The Continua; Yin/Yang, Dualities; Creativity, and Prediction

By Herb Wiggins, Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014

“Every structure has its capabilities and its limits.”

“Observe the wisdom of the Ant.”
— Proverbs 6:6-8, 30:24-25

Contents:
1. The Continua and dualities as the source of the same, opposites and complementary forms.
2. Kinds of the continua EM spectra, periodic table of elements and isotopes; listing of subatomic particles; biochemicals, IUPAC listings;
evolutionary Tree of Life
3. The Electromagnetic spectrum continuum, extending and creating the EM spectrum from the visible light range. Describing and measurement; Many examples of discovery/creativity along the continuum
4. Sound continuum.
5. Motion and speeds. from at rest to near light speed.
6. Introducing the Exponential Barriers (ExponBars) as part of natural laws; what these can mean as limits to measurements.
7. Sense of heat, as a source of Heat/energy continua; comparison process of detecting heat by the skin. ExponBar of absolute zero and highest heats approachable by matter. Continuum of Absolute Zero to Cee.
8. Touch, Hardness and pressure continuum. Moh’s Scale of comparison process; Pascal continuum of hardness; Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP).
9. Thesaurus as the best source of possible continua.
10. More ExponBars: particle physics, Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle; Bell’s test of measurement of spin in entangled particles/photons.
11. ExponBar of the Perfect line or circle measurement thought experiment
12. The continuum of time, from the Big Bang to present
13. The continuum of the brightness vs. number of galaxies and the Low Surface Brightness Galaxies, Disney/Malin.
14. The chemical continuum.
15. DeBroglie matter/wave graph.
16. Taste, discussion deferred.
17. Feynman diagrams as a special case of continua for describing particle interactions simply, another case of creativity.
18. The dialectic as a special case of creativity using the dualities along an continuum.
19. Matter density continuum, and the discontinuities.
20. Evolutionary Tree of Life
21. Plate tectonic model
22. Verbal continua describe in very fine details complex systems, arriving at an understanding of N-body solutions without using mathematics, a capability of COMP denied to mathematics.
23 Traveling salesman problem
24. The complex medical history, physical examination, differential diagnosis, and treatment protocol tables used in the practice of medicine as yet again a case of a complex system yielding to COMP methods. N-body solution using the COMP of language to do what math cannot.

1. The Continua are modern, updated, vastly extended forms of what in older times were considered Dualities, such as love and hate; up and down, light and dark, good and evil, and indeed any pair of synonyms/antonyms listed, many of which do not have numericity, tho it’s been extended to tall/short; lean and overweight, and the many, unlimited (Comparison Process), other ways each of these can be stated, almost endlessly.

2. In the sciences the electromagnetic spectrum of light is one of the commonest. most Visible of the continua. There are very many others, the continuum of the periodic table of the elements including all of the isotopes, well self-organized and clearly shown how they are all related ot each other in terms of nuclear/electronic structures, proton/neutron numbers, and so forth. There is the continuum of the smallest particles, the stable neutrinos, up to the unstable mesons and so forth, then to the stable protons, electrons and neutrons; thence up to atoms, to the compounds, inorganic, organic, and endless biochemicals of the polypeptide/protein chains, up to the continuum of the tree of life, upon which all known species are located, generally organized according to phyla if possible, up to the great apes, our closest cousins and to the latest series of modern humans, Neanderthal man, Cro-magnon, and modern humans.

3. The EM spectrum is a good one to start with, because it’s a continuum of light in all of its various forms. At first we had the visual sense, a system with black-shades of grey-white and dark/light, and all those related dualities in our languages and the many others. Colors were also seen, which have very ancient names as well. This is the continuum of light given to us by our visual system from the rods which give us black/white to the cones which give us the colors, ROYGBIV.

The study of optics goes way back to ancient times, as they had ground convex lenses they used to magnify smaller objects. But not much happened until Newton passed a white beam of sunlight thru a prism and saw the spectrum of light, and realized at once that it was the rainbow, which is the naturally occurring form. He made the discovery that the rainbow is created by diffraction of light by water droplets. But he understood it because he could create a rainbow at will by using a prism and sunlight. The frequencies/wavelengths are related via a couple of equations, E (energy) = H/ (Plank’s constant) times the frequency of light, small “v”. Wavelengths can be related to this, but the Wiki article will show all of that. This was the creative insight of Newton. He saw at once that both the rainbow and visible light spectrum were the same by the comparison process.

The EM spectrum/continuum begins at the lowest(duality) frequency end, the long wavelengths of alternating current fields, then up(duality) to radio waves, microwaves, infrared, the Red/Orange/Yellow/Green/BIV series of visible light, then Ultraviolet (UV, ultra being yet another relational duality), X-rays, gamma rays and finally, cosmic rays, the latter are largely iron atoms accelerated to near light speed, or Cee. This is a physical, real continuum, and the relationships of each frequency to the others can be read by looking at the frequencies, going from lower to higher, again yet another continuum. Every part is related to each other part by frequency, wavelength and energy. So it’s not only created by the comparison process, but just like a dictionary can be read by the COMP, because it’s been ordered by numericity. This is where measurement of light came in. Numbers in terms of frequencies were applied to ROYGBIV, which is what science does in order to more accurately describe/measure phenomena. And in measuring, this is done by comparing an arbitrary metric standard against that which is being measured.

But now look. Our eyes “measured” the light as well by comparing dark to light, which is the amount of photons coming in, few to large numbers and all the shades of grey in between. This is physiological description by our visual systems. And our cones measured light by creating colors which corresponded to frequencies, too, tho we didn’t seem to know the order of frequencies from lower to higher, either, before Newton. But yet, our eyes did. The higher frequencies of light interact with rhodopsin more energetically, than the lower, and this is how the red/green/blue base colors came about. We just didn’t know it, but our visual system, we see in retrospect, did.

Eventually, it was discovered that there was more to light than just visible light, tho how our eyes “tune” themselves to the brightest, relatively non-injurious frequencies and match those of our sun, is also apparent. We can see better when it’s brightest, because there are more photons to send information to our eyes. Therefore the most efficient way to “see” is by using the brightest part of the solar spectrum, I.E. the Yellow-greens, to which our cones are the most sensitive for seeing in color. This is no accident. It’s a least energy principle (LEP) approach. Using the COMP we can see this.

IR was found, radio waves found by detecting electric sparks which created waves which created slight currents in antennae, and the radio/TV/microwave systems we all use today were created in response, again by the COMP. By extending the EM spectrum to the higher frequencies, UV, X-Ray, gamma ray and cosmic rays using instruments, which basically translate light invisible to our eyes into forms by which we can detect it via our senses, then all of that continuum was found. Note that our senses were the starting place for this progress. In creating a continuum with the spectrum, then extending in a creative way that continuum and out popped the entire EM spectrum. It was ordered by the comparison process, measured by combining it with mathematics, and became a great deal more understood, organized, and predictable. All mediated by the COMP.

4. Let’s look at sound, which our ears pick up, too. We organize it in music by loudness which is the force of sound(Newtons/meter-squared) waves hitting our eardrums/second, which was first measured by our ears as quiet and loud sounds and all those in between. We also heard in our musical instruments the lower pitches and the higher pitches. and we organized our string and wind instruments, as well as percussion instruments in the same way. It’s very analogous to how the sciences organized sight, isn’t it? By a relational scale of soft and loud and low tones and higher tones, which is also the comparison process, too, And also the duality which it can create, too. It’s relational, not absolute. We can hear a set of intervals, compare them in terms of rhythm and pitch and we can ID the melody, “Mary had a Little Lamb”. and in the same way any other melody we “know”, that is we have in our musical Long Term Memory. It doesn’t matter what key the melody is in, it’s all related to the intervals of the notes. This is no different for speech, language, vision, and so forth. It’s all the same, the COMP, which re-Cognizes, I.E. re-KNOWS what it’s heard before. It’s the basic cognitive process, the COMP.

The series of pitches is the frequency of the tones, from middle C at 128 Hz to the C tones above and below, 256 and 64. All relational, all ordered, all knowable, all predictable so we can play a tune. But we don’t NEED to know the key the tune is played in, just the relationship of the notes to each other. We “read” the sheet music in just the same way we read words. We compare the sheet music notation to the keys on the piano, the frits on the guitar, the levers and holes on the wind instruments, etc, each of them corresponding to what we see on the sheet. It’s the same thing as reading, the comparison process, exactly, just altered for tonality and processed in our right and left hemispheres in the music/hearing centers.

From those notes we could hear, or not, depending upon deafness, we realized that some people could not hear tones others could by comparing people’s hearing. Some could not hear softer sounds, also. So it was asked, what if we play a higher note on the wind instrument? And through that realization was found more of the sound continuum, ultrasound whistles were made, and ultrasonic frequencies were discovered. It goes very, very high, each of it higher and higher frequencies, and each of it more and more energetic, too, just like light. Eventually, infrasonic tones were found, and the frequencies were lower than those audible. The same continuum, you see? The same line.

5. Let’s take motions and speeds. Essentially we “see” a movement across our line of sight by comparing each position to another at intervals in our eyes. The visual system smooths out those jumps so we see it as continuous. In the same way, repeated flashing of images on a screen too fast for our eyes to see each of them, sets up the illusion of movement. We call these motion pictures, now videos. The movement can be measured, also, again comparing distance the object travels compared to time. That is, it’s a ratio, a proportion, a comparison process.

Speeds can be seen as no speed, then slow and up to very, very fast. Again, teh slow and fast duality. and the continuum is built around it, faster than we can detect and slower. From being at rest, compared to a fixed spot, to very close to the speed of light as seen by our instruments, which describes the current continuum, which is also measurable. Objects can move so fast our eyes don’t see them. For this reason high speed photography was developed in order, instrumentally to allow our visual systems to detect very fast processes.

But we know that all speeds are relative, that is compared to a fixed spot. But there is no absolute resting spot. The ultimate speed is that of light speed, according to physics from several years ago. We approach that speed coming from a full stop but only with difficulty. The more energy we put into a mass or object to make it move faster, the more it takes to speed up to increase to light speed. Energy = 1/2 Mass times V (velocity).

6. Einstein showed that we could never reach light speed using normal acceleration. We move up an exponential barrier (ExponBar), and we can see if we were taking 1/2 of the distance to a spot, then 1/4, then 1/8, 1/6, etc., never get there. The actual equation relating this fact is in the Lorentz/Fitzgerald equations. At usual speed as a fraction of light, it’s the above. At very high speeds approaching a significant fraction of Cee, the equations are seen. E=1/2MV squ. is an approximation, not the reality. This is a highly confirmed fact. And this is what created the exponential barrier. Will return to the ExponBar soon.

Essentially our nervous systems can also create motions using muscle contractions. We can throw a ball, move a tennis racket to hit a ball, the same with a bat in cricket or baseball, or in Jai a’lai. We can run fast, or walk fast, or slowly or not at all. Thus the same rest, slow, fast duality which is seen, also creates the continuum although much slower than many processes, in which we live and act. This is what the motor strips/cerebellum and the rest of our motor systems do. Mediated so far in some way by the comparison process going on in the motor strips/cerebellum. But will not tackle that yet.

Touch is also a sense which we have, and there are many descriptive aspects to it, many dualities. We can feel if something is cold or hot, cool or warm, soft or hard, smooth or rough, wet or dry, etc., but will not review all of the human senses of touch which are multiplicit.

7. Taking cold and hot, the major duality of temperature, as it’s now known, we can detect these differences, feel a fever, or if something feels too cold. These are also comparison processes. We can describe these things, although within some major limits, also. How this related to the continuum of cold and hot is obvious. Eventually means were created to judge more accurately than our senses, to measure temperature. This si basically how much energy a substance holds. If it holds more, it’s hotter than if less. We can heat something up and make it hotter by many means, but the scale starts near, but never at Absolute zero, and then extends up to very high, well past plasma levels in our sun, to much higher. You see all of our adjectives used here are comparatives, too, not absolutes. Again, the comparison Process.

How does the skin know what temperature it is? By comparing itself at the skin’s resting temp to that is which being touched. If the skin is warm, anything warmer than the skin will feel warm. Anything cooler, will feel cooler. Anything scalding will burn and create pain, so that too is another scale, so far not well understood. The temperature scales of the skin are comparison processes. If the skin is very cool on a cold day, putting even a modestly warm object against the skin makes it feel very uncomfortably HOT!!. Putting something colder than 50 degrees against very warm skin on a hot day, can give a feeling of extreme cold. Temperature sensation uses the comparison process to determine relative temperature differences, thus hot/cold, warm/cool, etc. This is simply a fact.

This then has established a continuum, once more from near absolute zero, compared to water’s freezing and boiling points, the Comparison Process, we once more see without too much surprise by now because of its ubiquity. But approaching Absolute zero is very difficult. Because the closer we get to it, the more energy it takes to get there!!. This is in fact yet another exponential barrier, the ExponBar.It’s been very difficult to find the equation which should be like or match the Fitzgerald-Lorenz equation for approaching the speed of light. Thus temperature is bounded at the highest levels by the exponential barrier of trying to reach light speed, and at the lowest level, absolute zero, by a similar exponential barrier. Wouldn’t it be interesting if the equations were equivalent?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absolute_zero

The highest possible temps we can find go thru the states of solid, liquid, gas, plasmas and then still higher yet. As these are the speeds of moving atoms/particles, it can be understood, that the velocity of particles cannot exceed the speed of light, and so the highest possible temperatures there have an exponential barrier, yet again. So with heat we have an ExponBar at the low end from Absolute zero to Cee, and yet another exponential barrier at teh high end. What does this mean? More later. These are yet two more ExponBars. Hmm. Are we going to keep on seeing these? Yes. And they are ubiquitous and unending, which sounds like what? The COMP.

8. Touch also extends to soft and hardness, as relative scales. If something is too hard it can hurt us, by causing pain. If soft we can feel the difference. Again, the duality. and once more again, the continuum. Moh’s scale was once used to measure the hardness of rocks. Geologists assigned certain hardnesses to talc, limestone, quartz, corundum (sapphire) and diamond (mined) in ascending order of hardness. Again, softer or harder, comparison process. Again a measurement against substances compared to each other. If the substance could scratch something else by comparison, then it was teh same or harder. And this was how the scale was determined. Once again, the COMP. Are we having a pattern recognition event again? Eventually the Pascal scale of pressure was set up, measuring from resting state, of no pressure, to the highest state possible, when diamonds could be scratched/fractured by pressure, and not just any diamond, but a Carbon-13 diamond, which at about 125 Billion Pascals (GPA) is the hardest substance known.

But we are not done yet. The force which determines hardness is that of electron repulsion between the interacting objects, say quartz and glass. Each will scratch the other most times. They are of the same hardness both being mostly SiO2. The scratching breaks the bonds of the solid SiO2, and thus scratching it. The Pascal is measured relative to certain standards, also, once again showing the comparison process in its fullest glory as the basis of all measurement.

Here we have another continuum, do we not? based upon the senses originally and so on and on. Mathematized and measuring, yet again from the dualities.arising from the sensations.

What is the hardness of the electron and proton? It’s the Pauli Exclusion Principle(PEP) which forbids two fermions from occupying the same space at the same time. The pressure which prevents us from passing our hand through steel is just that. But how hard is the proton? We know there is neutronium, created by ultra high gravitational fields where almost all protons and electrons are compressed into neutrons. Moving up that hardness line, we see white dwarf star matter. Moving down further is only one thing, the black hole, which cannot be easily examined. This is the hardness scale, the continuum as we now know it, lined full of discoveries and creativity events.

Surprisingly enough the PEP is exactly the source of almost all of our motor vehicle laws. Don’t try to violate the PEP, that is collide with anything!!. Simple, real, exact, basic. Again the creativity of the comparison process, simplifying and increasing our understanding of events.

But are there any other? Turn to a thesaurus and see how many are known. It’s the endlessness of the comparison process all over again, is it not?

How about some more Exponbars? First, in particle physics. Particle physicists have been using more and more energies and higher and higher velocities accelerated for higher and higher costs for the last 70 years in order to investigate matter, basically by speeding it up to near light speed, an ExponBar in and of itself. And every time they built a bigger and bigger machine, until the largest, the Hadron Collector was created at CERN on the French/Swiss border. That one cost more than all of the others, almost combined. In order to find the Higgs, it took a lot fo time and energy, roughly the cost of building the machine, $10 B and then the cost of the experiments themselves. They found and confirmed the figures at a single site, using a single team, then published. But the facts are, it needs to be at least twice confirmed by separate teams, at a separate sites to be reliable and certain.. Will $10B+ be spent again? it’s not likely, nor is it affordable. This is the ExponBar at work, again. Also called the law of diminishing returns.

Let’s take the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle(HUP), which states that we can determine the spin of an electron, but we cannot simultaneously determine its exact location, or vice versa. If we do try to do so, what do we get? BingO!, the ExponBar. The HUP is yet another form of the general class, ExponBar. This has not been understood or known before.

If we do Bell’s test to determine the speed of exchange of information between the 1st entangled particle/photon of a pair, it then determines that of the other, an instantaneous speed of information transfer between the two particles/photons. So we find at first that to be at least under the speed of light. So we try it again and it rises to several times Cee. We try it again, with more and more energy/cost/time and we find it 1000’s of times Cee. The latest experiment shows 40,000 times Cee, rising up the ExponBar again. Hmm. What is going on?

When to try to find that perfect line, or perfect circle, we again find the Exponential Barrier when we do that. Is it in fact a limit to our systems of measurement, or is it real? What Does the ExponBar signify? No matter what system we use, no matter how we do it, we will always find the ExponBar at the limits of our abilities to measure something by the comparison Process. No matter where, no matter when, no matter how. There is a limit to knowledge built into the system of which the speed of light, absolute zero temperature and the HUP were the first known. There are endless others, too.

12. Let’s go back to some more dualities/continua, such as time. Past and future. Life and death. Young and old. Early and later. Morning and evening. Day and night. Each of these terms relates to the others by the COMP, please note. This is no accident. This is the way measurement/descriptions work.

We measure time relative to the system in use in each culture. All of them have a single point which was year one. The establishment of Rome the city, the birth of Jeshua Ben Josef, the Jewish Calendar, the 1st year of Ramesses 2’s reign, the date of the Hegira. The date of the Nile indundation in Khemet (ancient Egypt), etc. Each of these time lines measures a series of repeating intervals using the lunar or solar method of comparison. Time like everything else described or measured is always measured relative to a set standard. Nothing is absolute, we can start anywhere and end anywhere, but we use utility and practical value and the least energy principle to set these up so they weill be stable.

At first time was the endless cycle of the years from the rising of Sirius heliacally, to the frist day of spring when the length of the day was equally sp[lit between day and night. Measuring against the fixed stars, or against a set number of days done by in the lunar calendar, but ALWAYS, always compared to some standard, a COMP. Eventually, we learned that time arose LOT longer before us than in front of us. The evidences ketp piling up, the long durations of erosion of the mountains and plains by weather, water and rivers. The breakdown of radioactive isotopes. The immense times necessary to explain the worldwide evidence of sedimentary rock layers, and so forth. The age of the earth was found to be first thousands, then millions and then billions of years old.

The continuum of time was being created as we understand it today. Just like all of the others initially based upon comparison processes relating words to each other, just as we still do today. “See you in the morning.”
Explained/defined by early in the day after sunrise and not night, either, but part of day.Again comparison process. Constant, measured against stable processes such as astronomical observations, clocks, atomic clocks and even the processes going on in pulsars.

Much creativity and discovery can be found inside of these continua. The Colors were found by newton’s prism. Radio waves by Tesla and Marconi. X-rays by Roentgen, and so forth. The sound continuum also had its discovers, as did that of the other continua, such as the Tree of Life, the listing of all the species of life on earth and how they all related to each other by the comparison Process. That too a continuum.

13. Another continuum which has recently been added to is that of the kinds of galaxies. A very thoughtful astronomer named Michael Disney plotted a graph of the brightness of the known galaxies against their number. He found no smooth tail off as would be expected. So he reasoned there must be huge numbers, 10’s of billions of hard to see low brightness(COMP) galaxies. Using CCD’s (charge coupled devices) David Malin of the Australian Astronomical Observatory, which can sense extremely low numbers of photons which normal photographic paper cannot detect, and long exposure times, he found them, the Low Surface Brightness Galaxies. Billions of them including a real monster, the 650,000 LY’s diameter Malin-1!! A wonderful discovery, again made by extending, creatively, a known continuum. Just as has been seen so many scores of times before.

14. So this provides yet another way to creativity, does it not? Find a continuum, and extend it. Trial and error. Sooner or later, we will make more discoveries based upon this simple process. For instance, when organic molecules are made, we can add all sorts of groups such as -OH, COOH, CH3, etc. to them. By simply listing the known molecules and adding onto them, we can create endless numbers of new compounds, can we not? As long as we know the rules for adding on groups. This is the Comparison process which creates word strings, the number line, the alphabet, etc. This is essentially the basis of the hugely cited Combinatorial Chemistry method, which in the early 1990’s created such a stir, so to say. It’s also the basis of the current revolution in pharmaceuticals, because at first it used to take months to make a few compounds, of say, new antibiotics. Now, using the method, 100K drugs can be synthesized in a short time in micro quantities and simultaneously tested for effectiveness. Including antibiotics. Since no bacteria known can be resistant to 100K antibiotics, this means, does it not, an effective end run around bacterial resistance?

