two time pieces or more which are to be synchronized, that is, they must keep exactly the same time on both of them. This is achieved by using at every point, Comparison Process. This demonstrates yet again how basic and fundamental the COMP is in time alone.

12. Any kind of error, be it a genetic error creating a disorder, or other conditions, creates a new opportunity to compare that genetic disorder to the normal. Any new finding which can be compared to normals or other conditions, can create new insights, simply because it allows the Comparison Process to be used again. Is some mouse models, researchers are using mutagens to create genetic changes. Then they back cross the offspring of that mouse to bring out the recessives created by the process. This often results in interesting findings, by this method of genetic error creation, which is little more than one more of the myriads of types of COMP. Any difference from what we see normally, any finding which is unusual can be of this value, simply because it permits the COMP to be used on one more event, one more situation, to enlighten us.

13. In the legal and moral laws, the same is the case. One obeys the laws. One compares the laws regarding social behaviors to one’s own and other’s actions. The process of internalization and memory of these laws is in our LTM, largely frontal lobes. This is the source of our conscience. How we know what to do and what not to do. It’s in almost every case, a Comparison Process, by which we compare ours and others’ actions for social, legal, and moral propriety and acceptability..

Where is this tester for the socially appropriate, the COMP checker, which is in the brain? In our frontal lobes, because we know when a person’s frontal lobes are damaged, they lose social propriety, may become slovenly, without manners and moral/legal behaviors. And this is found in the cortex of the frontal lobes.

14. The universe can also be modelled by a similar system of laws, observed and confirmed, which shows us the behaviors, characteristics and various stable parts and processes in the universe. We compare & refer (another COMP based word) new events to those which we find and find that they are indeed consistent with, ie, they compare closely with the gravitation, or laws of motion and so forth. It’s the same system of organization.

So it’s very clear that almost all higher cortical brain organization and systems are bound by the Comparison Process , from start to finish.

15. In each case, the Comparison Process is used by a complementary method to recreate life. This kind of complementary DNA reading is very basic because it’s yet another form of the COMP. It creates a chemical structure which can be Identified for what it is by the cell, and the cell knows how to use it, biochemically. It’s biochemical recognition, again the COMP. This shows how basic the entire process is to life as we know it, and shows how once again, the entire life processes from the most very basic parts, are built up by a COMP . From a simple system of 4 base pairs & 20 some amino acids, is created the complexity of the cell.

But all of these DNA, RNA and protein/polypeptide creations use energy. And this is the process by which everything is created in the cell. Creation of life is done by this process, essentially, applied again and again. It’s recursive, just like the Comparison Process is recursive and models the processes very clearly. It’s how living systems create more order from chaos. It’s how all life is created & reproduces. It’s the way the biological world works. The COMP is how non-living matter and energy are turned into growing, living cells, driven by the COMP , manifested in terms of biochemicals & rules.

16. It can all be modeled using the Comparison Process which creates language and mathematics and models life itself. It’s modelled by the COMP, which is itself a creative principle, too. The Comparison Process is the way our cortex organizes the world around us. It uses many other spin off, related principles to do this the same way, such as the Least Energy Principle, which is of itself a Comparison Process. The laws of thermodynamics are also used, as guidelines as to how this all works, again based upon the COMP , because these laws compare to the all known chemical and physical processes, mapping them very exactly.

17. It’s easy to think that words, languages and math and related brain functions are the way in which the world works. But it’s not so. Our mental methods created by our cortices use this method, but it’s not THE method by which it’s done. It describes what’s done, building up a model, but these are not the events themselves. Those mental methods are the underlying neurophysiological structures & functions.

As Korzybski, the founder of general semantics theory, wrote, “The word is not the thing.” in other words, more generally, the /idea/word/image is not the event in existence to which it refers. The former are the structural means by which the Comparison Process in our brains creates a model of the world, but it’s not the world itself. Those events in existence exist outside the nervous system. Every structure has its limits and capabilities. So does the COMP . Those are the exponential barriers such as light speed, absolute zero, particle physics creating higher and higher energies, until it’s too costly to go further, climbing that greased, steep slide of the exponentially rising curve, until we must fall back. When we find those, we turn back and create new means to overcome those limits, via the Comparison Process.

