A Field Trip into the Mind

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A Field Trip into the Mind via the COMParison Process

By Herb Wiggins, M.D. Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014

Content:
1. Empirical introspection
2. Commonality establishing validity in introspection; Rule of Commonality (RoC); related to confirmation of scientific findings;
3. Structure/function relationships in brain as a basis for commonality; common cortical cell columns in most all persons
4. Comparison Process (COMP) as the basis of the mind’s higher level cortical functions.
5. Recognition as intrinsically COMP; mental tasks basically similar from person to person, and this establishes the commonality of reading, indexing, etc.
6. The immense complexity of the CCC’s and the impossibility of understanding all of the details/complexity of 10K’s of neurons and interactions of 1000’s of synapses of a neuron with other 10K’s of neurons.

7. Our field trip begins in ancient Sumeria with the Epic of Gilgamesh and his emotions; philias and emotions; Flood stories and possible sources of the myth.
8. To Joseph of the many colors coat and ancient Egypt’s prediction from observation
9. Limits of science which cannot verify our history very well; The past cannot be studied in all cases; no valid scientific evidence that Julius Caesar, ever lived ever lived; The grieving of Achilles like the grieving of Gilgamesh.
10. Cassandra of Troy and prophecy/prediction; a new understanding of forecasting and credibility; the meaning of some myths exposed as deeper than understood before;
11. The antiquity of human emotions. and abilities; The Calculus of Archimedes and of Newton/Leibniz 2000 years apart as a measure of commonality in creativity; Non-euclidean geometries, created FOUR times over.
12. Basis of the COMP by comparing moral laws, scientific laws, legal laws and the conscience in our frontal lobes.
13. Emotions, speech, creativity, moral laws, all comparison processes seen over 5500 years.
14. Motor vehicle laws as a complexity created upon the Pauli Exclusion principle; from the simple comes the complex.
15. Dreams and dream interpretations possibly valid in some cases by empirical introspection; dreams exist by the rule of commonality.
16. Medical substantiation and proofs of introspection being real and valid.
17. A field trip into dreams and the validity of the reports.
18. Substantiation of Freud’s repressed/lost memories by two dreams.
19. The magical, unreal qualities of dreams versus their basis in memories as well as their basis in creating stories and imaginations. flying in dreams; willful telekinesis in dreams
20 Mental processing speeds and computers; do computers make people think faster?
21. Consciousness’ complexity based upon the interactions, organizations and outputs of 100,000’s of cortical cell columns and processes.
22. Stream of Consciousness, Ulysses, and the demons of madness/mania; dreams and madness; delusions and the CCC’s output, the COMP, goes wrong; speaking in tongues as similar.
23. Where do good ideas come from in problem solving; the masses of voices of the CCC’s.
24. Recognition and when it goes wrong; illusions and delusions related; critical thinking necessary to deal with the COMP gone wrong; Pareidolia as a COMP experience and evidence of the COMP.
25. The recognition continuum from madnesses and delusions to accurate and valid recognitions; highly probable brain/mind recognitions imitated by Bayesian statistics in computer models of recognition
26. Dopamine and formation/facilitation of long term memory (LTM).

As a field biologist for over 50 years and experience and training in the neurosciences for 45 years, that field was remarkably similar to field biology in terms of discoveries, approaches, learning and methods, It’s a comfortable way to travel about. So here we go.

1. Essentially, in the article, “Empirical Introspection”, it was shown how to get inside our heads using the Comparison Process (COMP). Basically, human science and medical practice use the same method of observation, testing and then discovery of new findings, or in the case of medicine, diagnosis followed by treatment if possible or necessary.

Observations are reported in journals in the sciences and an equally legitimate report is filed for each patient, all of it documented as to findings, leading to conclusions called diagnoses, with a treatment plan, and so forth. The findings can all be verified by others following much the same methods, if they are true, and more can also be learned about the conditions/events being studied. It’s a valid method, scientifically. Or is most medical practice scientifically invalid?