15. In the DeBroglie matter/wave graph, listing at one end the photons and then moving up thru the electrons, the protons and so forth we can construct a matter wave line. At some point where the waves begin to become very hard to detect, that is the borderline between the quantum event level and the macroscopic level of existence, which we call normal. Such a duality between waves/matter characteristics can be set up to measure the transition between probabilistic behaviors/quantum effects dominate and deterministic mass action behaviors of chemistry, the deterministic, stoichiometric rules of chemistry. This is how the border zone can be more easily discovered. Set up the continua from where quantum effects prevail, such as quantum tunneling, to where they do not occur, or are much less likely to occur. Diagram it. make it real and visual.

16. Taste is a more complicated sense, but will be treated later.

17. When using the Feynman diagrams, we see that continua have been created, which can neatly show relationships far more easily than talking about them or doing the mathematical work to show it. Thus the system is more energy efficient than the math, and this was why Feynman’s diagrams superseded Schwinger’s ponderously slow, taking weeks of complicated, mathematical methods. Feynman’s solution was a creative genius at work, again, the comparison process. Don’t do the math, do the diagrams following simple rules. We see his genius at work, introspectively, using the COMP. The comparison process allows us to look inside the mind, empirically.

Look around, find some dualities, create a continuum around them and make some discoveries. Or make a graph of two characteristics against each other, create a continuum and make new discoveries. That’s another way creativity can be done.

18. Regarding the dialectic, this can also be understood as a kind of continuum arising from the dualities of the these/antithesis, which when combined create a synthesis. This explains the limited but real creativity of the dialectic, though it has largely been ignored from some time as being not as useful as first claimed. It’s a duality which can create a continuum of the form, A + opposite A > synthesis. There are complementary dualities such as male/female, right/wrong, versus true opposites, such as yes/no; good/evil; up/down; in/out, well check the thesauri for the rest.

19. The densities of matter are also a continuum. Compare the most dense, the black hole, to neutron star matter, then white dwarf compact matter, each with its alinear discontinuities due to the above, then to compressed matter, to solids, liquids, gases (vapours) to plasmas. Then up to vacuums, to space vacuum of about 1 hydrogen atom per cubic meter, then to space which contains a good deal of dark matter (neutrino gas) to lower densities, and from places in space where there is a marked Casimir effect to even lower effects. These latter cannot yet be quantitated to any great degree. This is where discovery and creativity come in. In time we will be able to find out where the neutrino gas is of higher density VS lower and how to quantitate it, too, just as the Casimir effect will differ in various areas of the universe due to gravitational/mass density changes near large galaxies and out in the great voids in space between the star clusters,seen by astronomical survyes. Again, the density continuum, with many, many discoveries/creativity events laying upon that great line, and many more to be found.

Let’s name at 3 major complex systems, the Tree of Life, the plate tectonic model, and the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (HRD) of the known star types.

20. The evolutionary Tree of Life was established by comparing all known living species, including viruses and organizing them as to classes wherein they shared major characteristics with others. For instance, the insects have 6 legs, and are found in the Arthropoda class where the 10 legged decapods such as shrimp and many 100’s of species or plankton and other forms are found. The spiders are in the Octapoda because they have 8 legs, the centipedes and millipedes because they have many many legs, and the chitinous segmented worms correspond to many of these, too, just a lot more legs.

Each of these are related to all of the others by the branching diagrams, simply by following it down to where the tree branched, such as when human species, Homo sapiens(socialis) branched from Cro-magnon, same H. sapiens; and where Homo neanderthalensis (Neanderthal man) branched off the line. Where Homo erectus (java Man and Beijing man separated out. To the new finds of H. floresiensis on the island of Flores, Indonesia, to the latest Human form, H. denisovensis found in central Asia. There are a number of branches of early man yet to be found, again, lying on yet again, fertile continuum of human evolution.

We cannot extend this family line into the future, except by pointing out all of the variations of the wolf, which has been domesticated into the 100’s of known dog breeds, as a VERY prominent example of evolution in action, which is undeniable. In this case man was the evolver, not a more natural cause. Same is true of all domesticated varieties few plants, now numbering in the 100,000’s. Again, discovery/creation of new variations of plants/animals is yet again, the creativity we necessarily find along a continuum, in the specific case of the tree of life. All the myriad ways, from the simple to the complex, the comparison process at work in creating new forms of life as well as cataloging, organizing and understanding what has been found. Le Chanson Sans Fin, universel.

21. Looking at the plate tectonic model will reveal something very unexpected and useful. Essentially, using the basic concept of the geological plate, which can be seen here: the geologists created a working model of how geological processes act and where they occur. This is in fact a sort of round comparison process continuum. All plates are related to other plates. No plate is absolute and their complex movements and descriptions are based upon a few simple rules/processes. Again, a visual, diagrammatic, 3D model. Where a few lines are worth 1000 words and umpteen pages of math, if at all.

http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Glossary/PlateTectonics/Maps/map_plate_tectonics
_world.html
The simplified version.
http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/about/edu/dynamicplanet/nutshell.php

The geological processes are sea floor spreading due to upwelling in oceanic ridges; subduction zones where seafloor is moving down under continental margins, creating 1. volcanic zones (the Cascade mountains, N. Am) from subduction materials melting and rising up, and 2. subduction zone earthquakes the most powerful of all quakes; normal fault movements created, such as the San Andreas fault; hot spots on the ocean floors and those related effects. The East African rift system Spreading zone is seen as a land version of seafloor spreading zones.

Listed from the first plates found, sea floor spreading in the mid-Atlantic rises, which separate Africa/South America in the south to Europe/North Am in the north. Then the rest of the circular continuum was constructed around that.classical extending of the continuum until it was far, far more complete, tho more work is going on now. Each new plate found was another creative act/discovery and much more is yet to be found. The finding of living systems completely independent of the sun in the East Pacific Rise, yet another kind of discovery, also lies on the spheroidal geometry of plate tectonics. With more such spots to be found, undoubtedly very ancient ones as well.

22. Plate tectonics is complex systems theory, a descriptive solution of the N-body problem, is it not? No math, but visual descriptions, occasional measurements in 3-D which show how the geological processes work. We see that the COMP can create a predictive theory based upon descriptions which are NOT mathematical, yet real and useful. We model successfully complex systems, but have a great deal of trouble developing these systems using math, esp. biological systems. Where they do work, they show the structure/function relationships using programming. This also is probably another way to AI modeling of the human brain. What works for complex systems such as plate tectonics should logically, by analogy work for living systems and organs and genetics, once we have enough of the basics to model along the same way as in plate tectonics. Which, come to think of it was how the characteristics of the comparison process (work in progress) were found recognition with LTM, ordering (empirical introspection), etc., It should even work to model the complex system which is our solar system.

23. The traveling salesman problem has been solved by bees.
http://www.wired.com/2012/09/bumblebee-traveling-salesman/

Imitated by man and then computerized once the COMP had created a translation of what went on with the bees and how we can understand it in human language. Again, the translation of a bee creation/discovery into human terms/language, made possible by comparison processes. Again, trial and error as a basic part of creativity.

Bees did NOT solve this problem using math, any more than birds solve complex trajectories by math, either. But they did use a form of the COMP, because they have recognition, thus the comparison process of the hymenopteran analogous system. Ours can solve this problem, too, using the COMP. We translate the bees’ method into descriptive language. It’s roughly analogous to the mathematical series approach. The first few elements of the series are not as exact. Over time, it becomes a good solution. And again, the Least Energy Principle in action!! This is yet another example of how the COMP works and what it can do, which math can’t. Do you get it yet?

And the bees DO have maps AND language, because they have recognition, too. They can recognize hive mates versus enemies/not self. They know their hives and where those are. They can fly out and come back. These are LTM (Long Term Memory) and the COMP, just like birds know where their nests/territories are, just like they know who their mates, foes, food, and predators are, too.

http://www.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/en/news/features/feature5/
Karl Von Frisch’ pioneering work into seeing what went on inside the bees’ nervous systems (empirical introspection).

24. The complex medical differential diagnosis is just more of the same complex system descriptions, lying on a complex continuum, which relate in all known details the kinds of diseases of the various organ systems, and how to diagnose and treat them, tho far, far more complicated, too. See Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy article (in progress) for more details on the processes/sequences of medical creativity and discovery, which has been and will be done. This is the unifying process underlying the Comparison Process. This is its unlimited utility and value. It can produce a COMP solution to the N body problem.

Find your continua, describe them and understand, create and discover more. That’s a form of problem solving/creativity.

Language/Math, Description/Measurement, Least Energy Principle and AI

Language/Math, Description/Measurement, Least Energy Principle and AI

By Herb Wiggins, Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014

“Man is the measure of all things.”
–Protagoras 5th C. BC

Table of contents
1. Inability of Mathematics to describe language; inability to describe biological, taxonomies and medical language and processes..
2. The universe is NOT mathematical, but partly describable with math.
3. Flexibility of language in descriptions markedly superior to math; useful biological/medical examples
3a. The comparative forms of adjectives as incontrovertible PROOF of the presence of the COMP in all language/descriptions.
4. Measuring is ALL a Comparison Process (COMP): distance, weights, time, etc.
5. Descriptions mostly cannot be measured. It lacks numericity used in the sciences.
6. Visual tracking as a predictive COMP; Butterfly chaotic flight and tracking; missile control by math/geometry versus avian tracking systems; human tracking while driving is much the same.
7. Predicting the future and the Least Energy Principle (LEP); value of the rule of 72;
collapse of the USSR and the LEP;
8. Stock market collapse of 2000 and predictions/prophecies.
9. Understanding the structure/function relationship of the comparison process in the cortex of brain; why it’s very hard to understand complex systems esp. of the cortex;
10. Can mathematics, if it cannot describe language much at all, describe human cortical cell functions which arise from the cortex?
11. Can present day math learn how to speak language, or write creatively?
12. A COMP possible solution to the problem of re-creating by machines, human cortical creativity; increasing speed of human creativity by computer modeling.
13. How do programmers create new programs, new operation processes, etc.?
A new form of relational mathematics is needed. Math needs to grow a new form, more descriptive as are languages.
14. The COMP which creates language is more important than mere grammar.
15. The use of empirical introspection to analyze and model programmer creativity processes, as it has that of scientific creativity. Creating creativity on computers by studying how programmers do their work.
16. Empirical introspective study of programmers’ skills and how their cortex’ output creates new programming. Successfully nderstanding programmers’ creativity can leads to a creative computer and substantially speeds up programming progress. Creativing creativity by computers will then be directly applicable to understanding language, emotions, and so forth and creating true AI.

1. The real problem has been for years that language and mathematics are not consonant. We can say everything in language, even complex mathematics, and we can write a great deal in language and are NOT able to translate that into math. For instance, the entire taxonomy of living and extinct species of all life, all the kingdoms and phylae, cannot be translated into mathematics. A bit of the descriptions can, but very little of it, either. Images of the living species cannot either. This is a real problem. The math does not exist which can describe a living species, except in trivial measurements, either.

In the same way, the entire compendium of medicine, the texts of each specialty, the physical exam, physical findings, differential diagnosis, complex system of steps of testing to a reasonably secure diagnosis, and the treatment protocols cannot be mathematized. We cannot describe the intricacies of psychology and psychiatry, let alone the anatomy and physiology and structure/function relationships derived from neurology in math either. It’s impossible with math as it exists at present.

In the same way we cannot translate a dictionary into mathematics, nor a novel, nor a play, nor a movie. Yet we can say and speak about all of mathematics. Teachers do this every day all over the world. The descriptions using words can describe math, but math cannot describe very much which is verbal.

2. I recall hearing many years ago at university that the universe was mathematics. I just looked at him and asked, then mathematize anatomy, the differential diagnosis and the entire DSM3!! He got very quiet and muttered something rude, and also logically irrelevant to the obvious. The universe is not any more mathematical than it’s English, French, or Latin, and those languages esp. in the biological world describe it far, far better than math ever can. In the arts and religions of the world, we can defy anyone to translate the Bible, New and Old Testaments into math, or for that matter, the Koran or the Bhagavad Gita, or the Buddhist texts. It can’t be done. Or to translate an entire movie into mathematical terms, or an opera or symphony? Impossible!! Clearly.

There is an extreme limit to the abilities of math to take on physical descriptions, esp. images. A picture is worth 1K words. An image would take hugely more, a very great deal more, perhaps 10k’s more using math!!. And neither could the math identify what the objects were, either. Esp. not even famous places.

3. Verbal descriptions on the other hand are very, very flexible and useful, as anyone in biological fields, including medicine, know from working every day. Let’s describe a beetle, for example. We can tell about size, altho we can use measurement to describe in more precise terms. But we use colors, and patterns of colors for the overall description. There are 2 antennae, 6 legs, often swept back in the Scarabaeidae family..There is a hard, protective, chitinous covering over the wings called the elytra. There is the cephalon (head), the thorax and the abdomen. Each of these in many beetle families has its own shape, such as the Coccinelidae, the lady bug family, where all are conforming to the rounded shape, tho the 3 major body division still are there. We describe these often with a drawing or image, so when we see them we can recognize them. The entire taxonomy of all beetles, and indeed all species known has been described using words. measurement is useful, but incidental to it. These descriptions are in fact sorts of measurements, tho they are qualitative, not quantitative. yet there are highly useful in description of almost all living forms.

3a. The most convincing demonstration of the ubiquity and that the Comparison Process is at the core of language and its descriptions are the comparative adjectives and forms. Endless and unlimited, just like the COMP. Here is the proof. Good and bad; Good, better, best, the trinary forms of the dualities, the comparative adjectives. Nice, nicer, nicest. Lowest, lower, low, high, higher, highest. Here is a Continuum built of two continua!!. Very much so. Two together. Comparing, combining, ever additive, endless. Very nice; somewhat nice; very, very nice. Endless comparatives. Take each letter of the alphabet and start listing each of the easiest to think of. Above, almost, below; before, a bit before, just before; After, nearly after, just after. Cool, cooler, coolest; close, closer, closest. Dull, duller, dullest; very dull, most dull. Happy, happier, happiest, very happy, much happiness, more happiness, most happiness. Etc., etc., etc., etc., etc., etc., etc., right to the end of the alphabet and in any modern language, find the same. Universal, real, existing, and solidly evidenced AND confirmed by unlimited examples, which anyone can create, any time.

Again, the COMP, endless, unlimited, undeniable, incontrovertible, essential, ever present, at the very core of description and language. The Comparison Process creates language and is the engine of language creation and usage.

4. In measuring, we use the Comparison Process overtly and completely. If we are to measure distance, we compare that to a known standard, be it a ruler, tape measure, or in surveying the theodolite which measures against the known phenomenon that the further away something is, that the size of it decreases by the square of the distance. This can be very precisely measured and then compared to the known standards to establish quickly and easily the sizes and dimensions of large areas of land without dragging around long ropes, chains and other formerly used methods. Each of these cases shows that the measuring COMPARES to a fixed gradated standard to arrive at a unit measure.

When we measure weights they are measured most accurately using a balance scale which measures a highly graded tension which is standardized against (compared to) a known weight. We step on a scale it’s comparing our weight to what is already standardized. All weights are measured using comparison.

When we measure time, we do so comparing to the UTI in Greenwich, UK, where the time is known and broadcast around the world by radio so the actual time can be known in each of the time zones. For more precise measurement, we compare the second to the vibrations of a quartz piece in a watch, which is precisely known by counting the vibrations/second and constantly counting that to create an accurate time piece. For more precision, we use the transition times of microwave radiation which occur when electrons rise to a higher level when absorbing a radiation then release it when falling to a lower level. This occurs at a very precise rate and the earliest effective clocks were accurate to 1 part per 10 Billion. So time is measured compared to the electron transition times between 2 electron levels in a suitable atom, usually Cesium. Time again is measured by this comparison.

When we synchronize we use the comparison process Two times. First the clock is standardized to noon, where the sun is at it’s highest point. That’s why Noon is used because the day was always measured from noon to noon. For obvious reasons as overcast days, this method had to be modified. Thus we standardize to noon, even today, worldwide, where the center of each time zone is offset 1 hour every 15 degrees latitude for each time zone east or west of Greenwich. Then we look at the clock, usually with a second hand/digital readout and compare our watch to when the second had reaches 12, for instance, and set the watch to precisely compare to the standard clock time. Comparison all the way through.

When we read time we do so by comparing events to a standard time keeper. When we measure speeds we measure the distance divided by time, against two comparison processes to establish distance/time, giving speed in meters/second, or whatever units to be used. In every case, we compare the event being measured against fixed standards. Measuring is clearly, plainly a pure comparison process.

Now look, how is description any different from measuring except there is not the valuable numbering system? It’s no different in fact. So when we state something we are actually using a qualitative description to measure a known quantity without numbers. Whether it’s a color which corresponds (Comparson Process) to known frequencies, or brightness using a photometer to measure the number of incident photons, it’s all the same thing.

Descriptions can be compared to some measurements. But some descriptions cannot BE measured, for instance when we call something a leg, or tail, or head, or wing. Those do not carry numericity, which is so valuable in terms of measuring events in the sciences. And indeed, it’s very hard to introduce numericity into the normal language. It’s been the great breakthru which has created the science, where ingenious, creative (COMP) methods have been used to measure where we could not measure before. It’s the number use, numericity, which has made science so successful because it permits more precise description than possible with verbal descriptions alone. It also creates more predictive capabilities,

6. Consider tracking of an object. Our visual systems are esp. good at this and devote a good deal of the nervous system to closely yoking each eye precisely in line withe other, so we don’t get double vision. This double input allows us to estimate distance using a parallax method, depth perception). It also allows us to determine which directions flying or moving objects/events are going so we can estimate where the object will be in a few seconds (bird flight), minutes(cloud movement wind speed), or hours (movements of the sun, moon, or fixed stars thru the sky. Calendars.) Our visual systems can then predict where they are going.

Now this is an interesting thing when we think about butterflies, because they fly in such a very irregular, almost chaotic way. Most people have seen this but not figured out WHY does the butterfly do this? It’s very easy. Birds also have visual tracking systems, and they can predict which way an object is going to go, because of the tracking system in their brains. So they can intercept an insect flying in a straight line more or less. Yum!!. Butterflies are very much larger and cannot easily avoid a bird, esp. with their colored wings. But, if they fly chaotically, how can the bird brain track it? There is no regularity for the bird to recognize and then target the insect. They escape very easily and so cannot be easily caught. It’s a survival mechanism based upon the bird’s tracking system which has a very hard time following a chaotic butterfly wing’s irregual flight.

How this compares to missile interception and fire contol is much the same. Essentially it can all be understood in a series of comparison processes. First, there must be detection, usually by radar. The targetting mechanism figures out by comparing successive radar impulses where the target is moving in space, and how fast, by measuring the speed at which the radar pulse bounces off the target. If it’s moving to the left, or right, then the directional system figures this out by comparing the time and location in an internal system set up for that, usually a mathmatical program which relates to geometry, that is a comparison to a 3D system. Then it compares the differences between a series of carefully timed pulses to determine the speed, and when those are done, it has a “lock”. The system gives a series of beeps or light blinkings and the operator of the missile fires it. The missile homes in on the target using constant radar updates to figure its position and if the target’s evasive maneuvers are not fast enough nor enough, then it is hit and damaged or destroyed.

The bird does this, but we don’t know how. Clearly it has to have some kind of internal representation using a neural system which can model the changes over a few dozen milliseconds, arrive at an approximation to where the insect will be in a few more seconds and dive towards it, comparing each position to the ones previously to continue to update the approximate spot the bug will be in the near future, connect this into the wing beats for diving and speeds of approach and then grab the bug in its beak within some range of movement depending on how long the neck is, and how fast the beak can shut on the bug. We’ve all seen them do it. And their capacities for intercepting flying insects is remarkable. We cannot duplicate this system, because the birds are constantly changing their positions, directions and so forth and tho the bird might not always capture the bug, it often does. Yum!! Comparison processing through out. And the bird does NOT use mathematics to do it, but neural networks, whatever those are.

Once we undestand that this sort of thing, i.e., the comparison process, is going on to measure, move towards and intercept, then we can more easily figure out how to duplicate in some way, this process. In driving cars we do the same thing. We know that if we speed up too much we will get to the light before it changes to green, and so we learn an internal algorithm related to how fast we are going and how long it’ll take to get to the light at a certain speed after it changes to green. So we do the same thing as a bird. I knew a student who was so good at this he could pick out of the air a fly buzzing about. His comparison Processes were working very quickly and very fast. No math involved, but the superb tracking and predicting system his brain had using the Comparison process.

The Comparison Process cannot just predict speeds and directional velocities, but it can also predict to some extent what people are going to say, or do in set circumstances. It can also sight down time lines, extrapolate from current data, and make a prediction that some event is going to occur. This is in fact a kind of prophecy. For instance we knew, many of us, that the USSR/communism/state socialism was doomed. In Nixon’s autobiography he talked about meeting the Dalai Lama, who stated that the USSR was not acting according to the rules governing human greed and incentive and so must eventually fail for this reason alone.

7. The real reason the USSR failed was the Least Energy Principle. This is a comparison process method, purely. It measures outcomes, compares them and finds the one which uses the least cost, time and distance in accomplishing a certain goal. It’s the basis of efficient production, work and all known tasks. The entire universe uses it in terms of a photon’s paths which are the most direct and the least energy, even thru a gravitational field. The orbits of the planets are least energy. The paths which cows take back from the fields to the milking barns in the afternoons are also least energy. The conformations of series of soap bubbles are also. From the trivial to the mighty galactic clusters, all is Least Energy. The windings and bends of river courses are also least energy for flowing waters.