Brains can create many fictions, easily, myths, gods & goddesses, demons and such, but these don’t compare to anything in reality which we can test and measure. We must make careful distinction between our brain modeling structures and those events outside of our brains which we have in common with everyone else. Confirmation of findings in scientific studies and reliable accounts create that commonality and excludes brain fictions. If we do not then we confuse, consistently, fictions and reality, events in existence with our abstractions, and commit the error so well described by Lord North, Alfred Whitehead, co-author of the “Principia Mathematica” with Bertrand Rusell, revolutionizing mathematics, “the fallacy of misplaced concretism.” Nonexisting abstracts get reified, when they are not real. Pi gets to be thought of as real, tho it’s an abstraction from the comparison of the ideal circle’s circumference with its ideal diameter, as a straight, ideal line. Good tools, but no perfect circle nor perfectly straight line can ever be measured, or exist.

18, Consider when we build a structure such as a house. We have blueprints and related designs, now mostly computerized due to an efficiency rule, the LEP. We constantly compare to the designs to make sure we build it properly. COMP at every step and stage. We have the basic building blocks, the wood, the concrete, the bricks and steel/metal frames, if necessary and the piping and wiring, not to mention the roof materials. The structure is built and ordered according to the COMP and the skills and tools we use based upon that cortical method. We can build a large, grand house, or a smaller, simpler home. There are no limits to what we can build using this method and enough resources. It’s the Comparison Process .

Just why this has not been stated before and explored for the very important observation which it is, is curious. . So many things can go unrecognized, even tho common, for a very great, long time, esp. if of the idealistic mindset, which tends to ignore real,existing events, in favor of brain ideas, words and concepts, which of course, do not exist outside the brain.

19. When you are out on a field trip, you make discoveries of new kinds of plants, trees, insects, birds and so forth, many of which you’ve never seen before. In a very practical sense, I saw a great many things uknown to me and this created discovery, Others do, too. The Comparison Process ran through my memory, & didn’t recognize at first, each new event, and then I learned what it was by comparing to that information from a person who had, i.e, books. This was repeated many times, adding new insects and trees and birds & stars, etc., to my memory, which eventually went into LTM (long term memory). The more you learn, the more you can compare together and find them, again and again.

Discovery is a form of creativity. It adds to your creative powers. & if you find enough, then it adds to your ability to learn more, too. The Comparison Process makes this discovery possible, repeatedly, and then adds to it in a recursive and growing way. It adds again and again to your skills of discovery by comparing the way you do things, and then improving upon them. The more you know, the more you can find, Again, the Comparison Process and the more you can compare with what you have already found. such as butterflies, likes and dislikes, and so forth. It creates a library of events which you can reference from your LTM. and the more you can compare, the more you can learn. Because each new creation adds to the creations you can make, because it’s one more item to compare to, it builds up quickly in biology. So discovery is one form of creativity.

I recall being with family at a lake, when about 10 PM, suddenly the sky and land lit up with a brilliant light to our NE. We had no idea what it was at the time, maybe an exploding plane or something, until we read the next day, that a large, brilliant bolide, a meteor, had entered earth’s atmosphere a few hundred miles to the east of us, and the perception became the discovery. & it was ordered into the category of meteor, and made sense, then. Discovery then is compared to pre-existing idea/word/ images and becomes knowledge and order.

20. Creativity is more than just discovery, it’s also the comparison of two or more idea/concepts/images from our memory of events, or may occur in the presence of events,

21. In terms of the Comparison Process what are skills? From first hand experience in a number of fields, they are short cuts, algorithms, &/or methods will allow the user to function faster, more efficiently, more carefully and above all, more creatively in the field. Discovery hones the perceptivity, the COMP , because you are always searching for those events and ideas which will give you the answers. You get better and better at it, with the better methods built into your skills.

End of pt. 1.

Le Chanson Sans Fin: the Comparison Process, Pt. 3

Le Chanson Sans Fin, the Comparison Process,
Introduction, Part 3

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

When the average person daily deciphers cryptograms on the puzzle pages he uses the same COMP . He uses a similar process for word finding puzzles, sudokus, crosswords, and picture puzzles. When we decode simple or complex codes, we use the same COMP .

When we translate one language into another, we use, again, massively, the COMP to make a useful translation. & most interestingly, when we contact over the next 1000’s of years another space faring species, we will use the COMP to build up our model of their language as they will ours, simply by the COMP. We will point to those things we have in common, stars, rocks, elements, compounds, persons, etc., and give them their names in our language and writing and they will, regardless of what system they use, can give us theirs, words/ideas/images for the same. This is how powerful the COMP is. It will be much the same for any language anywhere in our universe, very likely.

When we make copies, those must built, created & compare very closely to the originals, must they not? Otherwise, how would it be of much value? We can copy a copy and we can compare a copy with another, for fidelity. Again, more words which contain the COMP within them. Every copy from the faxes, to the copiers, to the copy and paste function, all share at their origin, the COMP . It’s how and why copying is possible.