2. The issue is commonality. That which exists in our universe is that which we all can detect in common. In other words, if that tree in my back yard is real, I can prove it by documentation, images and so forth. It exists despite/independently of my documentations, of course, but that makes it more real for those who cannot see it directly. In the same way events in the universe can be studied by the scientific method to show that they exist and are real by the carefully done, scientific studies, published in good literature, and then confirmed at least twice by other, credible, independent groups to establish if what was found is indeed real. These confirmations establish commonality. If the events in existence are real, then those can create technologies in most cases to take advantage of those real, recurring events in space/time. And they will work any where/any time in our universe, where the conditions are the same, for the last 15-20 B Yrs. and LY’s and in all spaces and times in between. & likely for billions of years into the future.

3. This similar kind of commonality can be developed for the human brain/mind. We know that the brain has structure/function relationships, which are stable and reliably there in almost all persons. If a person has a stroke in his speech centers, there will be damage to the speech output/function. The same is true for specific motor functions, & higher level functions throughout the brain. This has been established beyond all doubt.

In the same way the higher functions of language, thinking, music, facial recognition, visual information processing, movement, etc., have been localized to various regions in the brain. There is some variation in it, but it’s all pretty much the same from person to person. The same cortical cell columns which make up the outer layers of the brain, the cortex, when see on the microscopic sections show the same 6 layers, And over the cortex the EEG is the same, alpha, beta, theta, wherever tested. When the person sleeps the cortex is largely shut down, and we know that intact brain stem gives wakefulness to the cortex. The complex processes and abilities of the human brain/mind are found in the cortex. There are other connections, but when the cortex is damaged, the major functions may be lost forever, unless some healing is possible, but esp. in older persons, there is not much ability to recover completely from serious damage. This is fact.

The Cortex of the brain, the cortical cell columns (CCC) with their 6 layers invariant (except motor cortex is modestly different, lacking layer 4 and has Betz cells) are micrographically, virtually all the same from the the visual cortex, to the sensory, speech, hearing and frontal cortex, too. They do differ in function, tho, but given that each CCC, of the 100K’s of CCC’s, has 10K’s of neurons, with multiple and differing functions, yet still are almost all alike, save for, we assume, differences in synaptic connections, upwards of 1000’s per neuron.

Here we have a commonality of structure and therefore function. The Comparison Process is likely the dominant, high level function of each CCC. It’s the basis of the mind. It can function in many different ways from creating recognition, its basic function, to creativity, a form of recognition and much else, including language, vision, musical ability, motor performance, sensation, and is the modulator/mediator for the emotions via a dopamine system built into the CCC.

See the “Emotional Continuum”.
https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/02/the-emotional-continuum-exploring-emotions/

And here is the situation, when the COMP goes wrong we find delusions commonly, or mistakes in speech, or even mania and psychosis, too. But it can mostly be traced back to the cortical mediation by the COMP. If we want to investigate the mind/brain interface, we look to the COMP to give us guidance and insight as to what to look for, because the COMP is the basis of recognition via a tie in to the Long Term Memory (LTM), or with working memory in many cases. If we see someone we know, it triggers a feed of information to the visual cortex, creating a brain image, which gets observed by the Right inferior temporal lobe in the FFA, and we re-cognize that person. That is we “KNOW again”, based upon the COMP, comparing the image from the eyes with the LTM image. That’s what creates recognition of images. The exact physiology is way more complicated than we can imagine, but recognition is an established fact in the mind/brain interface, and we commonly accept that as a working model.

5. Recognition also works for language, and many other tasks, such as hearing, identifying voices and music by comparing with the LTM in the hearing centers. Speaking and reading by matching/comparing word sounds or written words, and meaning is given. If we want to look up a word in the dictionary, we use the COMP until we find the word, if it’s there, and the dictionary was created, order from disorder by alphabetizing the words by the comparison process. This we all have in common with others. We read and organize dictionaries, lists, indexes, phone books, maps, etc., by the same process, the comparison process. It’s universally used as it’s the basis of recognition, by the simple method given above. That is a part of empirical introspection.