This principle is seen everywhere, and is a basic tool anyone using the Comparison Process must know about and utilize. Because if a method uses less time, and less resources, and less distance of travel to get a single, set goal done, for instance, mining coal and getting that to the customers, or creating electricity with the least amount of waste of production and transportation, that advantage will build up. Using the Rule of 72, which measures doubling times related to an interest rate divided into 72, if a process of manufacturing by one factory is 10% more efficient than his competitor, given a similar marketing condition (yet another comparison process), then in 7 years, his advantage will be double that of his competitor. In 14 years 4 fold, and in 20 years he will dominate if not own the market.

This was largely what went on in the USSR. There was terrific waste in food production, at all levels, from planting, quality of seed which determined % of sprouting, cultivation, plants, lack of harvesting machines and tractors and so forth. And they could not get the food to market because of bad roads, bad trucks and inefficient storage and labor problems, they had to Fight the “Battle of the harvest” every year” where even students and factory workers had to turn out to get the food harvested, stored and shipped. This took away efficient education and production and affected the entire USSR during harvest times. While US farmers were only 2% of the population, Soviet farmers were 30-40% of the population to grow about the same amount of food. Comparatively, as it’s an outcome statistic.

This problem occurred all over the USSR in all areas. It got so they could not drill oil wells much more than about 10K feet down, in several days, where the US firms would do the same down to 25K feet in only a day, thus giving the US a huge comparative advantage in efficiency of drilling, more drilling and deeper, too. As a result USSR oil production began peaking out in May 1984. The Russkies knew this would happen and built many large, cheap, simple, graphite moderated nuclear power reactors called the RBMK-1000 models, in groups of 2 to 4. This was Chernobyl, and SosNovy Bor as well, including others. Everyone knows what happened there, esp. when an estimated 30% of Soviet workers were drunk most days, which continues to the present.

Upon this basis of inefficiency it was predicted the USSR would collapse if we held strong. Reagan increased pressure on them using direct embargoes of computer and other strategic goods and then forced them into a massively costly arms build up they could not afford. In 1991, the USSR collapsed due to its inefficiencies, many of which have not been reduced even today. This was no surprise to most of us.

8. Before the stock market crash of 2000, the “Economist” of London had 2 front page cover articles about the USA’s stock market bubble, where prices were WAY in excess of reasonable, some with price/earnings ratios of 50-60 to one and some of mathematical infinity because of no dividends. I can recall those two front page cover article images. Further when sitting at a dinner meeting with some associates in March 2000 telling them the our stock markets would collapse and to be ready to get out quickly to cut losses. There were two responses. One wife said, “The stock market can’t collapse. All of our pension money is in stocks.” I looked at her and said, “How can I be overdrawn? I’ve still got checks!!” And another fat and rather overconfident person said, “No one can predict the future at all.” “The London Economist believes they can. and it’s good enough for me.” I said.

In April it collapsed, the Dow falling from $12+K to $7K and the NASDAQ from $2300 to about $700..Many suffered serious losses. None of those persons EVER acknowledged to me what had happened to the market. Another acquaintance of mine made $50K on the fall in prices. Further, “A prophet is without honor even in his own land.” The gift of prophecy of Cassandra, pious daughter of Priam of Troy, was well recognized, but the gods had cursed her. No one would believe her. This is the hidden power of the ancient Greek myths. Do you see how all of these things fit together, creatively using the Comparison Process?

Future predictions ARE possible using the Comparison Process. It’s the gift of prophecy. If you know enough and can wrap your concepts, creatively around events tightly enough to discern the velocity and direction, you know where the thing will land hard. LBJ had this gift. So did the seer, Winston Churchill as reported in C.P Snow’s The Variety of Men. This is another gift of the Comparison Process.

Understanding this, recall that Bayesian mathematical methods can create predictive values and are used widely in machine recognition programs using voice or image recognition. In this way, these programs are doing a simple, Comparison process. How we recognize voices and persons, the same way many other animals do, too. Recognition is a very important part of the COMP, as has been repeatedly shown before. Recognition of words, landmarks, the creation of maps, and so forth. The Comparison Process is Bayesian plus and resides in all human cortices, making recognition, creating creativity, creating and understanding language, math and many, many other tasks, constantly while we are awake, and often in dreams, too. But I have digressed in order to make more important points about the COMP.

9. A further problem is understanding the major functions of the cortical cell columns of human brain devoted to the Comparison Process. The next question is how does the neurophysiology of the 6 layers of the cell columns create the processes which result in the COMP? And that question is an insolvable one at present. Using the structure/function relationship and an analogy with E = MCsquared, it can be understood better. When Einstein wrote his famous equation relating matter/energy, it was in the 1910’s. Nuclear fission did not come along until the 1940’s and with fusion, about 6-7 years later. Now at last at Cardarache, France, the International Thermonuclear Exp. Reactor (ITER) will be coming on line well over breakeven within a few years. That’s 100 years of lag time before the Structure of the S/F relationship was solved on the left side compared to the right side.

Now, the Structure of the cortical cell columns creates the COMP. We know what that is. But what is the structure which does that, neurophysiologically? We don’t know, and there is an impenetrable block on this, too. It’s the N-body problem. We cannot figure out using current math/computation power what happens with N= or greater than 3 is, either. The equations go to such complexity/chaos, not even the best computers can easily solve them. Consider that the number of interacting neurons PLUS neurochemicals is in the 10K’s at least in the cortical columns. The number of genes interacting to create the human body is in the range of 25K, interacting with probably more than 25K MORE chemicals/biochemicals. When we cannot solve for N>3, how can that be done, when in fact each of those neurons might well be interacting via synapses with 1000’s of others?

So it will take a while to figure that out. The difficult we do today, the impossible takes a bit longer, to paraphrase the wag. It took us thousands of years to figure out what the cortex did, in a basic, fundamental way and will take us a lot longer to work out the unlimited workings of the Comparison Process in the cortex.
But the point is we have the mathematical Bayesian predictive values which can create basic machine recognition of voice, fingerprints, and even some simple images. But these statistical methods don’t give us language, but we have the functional origin of language, which has not heretofore been known. It’s the COMP, clearly, that repeating simple process which is the right side of the S/F equation. It will take a while before we can generate all the details of how the COMP creates a real, existing language, altho we have the E = MCsquared of that, the COMP. The same for personality disorders, let alone the emotional system, though some headway has been made recently. Now we need to solve the N-body problem for the neurophysiology/genetics/embryology of the brain cortical cell columns.

10. Let us treat description in the same way. Math cannot give us much in the way of translating all but the simplest language into numbers/equations. Describe the colors and sky of a beautiful Western sunset. Language can give us some idea. It can even give us with certain known landmarks, where that sunset took place, at Point Loma in San Diego or looking at the alpen glow in the Colorado Rockies in the Frazier River area. Math can create a digital summary of the image, as we use Jpegs all the time. But it cannot give a meaningful description of what is being seen using those numbers in the Jpeg. That’s qualitatively/quantitatively a wholly different task.

Consider this, and it’s the critical one. Can mathematics give us the way to create language? No. Can it at present give us a way to re-create creativity, modelling in some way how Einstein, Darwin and Wallace used the Comparison Process to create Relativity and evolutionary theory? No. Until it can, then true, complete AI cannot come about. Until math can create relational methods, comparison processes which re-create the complexities of language, which the Comparison Process does every day in our cortices, then math will not be able to handle meanings and much else. This limit to mathematics must limit its use in creating AI which can model realistically, human cortical functions.

Now consider measurement. We use rulers, tapes, etc. to measure lengths distances, clearly comparing the gradations on those tools to arrive at the values we get. When we measure colors of light, we can analyze the brightness with photometers and the saturation and amplitudes/frequencies of the colors. But that would take a very long time to do. Our visual cortices do that all the time with just a few 100’s ms. of work. When we compare images in our minds, while we are thinking about events in existence, such as Darwin’s finches, can the mathematics recognize what is going on? Would it have the judgement and sense to realize what this means, as did Darwin and then Wallace in his own way in Indonesia?

11. For the same reason that mathematics, even of the Bayesian kind cannot figure out language, tho it can detect targets, compute their trajectories and hit those targets, it’s a long way from that simpler task to understanding language enough to speak it, except in a stereotyped, pre-programmed, limited way. In order for that to happen there must be, very likely, a number of very important breakthroughs in pure and applied mathematics to make this happen.

12. Let’s consider an easier course of action. The Comparison process in our brains is a massive, simple process which creates creativity. It does this by means unknown to us. We CAN however describe what is happening by looking at the process using the COMP. We know there is stream of consciousness going on, where a lot of processors are doing the work, by associations and finding the relationships among events/words by the COMP. So if we can speed up this creativity, then we will be closer to creating a system which can model the Comparison Processes going on in the cortex.

How do we do this? The COMP is a self organizing, ordering system. It’s a big problem solving process operating in our cortex. It can look at a lot of comparisons, possibly using parallel processing, and come up with answers by this same creativity. The COMP can create a lot of ideas, but as one scientist said, to be good you have to have a lot of ideas. But good ideas are a dime a dozen. This implies some natural filtering is going on. The Least Energy Principle is a major one. The structure/function relationship is another. When progress is made in understanding language better, that can be translated into creativity, that is finding out what words/ideas/events have in common and finding bridging concepts, too. These creative recombinings of words/idea/images is the clue we need. When we create sentences which describe clearly what we have never seen before, that is creativity purely. The COMP does this all the time, tho. It’s uniquely creative.

What kinds of methods are used in programming to create recognition? What are the structure/function relationships of how those many programs compare to each other? This should give a common basis in which they are acting to create, roughly, the same process which can ID fingerprints, faces, or voice commands.

The Vocoder can convert an amplitude/frequency pattern of voice into an electrical signal, which can then be converted to microwave signal, be received by antennae, and then reverse translated into more electrical signals, shipped by fiber optics to the site nearest the receiving cell phone, which then receives the microwave signal, turning in back into sound by electromechanical vibrations which create the voice of the sender.

But this gives nothing useful about language, because the device does not understand at all the meanings and use of language. It does a greart job of transmitting with good clarity the signal and doing the job of translating microwave signals to sound and vice versa, but it’s empty of meaning.

What is the difference between this and the voice recognition systems being used? This computer can transliterate voice commands into written words, then act upon that word, producing the search which gives the answers to the person’s mobile phone. And then he can free his hands to do other things. However, meaning is still not there.

13. What would it take to create that meaning, that understanding of language? That’s why true AI has not yet been found. Math doesn’t yet understand the complex relationship among the words. Why we put words in the order they must be to create meaning. The words must relate to meaning. There must be relationships among those words to create meaning and the computer MUST understand/know what those are. When THAT can be done, and it can be done using the analyses using the COMP, then true AI using language can be created. That is the step missing, the step which the Comparison Process can give us. It’s the relationships among the words that give us the meaning of the word “can”. It’s NOT grammar of itself. The word string must make sense, it must have internal consistencies among the meanings of the words.

14. Take the sentence, “The Beans were in the Can.” This makes sense. “The can was in the beans” doesn’t make the same kind of sense. So it’s the sequence which determines meaning, too. This is the aspect of grammar, which is necessary, but NOT sufficient to create languiage, as has been shown before using the COMP. Knowing whether a word is a noun or adverb is not the point. It’s the complex relationship among the words which creates verbal logic, as well. And this is why AI has failed for now to create either meaningful sentences and to understand/interpret them, because the COMP was not invoked, which DOES give meaning by comparing words to each other. This gives meaning by context. Until the contextual sense can be performed by computers, by careful analysis modeling the COMP, then AI will not easily speak good English, or sensibly, either. AI CANnot understand the word, can.

15. Let us analyze using the COMP how the programmer thinks creatively. When that is done, using the COMP’s empirical introspection, then we will see how new programming methods are created. Programming is NOT science. It’s an art like creating a musical composition or creative verbal writing. It’s creative. There is no mathematical description of it possible at this time, because we do NOT have a mathematics of verbal relationships which creates meaning. However, we CAN study a number of creative programmers and learn what steps they take, using comparison processes which do that kind of creative work. and it will be a form of the Comparison Process. We can compare their work to each other and learn from those comparisons. Once that is known, computers can be programmed to create new creative computer programming methods, by trial and error, the usual way creativity proceeds. And once that can be done, progress in the field of programming will expand exponentially because each new method which is created, can be compared to the others and this will create more and more new programming methods to solve the problem of AI. We create the tools to create the tools which create the solutions.

This is what the Comparison Process model can give us. An empirical introspective approach to the living art of the cortical processes of creativity in the programmers. The computers don’t create programming progress, human brains’ cortical processors do. and if we understand that, then creating better and more methods to solve any problem will be much easier. and go much faster. Otherwise it’s all trial and error and it’s unlikely to go anywhere very soon, unless someone gets extraordinarily lucky. But winning the lottery is exceedingly unlikely in this case, altho many are willing to bet on it. As is said, playing the lottery is likely a voluntary tax on those who don’t know the laws of probability. We MUST play when the odds are for us, not against us.

As Einstein so wisely wrote, “An epistemological advance always proceeds progress in physics.” The same is true of AI. The Comparison Process is that epistemological advance in understanding the massive comparison processors in the human brain/mind interface. We don’t have to understand the complex, N-body problem of the brain’s neurophysiology, which creates the COMP. We HAVE the needed function already identified and it’s the COMP.

16. We only have to understand the Function of how programmers are creative and what skills they are using as any professional does when he works so much better and faster than others without those skills. We must learn more about programmers’ creativity. It’s a good bet a good many of those are already known. Those series of programming skills which make him a better, faster, more accurate programmer and creative besides. That is the key here. Understand the creativity of the programmers, and design that into a computer to create more computer driven/originating creativity. That by itself will give us AI far faster. There is no reason to believe otherwise. There is no theoretical reason, given the success of basic voice/image recognition programming methods to believe anything but that it can be done with work, trial and error, and an understanding of the basics. Otherwise, without the COMP it could take 100 years. And there would be little or no understanding of how it worked, either.

We know how Einstein, Wallace./Darwin, Edison, Archimedes and others created their new understandings. We need only to compare THOSE examples to those used by the programmers to find new solutions. When the COMP enhances creative progress by direct utilization by the programmers, then progress in creating computer/mathematical models of the human language will proceed very quickly because the same processes which create new creativity for computer programmers, will, create computer human language and language use and understanding. It’s recursive, self-reflexive and will likely work. One method of creating a COMP model using machines can create all the rest of AI. Create the tools which create the tools and the rest follows.

I wrote all of these creative articles simply by using the COMP, in less than 3 months’ time in a mid 60’s year old, who should not have much creativity at all. The COMP and its re-inforcing dopamine high can give that to many persons. And what could it do to boost that in a 30 year old, already creative computer programmer and analyst? The mind fairly boggles.

This is what the COMP portends. If we understand understanding, if we can create creativity, then there are far more and better answers.

Cosmology and the Comparison Process (COMP); Explananda 5

Cosmology and the Comparison Process.(COMP )
Explananda 5

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

In cosmology, let’s lay the groundwork, and then show the breakthroughs which have and can come from the COMP’s creative capabilities. Humason and Hubble did a great deal of work in the early to mid 20th C. observing many interstellar objects via the Mt. Wilson Telescope, then the largest and best in the world. They established that galaxies existed outside of our own, and Humason’s arduous work in obtaining detailed images and spectra of near and distant galaxies showed that the universe was expanding upon the basis of the red shift of the galaxies. This expansion of the universe based upon the massive COMPARISON of these red shifted galaxies, etc. makes their work a well established scientific fact, which cannot be rationally disputed by educated and carefully thinking people. Those galaxies which are more distant have a greater red shift, due to their increased velocity moving them away from the earth, as the fixed point of reference, i.e., in comparison (COMP) to the earth. The further away these galaxies are located, the emission lines in the spectra obtained from these galaxies move to the left, to the red end of the spectrum. And indeed many have been found which are so distant, by COMP, that those emission lines have been moved nearly into the infrared. and probably some DO lie in the IR, too. But these are harder to look for, because not only will they be dimmer, but will require a different kind of detector to find.

But the point is this, and it seems somehow to have been missed. When we look at the emission spectra of the elements on the earth, they are clearly very unique to each element, that is each atom of a specific atomic number. This is true because the emission lines are most commonly created by the excitation of electrons in their discrete stable, outer levels of the atom, and when they jump back to lower levels in their positions around the nucleus, which is unique to each element, they give off a highly specific & characteristic set of emission lines. These lines are the same for each element. They are the same for the elements in the sun and the planets. They are the same for the nearby stars, and the more distant ones in our own Orion spiral arm of our galaxy, both outwards and inwards to the 1600 LY (light years) distant Orion group of nebulae. In the next spiral arms over the emission lines are the same, and exactly so. In the most distant parts of our galaxy we can see using the COMP, about 80K LY distant, where the SagDEG (Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy) is now passing through/near to the disc edge of our galaxy opposite ours, The stars there have the same emission lines, as they do on the earth, and in ALL the stars/objects in the intervening distances. The stars of the quite separate and discrete and different history and origin of SagDEG also show the same emission lines as we see on the earth. The spectra of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, satellite galaxies at 120K LY and further from out our own Milky Way galaxy, ALSO have the same emission lines. That of the nearest large galaxy, the Andromeda also has the same elemental emission lines. Exactly. The same emission lines are seen in a smaller spiral galaxy satellite to the Andromeda, the M33 galaxy.

And so on and on so far out as we can look with our most advanced telescopes. Both on earth and in space, we see the same, exact frequencies of the elemental emission lines in all of the other closer, or more distant galaxies, even those at incredible distances. This is the important point. A linear model of the universe’ expansion (probably incorrect as the universe is a complex system and so not linear) and those redshifts, gives the most distant visible galaxies(ignoring IR shifted distant galaxies, at about 14 Billion light years (B LY) away. They are also 14 B years back in time, too. and even at those distances, and in all the intervening distances, the emission lines are the same by the Comparison Process. THAT is utterly Extraordinary. We have then visual proof that the same elemental electron levels peculiar and particular to each element are the same all over the universe. We know that the electron levels are built upon the nuclear structure of the elements, and thus those are all the same from here on earth to the most distant and most ancient times, all the same. Thus nuclear physics and chemistry and biochemistry here on earth and everywhere in our UNI-verse are all the same.

But there is more. Einstein postulated that a photon’s path would be bent by passing thru a strong enough gravitational field. and his theory of relativity was confirmed in this by finding that the light of a star passing near to the sun bent exactly as Einstein predicted it would in the 1920’s, and whenever rechecked(COMP), since. Further, when we look at distant galaxies, we can see their images also bent by photons from the galaxies, passing very near to very large stars, too. In addition, Einstein stated that if the light from a very, very distant galaxy were to have interposed another large galaxy between the more distant and closer galaxy, on the line of sight of the earth, we would see distorted images of that distant galaxy around the interposed one. And those images, the Einstein arcs and crosses of the light of such distant galaxies, have been found in enormous numbers. Even at distances of nearly 10-12 B LY. And this not only means that again, the laws of gravity as we understand them so far, are the same here on the earth and near to our sun, but also as distantly as we can see, and in all the myriads of places in between–both distant in the past, and up to the present, i.e. distant in space and time compared to the earth.

As an aside:
There is yet one more interesting inference we need to look at. If these Einstein crosses have been seen, clearly in the visible light spectra, and if there is a continuing red shift, then in a very old universe such as ours is, there may be reshifts into the infrared frequencies. And correspondingly there should be visible, real, but more faint Einstein crosses and arcs, similar to what we see in the visible spectrum, tho as the IR images would be far more distant, would be correspondingly fainter and hard to see. We have the IRAS satellite. Are we looking for those? Imagine the change in cosmology and our estimate of the age of the universe should a number of IR Einstein crosses and arcs be seen. And what of microwave Einstein arcs?

If we don’t look, we won’t find. The Low Surface Brightness galaxies of David Malin’s astute observation, were found in huge size and numbers of very faint galaxies, whose existence had not even been expected by just this same COMP driven creativity. The existence of the very distant satellites of our sun, at highly eccentric orbits, were simply missed because no one would spend the time and money to look for weeks at a field of stars to see if those planetoids beyond Neptune could be found. But when astronomers looked, they found them by the 100’s, upwards of 3200 km. diameter bodies, too.

Do the cosmologists and astronomers dare to look for IR and Microwave Einstein arcs and crosses? And if not, why not? This would further find more highly relevant data to compare to what we know and confirm, or disconfirm current estimates of the universe’ age. These questions show once again, the creativity of the COMP.

This shows the power of the COMP. It can take known, real proven facts and then extend them, showing once again the creativity of the COMP and where creativity comes from. The Comparison Process, everywhere, immanent, working.

This is confirmation of the enormous structural integrity, constancy and stability of our universe, to have lasted at least 14 Billion years (BY) and even at the greatest known distances, in all directions of at least 14 B LY (probably longer and more distant, too). The fact that our universe appears to be accelerating its expansion, indicates its non-linear nature and if so, indicates our universe is far, far older than the linear model implies, upwards of 15-20 B years old. This then has protean implications. Because we know that life as we know it took about 4.5 BY to develop on earth, even tho early life was created a few billion years after the earth’s creation, that given the right conditions at any time and any place in our universe that can exist like ours. and further that these laws of nature will continue for billions of years into the future. Life could and probably has come about by evolution, not once, but unlimited numbers of times inside our galaxy alone. We are not alone in the universe. This is proved beyond all reasonable doubt, by the findings of Hubble and Humason, and the observations of the gravitational effects at similar huge distances in space & time. Therefore it’s wise to look for other life out there. and we have come 15 Billion Yrs. and VERY late to the game.