The copying of all written texts including our most sacred texts occurred by using the COMP massively. It’s ancient as the earliest forms of scripts. It’s universal from Mesopotamia, to Egypt, to Aryan cultures and throughoutt East Asia. This is no accident.

But there is far, far more. When the DNA molecule is unzipped in the chromosomes of our cells for cell division & reproduction, the DNA polymerase compares each Adenine to its counterpart, Thymidine, and builds up the other two DNA chains necessary for cell division, based upon the COMP. For every A it creates a T on the complementary double helix chain and vice versa. For every Guanidine it adds a complementary Cytosine and vice versa. and when it’s done with that, it manufactures the proteins from the messenger RNA by creating that strip of RNA, using the same COMP, complementary synthesis to create more proteins to build the rest of the dividing cell.

Cell division is COMP on a biochemical scale, just as copying is. Reproductions of all of the species from the bacteria and the virions, through ALL species on our planet is COMP . Thus we see that our very existence is not only comprehended and understood and talked about using COMP, but our very selves arrived and are created by a similar, analogous, simple biochemical system. Duplication, replication, copying, reproduction can all be COMP dependent tasks.

There are huge numbers of words associated with the COMP. Ratios, relationships, associations, pattern finding/recognition, definitions, etc. Literally, 100’s of words can be found and ID’d which within them at their origins, we find the COMP . This shows it’s tremendously widespread characteristic as well as its enormous importance, too.

In this we & all the plants and animals and others in our world are united. There is one unifying principle, as the COMP unifies most all higher brains’ functionings, it also unifies us with all other life. This grand principle, the COMP , which creates the analogy, the poets’ metaphors, the similes, the anecdotes of Lincoln, the fables of Aesop and the Parables of Jeshua Ben Joseph, to the Zen koans, & the surahs of Mohammed, unifies us all in a totally unexpected way. From the simple to the complex, it shows the power of the COMP , an essential comparison function of our cortex, which appears to be far, far more important than anything else in our brains, the predominant, higher cortical function. & it’s universal.

In the scientific method of logical empiricism we find the COMP at every level. Because science so depends upon measurement, which is a COMP process, therefore this is one. We take a ruler or measuring tape, or any of the many methods and compare those lengths against what we measure. It’s all COMP. When we measure frequencies of light we use the COMP. When we count in our vast censuses, again the COMP. All of our odometers and special travel odometers do the same. They measure, even the most precise micrometers and light interference & quantum devices to measure the tiniest lengths & time intervals, and the parallax methods to determine vast distances. And so on, and on, and limitlessly on.

Measurement in turn depends upon Mathematics, which can be simply defined as the relationships of the numbers. 4 is related to 2 by being twice 4. 12 is related to 4 by being 3 times 4 and 1 & 1/2 of 8. Every number can be related to every other number by the COMP , using words and language. These relationships are adding, subtracting, division and multiplication. Basic arithmetic is all COMP.

In geometry, literally, “land measuring” we find many different kinds of lines, shapes, quadrangles, squares, circles, arcs, chords, ovals, etc. Suffice it to prove the point, is that Pi is the numeric comparison of an ideal circle’s circumference to its diameter and radius. The area of the circle is found by comparing the square of the radius times Pi. Trigonometry is the comparison of right angle triangles’ two sides to one another, which creates the trig functions, sine, cosine, tangent, etc. It’s the way the sides of a right triangle compare to each other, simply. The algebra of ratios and proportions are simply COMP. And on and on.

So the sciences formally measure using the COMP , which is so built-in we scarcely see it. A scientist gets an idea, that perhaps, since all the finches on the Galapagos most closely resemble each other, then possibly they are all related and came from a common ancestor, which on that remote island steadily speciated into the various kinds of finches there. THAT is the point at which Darwin came up with the evolutionary model. By comparing finches, and spending his lifetime finding and confirming with the millions of species both living and extinct which he and we have found since. Wallace found the same speciating patterns in the Indonesian isles, essentially another version of the same thing found by Darwin years earlier. That was the moment of discovery, the comparison of the plants and animals on isolated islands, which showed the way. The COMP.

When Einstein asked the question, what is is like to ride on a light photon?, he was given an insight which lead to a piece of relativity. When he realized that ALL time and space was not absolute, but must be compared to a fixed spot to be measured, THAT was another part. When he realized that time slowed down when objects were sped up relative to a fixed site on the earth, and when he realized that acceleration was equivalent to being in a gravitational field of the same meters/sec.squared value, then he came up with even more. Each of these insights by Einstein were the COMP. That ancient method which orders and creates creativity. Finally, when he realized that time was not a constant, he found that in a higher gravitational field, compared to a less intense field, time slowed down, he had his relativity basics, and created his noted Invariance Theory, which was eventually renamed the Theory of Relativity.