What about descriptions and measurements? This has been treated before:

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/09/languagemath-descriptionmeasurement-least-energy-principle-and-ai/

But suffice it to say the descriptions verbal are qualitative kinds of measurements. And descriptions using numbers are quantitative. There exist far fewer examples which can be measurements with respect to descriptions, which are far, far more adaptable, but of course, not necessarily mathematical.

6. As far as understanding HOW the COMP arises from those complicated CCC’s, that would involve solving the N-body problem for 10K’s of neurons with 1000’s each of synaptic connections to other neurons, too. That cannot be done, because the possible combinations which need to be understood in these complex systems is in the range of 10 exp millions or more. No computer, no matter how fast currently existing, or conceivable can sort thru all of that complexity of virtually unlimited size. But the commonality of functions of speech, language, hearing and so forth can all be located in the cortex as the primary information processing area for the higher functions. We therefore look at the CCC production being unable to comprehend the complexity of the neural networks in most of their details.

7. Let us now, having stated that, move backwards in time to the Mesopotamian area around the Sumerian civilization about 5500 years ago. From there we get the epic of Gilgamesh, which is the oldest known work from that area. In it we learn of Gilgamesh, a mighty man, and his friend, wild, untamed, yet still human, Enkidu. They were close friends. And here we find philias first, that of brotherly love, the same Philias from which Philadelphia was created, the City of Brotherly Love. This was not Eros, or other forms of love, but philias. And then Enkidu died. Gilgamesh was torn up by his grieving and loss. He grew angry and destructive and the people appealed to the gods for help.

But the point is this. Here was friendship which we know today, and there was anger, and loss and grieving over 5000 years ago. The tale is credible from our standpoint. We have seen and felt the same emotions ourselves and in others. Gilgamesh and Enkidu, regardless of their technological backwardness were noticeably, emotionally human. This establishes an historical continuum of the existence of recognizably modern human emotions to about the middle 4th C. B.C. It establishes the commonality of those emotions within most humans, whether then or up until today.

Gilgamesh even went so far as to meet Utnapishtim, who was the Sumerian equivalent of Noah. The Flood story is an ancient one and by means of the Atrahasis and Siusudras, as well as the later Greek Deucalion story of the Flood, we know something happened then, about the middle 4th C. B.C. Whether it was from an extended monsoon, or an asteroidal oceanic impact which put 10K’s of cubic miles of water into the atmosphere, which rained down over the Middle East and possibly elsewhere, we do not know. But there the first rainbow was also reported, which extra-ordinary depths of the rainbow have explored before in “Depths within Depths…”.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/14/depths-within-depths-the-nested-great-mysteries/

The brain is also like that. Depths within depths, the mind at the top, the CCC’s next and then the entire complex anatomy and cellular metabolism of the cells which supports it. The mind on top, the CCC’s doing their mysterious neurophysiological magic, which we are hard pressed to understand, although we can see the COMP working there during waking and occ. during sleep in dreams. Recalling and remembering dreams and even creating dreams through lucid dreaming, too.

So in the absence of any kind of detailed neurophysiological understanding which defies our limited sciences and math, we are left with the COMP to show us what is going on in the mind. And it works. Posit the COMP and we can understand better most languages, creativity, recognition and the metaphor/analogy/anecdote word cluster which arises, is produced from the comparison process, too. It provides a look into the mind. And we use the commonalities of experience to understand others’ minds, too.

8. From Gilgamesh we travel to the Palestine area about the year 2000 B.C., before it was known by that name and find the story of Joseph, son of Jacob, AKA Israel, with many brothers. His father favored him and it drew the envy and anger of his brothers. We can understand those emotions, too. Those are common enough today. So they took his coat of many colors and sold him into slavery in Egypt, where his father would not find him, thinking him dead. There Joseph had an experience of lust with Potiphar’s wife and was thrown into jail. But he was let out by his good character. And Pharaoh, the Per Ah, Great House, had a dream of the 7 fat cattle and the 7 lean Cattle.