In addition, not only can we live here on the earth with the proper conditions, but we can live ANYWHERE and ANYWHEN in our universe, as well, thru all spaces and all times. The physics and the chemistry are the same, everywhere, every part of it. We do indeed live in one UNI-verse.

But there is more, much more to this COMP of the distances and times of the emission spectra seen. How does the universe know and stay to be the same, in all times and all spaces? That is a weighty question. How does this function of everywhere in all spaces and all times, having the same physics and chemistry and gravity come about, too? Occam’s Razor, a form of the least energy principle(a complex system characteristic which rules our universe), states that the simplest explanation accounting for the salient facts, is usually the correct one.

And this is the most likely the simplest answer: The universe and all of its parts are the same because at the most fundamental and deepest quantum level, they are all in touch with other parts of the universe instantaneously. That means, in other words, every part of our universe is in constant and immediate contact with every other part, at the level which is very microscopic and small, where quantum level events take place. It means the observations of those laws of chemistry, physics and gravity, including relativity effects and rules, all come from the deepest quantum effects and laws from which our universe arises.

Well, that’s all very well and good, but do we have any other physical evidence for instantaneity in our universe? The answer is we have more solidly based evidences. First of all, Einstein’s thought experiment about what happened to a rider on a light beam. If we rode on it, we’d see that no time passed, because all time slows down more and more if one speeds up matter faster and faster against a relatively fixed position. At that point everything around the photon seems to happen instantaneously, while no time at all passes for the photon. Einstein’s creative COMP, you see, once again. When one hits light speed, all time stops for the photon. The twin never ages at all. And this is instantaneity. There is no time. For the photon everything outside of it happens all at once. There is no time for the photon.

Another well known example is that of the EPR paradox. Einstein, Rosen and Podolsky postulated that if one were to entangle a particle or photon with another, and then separated them, if the spin of one of the pair were measured, it’d instantly fix the spin of the other of the pair. Several years ago, Bell described a way to theoretically test this. and his Bell test has now confirmed, that indeed, the spin of the opposite particle is instantly created. Not at light speed. Not at more than light speed, but INSTANTANEOUSLY, to the point where the current measurement of the transfer of spin information between two particles is above the lower limit of 40,000 (!!!)) times Cee, the speed of light. which is about 6 digits of 99+% instantaneous speed. That’s convincing evidence of universality of instantaneity, too. It’s predicted to be so by Quantum mechanics. and it’s real and true.

Because it doesn’t matter how FAR the two particles are separated, the opposite spin will be instantaneously created in the other one, even if it is on the other side of the universe. and in all space and times distant, too. & if it can join two entangled particles together, then it can join everything else, too. It’s all tied together, you see, at the deepest quantum levels of our universe.

There is yet another evidence of this. We know that in a gravitational fields time slows down compared to a lower field. The higher the gravitational field strength, the slower the time goes. The lower the field strength, the faster events go compared to a standard reference clock. Events on the earth proceed, even at earth’s tiny gravity, slightly slower than do similar, highly synchronized atomic clocks orbiting the earth.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitational_time_dilation

Now consider this further. What happens if we continue to reduce gravitational fields? Not only locally, but at great distances, say in the areas of the universe where there are great voids left in space? In those areas, 100’s of millions to billions of light years across, we should see a substantial increase in speeds of measurable events. Taking this further in a thought problem, if we should cut out all gravity altogether in some way, in such a way that there was NO mass and thus no gravity in the universe, what happens?

We would have instantaneity. So we can see by this careful reasoning from real events, that mass/gravity not only created time by slowing down an innate instantaneity, but in creating time, has created all space as well.

We see an expanding universe. This means that the density of mass/gravity fields is steadily decreasing. Mass & energy cannot be either created or destroyed totally in this universe. It can be converted to energy, but it still exists. This means that in the very long run, what we are now seeing might be the same kind of illusion, comparing (COMP ) the apparent flatness of a very large round globe, which missed the actual curvature, because we haven’t observed over time long enough. A very real decline in mass/energy density, which misses local time speeding up, observable only over millions-billions of years could be the same kind of illusion. We can’t yet see this because we haven’t observed long enough. Nor have we looked for it, either. Just like the trans-Neptune objects were not seen, because they weren’t looked for.

If one puts a neutron into a nucleus, it becomes more stable. If it’s ejected by a nucleus, it will decay in 15 minutes or so. So are to we assume that that the nucleus changes the decay rate of the neutron? Yes, because the locally ultra high gravitational density of the nucleus slows down time to such an extent, that the neutron’s lifespan is greatly prolonged.

Now consider well into the universe’ future, comparing the present epoch to where gravity/mass density has decreased to 1/10 of that found now The speed of neutron decay will increase inside and Outside of the nucleus.. The mass density decline will trigger instabilities in the neutron and thus in the isotopes of the elements. This will first affect very likely the higher atomic numbers as well. So there will be a shift from stability in the formerly not radioactive atoms, to becoming radioactive and decaying. This is where radioactive decay comes from. It explains neatly and clearly why it exists. It’s likely to be true by Occam’s Razor. Steadily over time with expansion of the universe, the largest and heaviest elements will begin to decay faster and faster, until the periodic table of stable elements is substantially smaller than it is now.

Again, massive use of the COMP, its power and creativity to explain and predict previously unknown and unsuspected phenomena in our complex system universe. In the huge voids in our universe, we should see this happening. Increasing instability of matter (Again the complex systems characteristics of stability/instability, endlessly observed and real and used for explanations by the COMP.). Extending this logically, over time, when the density of the universe thru exponentiating expansion comes about over 10’s of billions of years, we’ll see matter coming apart at the high atomic numbered element end. and eventually, all matter will come apart, perhaps even the proton and electron. At those points, according to E=MCexp2, tremendous amounts of energy will be released involving masses beyond comprehension as even the 10 more massive than visible mass, dark matter, converts to energy.

There may be another tremendous explosion at that point. Comparing this to the Big Bang by the size of it.

This show the power of the COMP. It can take known, real proven facts and then extend them, showing once again the creativity of the COMP and where creativity comes from. The Comparison Process, everywhere, immanent, working. e have then the potentiality for the creation of another universe, do we not? A cyclical system of the creation & eventually destruction of one universe, leading to the creation of another. Almost Hindu.

These instantaneity findings postulate the existence of an underlying bosonic quantum level of which is instantaneity is a part. Where there is matter, in large enough amounts, then space/time can be created because it slows down this instantaneity and creates a universe. From this underlying bosonic ylem, we see in our own material universe, the Casimir effect, where the gravitational/mass effects not only sustain mass/gravity and space and time, but spontaneously are creating virtual particles all the time, thus continuing the mass/gravitational fields. From a massive quantum fluctuation of this underlying instantaneity condition, arose our universe and to it, it may eventually return, as mass/gravitational fields lose their strength from the expansion of the universe, and matter falls apart.

It may be that the Casimir effect shows this constant, low level creation of virtual particles, which is this interconnection of all with everything else. It must take place by some means, this constant interactivity with the underlying postulated bosonic ylem, but entanglement seems to be one way. There are probably other evidences, too.

This shows the power of the COMP. It can take known, real proven facts and then extend them, showing once again the creativity of the COMP and where creativity comes from. The Comparison Process, everywhere, immanent, working.

Where does the electron and other particles/photons go when it’s QT’ing? Or any other particle for that matter? Via the instantaneous bosonic ylem of the universe, very likely.

There are probably others examples of instantaneity, but it’s probable that the entire universe is connected instantaneously with the rest of the universe by this underlying bosonic, instantaneous quantum level. Again, by COMP of the exactitude of the laws of physics over all the billions of LY and years, and the fact that for the photons all the universe happens all at once, and for the results of the Bell test. When particles become entangled, they may partake of this instantaneity. When quantum tunneling occurs, they may briefly pass thru this bosonic ylem of the quantum level which generated/generates our universe.

And it might also explain the probable existence of faster than light(FTL) events on the quantum level. In 1955 Wigner, who later won the Nobel Prize in physics, showed that alpha particles emitted in the radioactive decay of an isotope, occ. moved FTL. Hawking radiation from the probable evaporation of black holes (And by the COMP, of neutron stars to white dwarf matter) is consistent with Quantum Mechanics. The too early arrival of neutrinos even before the light reaches us from a supernova explosion, may be yet another example. Quantum mechanics does not prohibit FTL speeds. If true, and it seems likely, then the QT events seen in our enzymes which perform biochemical transformations, may also do FTL QT, because that is the ultimate in least energy/time production of such events. Again, by picking up the instantaneity velocity of travelling thru the underlying instantaneous bosonic ylem.

Bose-Einstein condensates may also show some of this instantaneity, when a mass of matter cooled to very near absolute zero becomes a single quantum state. and very nearly bosonic in nature, too. Even potentially transparent to mass passing thru it, which is a bosonic trait, not that of a fermion.

Let’s look at a simple process, to give some idea of this recursive, yet simple observation can give insights into the origin of our universe. what happens when a single high energy gamma ray is converted to an electron/positron pair? These have opposite charges and mass. The gamma ray has no charge and no mass as it’s a boson. The e–/e+ pair have mass, and are fermions, not bosons. From a boson, mass has been created in the fields of our universe, as well as anti-matter and charge. How this comes about is yet another mystery of the complex system of our universe. But it’s altogether real and true.

Bosons giving rise to matter/antimatter pairs. COMP shows that’s what may have happened at the big Bang, too. Some kind of quantum fluctuation occurred in the underlying boson ylem and there was the big bang. The asymmetry of particles, seems to have created more anti-matter than matter, which is why matter predominates in our universe.

But lets look further. When the gamma ray converts to the e-/e+ pair & energy, its energy is roughly halved. The e- goes on but if the e+ collides with another e-, they will annihilate either other, and an X-ray wil be given off. The energy of the individual particles is declining. The ene4rgy is spreading out. The X-ray may be absorbed by an electron and then it will emit a lower energy photon, again. and so on and on until just IR is scattered around.

COMP shows us this is exactly governed by the Laws of Thermodynamics. The energy/mass will diffuse outwards, and the energies of the pair and so on, will steadily decline. This is entropy, the so called heat death of the universe principle. That is the way things go in our universe. From higher energies to lower. From more mass to less as hydrogen is converted to photons of energy in the stars, and then it spreads itself out, again. This is, in short the arrow of time, and it’s thermodynamic physics on the quantum level, on average, which creates this arrow of time. process of this sort do not reverse. It’s created again and again, in lots of other ways. It’s the second law of thermodynamics which creates the arrow of time, in our macroscopic universe, as well as at the quantum level, tho in the latters, it’s a probability which when summed up over 10 exp 23 times, shows us the laws of thermodynamics. Time moves in the direction it does by the laws of thermodynamics. The arrow of time IS the 2nd law of thermodynamics and the two are equivalent by the COMP.

The expansion of the universe is driven by the 2nd law. Energy tends to diffuse. Matter tends to spread out using energy. The mass/density of the universe tends to decline over eons. This is no accident, but lies at the core of the bosonic ylem which underlies our universe. Therefore, by the MofC, if the universe is expanding faster and faster, tho the expansion speed up is slight, we should see in this same way, the gamma ray converting into a e-/e+ pair, faster and faster, too, over the long haul. Just as we should see the neutron & isotopes decaying faster.

Why is the speed of light 300 K km/sec.? Current physics gives us no answer. But now we know that matter exists between no time and instantaneity, which are the same thing, their dual nature of the same event. In the early universe, with very high gravity, light was a lot slower. As the mass/density of the universe decreased to our epoch, Cee is what it is. On the way to instantaneity, light velocity may steadily speed up. We have not yet checked the speed of light off our earth to any great or accurate degree. In a much lower gravity, light should move faster than it does on the earth, too. We can’t do that experiment very well yet, because we are not living off the earth or very far from the sun. But when we do……. (grin)

end of cosmology section

The Comparison Process (COMP): Explananda 4

The Comparison Process (COMP): Explananda 4

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

Contents
1. Neurophysiology of the Comparison Process, anatomic location in brain.
2. Use of the COMP in dictionary reading/creation of dictionary order; phone book listings the same; street addressing using a map to create the addresses and to find/read them; most all maps as COMP.
3. Creation by the COMP of the taxonomies of all known genus/species, the Tree of Life; creation of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of all known stars types;
4, Organization/creation of the Periodic Table of the Elements/isotopes by use of the COMP; the classification of the known sub-atomic particles, also by the same means, the COMP; IUPAC listing of known chemical compounds organized by same comparison processes.
5. Mathematics as a comparison process creation; how does each number compare to the others, generates basic arithmetic; algebra, geometries, plane and spherical, as well as trigonometry.
6. Language as a creation by COMP; Discovery as a COMP function.
7. The major function of the COMP is re-cognition using the LTM as a stable platform upon which to build up the complexity. underlies all learning, informal and formal learning, called education. COMP is active in trying to make sense of what is being sensed.
8. Humor/jokes arise as creations and being understood by using the COMP; the dopamine kick in humor, discovery, curiosity, and creativity which re-inforces the success of each performance; building design uses the COMP as well as construction.
9. Recognition as a common biological trait seen in most all animals; neurophysiology of animal COMP like ours in higher primates, analogous in mammals, and birds/reptiles, down through the fish and more primitive forms.
10. Koko’s ability to use Ameslan (American Sign Language) as a demonstration of higher primates’ similar cortical neurophysciology to ours.
11. Porpoise intelligence/communication as a form of mammalian recognition showing COMP
12. Recognition in sponges and other similar early forms of life.
13. DNA as a biochemical form of comparison process at a biochemical level; complementarity and copying are forms of the COMP; ancient origin of DNA and biochemical recognition.
14. The COMP in decipherment of lost languages, a sort of decoding system, a Rosetta stone in and of itself; cryptography and the COMP.
15. Creativity and the COMP
16. Medical examinations, differential diagnoses, treatments and therapies as forms of the comparison process.
17. Art as a form of the COMP be it visual, musical, dance, etc.

Die Gotterfunken
18. “Ode to Joy” by Schiller; use of “Joy” inspiring Beethoven’s 9th Symphony, Scherzo and Choral finale, especially; inspiration as the COMP capability.
19. Religion unlocks the feeling of the Gotterfunken; the effect of increased dopamine in creating Die Gotterfunken.
20. The similarity of psychosis and mania, being high levels of dopamine activity of the Dopamine 2 receptors, which impair cortical functioning, creating
21. Relationship between madness and creativity solved–dopamine 2 receptor site overactivity.; music releases the dopamine via COMP
22. Love and dopamine/COMP relationship. Re-infroces love; Power of dopamine release mediated by COMP.
23. Heightened feelings of increased dopamine 2 receptor site stimulation.
24. Dopamine release as the basis for great movements of all sorts, including religions, political movements (Marxism/National Socialism) ;
Dopamine can be very damaging if not properly controlled.
25. All the good and bad of the COMP coupled with dopamine effects shows the huge capabilities, the vast multiplicities built into the COMP either with or without dopamine release effects. Die Gotterfunken.

The Comparison Process(COMP) is a high level function largely located in the 100,000’s of cortical cell columns in the human brain, which anatomically make up the gyri of the brain, and where speech/language, creativity, visual imaging/processing, sensorimotor functions, musical functions, etc., including most high level memories are stored.

Because each of these cortical cell columns are very much alike, this explains how the same, single function, the COMP can account for in multiplicit ways, neatly, parsimoniously most all high level processes. The COMP generates language, math, movement, sensation, visual images, hearing and music, and a great many other functions using the Comparison Process.

The Comparison Process can be very simply demonstrated by taking out a dictionary and looking up the word, Comparison. The brain organizes the search, again the comparison process, and we look for the C section in the dictionary, usually finding it by trial and error. But when we find ourselves in the “C’s”, we look for “com”. Finding that, we continue to move down, comparing each letter, one after the other, until we get to the “COMPA-” and then finally find Comparison.. We compare what we find, to what we search for, find the match, and we’ve found the word. Comparison is then given meaning by strings of words which explain/define “comparison”. Words are defined in terms of other words, esp. high level abstractions. In other instances, they can be compared to images of the word’s spelling, or as an image for “bird” for example (comparison). But overall, it’s the comparison process which is being used to both find, and well as build up the dictionary of words, one at a time. By using the same comparison process. the writers using the COMP have created the dictionary’s order. The COMP creates order from disorder, also. Look at a Thesaurus. It’s also organized by finding how words are similar, or different, i.e., the synonyms and the antonyms. Then there are the homonyms, which sound alike, by using our comparison processors, and can be the source of many puns, jokes and double entendres. Humor is also created by the comparison process, just as language is.

Look at the listing of the entire phone book, which order is created again by the COMP, listed by names in alphabetical order. It’s created by the COMP and it’s read and used millions of times a day by all of us, using the same Comparison Process. Doing the same task over and over, listing the names and numbers to create the phone book, and then using the same COMP to read it. The same is true fo ALL dictionaries and phone books and indices in any book and in any language.

Look at our street addressing methods. Same system, numbers in sequence followed by street names. We find the place we’re looking for by finding out where it is on a map, which has been created by finding & writing down all of the corresponding streets/features and how they are related to each other on a geometric grid. You read the map and find the street and street number. This is yet another form of index, created by the COMP. All the same processes, looking for and finding street addresses as the system of COMP we used to find words, etc in the dictionaries, thesauri, encyclopedias and most referent texts and others with indices at the end. Then there are the gazeteers which listing alphobetically where the names for places are, same system. The COMP.

The same is true of the how the extensive lists/descriptions of all of the known forms of life on our planet, called the taxonomy by genus and species. Each belongs to families, then orders, then phyla, then plant, animal, bacterial and other forms, such as viruses. All are related to each other because all of been compared to each other, and those which are very similar, such as the beetles, representing millions of species alone, have been organized to create this vast, compendium, the “Book of Life”. It’s all put together by one single process, the Comparison Process, which has compared and found which species are alike and put them toegether based upon appearances, functions, sizes, genetics and many other factors. All the same, simple function, the COMP.

The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram in astronomy organizes into an interrelated whole all of the known star types, both seen and as yet undiscovered, which can be assigned a place on the HRD. The COMP has by itself organized and ordered into a comprehensive whole, by comparing every single star to the others to create a chart of the natural development of stars during their lifetimes,the main sequence, and finding out where each fits. That’s the COMP. It’s read the same way any dictionary is read, by the COMP. Untold, unlimitted numbers of stars can fit into the HRD, each placed there by the COMP.

In the periodic table of the elements/isotopes all the known elements, both naturally occurring and synthetic are listed, and in groups of associated families with similar characteristics: the noble gasses, which are largely inert, the halogens such as Fl, Cl, Iodine, Astatine, etc., and the alkali metals such as Li, Na, Cs., etc.; the ferrous metals, such as Co, Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo, and related metals. The lanthanide series of rare earths, the the Uranium group, and the gold, silver, Platinum group metals, too. All showing their relationships by the COMP which has created the order in terms of number of protons, which creates atomic number, average weight of the elements found on earth, and imploying the electron levels which determine the bonding chemistries of each element and group. All by the COMP.

There are 4 stable known particles, the proton, the electron, the neutron, created by the combination of 1 proton and electron, and the neutrinos. The first 3 make up all of the atoms known. This is the COMP at work, and has also created the entire classification of all the known elementary particles, most of which are unstable, and break down into electons and neutrinos, and occ. protons. All organized and created by the COMP

Then we have the Int. Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry which lists in a huge compendium all of the known inorganic chemicals/organic compounds, over 32 million by last count. Same comparison process, which organizes and orders the whole, endlessly repeated and referred to. the COMP. The COMP is ubiquitous and has so many complex forms, it’s been disguised for quiite some time, & hard to realize that this vast complexity can be created out of one simple process, but it’s there, if you know how to see it and what to look for. And it’s created in our cortices.

In all databases, in all known pagination systems, in acts and plays organized by acts/scenes, the Opus numbers of musical compositions, and on and on, without end. All the myriad ways. The Bible is organized chronologically by books, and then by chapters and verses, in the same way. The Koran by the surahs. The Bhagavad Gita also into chapters and verses. This is no accident. It allows any person to read any part they want to find, simply by any method of pagination/’indexing.

Mathematics is the comparison process. It’s simply arithmetic, that is, how all numbers are related/compared to each other. 4 is related to 12 by being 8 less, and 12 by being 3 times 4. Adding is the comparison process. When you compare things, you have to have at least 2 to compare to. So comparing items/words, etc., puts them together in combination. Recombination is yet another face of the COMP. Even numbers are all divisable by 2. Squares, cubes adn so forth, all have the same relationship. The same with the reverse, the square root. Algebra is essentially ratios/proportions. Geometry is very similar using shapes. Pi is the ratio of how a circumference compares to the diameter. Trigonometry is how right triangles’ 2 legs compare to each other, with the angle between, which creates the other leg’s length. Simply, the COMP. More complex math is more of the same. It starts out simply and becomes very complex and large, but that’s what the COMP does. and by making it so large and complicated, it hides the extremely simple, capable process, the COMP, which underlies a the foundation of language, math, geometry and much else.

Living systems classifications are based upon the same processes exactly. As all living systems can be organized and understood, at least in part, based upon the COMP, then their basic functions are also built upon it. The biochemical reactions, the structure of the cells, our understanding of it is created by the COMP.

In Language, the child is taught basic words, and how these are compared to each other. In teaching the child we use imitation, mimicry, & other comparison methods all to teach it. When we understand the words, it’s by definitions and showing how the words compare to each other and gives meaning. When we perceive a new word, it’s a discovery for us and we get a bit of a rush. When a child finds something new, he may say, “Daddy! Look what I found!!” The thrill of finding something new, which he knows is new because it’s not like anything he’s seen before. It dosen’t fit with repeated COMPs. It’s new, it’s novel.