All time and space measurements must be compared to another for meaning.

From these and other determinations where it’s possible to identify the point and thinking of the creative scientist, it’s fairly clear, from Kepler’s realization that planetary orbits were not circular and the ancients were wrong, that the earth was NOT the center of the solar system (there was NO privileged point in the solar system) ; & Edison’s work through massive trial and error kind of discovery, shows that the COMP was in use when those creative revelations were present.

The scientist tests his hypotheses reached by the COMP by using double blind, controlled studies, which rule out much bias and interfering noise. This kind of testing ( & ALL testing is COMP, too), creates a finding, or outcome which may confirm, partially confirm/disconfirm or not confirm his hypothesis. If it does confirm it, that is, to a high degree of probability 95% or more, then it’s publishable. If others can confirm it, usually 2 times more, it’s likely correct, using the same COMP which underlies all testing and all measuring. This reference shows it in more detail. It was found weeks after the original discovery was posted in January 2014. It’s not the Basic COMP of the cortex, but simply one of the many ways & methods the COMP can be developed to be used in the sciences, thus confirming again, its deepest value.

http://www.stat.berkeley.edu/~stark/SticiGui/Text/experiments.htm

The confirmation by other, independent persons and labs and sites of a scientific finding, shows that what has been found is indeed real and existing outside of our brains. It means it is a finding which is true under the fixed conditions on earth, when the test was performed can be found anywhere else on earth. And perhaps, even anywhere else in the universe if a physical finding. The universe is what each of us have in common, existing independently and outside of us.

But the secrets of the sciences are these. If you bow to the universe by testing it as the arbiter of what is going on, then that finding can often be used again and again to create a technology based upon it, such as the transistor, and literally millions of other findings do the same. Because the universe is very likely the same everywhere, those events are backed up by the universe everywhere, and just like the existence of the natural laws and the protons/electrons/neutrinos of atoms/mass are stable, so is that finding. That constancy/stability of the universe, and the facts that careful scientific investigation give us empirical truths about, may often mean it’s a universal truth, and can be used by anyone or any intelligence in our local region and possibly very many billions of light years away, too. The findings of the sciences when truly established as real and existing, give the sciences and the technologies the very power of the universe itself. and they are backed up by the very laws of the universe, also. That is not a trival technology or method. & it’s one of the secrets and powerful methods which the scientific method can create.

From the child to the adult, that COMP creates the discoveries which allow us to learn & grow & develop. In the sciences and very likely in the arts, that COMP event creates much of what we call creativity. From Archimedes, to Newton, to Kepler and Einstein and many others, the COMP can be simply seen as the way discoveries are made. It’s the underpinning of creativity. When Edison through the same trial and error experiments found the electric light, he at last realized it with the carbon filament. He had the idea that running electricity thru the right substance would create a usable electric light. THAT was the COMP event. and from that same emotional charging up of the cortex, all the rest of what he found, too.

The COMP is an active process in the cortex always working to create understanding and make sense of events around it. In the event called Pareidolia, the brain can find animals and other common shapes in clouds. It can find the Old Man in the Mtn. in a granite stone formation in Vermont. It can find the Camelback shape of the Mountain in north Phoenix, AZ, and there are literally many 1000’s of such events, which the brain creates using the MofC. It’s working to associate, recognize and create patterns, actively when we are awake. Thiis is how it understands meanings in speech and words, and makes sense of much which is not understood. the COMP is an active function in our cortices. The COMP easily explains pareidolia.

COMP is how to create creativity. How the COMP understands understanding and comprehends comprehension. How we can talk about talking and think about thinking. How we can model a model. How we can think about language. Again, the same transitive, recursive processes, all underlain by the COMP . This is no accident of speech, as it shows the COMP relationships in the words which themselves use the COMP , & depend upon it to work.

Much work in Artificial Intelligence has finally been able to achieve basic, voice activated programs. The implications are endless. Voice activation means a computer is able to detect human words, compare them to a library it can create or already has of such sounds and perform the corresponding simple task. This is through and through machine COMP . The problem has been the AI professionals did not know what they had to do. They simply proceeded from trial and error, as do we all when being creative, to find a way to get the computer to recognize (COMP ) vocalizations we call words.

But to create creativity? It’s COMP as well, When computers can model human COMP for thinking and visual recognition, then they will be truly AI. and when they can create creativity thru the COMP algorithms, and humor, as well via the same COMP skills, then full AI will have been achieved. COMP is the one, very simple process which has been missed. & had we thought of it sooner, it could have been done years ago. But we did NOT know enough of what simple language and words and thinking and creativity were, and what their origins were, until recently.