Joseph knew the Nile flooded every year, but occasionally. there were serious droughts when as we now know, the monsoon failed in Ethiopia, which supplies the Blue Nile with most of its water, and thus Egyptian Nile, giving life and flooding and volcanic, rich silt to the land of Egypt during the yearly inundation there. He made this connection to the Per Ah’s dream. The story goes on. But we know those emotions, they all had. We each have seen them.

9. Science can give us very little information about history. This is a failing and limit to science. How can we study that which is no longer there? How can one experiment on and observe the past? Archeology is about as close as the sciences get to history, but what do we have but commonality and preponderance of evidence to know if Julius Caesar ever lived? Or Jeshua Ben Joseph or Mohammed or the Buddha? Nothing. The sciences cannot answer. So we rely upon commonality again. We recognize those emotions in Gilgamesh and Joseph. We recognize them in the Iliad of Homer, the Trojan War epic. We recognize those feelings and actions and their own recognitions of each other, throughout.history. And we see the grieving of Achilles over his lost friend, Patroklos, very similar to we saw in the Epic of Gilgamesh, over 2000 years before.

10. In Troy lived Cassandra and her brother, Alexandros, pious to the gods, young persons, the children of Priam of Troy, or Wilios, as the Mukenens (Myceneans) called it. They were given the gift of prophecy by the gods. But some gods, realizing it was too powerful a gift, gave them a compensating curse. All would know they could predict the future, but few would believe them. Here again is the power of myth, tho it’s real and true, unlike some other wild speculations. We see this again and again. “A Prophet is without honor even in his own land.” Prophets are not always/often believed, many have had that experience a few times. Who believed Churchill, that great statesman and a very rare person, a seer, who knew what Hitler was. and who knew before the end of WW2 what Stalin was up to in taking over eastern Europe? Though he was not believed until after those events had occurred and then many people didn’t care to acknowledge his rare talent, as related in C. P. Snow’s “The Variety of Men”.

That is the deeper meaning. The myth of Cassandra is a piquant and good reminder that people do not want to hear prophecies and even after being told the truth, and it occurs, they will not acknowledge it. It’s no myth. It’s a deep psychological insight as true today as it was 3300 years ago. Some truths are universal, esp. if the human emotions/mind have not changed very much in the long years of intervening time. Many of the Ancient Greek myths such as Sisyphus, or the Bed of Procrustes have deeper meanings. This shows the power of the COMP to understand, to creatively find truths and meaning. How many here reading this have EVER considered the deeper meaning of the myth about Cassandra and prophecy? Yet, we can see it’s true. We can understand it. and how? We have the same COMP working in our brains.

11. We see much the same feelings and emotions in the ancient Greek plays of the 5th/4th C. BC. up to present times. From the Oresteian trilogy of Aeschylus through the “Lysistrata” of Aristophanes, we see them in full display 2400 years ago. And again, from the histories and stories preserved right from the Roman times, to Chaucer and up into current events.

Therefore, by the evidence of commonality, the Rule of Commonality (RoC), we know that human emotions have been very much like ours for the last 5500 years. We see recognition in them as well, as they all knew each other, too. They had CCC and the COMP then, very much similar to us at Present.

What is responsible for this stability in the emotions? Human brain structure and genetics. By the COMP we see across all cultures, all times for the last 5,500 years, the same emotions and the same recognition processes in the human brain. On the basis of the RoC, then we know those are likely real and true. Love exists, grieving exists, crying and the emotions exist in each of us and everywhere for humans for at least the last 5500 years. The sciences are silent upon these facts. yet our long, detailed histories, literature and the RoC established them as true. The sciences are silent on morality and many other spiritual matters. Does morality exist, tho the sciences cannot study it and tell us if “You will not kill” is good or bad? Shall we kill and steal and create damage because the sciences cannot study these and give an empirically true and well confirmed answer? No.

Did Archimedes create the Calculus in about 300 BC? Yes. Did Newton and Leibniz create their very similar versions of the calculus 2000 years later? Yes. Commonality, once again. The same COMP function from the same genetics/brain structures of the cortical cell columns. Virtually the same insights leading to the 3, independent, very similar creations of the calculus.