Recognition is all the COMP. it means literally, re-known, and that is what the COMP does. When a word has been seen again and again, it’s stored in Long Term Memory. When it’s seen again, it’s re-cognized and what it means also tumbles out of the memory cache in the cortices, often stored in more than one place. Thus Long Term Memory creates the basic stable platform for all of our ideas/words/images. When we find something new, we’ve done a COMP search and not found it. So we find out what it is by observing it, reading about it, asking about it, and getting taught about it. This is education/learning. The COMP processes therefore underlie all critical parts of learning and education of all kinds. It’s all the same process of recognition, or not recognizing it. When we recognize something, we Re-Cognize” it. It’s something we’ve seen/heard, recorded before and it’s alike or the same, or a similar sort of. That’s what creates recognition. We might get a kick of dopamine from it too. Kids are curious because when they find something new, they get that novelty rush, dopamine release, mediated by the COMP in their cortices. So the COMP reinforces learning and doing acts again, such as learning.

Our Cortical cell columns actively are seeking to make sense of and understand what we sense around us all of the time. The COMP is actively seeking to make sense of words it hears, events around us all the time. It seeks connections, it seeks understanding in terms of what it already knows and is fully capable of finding new events, observing them, descriving them in terms of words already known and then adding that new event to what it already knows, so the cache of understood terms/ideas/images grows.

Humor is of the same type. We get a dopamine release from wit, jokes, humor of all kinds, including puns. At the core of each of these is the recognition of novelty, of the word which means two things, or a slightly ribald, unexpected discovery of something new in the joke. All humor is the COMP with that dopamine kick. Same with discovery.

The same is true of creativity. When we create something new, or find something new, we get that same kick, that same re-inforcing jolt of dopamine, depending a good deal upon circumstances. It’s contextual. If the comedian has “warmed up” the audience they are more likely to laugh by the reinforcing done before hand. The COMP can be reinforcing, with discovery, humor, creativity, or seeing or hearing something awe-inspiring. The COMP is self-reinforcing and that’s what created curiosity, too.

So we have it here, from a very simple cortical cell column function, the Comparison Process, We have developed great complexity and a huge number of more complicated functions, building up from parts a whole, just as the cells build up a larger organism.

That is no accident. Recognition is a biological trait which is not comfined to humans and our cortical cell columns. It’s a natural process with many other forms, from animals recognizing each other, their mates, to landmarks and territories, to nesting & food and predators. All recognition means is they have seen, heard, smelt, detected an event before, stored it in their LTM and when they detect it again, it triggers the recognition by means of an analogous COMP.

When we design buildings, we use the COMP and then closely compare all thru building against those master plans, to make sure it’s done right, it’s done to specifications in the master plan. When we design anything to serve as a master plan, we use the COMP, be it buildings, manufactured items, automobiles, or even our legal and moral systems. It’s all the COMP.

Animals may use different neurophysiology than we in many cases, but in the higher primates, our cortical cell columns are very, very much alike. But in that COMP we are all alike, regardless of it being an ant who knows her sister by touching antennae, as they do along ant trails to food,toand from the nest;; of wolves who smell each other (as do all dogs); or cats; or birds who hear calls, etc., etc., etc. It’s all the COMP

Let’s look at Koko, the gorilla who was taught American Sign Language. Does she have the capability, neurophysiologically of learning language? Yes. She has very nearly the same learning capacities of a 2-3 year old child, and also very similar cortical cell columns, which she used to learn and also used, by imitation, mimicry and reinforcement methods. And she was even able to expand her vocabulary by creating new signs/words by putting them together in novel ways. Creativity is a function of the COMP. She had it so she used it to learn how to communicate with her trainers. Why is this so hard for so many to figure out and accept? Clearly, the gorilla has functioning COMP, a cortex, which can learn how to communicate, where NO WORDS AT ALL existed before. Very similar to our multiplicit, highly capable, highly flexible Cortical Cell Columns which can do so much, too, with so very little.

In porpoises also, the COMP has been used to find porpoise language, by which single whistles, when compared each to each invididual in the porpoise pod responds to it, we can see the recognition by the individual of his own name by the COMP. The porpoise brain is intelligent and it, too, works by the COMP.
This is no accident. It’s the power, the unlimitted recursivity, creativity, repeatabilty of the COMP. Le Chanson Sans Fin,, the endless variations of the single theme, the comparison process.

If you take a red sponge and a white sponge, and separate out gently the individuals cells making up each sponge, mix them and then wait while they sit in a seawater, they simply re-assort themselves into two clumps, one white sponge, the other Red. They have a comparison Process which they use to know self and others. Songes are among the oldest living animals on the earth, going back at least 600 millions of years. They can recognize self and others, biochemically. That is the COMP we see in ants, we see in birds, and we see in humans, uniting ALL living species we have so far found in a great chain of life.

Take the DNA molecule which is the genetic basis of all known life forms. It’s found in all living things in slightly varying, but essentially very similar forms. The DNA polymerase which duplicates the DNA for reproduction in ALL living cells, first identifies the DNA strand to be duplicated, biochemically, then when it detects, that is recognizes, a Thymidine (T), it joins it to a Adenine DNA nucleotide, or vice versa, and when it finds a Cytosine nucletide, adds to it a Guanosine, or vice versa. Then it builds up the entire duplicate DNA strand, very very quickly and accurately, using this biochemical COMP. All reproduction in plants and animals is done this same way, using a biochemical form of the comparison process. ALL of them, from the most recently developed strains of varieties of plants and animals we have domesticated, to the algal stromatolites which date back 3.5 Billions yrs, or more, and today still live in the oceans now as they did then. it’s an extra-ordinary system, to have survived all of this time, because it’s also highly capable and efficient, doing so very much with so very little.

These facts show, again and again, how the COMP in molecular or sensory recognition forms are all very similar, universal and part of living systems. The COMP either biochemical or sensory, or neurophysiological, or of the immune systems, are found in all living systems and cells, regardless of how simple they are or how complex. It’s an endless form of the same process.Each is one more variety of the variations like a theme found in music, among most all the variations of forms found in species and kinds of life. It’s a unifying concept and biochemical process. It exists everywhere on the earth.

The COMP has been shown to be able to decipher the Rosetta Stone by comparing words in known Hellenistic Greek in the bottom section to unknown Ptolemaic hieroglyphics in the top line, by trial and error creating a reconstruction of the written and oral language of the ancient Eygption by Champollion and Young. Much of this creatitivy, learning, education, giving meaning, and translation can be seen in the movie, “Stargate, which brilliantly shows Rolland Emmerich’s craft, understanding and skills in movie making. The COMP can create translations from one language to another, simply by the comparison process. This is an existing and almost trivial and daily repeated activity. It can recreate dead language such as Hittite, cunieiform Sumerian and Babylonian, to the very difficult Linear B translation of ancient, Mikunan Greek into English.

When we do cryptograms, we use the same, trial and error, Comparison Process to decipher them. As we do ANY code. We have built up the laws of the universe by using the COMP in the sciences, which are massive testing, checking, numericity using, measuring, comparison methods, too. We have begun successfully to decode the universe, using the COMP and with no end in sight as the COMP creates creativity as well. With the COMP it seems likely that most all things in time will be shown to us.

That creativity is due to the COMP has been already established beyond all reasonable doubt in previous explananda and Le Chanson. There are literally 100’s of millions of specific instance of it, virtually daily, confirming its existence. For each newly created method/idea/word from the COMP, others can be created. Comparing the COMP functions to everything else which it can be compared to has shown all of this. But there is yet more, far, far more.

When medical professionals do their physical examinations, they know what to look for and what those physical findings mean, by comparing to their large body of knowledge. It creates the differential diagnoses which allow medical practitioners to recognize all known medical conditions. It’s essential to diagnosis. It is responsbile for all measuring and testing and thus underlies those diagnostic tests, as well. It underlies treatments and therapies, and the creation of new methods to treat diseases. It underlies the very methods of the sciences, as well. & it;’s also capable to recognizing previously unknown conditions, studying them and figuring out what they are caused by and how to treat them. It’s more of the same, just another of the endless varieties of the comparison process template. It’s very easy to show

When art is created, be it movies, paintings, music, or any of the other forms, the COMP is there in full panoply, creating complexity from great simplicity. The arts at their very fundamentals are the COMP. Thus the science & the arts and all language, and all cultures are at a very fundamental source, created, sustained, and built up by the COMP in our cortices. This is a grand unifying process. It unites us all. It unites us with all of the other life on our planet. It unites us at the deepest levels to our universe itself and shows us how most everything is related to the rest.

We’ve seen Paranoid shizophrenia and how it and bipolar disorder are related, genetically and by the COMP. Psychosis is the same as the mania in bipolar disorder, clearly. Fanaticism, religious conversions, visions of the saints, and all those similar hallucinations, including both the aural and visual of dream states, are created by the COMP. This is no coincidence. The COMP lies at the foundation of all higher level brain functions. Paranoid schizophrenia is due to a Dopamine 2 receptor site being overstimulated. The same can be seen with PCP, amphetamines and cocaine and other manic states. When the D2 receptor is blocked by using haloperidol or any of the other major transqulizers, the delusions, the paranoias, and the rest of it often go away. All of it features of the COMP gone awry.

When we hear the stirring music of Ravel, or Linda Eder, and many other great singers, such as Oum Calthoum of Egypt, who can induce a state of great pleasure. When we are in love, we get a very similar emotion. When St. Paul underwent his conversion on the Road to Damascus. When we read of the ancient Saturnalias, the Bacchanalis, the mystery religions, we see the same thing.

Der Gotterfunken

“Ode to Joy” by Friedrich Schiller, set to music by Beethoven in the last, great choral movement of his 9th Symphony

“Daphne et Chloe Suite”
— Maurice Ravel

“Do unto others as you your have others do to you.”
— Rabbi Hillel 1st C. BC.
— Jeshua Ben Joseph, 1st C. AD.

“There is faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love.”
–1st Corinthians

The COMP arises from inspiration, and can be a cause of inspiration, also. All the great religions, from the ATMAN, the oneness with the universe, to the ecstasies of the mystery religions of the Greeks, to St. Paul on the road to Damascus, and the proselytizing fervor of the religious zealots. All of these have the COMP as the means by which these emotional states can be created. Be it humor or comedy, or awe-inspiring music, or great writing and poetry.

When we see Buddha under the Bodhi tree, where he was enlightened to great joy. When we read of the All in the Atman. When we see the proselytizing of the Christians snd Muslims. When we see the cults which create the same, awe-inspring, great relgious feelings, both ancient and modern. Then we seen the COMP with it’s dopamine releasing potential. It’s all very much the same, all the myriad ways, all the endless variations of the COMP major theme, which can unite all humans, and all plants and animals known from the very deepest biochemical levels of reproduction of self, to the brilliancies and inspirational moments of arts and religions. The comparison process enlightens us about the richest complexities inside ourselves and other life, and to the richest complexities of everything outside of us. It’s all related, you see. It’s mostly the same source. The comparison process.

We’ve seen Paranoid schizophrenia and how it and bipolar disorder are related, genetically and by the COMP. Psychosis is the much same as the mania in bipolar disorder, clearly. Fanaticism, religious conversions, visions of the saints, and all those similar hallucinations, including both the aural and visual of dreams states, are created by the COMP. This is no coincidence. The COMP lies at the foundation of most all higher level brain functions. Paranoid schizophrenia is due to a Dopamine 2 receptor site overstimulation. The same is true of PCP, amphetamine, cocaine and other manic states. When the D2 receptor is blocked by using haloperidol or any of the other major transqulizers, the delusions, the paranoias, and the rest of it often go away. All if it features of the COMP gone awry.

There is a relationship between madness and creativity, and it’s the COMP. There is a relationship between the overactivity of the D2 receptors of the Cortex and Schizophrenia and mania. The same is true during religious conversions, visions, and so forth. We get a dopamine kick from jokes, from discoveries, great music, good comedy. great art, outstandingingly awe inspiring scenes such as the Yosemite Valley and Falls during the maximum spring run off, with 3 of the world’s highest waterfalls, among 12 others. These are creations of the COMP.

When we hear the stirring music of Ravel, or Linda Eder, and the other great singers, such as Oum Calthoum of Egypt, who can induce a state of great feeling, the “tarab”; When we are in love, we get a similar, deep feeling. When St. Paul underwent his conversion on the Road to Damascus. When we read of the ancient Saturnalias, the Bacchanalis, the ecstasies of the great mystery religions, we see the same thing.

But whence comes love? Be it agape, eros, philias, maternitas(mother’s love for a child), love of country, love of a man for a good woman, which can be the best and most enduring form of love, tho rare. Where does love come from? It’s dopamine in origin, and comes from recognition of a loved one. That good feeling we get when we are around them. That sense of emptiness which arises upon absence or death, and its withdrawal effects, and in the latter, the grief which it can create, which can cause a person to die, too.

What of the martyrs for Christ, who would give up their very lives thru the most cruelest tortures and deaths for their faith? Of the men who would die for their country? What of the enormous power of the Jihad, which is a similar thing? What of the charismatic leaders who can create devotion and followers, which great persuaders can stir the emotions against all reason, such as Lincoln, FDR, and more recently, Steve Jobs, with his reality field distortion persuasions?

These show the capabilities of what can be released using the COMP. And they are all related, too. It can be used for good, or for bad. The Buddha under the Bodhi tree, and flood of sensations created by his “Enlightenment”. How Christians feel when they are converted and go on to proselytize others. The great religious impulses and feelings. All, the COMP, the dopamine agonist responses, too. Recognition of a lover, can create the emotion of love, which is dopamine related. Creation of new ideas, or a new, great song can do the same. The power of humor, also. Each of these recognitions, discoveries, creations, can give rise to this sensation. The Awe inspiring sensation which Einstein most respected, which can give rise to great creations, such as Beethoven’s 9th.

Standing on the edge of Glacier Point for the 1st time, gazing out over the entire Yosemite Valley’s magnificent scenery, seeing the spring runoff at its maximum, from 3 of the world’s greatest waterfalls in full glory, among the other 12 there, too. Hearing that great roar of the voice of Yosemita Falls. & how many other scenes, situations? That sense of Awe as Einstein wrote it. The Pleasures of Philosophy written of by Aristotle. The sense of the Gotterfunken of the major religions and that Oneness with God. It all is connected too, and can be created by the COMP.

The inspiration of the great leaders, Churchill, Alexander the Great, Jesus, Mohammed, the Buddha, and many, many others, including Frederick the Great.
All of these are related to the COMP, because the COMP can release them.

Seeing that bright bollide which illuminates the clear skies of our reason, creating enlightenment from what was once confusion and darkness. But that light does not fade.

This may be what starts many great movements and religions, be they good or bad, from Christianity to cults; from the Reformation, to the National Socialists; from the fight/right for Revolutionary freedom in the US and France, to the ignominious start in Petrograd from 1917, to 1991 end of the USSR. There is a commonality in our minds/brains. The inspiration to greatness or the worst. That creativity/inspiration built into all of us.

Religious and political zealots and fanatics can also come from the dopamine release which can be created by the COMP. The Kamakazis, the hashish manias which created the assassins, the mania of the Terrorist suicide bombers. The Creators of religious cults know how to create this feeling. and because it’s dopamine related, we can figure out how to block it. Dopamine inhibitors like haloperidol, and the other dopamine blockers can stop it, because the mania/psychosis we see is related to the same thing. Combined with an environmental template surrounding the one so allficted, it can be controlled, then generally ablated if it’s not too well fixed and the person is not too old. This is generally called de-programming.

from madness and creativity and some of the highest values of inspiration can come from the same source. We cannot have the one without the other. They are all parts, uniquely created inside of each of us, old far beyond the ancient and highly capable, from the complex neurophysiology which gives rise to the COMP. Every person carries the COMP neurophysiology. Everyone is capable of creativity, as our common use of all languages shows every day. It unifies us, it holds us together. It’s that divine piece of God inside of all of us. That capacity to create, to know, to love, to inspire and be inspired to greater achievements and goals. Those deepest feelings of awe and mystical experiences: The Gotterfunken, built inside of all of us, which draws all together at the most deepest fundamental levels with our fellow humans, and all the other life on the earth and outwards to all which is in our universe, the Spark of God.

Optical/Sensory ILLusions, Creativity and the COMP

Optical and Sensory Illusions, Creativity and the Comparison Process (COMP )

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

Optical illusions are “glitches” or errors, in our visual system’s processing of retinal images. This can potentially give important insights into just how our visual cortex processes images from the retina. In the same way that a genetic error can give insights into how normal gene products function, by providing a comparison to normal, so these visual processing errors can also provide insights.

Several of these optical illusions have been presented before, but will go over them once again to provide the foundation for new insights into visual cortical processing. First, the lunar illusion is seen when a full or nearly full moon is just above the horizon, It appears to be larger than when it’s in the sky. The dispelling, correcting, or comparing step is easy to do in this case. Hold up a meter rod, or something similar to it which is graded, and measure the maximum width of the moon above the horizon and then when it’s up in the sky. This will provide a comparison method which will show that it’s an illusion.

Second, there is an illusion which is created when several regular off centered boxes are interposed between straight lines. It creates the illusion that the lines are not straight. Simply laying down a clear plastic straight edge on a printout of the illusion will by Comparison show that at least 2 of the lines are straight, dispelling & correcting this illusion.

http://brainden.com/optical-illusions.htm
Go down the list to the one just under “Jesus illusions”, called “Line illusions”. The one you see is referred to here.

A motion illusion is created when sitting stopped at a light, while in a car, next to a large truck or bus. If the large vehicle begins to move forward, we get a motion illusion that the car is moving backwards. By comparing this illusion to a street sign or something fixed next to the road, the illusion at once is dispelled by the correcting comparison.

If we have a bit of metal in our pocket on a cooler day, & we reach into the pocket and touch part of the metal, we can get an illusion of wetness. Only by feeling around for wetness/liquid and finding none, and feeling the metal’s shape, such as a coin, is the illusion dispelled by this correcting comparison.

If we hear an echo and we move towards it, we can dispel the echo by finding out the actual source of it, the correcting comparison.

Another interesting illusion is that called the Checkerboard illusion, of a green(or gray), stubby cylinder resting on a shaded checkerboard square.

http://www.slate.com/blogs/bad_astronomy/2013/12/07/optical_illusion_shades _of_grey.html (Phil Plait’s great website.)

Scroll down to this one and the one above, which ALSO, the Cornsweet Illusion, shows the correcting comparison, which, as predicted by the COMP model, corrects it.

In the Checkerboard ILLusion two of the squares, one inside and one outside of the shade from the cylinder, look to be different gray shades. The correcting comparison is created by joining the two squares with the same shade of gray, thus showing they are the same. The comparison derangement is created by each square being simultaneously compared to a different shade of gray, the one being in the shade, the other outside of it. This very Clearly demonstrates the comparison process which has gone awry, and why it’s a very good demonstration of the COMP going on the visual cortex, where all optical illusions are imaged.

All illusions, be they visual, hearing, touching and so forth, are capable of being dispelled by a simple comparison test. Sometimes there is more than one kind of correcting comparison which will work. All visual illusions are created by the comparison process operating in the visual cortex, even if it arises in the retina, in the case of looking at opposite colors, such as purple and yellow objects which are persistently gazed at, and the gaze at once shifts to a white paper target. Simply by waiting for the rhodopsin color pigments of the retina to normalize, the illusion just fades away. Again, the correcting comparison.

The comparison process creates these sensory illusions and can correct them, too. Each illusion can be categorized simply by the kind of illusion it is, and the way in which the illusion is comparison corrected. Once the comparison correction and its corresponding illusion type are categorized, broadly, pattern recognition, will be created by our cortical comparison processors. & then we will begin to understand more and more about how images of all types arise, i.e., edges, lines, shapes, colors, shading, etc. & will give us very likely a much deeper understanding of what kinds of processes are going on in the visual cortex which create the images we see.

Literally, tho, an unlimited number of visual illusions can be created, just because the comparison process is capable of working in an unlimited way every time we see something. This has created a huge number of illusions to work through, but by using this process of illusion/correcting comparison method we should begin to see patterns, and then be able to understand more.

Once we understand visual comparison processes, then we will be given insights into all sorts of cortical comparison processes, such as language, hearing, creativity, memory organization, and so forth, endlessly. That is because the human cortical cell columns, with the exception 2 changes in the motor cortex, are all fundamentally very similar in origin and structure, created out of 5 layers of complex neuronal connections and kinds. This organization must relate directly to function in some way, a structure/function relationship, a COMP. This will allow us to further investigate the exacting neurophysiological processes and connections going on the cortical cell layers of the visual cortex. And that will give us insights into the functioning of the slightly different cortices for the major, functioning areas of the brain. This will give us the structure function relationship between the neurophysiology and how it’s converted to what we see. That is, it will begin to enlighten us specifically as to how the mind works from a neurophysiological basis. This will further permit a good, scientifically valid and reliable understanding of the mind/brain interface. That is the power of the comparison process.

Our cortical cell columns (and similar ones in the great apes and dolphins) exist in 100,000’s of numbers in the gyri of our brain, doing basically one process, the COMP, but with many different variations which can lead to hearing musical notes, or speaking or understanding language, reading (where dyslexia is the key to understanding reading COMPs, again the error of dyslexia can show us the way to understanding normal reading processing by the COMP), our sense of conscience, our consciousness insofar as that uses the Comparison Process.
It will be a LOT of work, trial and error, but that’s how our brain works, and with a better understanding of comprehension, will come many good things in education and medical applications.