Imagine the capabilities of a truly COMP creative computer, which at 10 GHz can find thousands of creative breakthroughs in a few minutes, compared to our 100-200 ms. brain processing speed. (The evoked potential, a cortical latency of recognition). With that massive increase in creativity AI could make progress and breakthroughs on a massive basis, not just for the programmers, but for all. And combined with a QC?

“Oh brave new world, that hath such people in it!”

For these reasons the COMP can be metaphorically termed Le Chanson Sans Fin, the Endless Song. & it might well be Le Chanson de la Terre et Le Chanson Universel, as well. It’s real. It’s confirmed billions of times a day, and it must be considered, studied, and extended, and then used to create better lives by the COMP creativity algorithm, which the next section will discuss further.

COMP creates creativity. It also creates humor. It also creates optical and sensory illusions via our visual cortex which works by comparing the images and shapes it perceives. The applications are as endless as the COMP can be repeatedly used. There is no limit to the application of the COMP . That is its power and its capability. Anything, be it internal events in our minds, or external events in existence can be compared to everything else.

Because this endless recursivity, the COMP models the universe, which is also endlessly recursive. Our universe is built of protons/electrons, neutrons (combining 1 each of the former) and neutrinos, the stable particles of the universe. and from each of these used together in all the myriad ways are created; the atoms, elements and isotopes from which mass in our universe is created. From those atoms came all the molecules of chemicals and biochemicals from which life itself is made. (10’s of millions of chemicals which have been EACH classified by the COMP .) Endlessly complex, based upon simple atoms and simple nucleons. Just as DNA is based upon 4 base pairs; just as proteins are based upon 3 codon segments for each amino acid, building up the complexity of cell membranes, ribosomes, chromosomes, the mitochondria that give energy to run the cells & the enzymes which do all the biochemical work of the cells. This enormously stable simplicity of the universe is unlimitted(from a human standpint), compared & described by the COMP . It models piece by piece, system by system, also. and has for 100’s of millions of years on this earth, too. and can for all places and times in our universe for the last 15-20 billions of years and for an equal time, very likely into the future.

When we understand how the COMP works to create language, order, and rules, even creativity, we find one thing. Every time we hear a joke and “get” the punch line, we have done a self-rewarding task. We get a bit of dopamine kick which the novelty gives us. We smile and may laugh. It’s self-reinforcing, so we like jokes, and we repeat them to see others get the same “kick” and experience that dopamine boost ourselves once again. When a child comes in from outside, and has found a new kind of bug or animal, he may say “Daddy!! Daddy!! Look what I found!”. How often have we heard that? That’s the kick of discovery, that momentary reward for finding something new, the thrill of novelty..

When Archimedes got into his bath, saw the water displaced by his body, and realized in that COMP moment, that displacement of water could be used to measure density, he cried out “Eureka, I have found it!”. Again, the dopamine, self reinforcing process, which each of us may feel when we reach that moment of understanding and discovery. The “pleasures of philosophy” which Aristotle wrote of when investigating the world by his methods. The COMP reinforces itself, and is probably responsible for our curiosity as well. & that of the other animals, too. Exploration is a survival tactic. If it’s rewarded, it will be done again. The dopamine kick of the COMP.

How vast and truly omnipresent and ubiquitous this COMP is, is therefore clear. And that it can create copies of itself, and proliferate by creating new order and new ways of understanding, is also clear. It’s plain that the COMP scan simplify down an huge amount of information. What was once dark and confusion, suddenly becomes lit by that bright bolide in the darkness, illuminating the skies of our clear reason to much of what was unknown before, but that light does not fade.

The COMP is endless and limitless. For every new word the child has, he can compare that to others. For every new idea the creativity of the COMP gives us it can compare those with all the others, to create more insights. And the more it creates, the more it proliferates, exponentiating to a much larger size. The math fomula is “X!”, one of the fastest expanding math series known. This is a secret hiding within the COMP. This is its power. A method which can potentially decode the universe, using a self-reinforcing dopamine kick to keep itself going and it can be performed endlessly to help us understand better and better, again and again, in endless reiterations, that complex universe outside of us, and that vast, biological complexity inside of us. Truly, it is “Ignothi Seauton.”

It may eventually form the basic of a unified understanding of almost everything, which it has already partly classified and partially understood. Le Chanson Universel, Sans Fin, de La Terre:The Comparison Process. The followng sections will extend further the creativity function of the COMP and many other observations and confirming substantiations.

End of Introduction: Le Chanson Sans Fin