The Rule of Commonality establishes the Comparison Process in our cortex, too. We do the same COMP as our neighbors do, and as our ancestors did, also. We can understand Hittite and ancient Sumerian even this day, tho some of it is over 5000 years old, using the COMP to translate dead languages, even as were the Linear B tablets from old Mukena of the Trojan War, and Hittite language from the time of the Trojan War, as well. In those, we see the same emotions, the same recognitions, the same COMP working in the past and up to present.

We organize and read phone books and dictionaries and all those similar forms by the same process, the COMP. We all read English by the same means, too. Recognition of words, tied to meanings in our LTM. By the RoC which establishes the validity of the sciences, and the validity of most modern medical practice, as well. It’s not certain in all cases, but does not have to be. Or are we to deny the existence of migraine headaches and pleasure and pain, too?

Or will we deny the same process in the creation of the THREE(perhaps 4) independently created non-Euclidean geometries of Gauss, Riemann, and Lobachevski, as well as the same process of creativity documented in the evolutionary model by Wallace and Darwin, each some 25 years apart? And of the 12th C. monk who also created the basis of a non-Euclidean geometry 500 years before Gauss?

12. Let’s look into how the COMP was discovered/created. I’ve studied these matters for at least 45 years. It’s reasonable to conclude that my insights have a good deal of knowledge, experience and judgement behind them. The insight came with the thought that the structure of our moral laws based upon religion, was very similar to the structure of our physical laws. This was sort of interesting. How is it possible that our Judeo-Christian moral laws, could have created the similar physical laws? Something in common must be acting. For what do we find in moral laws? We have prescriptions for specific actions we can and cannot do. And how do we know what those laws are, sitting there thinking? Because we COMPARE Each of ours and others’ behaviors to the moral laws, and see if we break them, or obey them. We compare in our minds the physical laws to events in existence, which we have established by careful testing and observation, both COMP tasks, and those events do correspond.

At first came the thought that it was the J-C moral laws’ structure which created the same, stable form of the laws which describe the universe’s working. This was why science first arose in the West, because Physical Laws correspond to the structure of moral laws. We compare in each to see if events work that way. There is a commonality among them. If that were the case that only cultures created the two systems of laws, Moral and Scientific, then no one else could figure them out unless Jewish or Christian. Clearly, something else was going on, because persons of all persuasions anywhere on the planet can be converted to Christianity and observe those laws, and persons of all races and cultures and languages can also do very good science and understand it from learning in schools, as well.

13. And this common element is the Comparison Process in our brain cortices. Common to all humans, everywhere, for 1000’s of years, because the emotional systems within which those moral laws can only work, has been unchanged for 1000’s of years, too. Stability & commonality. Very similar moral and religious laws, the same mind/brain processes working for 1000’s of years, across many, many widely differing cultures, languages and places, means a common process is working in the human brain. And that marked the discovery, and realization of the COMP. The Comparison Process is the lowest common denominator of most all higher level thought processes so far tested. Analogies, metaphors, even logic and mathematics all arise from it secondarily. The COMP is very likely the primary thinking process..

Again, a creative insight by the comparison process. Completely consistent with the COMP model. We can use the COMP to look into the minds of our creative people and see what’s going on in there, the same as they read words, read dictionaries, and maps, and street addresses, too. If it does the one, it can do most all, potentially. It’s the same process, allowing for the many variations, which is easily acceptable.

Our consciences are little more than an internalized moral code in our LTM, accessible by our brains. With that we test and check our behaviors against our own actions and those of others. This is the COMP because testing and checking are the COMP, also. In the Legal laws, the cops police us and govern us by them. They and WE know when a car runs a red light, or when someone hits another person, or otherwise injures them. Most all of us have the comparison processes to recognize these actions as illegal.The conscience in our frontal lobes corresponds very well to moral laws, legal laws as well as physical laws of the universe in the way they are created and set up to be read and applied by the comparison process.