Creativity and the COMP

Where does creativity come from? What exactly is the mental process which creates it? The Comparison Process can provide some very good insights. First, consider Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, which includes the COMP in it. Einstein held and proved that all distance and time measurements had to arise from having a single, arbitrary point from which we measured distance and time. There was no absolute space or time. When we measure distance, we start at a specific spot in space, and measure from that. Using a ruler, we set it down next to what we want to measure, and COMPARE the length of the object we are measuring against the ruler. It’s a comparison process. With the tape measure we can measure longer distances by making the same comparison against the tape. With an odometer we can also measure this by subtracting the starting distance from the ending distance of the trip. Using a trip odometer, we simply push the button to zero it, thus establishing our starting point from which we compare the distance. In most all cases, measurement is a comparison process, a COMP.

Relativity is called relativity because we measure relative to a fixed point, either in space, or time. Time is a COMP, also, and has been addressed in the Intro of “Le Chanson Sans Fin” Part 1″, already. Relativity is thus a Comparison Process.

When Einstein realized that all measures of distance and time were related to a fixed arbitrary site he got rid of Newton’s absolute space and time postulate. That was his first creative insight & creative leap. It was his first major creative breakthrough. From there things began to get interesting. In “Cosmos” by Carl Sagan, we were taken through Einstein’s thought experiment of what things look like riding on a photon, compared to a normal spot on the earth. He showed that the Lorentz-Fitzgerald equations were in fact what happened when one moved faster and faster close to the speed of light. Time slows down relative to the earth. The Twin paradox was found to be the case. This was based upon a Comparison between time and events on earth compared to speeding up to near light speed.. Again, the comparison of the two created his understanding of a real, physical process.

Then he realized that being in a gravitational field of 9.8 m./Sec.Sq. was the equivalent to accelerating in any vehicle at 9.8 m./sec.Squared. He compared the two and realized it was the same. Again, the COMP. & from that came the rest of his Relativity model. When one is on the surface of the earth, processes operate at a set, fixed time compared to a standard clock. When one is on a high earth orbit, gravity is lessened, and time speeds up, compared to that on earth. Again, the Comparison Process.

Now look, is this a coincidence, that most all measurement is a COMP, that comparing time/mass effects at great speed compared to those on earth, another COMP, and that gravitational forces/acceleration are equivalent, yet ANOTHER COMP, and that time goes faster in a lower gravitational field when compared to a higher gravitational field, yet another COMP? Of course not. Einstein’s creativity rested upon the realization of the importance of 4 basic findings, each of them arising when he made just the right COMP, to create his Relativity. Therefore, Einstein’s creativity which led to Relativity is based upon use of the COMP.

When Charles Darwin on the Galapagos Isles, by his own writing, said that he saw the Finches there, which when he compared them to each other, were very clearly related and in thinking about it, had clearly come from the same, initial species, it was when he had his Eureka moment, just like Einstein. Again, the Comparison Process created the insight. Wallace, who created his version of Evolutionary model from his observations on the isolated isles of Indonesia, found the same thing. By comparing many different species of plants and animals and finding that they too, had common anatomy and forms, and this meant common ancestors. Again, the COMP.

When Archimedes eluded death from the king of Syracuse, who believed his goldsmith had adulterated the gold in his newly made crown, it was again, clearly the COMP. He was threatened with death if he couldn’t prove the crown was adulterated gold or not, the goldsmith having stolen the difference. When he sat down into his bath, his body displaced a volume of water. He at once realized that all materials have volume, and that by measuring (COMP) the volume displaced by water, he could determine a new quantity, called Density, which is mass divided by volume, or grams/cm.cubed. in today’s physics. Not only were his measurements the COMP, but so was his basic arithmetic and algebra the Comparison Process, as was his realization at that historical “Eureka!” moment, that he could solve the problem by displacing the same weight of gold with water and doing the same with the gold crown, and by COMPARING the difference, determine if gold had been replaced in the king’s crown with a base, less dense metal.

Now look, is it reasonable to conclude that the Comparison Process clearly used throughout this creative discovery of density by Archimedes is a sheer coincidence? No! The COMP lies at the heart and core of most all known, testable creativity. It’s simple, it explains a very great deal and very efficiently, too. It can do a very great deal with a single, basic form of processing, the Comparison.

One more case: that of Thomas Edison’s extraordinary career as an inventor. That is, his creativity process. When Edison found the electric light he transformed human life. Darkness was dispelled and illumination efficiently created without risk of fire and with ease of use. It was his greatest discovery. But what was the creative leap which he took, which created the electric light? The Comparison Process gives us this insight. He used a lot of electricity. He had seen that when electricity of high voltage and current ran through metal wire it made it glow. And he reasoned, using the COMP, what if we use a lot more electricity, and make it glow very brightly? THAT was the creative leap, comparing a bit of power making the wire glow red, to a lot of power creating a bright light. It took him much trial and error to find the carbon filament which lasted some 80 hours, but he did. It took longer for us to find tungsten filaments which would last even longer, using the same trial and error seeking the outcome desired, by the Comparison Process. But there it is.

By extension, using the COMP, most all creativity is COMP, creative writing, the use of language to create meaning and explanation, composition of music, creation of all art. It’s the COMP. Creativity is at its very roots, its very wellspring, the COMP. It’s arrived at with all the great inventors of new ideas, they simply have that moment, when they put the right ideas/observations together and out it comes, the new, revolutionizing idea. Be it Relativity, or Quantum Mechanics, or the electric light, Evolution, or the creation of the idea of density. It all has the same, common source, operating in the cortices of our brains. If we can speak language, we can create a string of words which makes sense and describes formerly unknown events/ideas. If we can understand this new string of words, then we have made a discovery of something new, too. It’s all the same cortical process, the COMP.

The COMP unites all sciences and the arts. It unites all languages and mathematics. It unites us with all the living creatures on our planet who use the COMP to recognize territories, to identify food, to see predators and avoid them, at every high level function, to survive. At the biochemical level, the creation of new life, reproduction, is at the DNA level, a form biochemical of the Comparison Process. It’s very simple, but it does almost everything important to us. This is no accident, as has been described more fully before in “Le Chanson…” And it gives us a very unifying, deeply comprehending, with simplicity above all, about how to understand/comprehend, speak, read, order from chaos, organize almost everything we do. From the very elementary particles, to the atoms, to the elements, to the tens of millions of UIPAC compounds, to the very classification of the millions of genus/species of all living forms and viruses, to the very trillions and trillions of Stars (Hertzsprung/Russell Diagram), to our millions of words, dictionaries, thesauri, all indices and encyclopedias. It creates life, it organizes life taking chaos and creating order, it organizes and controls our minds and the very cells which make up our brains. It is the Comparison Process, unifying, universal, generalizing, comprehending. And when we travel outwards into space over the next 1000’s of years, we will meet other space faring species, eventually, and we will create an understanding of their languages using the COMP, as will they create from ours. The COMP unites us with all the universe. It’s a universal decoder of all languages and events. The Comparison Process.

The Comparison Process: Explananda, Pt. 2

La Chanson Sans Fin: The Comparison Process: Explananda, Pt. 2

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

21. In terms of the Comparison Process what are skills? From first hand experience in a number of fields, they are short cuts, algorithms, &/or methods will allow the user to function faster, more efficiently, more carefully and above all, more creatively in the field. Discovery hones the perceptivity, the COMP , because you are always searching for those events and ideas which will give you the answers. You get better and better at it, with the better methods built into your skills.

22. Let’s take counting pennies as a way of showing the various skills which can be developed and created by using the Comparison Process, showing the abundance of creative new ways we can do our tasks. Then understand how this example shows how, in its each unique way, the skills of all professional trades and professions can be developed.

We have many coins. So we see pennies, nickels, dimes, quarters and even a few half dollars. Using the Comparison Process, and previous learning of what coins are what, we can sort out the pennies from the rest. Sorting is a Comparison Process. Now we have to get the pennies into coin rolls. So, how do we do this? A direct approach is to simply count out 50 coins, 1 thru 50, and then drop them into the roll and seal it. But, let’s ask how a professional would do it. He’d may count them not one at a time but by 5’s, simply seeing the number by grouping 2 and 3 pennies. Then pile up the first groups into 10 penny stacks. Then count it up again and pile into the 2nd 10 penny stack, until there are 5 of them, and then putting them into the penny coin roll. Then the next. But there are other ways, thus showing the complexity of the skill and how it can be used in different ways to count pennies. He has to check and test at every point, to be sure of his count, too.

He has the first coin stack of 10 pennies. He notes that since all pennies are closely struck to be very much alike, any stack of 10 pennies is the same height. So using the 10 stacks he puts up 4 more without even counting. and by using the COMP, makes sure they are all the same height. He has counted the coins, without counting the coins!! Comparison Process, a Powerful tool. And so he does this again and again until the pennies are all counted & in rolls. & saves a LOT of time, again, the Least Energy Principle (LEP).

Other tools for coin counting would be plastic coin cylinders for 50 pennies, 100 dimes, 40 quarters, etc., each marked for the right heights of the different coins; or use a mechanical coin separator which does it lots more quickly, for those who must save lots of time, such as banks, supermarkets and large businesses.

23. In every case a skill can be improved using the Comparison Process to find faster ways, better, more efficient ways of doing a task. This is called, when more fully developed, having a skill, a profession, because the practitioner knows very much faster, better ways to do all the important tasks, having learned of these creative methods by teaching, or in many more cases, having created more himself, for their each unique way of performing the “skills upon skills” seen in skilled work of all types. Exactly how words are built up, exactly how language is created, exactly which underlies all the musical styles, and artistic work, too. Same process, endlessly repeated in education and training, and so on and so forth. Comparison Process. & there it is. Le Chanson Sans Fin.

24. Let’s take musical composition, for instance. Each composer has a set of methods, or skills, which he uses to create music. These determine his style of composition which we can easily hear. The composition of music uses the Comparison Process to create the lyricism, the flows of melody and rhythm which mark his style. Each major classical composer is at once recognized when listened to by a musician or experience amateur. The same is often true of popular music of all sorts. We use the COMP to do this, time and again. Beethoven’s music is often richly rhythmical, esp. in his 5th and 9th Symphonies. The music of Rachmaninoff has many richly lyrical and drifting melodies, esp. in his 2nd Symphony. He starts out the section just after the Scherzo with one of his most lovely and beautifully orchestrated melodies. It just drifts on and on, making one variation on the theme after another. The music of Ralph Vaughn Williams in his 3rd Symphony does much the same. And it’s a free association of one melodic variation after another, just like in the Rachmaninoff section. It just flows, a moving, streaming melody. A sort of stream of consciousness in melody.

And good writing is a lot like that. It flows from one idea to the next, cleanly seguing one segment to the next, triggering association after association, which can show one Comparison Process idea after another. Because if you know the COMP methods a composer uses, you can recreate his style of music, then if you know the writing styles, even Shakespeare can be recreated. Each style of music shows a uniquely individual way of writing music. The Styles of music, like the styles of writing, show the methods the author uses.

25. The style of our individual speaking and gait, our ways of walking, are often unique to each of us, and arise from this same use of varying kinds of algorithms which create these highly unique and thus identifiable, recognizable characteristics. So much so that we don’t often need to see the person, to ID him. In the same way, we don’t even have to know which piece it is of Chopin, to ID it’s him. The styles reflect their unique configuration of methods used to create or even play music, too. In art it’s a lot the same. We learn to recognize the drawings of Leonardo daVinci, of the impressionism of Monet, of the Picassos we see. Each reflects their methods and each set of methods gives them their styles. This is what the Comparison Process can show you, because it cannot only give you recognition, but show you patterns, associations, and other methods, too.

It’s the endless richness of the associations which creates the method of creation. The flow of associations called up by our Comparison Process from LTM. The COMP monitors everything, from language, diction, grammar and vocabulary, to position of our limbs when performing a skill, to the appropriate activities we do socially. It watches over our morals, our consciences, to keep us out of trouble.

26. The Comparison Process controls our focus of attention. It blocks out sensations irrelevant to current tasks. It orders the course of the stream of consciousness, too. It’s the main gate keeper of consciousness, and it’s probably active in the frontal and associative brain centers (parietal lobes), too. & thus creates our sense of consciousness as well as our conscience. This is no trivial task or observation.

But what happens when the Comparison Process goes awry? When the streams of associations get too loose, too sloppy, too fast, too socially unacceptable? That may be a characteristic of schizophrenia & mania. Not only does the flow of free associations called up get too fast, causing the pressure of speech, & the looseness of associations, but it becomes socially unacceptable, too. The COMP gets overwhelmed, the behaviors become inappropriate with yelling & screaming and so forth, and it’s flagrant psychosis, or perhaps mania.

The checker, the tester, the main controlling mechanism of the brain, the Comparison Process, has broken down,probably from too much dopamine D2 activation, & a speed up of the flow of information from the LTM and senses. This is associated with schizophrenia and the main dopamine receptor family. The anti-psychotics work, too, to control the disorder, by depressing the dopamine activity. This shows how powerful a tool, the Comparison Process can be in terms of understanding not only normal behaviors and creations, but abnormal psychology, too.

27. Again, a very simple system or the cortex, the Comparison Process can explain more about psychosis and mania, & the association between the two, telling us where the problem is, the cortex of the brain, and how to treat it. It’s known that in many persons, the same gene which causes bipolar disorder can create paranoid schizophrenia. And it’s simple to see how. mania can be a temporary psychotic state. When the control system for D2 overstimulation fails, we get psychosis or schizophrenia. When it’s only partial, we may get a bipolar disorder. Not only does this Comparison Process model show that mania and psychosis are two aspects of the same thing, but it also explains the depression often to the point of suicide, seen in psychoses. & probably indicates that psychosis also has a form of major fluctuation underlying the psychotic state, too, the hallmark of bipolar disorders,. That is, psychosis compared to a bipolar disorder, also has its up and down moods, somewhat camouflaged by the psychotic state. This is not a trivial observation, either. We know that the breakdown of the cortical Comparison Process is a part the problem and thus we know the schizophrenic gene’s abnormality is probably active in the cortex, itself.

28. We get a kick when we see something new. We get some modest excitement at novelty and discovering something new. That’s a bit of dopamine activation. When the brain gets too much excitement from dopamine activation, it can create a psychotic break. and that can be seen with PCP, amphetamines, and cocaine, also, any of which can create a permanent psychosis. The rush of activity in the free associations speeds up to much, the Comparison Process is disabled, and the system breaks down. The checker and tester lose control and the system stops working Pressure of speech, loose associations, inappropriate thinking, anti-social behaviors are all unleashed by this breakdown of the COMP .

29. This consciousness of ours is thus understandable in terms of the free associations called up from our LTM by our Comparison Process. The COMP sequences these to keep the flow under control. It’s what creates attention and inattention. When we sleep & dream, we dream of really silly things. We can fly, objects can appear and disappear, and on and on, but it’s not real. This may be an underlying free association of the brain called up by the Comparison Process from our LTM. & we know this because the cortex is activated during dreaming. When we are not dreaming we see slow activity in the cortex. When we see REM, the cortex changes to a higher rate of acitivity. When the checker is off, we get crazy dreams, but we can while having an awareness of dreams, tell it to stop and it does. Or even order the dream using lucid dreaming. The severely psychotic person is unable to stop this. The COMP is unable to work normally. The cortex has become deranged.

In the normal person, this stream of consciousness from our vision, sensations, memories, and so forth is controlled. In dreams, it’s not very well controlled, as we see during dreams a lot of impossible events, which once we realize it, can be controled using lucid dreaming techniques. Thus we see that the Comparison Process in the brain can not only create control of inappropriate behavior, but can as well, using the same comparison function, control dream states.

When this control breaks down, we can get mania and psychotic states, which can be largely restored by using judicious amounts of major/minor tranquilizers. Major tranquilizers if used early enough can completely control many psychotic breaks, and if used long enough 2-3 years, can even cure some psychosis, permanently.

30. Clearly, the Comparison Process is one “ruler of the brain”.It not only measures and tests by comparisons, but it can keep things under control. The COMP is seen to be important, general and widespread because it truly reflects existing cortical structure(s), which performs that action. It can control people from getting out of control, by other persons appealing to them. In the psychotic it can work too, but not as well, and occ. not at all. A child who is misbehaving, is taught discipline by the COMP, learning & then enforcing by internalization in the LTM. In cases of persons who have had a frontal lobe injury, we often see lack of social appropriateness, they get slovenly in appearance, they cuss, swear loudly and lack the social graces, to say the least. The frontal lobe has a cortex, and this area is where the Comparison Process in the frontal lobes works. If’ it’s damaged by some means, be it a genetic cause(Huntingdon’s), or trauma, or drugs or other cause, then the person becomes antisocial or even sociopathic. This is the power of the COMP function. It’s universal, it’s general, it applies to almost every major cortical function. and it governs our conscious activities like no other.

In the language areas of association, it’s responsible for creating speech and learning. It underlies creating new words and descriptions to cover new events and new ideas. In the musical area, it watches over the playing of notes and the recognition of melodies and the very creation of music. In the spatial relationships function of the right parietal lobe, it observes events there, testing, controling, comparing, measuring. In the motor and sensory areas, it does the same. In the Visual cortex, it’s constantly working to compare input to analyze by some means how the visual data compares to its set and learned algorithms, to find meaningful shapes, and so forth. It sees motion by comparing the positions from time to time, and detects motion by comparing the changes in positions of similar events.

31. As an aside, most of the illusions we see result from the visual system Comparison Process getting fooled. For instance, when we watch a bicycle wheel & shiny spokes spinning. At a certain speed when its spin slows down, our visual cortex shows us the illusion that the spinning reflection may move clockwise, then paradoxically, as the spin slows down more, it moves the other way. If you measure the speeds of the wheel when this change takes place, in the middle of that change from rotating clockwise or counter, that measures the rate of the impulses going from the retina to the visual cortex. It’s a stroboscopic effect, which measures the rate that the retina send impulses to the cortex. No one has ever really explained that before. But as the stroboscopic system can, by certain measured, definite rates determine speeds, so do the rotating bicycle tire spokes measure by spinning rate, the retinal impulse frequency to the visual cortex. It’s a COMP .

32. But even more important, we know the important principle, that if an error is made (such as in the genes), it can often tell us something about the structure which is creating the error. It may tell us how normal function of that genetic structure works. We often learn more from metabolic errors, than studying normal functions, too. The Comparison Process gives us something more to compare to, and we find more about normal functioning. So, too, a careful study of all major kinds of visual illusions should reveal important clues as to how our visual cortex compares inputs to create realistic images, those same images which we see in our dreams. Understanding how the COMP works can give extremely fruitful insights into our visual system’s processes of nerve impulses from the retina. And given these, nearly without end, as the visual illusions can be created without end. A sensory illusion is based upon the same process, an error in the Comparison Process used in the sensory cortex.

In fact, this tendency to compare and try to find shapes/images can go wrong, too. The cortex is always using the COMP always trying to make sense of what’s around it. When it goes wrong, & creates an image, it’s called an hallucination. & we see this prominently in psychosis, too. The Checker is off duty to some extent. In the auditory cortex, which we know by physiological MRI is activated in schizophrenic auditory hallucinations, the same is seen. It calls up the sounds of remembered voices, and these are interpreted as real. In the same way, the calling up of images in dreams which can be manipulated and controlled in Lucid Dreaming states, probably by a system the Comparison Process influences, & then we have dreams.

You see the method. One association leads to another. One comparison with a normal state can be made to an abnormal state, to elucidate how the systems work. That’s a how much a very DAMN powerful tool, the COMP function can be. It opens up vast new areas of insights into both normal and abnormal psychologies.

33. The delusion is a false, persistently unsubstantiated belief/idea, which is strongly held (LTM) and which resists the facts and all reason. The checker isn’t working again. The control capability of the Comparison Process is turned down. It’s no accident that schizophrenias are associated with delusions, either. The gatekeeper of social morals, rules, beliefs and behaviors, the COMP is damaged. So the COMP can explain in part, where the problem is in the cortex, in those cortical cell columns, where the Comparison Process is created by the neurophysiology of the brain.

Delusional states outside of shizophrenia can also be created. In those, if not too long standing, pyschotherapy can often intervene and restore the balance. This was how and why psychoanalysis occasionally worked. The checker, the Comparison Process was still working well enough that it could be reconditioned by psychological methods & insights to restore control and get rid of the delusion. In other cases, medications are far more effective. But in many delusion states cannot be treated with meds. This is another problem entirely and will be addressed later with potentially curative methods in an article on “Brain Hardwiring”.

34. You see the power of the conception, the Comparison Process. A sign of a good, fruitful model is its wide explanatory power from a very simple process. How it shows how humor comes about. How it shows the source of creativity in the “Aha!” moment, when a comparison is made with the punch line of the joke. How the same “Aha’ is seen upon recognition, upon discovery, upon creation of something new and novel. The COMP brings so very much together. It’s a powerful tool, because not only can one use the Comparison Process , but it can be held aside, and other, high level, cortical functions can be compared to it. To learn more, such as what creates consciousness, the LTM, the COMP and the constant call up of data for checking, comparison and other functions, such as motor and speech output are invoked.

It’s very simple recursive system which creates the complexity in our brains, from language & to most all our skills. It creates our understanding and even creates creativity. Being recursive and self consistent, it can comprehend understanding. It’s a simple, but powerful method used by the cortex to develop personality, and everything else, including the control structures which create our consciousness and conscience. It’s broad, it’s general, it may well be universal in scope in humanity

It’s a powerful tool, it can be used again and again, and it very likely represents something very real and working in the Neurophysiology of our cortical cell columns. & you can see above, my method of creative writing, and the free association (comparing 1 idea to another) of one topic to another, also. It’s an inexhaustible source of new discovery, creation & understanding of complex systems. It gives us important insights into how our brain functions at the higher cortical levels. It’s virtually unlimitted. Everything in the universe can be compared to everything else. Everything in our sensory outputs and LTM can be compared to the others & a great deal can be learned in many cases. “Gnothi seauton”, indeed!!

It models the universe’ own recursivity with recursivity of its own. and it does it everywhere, and can do it everywhere in our universe, too. Isn’t that interesting?

35. In the immune system, we have found many of the same, basic components. But let’s think about more of this, creatively, using the Comparison Process function. Essentially, the immune system defends the body against foreign invaders, such as bacteria, virions, fungi, etc. But how, exactly does it do this? Very simply, it builds upon knowing, biochemically, what is self, and what is not self. Each of our cell surfaces have on them as do all other cells, the HLA protein/polysaccharide molecules on the cell surface in many places. The cells recognize each other by these. They are in constant biochemical communication with each other. They all have the same HLA surface features on the cell membranes.

Let’s give a real and existing example to compare to. A study has been reported some years ago where a small white and a small red sponge were each broken down mechanically into the cells which made up each sponge. Then those cells were mixed together & compared to what happened. They were observed over hours. The sponge cells organized themselves back again in clusters of white and red sponge cells and re-grew the sponge of each type. Biochemically, they knew which cell was self, and which was not self. So these HLA identifiers on our cell membraines are not new, as sponges go back to Precambrian times. This method of identification of self is very, very ancient and again, something which all living organisms have, even the protozoans. This common link connects all living cells from the smallest known to even our brains, and they way they were. They can ID biochemically, “the self” and know what is foreign. It the Comparison Process on a cellular level, you see.

36. And this is essentially THE main organizing characteristic of the immune system, of all immune systems. It, just like knowing the essential characteristics of plate tectonics, can be used to understand much more of the complexity of organization of living systems, perhaps even all systems. The Immune system has a biochemical ID method for self and not self. It does not attack self, except where the system goes wrong, that is the autoimmune diseases of Multiple sclerosis, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, Guillain-Barre, and others. It’s in the identifying part, i.e. the Comparison Process of the immune system where this goes wrong. Something which needs to be & is yet to be found.

But, let’s think carefully about how the immune system attacks foreign invaders. It first recognizes them as not self. When the lymphocytes, polymorphonuclears, phagocytes and others sense a complex chemical (even the chemical Urushiol, which is the contact allergen in poison oak),which is not self, it creates an antibody to it which attacks and isolates it and tries to expel it from the body. If it’s a bullet or shrapnel, it walls it off with scar tissue, removing it from immune system attack. If it’s bacteria such as Strep or Staph, it creates a walling off effect, immobilizes it and expels it by an abscess, which ruptures and the whole mess comes out, including any small foreign bodies carrying the bacteria.

The lymphocytes detect foreign compounds, which they “know” biochemically, by comparing it to their catalog of what is self. Then the lymphocytes move in, and create antibodies which then attach to that foreign body, bacteria, virus, etc., and THAT creates a massive cellular response which constrains, removes and destroys the invader.

37. But, using the Comparison Process , let’s look deeper and more creatively. What exactly happens biochemically when lymphocytes detect foreign chemicals? They must find, create and then massively re-create many, many specific, highly bonding antibodies, which will attach to the foreign molecule. But how does it find them? & That is where it gets interesting.

It must biochemically sort through trillions (quadrillions?) of possible antibodies, to find the one(s) which will permanently bond to the foreign compound, cell wall or membrane. And that complexity can take a LOT of time to sort through, again, a Comparison Process. If we tried in our labs to create & find those specific antibodies, which can best attach to such foreign molecules, sorting through the trillions or more of possible types, it’d take us millions of years, or more. The time it takes our immune system to solve this immense biochemical sorting problem is about 2-3 days. After that antibody production by the proliferation of lymphocytes all producing enough antibodies to attach and immobilize and target attacks on all the foreign molecules. We cannot do this in a finite time. Our computers cannot do this much sorting in a finite time. But look, the Comparison Process shows that our immune systems, worldwide, and in most of the higher animals, do this time and again, every day, for the last how many 100’s of millions of years? & it works. and that sorting & organizing process is, of course, a biochemical supercomputer method using the Comparison Process .

38. There is an immense computer, a sorter, built into our immune systems which solves this problem by some means. It uses the COMP and a whole bevy of extremely efficient, biochemical algorithms (or skills, sound familiar?) to do this. When this sorter is found in the immune system, then we will have found the biochemical supercomputer which creates our effective immune system. We know how it works, we will know where it works, and we can find it, too. That’s how the Comparison Process shows us what’s going on by organizing living systems using COMP structures. It’s universal. It’s general, It’s practical and it works.

Considering that our immune systems also know what has invaded before, and can attack those repeat strains of invaders, thus giving us lifetime immunity to many kinds/strains of viruses, etc., which is the basis of all vaccinations, then it must have a memory system of these previous invasions built into our immune system. A sort of LTM for creating antibodies, stored in the spleen, lymph nodes and other places, probably, possibly even stem cells.

This therefore should guide our study of the immune system, which can be seen as a Comparison Process working on the biochemical level, to ID self, and not self. Which is based upon simple ID system, based upon the COMP generator of a biochemical system within our white cells. From that simplicity, this enormous immune system complexity is built. & it’s capacities which exceed ours by at least trillions of times over.

39. Find the ID’g biochemical system Comparison Process governing structures in the immune systems, and you find the core engine of immunity. Where the immunity is stored, how it creates new immunities (the creativity function, the COMP function, again). The immune system’s cells on patrol must constantly be comparing self to find non-self. That comparison engine drives the immune system. When it finds not self, it attacks. If a former infection, it finds the cells which create the antibodies anew and attacks so fast, the system doesn’t get sick again. If not, it creates by comparing trillions or more of antibodies against the foreign agent, until it finds those which effectively attack it. It probably has some very efficient search engnes to sort out that problem. It’s creative, tho. It creates a fever which speeds up this process enormously, a sort of metabolic overdrive. THAT is the reason fever is often associated with infection. It speeds up often by 2-4 times the immune system attack processes.

Also, It must be sure the attacking antibodies do NOT attack self, either. And THIS part of the immune system is what goes wrong in autoimmune diseases

41. There is a clue here and it’s a big one. It’s known that women who have multiple sclerosis have far fewer flare ups, that is antibody attacks against the myelin sheath, when they are pregnant. The mother doesn’t but rarely attack the baby, for some reason. The fetus/baby are immunologically privileged. How this comes about shows us how the body doesn’t attack self. also. Thinking Comparison Process, and creatively, those drugs which reduce or block flare ups of MS, such as prednisone type, or meds of the interferon beta 1a and 1b types, or glatiramer acetate, etc. These block the autoimmune reaction of the MS type, also. Simply create a glatiratimer or interferon 1a &1b, and find out by labelling those molecues, injecting them, to find where in the body immune system & lymphocytes it binds, THERE is the library of immunocytes, and THERE is where the immune system problem is. It will simplify the problem immensely, because we will know where to look for the autoimmune creating problem, simultaneously finding the immunity giving library. By using the Comparison Process, which both gives insights and explanations as well as creative methods to solve problems. QED

The Comparison Process: Explananda Pt. 1

The Comparison Process: Explananda, Pt. 1.
posted 28 feb. 2014

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

Sensory Illusions

1. The various sensory illusions, from optical, to movement and motion sickness, including space sickness are readily explainable in terms of the Comparison Process (COMP). Further, using a simple comparison, these illusions are easily shown to be illusions.

First, the lunar size illusion is fairly well known. The moon at the horizon when it’s rising looks larger, compared to the moon in ascent, well away from the horizon. Why is this? Because the horizon provides a large horizon line to which the visual cortex can compare it to. So it looks larger. When in the sky, there is nothing to compare it to, either, so our visusal cortex gives it a “default” size. How this can be shown is when the moon is rising over the lip of a large, long canyon, it also looks larger than when it’s higher in the sky. A large building edge behind which the moon is rising also creates this illusion. Simply by holding up a long enough measuring stick horizontally, & comparing that to the moon in the horizon versus the moon ascended shows it’s no larger in the sky than it is when rising. It dispels the illusion.

Another visual illusion is that of one which uses straight lines intersected by jagged boxlike white and black, or colored shapes. The lines look curved. By placing a clear plastic measuring ruler in the middle of it, it can be shown that the lines are in fact straight and the illusion disappears on either side of the measuring ruler’s edge. Most other optical illusions can be similarly shown to be illusions simply by comparing them to standard edges & so forth.

There is a movement illusion which is also related to optical illusions. When one is sitting in a car, and there’s a large truck on the right side, both stopped at a light, or intersection, if the larger truck begins to move the car driver has the illusion that his vehicle is moving backwards. Because the visual system is comparing the truck to the car, this creates that momentary illusion of backwards movement. This is quickly dispelled by comparing oneself to a fixed object on the road, which shows the truck is what’s moving, not the car. This illusion can also be produced when passenger rail cars are moving in opposite directions, stop at a station, and the one may move, giving the illusion of backwards movements, once again in the stationary car. Which can be dispelled by fixing on the stable platform one is next to.

Most other simple optical illusions can be shown to be a result of a comparison illusion created by the visual system. And this can be shown by using a dispelling comparison, which does that. The reason why such illusions are created is that the Comparison Process is being used by the visual cortex, when it creates images and shapes from the retinal data sent to it. It should, theoretically, allow us to understand how these illusions are being created by the visual cortex on a neurophysiological basis.

Suffice it to say, that if the Comparison Process can explain neatly, efficiently most every sensory illusion thrown at it, then it must be correct, a widespread cortical processing method, and recursive and highly important as well. That it is very widespread appearing in nearly every testable circumstance, shows that it’s real, cortical, stable and universal in humans, as well as other species which show the Comparison Process traits.

2. This comparison process should give us insights about how our visual cortex creates images and shapes. The problem further is that we cannot necessarily assume that our visual system uses Euclidean geometry and for this simple reason. We do NOT find geometric shapes in the natural world, at all. And our visual system was created 100,000’s of years before geometry. Therefore, in order to figure out how images/shapes are created from the raw data from the retina, we must understand what kind of geometry the visual cortex uses, which will be non-euclidean, very likely.

There is no necessity that our visual cortex be Euclidean. Look at the shapes of trees and boulders and such in the natural world. There are VERY few straight lines, boxes, squares, circles and other such. There is therefore no logical reason to believe that our brains use human geometries to construct the world, either. Right angles and such other boxy shapes which mark human buildings, structures, roads, etc., are not seen in the natural world. Exactly what kind of comparison process geometries our brains use to show curves, rounded edges and such is not clear, but the optical illusions of these types will probably show us a great deal more about how the visual cortex, using comparison process methods, creates visual images & what geometries it uses.

3. There are illusions involving colors, which are very large in number as well. We often call this camouflage. Simplest are the white coats of snow hares, ermins and foxes grown in the winter to disguise themselves against the snow. In the spring they grow again their summer camouflage coloring and revert back to the usual surface colorations they use most of the year. The polar bears’ everwhite fur is another prominent example.

Protective colorations of the insects are the most prominent of the same kind of illusions. A bug will make use ot its green color and hides among the green leaves. Some insects esp. in tropics will mimic leaves to avoid detection. Conversely some predators such as carnivorous larvae and preying matises will use the same to hide themselves from both their prey and predators.

Camou outfits worn by the military do much the same thing. Whether or not these work optimally in the widely varying natural environment is a matter of opinion. But at night, the skulkers dress in black to use the darkness as a way to hide, also.

These camouflage illusions can be readily dispeled by bright light and forcing, as in the above, the predators and prey to move, which is highly unlikely that leaves and twigs can do.

The Chameleon has a limited but significant ability to turn its skin to colors which can partially imitate the colors of its surroundings. We once in a biology lab put a purple sheet of paper under a chameleon. It took a while, but turned a sort of brown with some tingers of red, the closest it could get. Certain Mollusca of the squid and Octopi families have a very brilliant chromatophore system which can almost use every color in the rainbow from brilliant reds to blues. They use the same to camouflage themselves, and in the squid to show interest in mating as well as other signals to the other squid around them, a sort of color communication.

3a. There is mimicry, which is yet another illusion. The Viceroy butterfly looks a great deal like the Monarch butterfly, which is poisonous. The large eyes on some butterflies, some larvae and even the eyed Elater, a kind of large click beetle, have these to scare away predators. Syrphid flies look a great deal like yellow jacket wasps. These create illusions of being what they are not. And in doing so show that the Comparison Process is active not only in us, but in many of the other living animals and plants in existence.

Some plants’ flowers mimic insects to induce them to mate with them, thus spreading their pollen. Some flowers exude stench like smells in order to attract flies to. If it were not for the Comparison Process being active in insects, this would not occur. This gives yet another deep insight into how general and universal the COMP is, even tho the arthropods and birds are very likely not using our same neurophysiology to do the COMP, they are almost certainly using an analogous system.

4. The illusions of our sense of touch can be perceived when we touch pieces of metal in our pocket and it feels cool to the touch and for an instant, wet. Wet items evaporate water & can feel cooler because of that. But when we feel for water and a typical liquid sensation on our fingers, we feel hard metal and realize our comparing senses have, once again, by mistaking coolness for water, which further comparison testing with our fingers shows to be metal. Testing of this sort is also, like in other testing procedures, the COMP.

5. Likewise motion sickness of all sorts creates a real problem. Those found in amusement park rides are well known & Those occur while riding in cars, boats, planes & vehicles.. But why do these occur?

By understanding the basic nature of the balance system in our inner ears and our senses which tell us which way is down, that is, the gravity sense. Normally when we move our bodies and thus our heads, the fluids in our semicircular canals, by our ears, have, by inertia, a flow created in those canals. The flow gives the information which way the head is moving. That we have 3 of these canals, each at about right angles to the others, shows clearly the 3-dimensional nature of our universe & our balance system’s response to it. Each canal is oriented mainly to the X, Y and Z axes of a 3 dimensional space. From this architecture, the inner ear can detect the slightest movements in any direction, including up and down.

But resting, it does not detect anything, tho perhaps some gravity. It mainly detects change. This is a comparison process. It has very little to compare to, in and of itself. however, the eyes know and feed into the balance system their input. The eyes can see what is up and down and combining with the pressure sense on the bottoms of the feet, which are sensory cues also as to what is up and down and our body positions, can create a sense of what is down, and whether we are moving or not. This is a complex balance system and for this reason is not well understood.

But there is a gravity sense built into our feet and visual sensations & the Semicircular Canals, because of these simple facts. Put a person on a teeter totter & move him up and down on it. He will consistently orient himself vertically even tho the flat seat he’s on will change its angle comared to a flat surface as he goes up and down. In addition, when we walk on slanted surfaces such as hillsides, we immediately orient ourselves to down by changing the angles of our ankles & feet to match the hillside steepness as much as we can. We always know what’s down & up.

How this related to motion sickness is clear. When we move, the inner ear may give us signals we are moving, but if we have nothing very good to compare that to from the rest of our bodies, then we will get motion sickness. The system stops working temporarily, until the motion stops. This is what causes most motion sickness. We get dizzy, we have nothing to compare our movements to, because the feet are sending us no correcting signals, and the eyes can’t do it by themselves because of too rapid, changing movements, esp. when upside down.

Simply by fixing on an arbitrary not moving part of our vision, the disorientation can be partially abated. That is, we compare a fixed object or space in our vision & the illusion is dispelled. If not, then we can become rather ill.

6. This is seasickness also. If we fix our eyes on the horizon, then we can limit seasickness to a great extent. If nothing is there to fix our eyes on, such as on a foggy day, then we have to learn a new system, which is called “getting your sea legs” and so it’s abolished that way. We simply adopt another comparison method to avoid being seasick when the ship is rolling. Modern cruise ships use very large, long lengths of the boats to make them far less likely to rock and roll on the waves, thus minimizing the rolling of the ship with the waves.

It should be possible in smaller vessels, to create an electronic light bar based upon the plumb bob effect, which always points down, a sort of artificial horizon which if bright & large enough & easy enough to see, could compensate for the rolling of smaller ships and thus, visually help correct seasickness. The same would be true for aircraft and vehicles of all sorts.

7. Space sickness is yet another problem which results from a total lack of gravity, which our inner ears have some response to even in normal gravity. However, all visual cues are gone, the balance system has NOTHING to compare to, as gravity and sensory cues are gone, and so medicines such as promethazines are about all that work because they sedate the inner ear & brainstem.

But the Comparison Process shows us a way around this too. Give the space sick person something to compare with their visual part of the balance system. If 4 long, wide yellow lines were to be painted or somehow affixed evenly & symmetrically to the floor, ceiling and both right & left walls, the eyes could then have something to which could help the balance system orient itself. and the space sickness would abate ever faster than simply waiting for the brain to adopt these visual cues using arbitrary objects, walls & other shapes in the space cabins, themselves. Again the utility of the Comparison Process. It neatly and easily explains motion sickness of all kinds, and suggests ways to abate it.

8. The Comparison Process is self-organizing. Recall that the entire classification of living organisms, plants, animals, protozoa, bacteria, even including the viruses have been and are still being organized into a comprehensive whole, i.e., millions of species, by the COMP . This shows the power, widespread use, and the flexibility as well as the practicality of the system, as does the same for all known stars, the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The Comparison Process has organized into a comprehensive whole almost the whole of everything that existed and has existed, so far as is known. This is not a trivial task nor a trifling achievement. It’s clear, empirical testimony to the efficiency and ubiquitous presence of the COMP system.

9. Essentially, we use words to communicate with others, not ourselves.. It’s a social activity. The words created and then learned are then stored in the LTM, which creates a stable, recallable, recognizable entity, a word, which corresponds to a concept/idea/image or event in existence. These are models for events in existence and is the way our higher cortical functions in our brains are organized. It is nothing less than the fundamental way we process information, i.e., think.

This may well mean that in practice, language is a complex system. With literally 100,000’s of words in most technical and advanced languages, the interactions of these words with other words in sentences, often creating new meanings and new discoveries, very likely shows this.

10. The dialects of the major languages all show that there is NO single, universal standard for speaking. We use the standard midwestern American English against which the other dialects are compared. We can hear the other dialects of all English speakers, from Scotland, to London, from Capetown to Canberra and Auckland, all of which use slightly different pronunciations to mark their forms of English. Because the LTM (Long Term Memory) of words is a bit flexible (& all people die), the language can and will change over time, creating new words, new pronunciations, and so forth, altho the written word tends to create more stability or pronunciation than used to exist. We simply compare what we hear in English to ID the locale from which the other dialect occurs, be it Delhi, or Dover. There is NO absolute dialect in English, any more than there is absolute space or time, or measurements. However all speakers require the COMP to create meaning and understanding. It’s very simple & widely applicable in language, daily.

11. Let us consider time. Time is not absolute. We base all of our time measurements upon an arbitrary standard against which we compare and create those standards. Our year arbitrarily begins on 1 Jan., based upon the Roman Calendar, their year based upon the date when Rome was established according to their beliefs. We base the Western calendar upon year 1 AD. The ancient Egyptian year began on the heliacal rise of the star Sirius, which they identified with Aset (Isis). That usually marked the beginning of the inundation of the Nile within a few days, and when everything agricultural came to a halt until the flooding was over.

For every day we begin and center the day on noontime, or high noon, when the sun is at its maximum height. That’s why noon is 12 PM, and its counterpart, midnight is 12 AM. That’s the standard. It can be checked because it’s the center of most days in the center of each time zone. There is some wandering from that point, but it’s the standard upon which all the rest of the clock is based.

& again, in every case we see the usual repetition of elements, the second, of which 60 make a minute, of which 60 make an hour, of which 24 make a day, and of which about 30 make a month of the 12 months each year. Showing again, just like DNA structure, protein structure, atomic structure, they are created from repeating elements.

Every time we look at a clock, we make a comparison of that instant with the time, compared to our standard. The Comparison Process is an organizing, ordering process, and creates our time tables, schedules, plans and so forth, all based upon that creative process, the COMP. The COMP keeps us on schedule, and makes orderly production and work possible. Time keeping is little more than the Comparison Process at its deepest, most fundamental level.

Synchronizing our clocks is 3 times over COMP. First, we must have that standard time, which is kept based upon & compared to Noon. Second, there must be a clock which compares exactly to the UTI. And thirdly, there must be the two time pieces or more which are to be synchronized, that is, they must keep exactly the same time on both of them. This is achieved by using at every point, Comparison Process. This demonstrates yet again how basic and fundamental the COMP is in time alone.

12. Any kind of error, be it a genetic error creating a disorder, or other conditions, creates a new opportunity to compare that genetic disorder to the normal. Any new finding which can be compared to normals or other conditions, can create new insights, simply because it allows the Comparison Process to be used again. Is some mouse models, researchers are using mutagens to create genetic changes. Then they back cross the offspring of that mouse to bring out the recessives created by the process. This often results in interesting findings, by this method of genetic error creation, which is little more than one more of the myriads of types of COMP. Any difference from what we see normally, any finding which is unusual can be of this value, simply because it permits the COMP to be used on one more event, one more situation, to enlighten us.

13. In the legal and moral laws, the same is the case. One obeys the laws. One compares the laws regarding social behaviors to one’s own and other’s actions. The process of internalization and memory of these laws is in our LTM, largely frontal lobes. This is the source of our conscience. How we know what to do and what not to do. It’s in almost every case, a Comparison Process, by which we compare ours and others’ actions for social, legal, and moral propriety and acceptability..

Where is this tester for the socially appropriate, the COMP checker, which is in the brain? In our frontal lobes, because we know when a person’s frontal lobes are damaged, they lose social propriety, may become slovenly, without manners and moral/legal behaviors. And this is found in the cortex of the frontal lobes.

14. The universe can also be modelled by a similar system of laws, observed and confirmed, which shows us the behaviors, characteristics and various stable parts and processes in the universe. We compare & refer (another COMP based word) new events to those which we find and find that they are indeed consistent with, ie, they compare closely with the gravitation, or laws of motion and so forth. It’s the same system of organization.

So it’s very clear that almost all higher cortical brain organization and systems are bound by the Comparison Process , from start to finish.

15. In each case, the Comparison Process is used by a complementary method to recreate life. This kind of complementary DNA reading is very basic because it’s yet another form of the COMP. It creates a chemical structure which can be Identified for what it is by the cell, and the cell knows how to use it, biochemically. It’s biochemical recognition, again the COMP. This shows how basic the entire process is to life as we know it, and shows how once again, the entire life processes from the most very basic parts, are built up by a COMP . From a simple system of 4 base pairs & 20 some amino acids, is created the complexity of the cell.

But all of these DNA, RNA and protein/polypeptide creations use energy. And this is the process by which everything is created in the cell. Creation of life is done by this process, essentially, applied again and again. It’s recursive, just like the Comparison Process is recursive and models the processes very clearly. It’s how living systems create more order from chaos. It’s how all life is created & reproduces. It’s the way the biological world works. The COMP is how non-living matter and energy are turned into growing, living cells, driven by the COMP , manifested in terms of biochemicals & rules.

16. It can all be modeled using the Comparison Process which creates language and mathematics and models life itself. It’s modelled by the COMP, which is itself a creative principle, too. The Comparison Process is the way our cortex organizes the world around us. It uses many other spin off, related principles to do this the same way, such as the Least Energy Principle, which is of itself a Comparison Process. The laws of thermodynamics are also used, as guidelines as to how this all works, again based upon the COMP , because these laws compare to the all known chemical and physical processes, mapping them very exactly.

17. It’s easy to think that words, languages and math and related brain functions are the way in which the world works. But it’s not so. Our mental methods created by our cortices use this method, but it’s not THE method by which it’s done. It describes what’s done, building up a model, but these are not the events themselves. Those mental methods are the underlying neurophysiological structures & functions.

As Korzybski, the founder of general semantics theory, wrote, “The word is not the thing.” in other words, more generally, the /idea/word/image is not the event in existence to which it refers. The former are the structural means by which the Comparison Process in our brains creates a model of the world, but it’s not the world itself. Those events in existence exist outside the nervous system. Every structure has its limits and capabilities. So does the COMP . Those are the exponential barriers such as light speed, absolute zero, particle physics creating higher and higher energies, until it’s too costly to go further, climbing that greased, steep slide of the exponentially rising curve, until we must fall back. When we find those, we turn back and create new means to overcome those limits, via the Comparison Process.

Brains can create many fictions, easily, myths, gods & goddesses, demons and such, but these don’t compare to anything in reality which we can test and measure. We must make careful distinction between our brain modeling structures and those events outside of our brains which we have in common with everyone else. Confirmation of findings in scientific studies and reliable accounts create that commonality and excludes brain fictions. If we do not then we confuse, consistently, fictions and reality, events in existence with our abstractions, and commit the error so well described by Lord North, Alfred Whitehead, co-author of the “Principia Mathematica” with Bertrand Rusell, revolutionizing mathematics, “the fallacy of misplaced concretism.” Nonexisting abstracts get reified, when they are not real. Pi gets to be thought of as real, tho it’s an abstraction from the comparison of the ideal circle’s circumference with its ideal diameter, as a straight, ideal line. Good tools, but no perfect circle nor perfectly straight line can ever be measured, or exist.

18, Consider when we build a structure such as a house. We have blueprints and related designs, now mostly computerized due to an efficiency rule, the LEP. We constantly compare to the designs to make sure we build it properly. COMP at every step and stage. We have the basic building blocks, the wood, the concrete, the bricks and steel/metal frames, if necessary and the piping and wiring, not to mention the roof materials. The structure is built and ordered according to the COMP and the skills and tools we use based upon that cortical method. We can build a large, grand house, or a smaller, simpler home. There are no limits to what we can build using this method and enough resources. It’s the Comparison Process .

Just why this has not been stated before and explored for the very important observation which it is, is curious. . So many things can go unrecognized, even tho common, for a very great, long time, esp. if of the idealistic mindset, which tends to ignore real,existing events, in favor of brain ideas, words and concepts, which of course, do not exist outside the brain.

19. When you are out on a field trip, you make discoveries of new kinds of plants, trees, insects, birds and so forth, many of which you’ve never seen before. In a very practical sense, I saw a great many things uknown to me and this created discovery, Others do, too. The Comparison Process ran through my memory, & didn’t recognize at first, each new event, and then I learned what it was by comparing to that information from a person who had, i.e, books. This was repeated many times, adding new insects and trees and birds & stars, etc., to my memory, which eventually went into LTM (long term memory). The more you learn, the more you can compare together and find them, again and again.

Discovery is a form of creativity. It adds to your creative powers. & if you find enough, then it adds to your ability to learn more, too. The Comparison Process makes this discovery possible, repeatedly, and then adds to it in a recursive and growing way. It adds again and again to your skills of discovery by comparing the way you do things, and then improving upon them. The more you know, the more you can find, Again, the Comparison Process and the more you can compare with what you have already found. such as butterflies, likes and dislikes, and so forth. It creates a library of events which you can reference from your LTM. and the more you can compare, the more you can learn. Because each new creation adds to the creations you can make, because it’s one more item to compare to, it builds up quickly in biology. So discovery is one form of creativity.

I recall being with family at a lake, when about 10 PM, suddenly the sky and land lit up with a brilliant light to our NE. We had no idea what it was at the time, maybe an exploding plane or something, until we read the next day, that a large, brilliant bolide, a meteor, had entered earth’s atmosphere a few hundred miles to the east of us, and the perception became the discovery. & it was ordered into the category of meteor, and made sense, then. Discovery then is compared to pre-existing idea/word/ images and becomes knowledge and order.

20. Creativity is more than just discovery, it’s also the comparison of two or more idea/concepts/images from our memory of events, or may occur in the presence of events,

21. In terms of the Comparison Process what are skills? From first hand experience in a number of fields, they are short cuts, algorithms, &/or methods will allow the user to function faster, more efficiently, more carefully and above all, more creatively in the field. Discovery hones the perceptivity, the COMP , because you are always searching for those events and ideas which will give you the answers. You get better and better at it, with the better methods built into your skills.

End of pt. 1.

Le Chanson Sans Fin: the Comparison Process, Pt. 3

Le Chanson Sans Fin, the Comparison Process,
Introduction, Part 3

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

When the average person daily deciphers cryptograms on the puzzle pages he uses the same COMP . He uses a similar process for word finding puzzles, sudokus, crosswords, and picture puzzles. When we decode simple or complex codes, we use the same COMP .

When we translate one language into another, we use, again, massively, the COMP to make a useful translation. & most interestingly, when we contact over the next 1000’s of years another space faring species, we will use the COMP to build up our model of their language as they will ours, simply by the COMP. We will point to those things we have in common, stars, rocks, elements, compounds, persons, etc., and give them their names in our language and writing and they will, regardless of what system they use, can give us theirs, words/ideas/images for the same. This is how powerful the COMP is. It will be much the same for any language anywhere in our universe, very likely.

When we make copies, those must built, created & compare very closely to the originals, must they not? Otherwise, how would it be of much value? We can copy a copy and we can compare a copy with another, for fidelity. Again, more words which contain the COMP within them. Every copy from the faxes, to the copiers, to the copy and paste function, all share at their origin, the COMP . It’s how and why copying is possible.

The copying of all written texts including our most sacred texts occurred by using the COMP massively. It’s ancient as the earliest forms of scripts. It’s universal from Mesopotamia, to Egypt, to Aryan cultures and throughoutt East Asia. This is no accident.

But there is far, far more. When the DNA molecule is unzipped in the chromosomes of our cells for cell division & reproduction, the DNA polymerase compares each Adenine to its counterpart, Thymidine, and builds up the other two DNA chains necessary for cell division, based upon the COMP. For every A it creates a T on the complementary double helix chain and vice versa. For every Guanidine it adds a complementary Cytosine and vice versa. and when it’s done with that, it manufactures the proteins from the messenger RNA by creating that strip of RNA, using the same COMP, complementary synthesis to create more proteins to build the rest of the dividing cell.

Cell division is COMP on a biochemical scale, just as copying is. Reproductions of all of the species from the bacteria and the virions, through ALL species on our planet is COMP . Thus we see that our very existence is not only comprehended and understood and talked about using COMP, but our very selves arrived and are created by a similar, analogous, simple biochemical system. Duplication, replication, copying, reproduction can all be COMP dependent tasks.

There are huge numbers of words associated with the COMP. Ratios, relationships, associations, pattern finding/recognition, definitions, etc. Literally, 100’s of words can be found and ID’d which within them at their origins, we find the COMP . This shows it’s tremendously widespread characteristic as well as its enormous importance, too.

In this we & all the plants and animals and others in our world are united. There is one unifying principle, as the COMP unifies most all higher brains’ functionings, it also unifies us with all other life. This grand principle, the COMP , which creates the analogy, the poets’ metaphors, the similes, the anecdotes of Lincoln, the fables of Aesop and the Parables of Jeshua Ben Joseph, to the Zen koans, & the surahs of Mohammed, unifies us all in a totally unexpected way. From the simple to the complex, it shows the power of the COMP , an essential comparison function of our cortex, which appears to be far, far more important than anything else in our brains, the predominant, higher cortical function. & it’s universal.

In the scientific method of logical empiricism we find the COMP at every level. Because science so depends upon measurement, which is a COMP process, therefore this is one. We take a ruler or measuring tape, or any of the many methods and compare those lengths against what we measure. It’s all COMP. When we measure frequencies of light we use the COMP. When we count in our vast censuses, again the COMP. All of our odometers and special travel odometers do the same. They measure, even the most precise micrometers and light interference & quantum devices to measure the tiniest lengths & time intervals, and the parallax methods to determine vast distances. And so on, and on, and limitlessly on.

Measurement in turn depends upon Mathematics, which can be simply defined as the relationships of the numbers. 4 is related to 2 by being twice 4. 12 is related to 4 by being 3 times 4 and 1 & 1/2 of 8. Every number can be related to every other number by the COMP , using words and language. These relationships are adding, subtracting, division and multiplication. Basic arithmetic is all COMP.

In geometry, literally, “land measuring” we find many different kinds of lines, shapes, quadrangles, squares, circles, arcs, chords, ovals, etc. Suffice it to prove the point, is that Pi is the numeric comparison of an ideal circle’s circumference to its diameter and radius. The area of the circle is found by comparing the square of the radius times Pi. Trigonometry is the comparison of right angle triangles’ two sides to one another, which creates the trig functions, sine, cosine, tangent, etc. It’s the way the sides of a right triangle compare to each other, simply. The algebra of ratios and proportions are simply COMP. And on and on.

So the sciences formally measure using the COMP , which is so built-in we scarcely see it. A scientist gets an idea, that perhaps, since all the finches on the Galapagos most closely resemble each other, then possibly they are all related and came from a common ancestor, which on that remote island steadily speciated into the various kinds of finches there. THAT is the point at which Darwin came up with the evolutionary model. By comparing finches, and spending his lifetime finding and confirming with the millions of species both living and extinct which he and we have found since. Wallace found the same speciating patterns in the Indonesian isles, essentially another version of the same thing found by Darwin years earlier. That was the moment of discovery, the comparison of the plants and animals on isolated islands, which showed the way. The COMP.

When Einstein asked the question, what is is like to ride on a light photon?, he was given an insight which lead to a piece of relativity. When he realized that ALL time and space was not absolute, but must be compared to a fixed spot to be measured, THAT was another part. When he realized that time slowed down when objects were sped up relative to a fixed site on the earth, and when he realized that acceleration was equivalent to being in a gravitational field of the same meters/sec.squared value, then he came up with even more. Each of these insights by Einstein were the COMP. That ancient method which orders and creates creativity. Finally, when he realized that time was not a constant, he found that in a higher gravitational field, compared to a less intense field, time slowed down, he had his relativity basics, and created his noted Invariance Theory, which was eventually renamed the Theory of Relativity.

All time and space measurements must be compared to another for meaning.

From these and other determinations where it’s possible to identify the point and thinking of the creative scientist, it’s fairly clear, from Kepler’s realization that planetary orbits were not circular and the ancients were wrong, that the earth was NOT the center of the solar system (there was NO privileged point in the solar system) ; & Edison’s work through massive trial and error kind of discovery, shows that the COMP was in use when those creative revelations were present.

The scientist tests his hypotheses reached by the COMP by using double blind, controlled studies, which rule out much bias and interfering noise. This kind of testing ( & ALL testing is COMP, too), creates a finding, or outcome which may confirm, partially confirm/disconfirm or not confirm his hypothesis. If it does confirm it, that is, to a high degree of probability 95% or more, then it’s publishable. If others can confirm it, usually 2 times more, it’s likely correct, using the same COMP which underlies all testing and all measuring. This reference shows it in more detail. It was found weeks after the original discovery was posted in January 2014. It’s not the Basic COMP of the cortex, but simply one of the many ways & methods the COMP can be developed to be used in the sciences, thus confirming again, its deepest value.

http://www.stat.berkeley.edu/~stark/SticiGui/Text/experiments.htm

The confirmation by other, independent persons and labs and sites of a scientific finding, shows that what has been found is indeed real and existing outside of our brains. It means it is a finding which is true under the fixed conditions on earth, when the test was performed can be found anywhere else on earth. And perhaps, even anywhere else in the universe if a physical finding. The universe is what each of us have in common, existing independently and outside of us.

But the secrets of the sciences are these. If you bow to the universe by testing it as the arbiter of what is going on, then that finding can often be used again and again to create a technology based upon it, such as the transistor, and literally millions of other findings do the same. Because the universe is very likely the same everywhere, those events are backed up by the universe everywhere, and just like the existence of the natural laws and the protons/electrons/neutrinos of atoms/mass are stable, so is that finding. That constancy/stability of the universe, and the facts that careful scientific investigation give us empirical truths about, may often mean it’s a universal truth, and can be used by anyone or any intelligence in our local region and possibly very many billions of light years away, too. The findings of the sciences when truly established as real and existing, give the sciences and the technologies the very power of the universe itself. and they are backed up by the very laws of the universe, also. That is not a trival technology or method. & it’s one of the secrets and powerful methods which the scientific method can create.

From the child to the adult, that COMP creates the discoveries which allow us to learn & grow & develop. In the sciences and very likely in the arts, that COMP event creates much of what we call creativity. From Archimedes, to Newton, to Kepler and Einstein and many others, the COMP can be simply seen as the way discoveries are made. It’s the underpinning of creativity. When Edison through the same trial and error experiments found the electric light, he at last realized it with the carbon filament. He had the idea that running electricity thru the right substance would create a usable electric light. THAT was the COMP event. and from that same emotional charging up of the cortex, all the rest of what he found, too.

The COMP is an active process in the cortex always working to create understanding and make sense of events around it. In the event called Pareidolia, the brain can find animals and other common shapes in clouds. It can find the Old Man in the Mtn. in a granite stone formation in Vermont. It can find the Camelback shape of the Mountain in north Phoenix, AZ, and there are literally many 1000’s of such events, which the brain creates using the MofC. It’s working to associate, recognize and create patterns, actively when we are awake. Thiis is how it understands meanings in speech and words, and makes sense of much which is not understood. the COMP is an active function in our cortices. The COMP easily explains pareidolia.

COMP is how to create creativity. How the COMP understands understanding and comprehends comprehension. How we can talk about talking and think about thinking. How we can model a model. How we can think about language. Again, the same transitive, recursive processes, all underlain by the COMP . This is no accident of speech, as it shows the COMP relationships in the words which themselves use the COMP , & depend upon it to work.

Much work in Artificial Intelligence has finally been able to achieve basic, voice activated programs. The implications are endless. Voice activation means a computer is able to detect human words, compare them to a library it can create or already has of such sounds and perform the corresponding simple task. This is through and through machine COMP . The problem has been the AI professionals did not know what they had to do. They simply proceeded from trial and error, as do we all when being creative, to find a way to get the computer to recognize (COMP ) vocalizations we call words.

But to create creativity? It’s COMP as well, When computers can model human COMP for thinking and visual recognition, then they will be truly AI. and when they can create creativity thru the COMP algorithms, and humor, as well via the same COMP skills, then full AI will have been achieved. COMP is the one, very simple process which has been missed. & had we thought of it sooner, it could have been done years ago. But we did NOT know enough of what simple language and words and thinking and creativity were, and what their origins were, until recently.

Imagine the capabilities of a truly COMP creative computer, which at 10 GHz can find thousands of creative breakthroughs in a few minutes, compared to our 100-200 ms. brain processing speed. (The evoked potential, a cortical latency of recognition). With that massive increase in creativity AI could make progress and breakthroughs on a massive basis, not just for the programmers, but for all. And combined with a QC?

“Oh brave new world, that hath such people in it!”

For these reasons the COMP can be metaphorically termed Le Chanson Sans Fin, the Endless Song. & it might well be Le Chanson de la Terre et Le Chanson Universel, as well. It’s real. It’s confirmed billions of times a day, and it must be considered, studied, and extended, and then used to create better lives by the COMP creativity algorithm, which the next section will discuss further.

COMP creates creativity. It also creates humor. It also creates optical and sensory illusions via our visual cortex which works by comparing the images and shapes it perceives. The applications are as endless as the COMP can be repeatedly used. There is no limit to the application of the COMP . That is its power and its capability. Anything, be it internal events in our minds, or external events in existence can be compared to everything else.

Because this endless recursivity, the COMP models the universe, which is also endlessly recursive. Our universe is built of protons/electrons, neutrons (combining 1 each of the former) and neutrinos, the stable particles of the universe. and from each of these used together in all the myriad ways are created; the atoms, elements and isotopes from which mass in our universe is created. From those atoms came all the molecules of chemicals and biochemicals from which life itself is made. (10’s of millions of chemicals which have been EACH classified by the COMP .) Endlessly complex, based upon simple atoms and simple nucleons. Just as DNA is based upon 4 base pairs; just as proteins are based upon 3 codon segments for each amino acid, building up the complexity of cell membranes, ribosomes, chromosomes, the mitochondria that give energy to run the cells & the enzymes which do all the biochemical work of the cells. This enormously stable simplicity of the universe is unlimitted(from a human standpint), compared & described by the COMP . It models piece by piece, system by system, also. and has for 100’s of millions of years on this earth, too. and can for all places and times in our universe for the last 15-20 billions of years and for an equal time, very likely into the future.

When we understand how the COMP works to create language, order, and rules, even creativity, we find one thing. Every time we hear a joke and “get” the punch line, we have done a self-rewarding task. We get a bit of dopamine kick which the novelty gives us. We smile and may laugh. It’s self-reinforcing, so we like jokes, and we repeat them to see others get the same “kick” and experience that dopamine boost ourselves once again. When a child comes in from outside, and has found a new kind of bug or animal, he may say “Daddy!! Daddy!! Look what I found!”. How often have we heard that? That’s the kick of discovery, that momentary reward for finding something new, the thrill of novelty..

When Archimedes got into his bath, saw the water displaced by his body, and realized in that COMP moment, that displacement of water could be used to measure density, he cried out “Eureka, I have found it!”. Again, the dopamine, self reinforcing process, which each of us may feel when we reach that moment of understanding and discovery. The “pleasures of philosophy” which Aristotle wrote of when investigating the world by his methods. The COMP reinforces itself, and is probably responsible for our curiosity as well. & that of the other animals, too. Exploration is a survival tactic. If it’s rewarded, it will be done again. The dopamine kick of the COMP.

How vast and truly omnipresent and ubiquitous this COMP is, is therefore clear. And that it can create copies of itself, and proliferate by creating new order and new ways of understanding, is also clear. It’s plain that the COMP scan simplify down an huge amount of information. What was once dark and confusion, suddenly becomes lit by that bright bolide in the darkness, illuminating the skies of our clear reason to much of what was unknown before, but that light does not fade.

The COMP is endless and limitless. For every new word the child has, he can compare that to others. For every new idea the creativity of the COMP gives us it can compare those with all the others, to create more insights. And the more it creates, the more it proliferates, exponentiating to a much larger size. The math fomula is “X!”, one of the fastest expanding math series known. This is a secret hiding within the COMP. This is its power. A method which can potentially decode the universe, using a self-reinforcing dopamine kick to keep itself going and it can be performed endlessly to help us understand better and better, again and again, in endless reiterations, that complex universe outside of us, and that vast, biological complexity inside of us. Truly, it is “Ignothi Seauton.”

It may eventually form the basic of a unified understanding of almost everything, which it has already partly classified and partially understood. Le Chanson Universel, Sans Fin, de La Terre:The Comparison Process. The followng sections will extend further the creativity function of the COMP and many other observations and confirming substantiations.

End of Introduction: Le Chanson Sans Fin