14. As an aside, the vast majority of our motor vehicle laws are based upon the simple Exclusion Principle created/discovered by Pauli. It’s easy to see. No two fermions, normal matter, can occupy the same space at the same time. If we collide there is bound to be damage of some kind, If we run over other persons or into buildings, other cars or objects, there will be damage. The most of vehicular laws are set up to deal with this possibility and try to avoid/minimize this problem by car lanes, traffic regulating lights and signs and other means, to prevent accidents and provide remedies in case such damage/injuries should occur.

By comparing the Pauli Exclusion Principle to our traffic laws, we can recognize/see/understand that this is true. We can replace most of the legal complexities and regs/rules by “Don’t run into any person/thing and cause damage.” That’s all that’s needed. The rest is just enforcement and remedies for damages. If someone breaks that rule, they get nailed by the laws as harshly as the damage demands. Simple. Basic. We don’t need any other laws, besides that one. The power of the COMP. Again, the Rule of Commonality can be invoked, honestly and truly by the Comparison Process. Working within all of us.

We can see inside our heads with the COMP. We can see ourselves reasoning and thinking to avoid breaking moral laws/customs, and seeing those who do so, as well. We can see legal laws being broken and know not to break them, ourselves. We can see what is going on in the brain of police officer who’s pulled over an errant driver. He can see into the driver’s mind and what he’s thinking by the same rule. This is empirical introspection made possible by the COMP. And it’s valid.

Thinking and other higher brain processes are very likely the COMP. This is what explains thought, those processes we go through when using the COMP for math, testing, comparing, recognition, creativity, reading, speaking, writing and so forth. Most all the higher processes are very likely the COMP. Our consciousnesses and our consciences are most all comparison processes.

Some have talked about where the self recognition, the self of each person comes from. This is very easy using the COMP. We see ourselves in mirrors, and we know that by comparing ourselves with others, what we are. Simple observation, making sense by comparing our faces, our arms and legs and everything in between, we know we are human and members of our culture, speaking each language of those, and behaving according those moral laws/rules.We know that each of us has feelings, and pain and pleasure as they have the same internal sensations as do we, within the normal variations.

How can legal laws proliferate at a rate of 50k-100K pages of new rules and regs per years? Is this not the endlessness of the COMP, its unlimited nature, tho gone badly wrong?

15. What of that real problem, dreams? What are dreams?
The problem of investigating dreams is the problem of introspection. How do we know what dreams mean has been the bugaboo of the entire field since Freud’s “The Interpretation of Dreams”. Most of it simply is not believed because of lack of substantiation for his approach. A great many New Agers also talk/write about dream interpretation with an equivalent lack of credible substantiation. The same is true of popular herbal books, which smack of folk medicine, poor thinking and lack of substantiation.

But there is a way and in the clinical neuroscience it’s been used for years. How do we know that dreams exist? Because of the Rule of Commonality (RoC). We know that pain exists in people for the same reason, everyone knows about it and has realistic appreciation for those injuries and related problems such as migraine headaches with also do exist. The same is true of pleasure and other findings, introspective.

https://jochesh00.wordpress.com/2014/04/24/81/
Empirical Introspection

16. But in specific cases? That’s a tough one. When a patient comes in with numbness, either persistent or intermittent in the hand, we can tell if it’s real or not by several techniques. First, does it correspond (compare) to real sensory nerve distributions or not? If hand/glove kind it’s not always clear. With a careful exam we can detect numbness and tingling with specific methods and find on electromyograms (EMG) whether or not the reports of numbness have a concomitant injury shown by increased latencies and slowed nerve conduction speeds. The above can provide realistic, confirmable by others, and SPECIFIC determinations that the individual complaints are real. That is, the introspective reports are the case.
But how can we do this in dreams? We know they exist, but reports of dream content are colored by length of time elapsed between the dream and report, emotional factors such as social concerns about appropriateness, etc. But occasionally there are real cases where we CAN show this.

I’ve been a field biologist for over 50 years. My observational skills are developed. I have two cases. The first where a recurrent dream of walking along a weathered wooden pier with planks missing, and the green water below with waves sloshing against the piles and at times almost close enough to get my feet wet. In each case over 40 years, I was simply terrified I’d fall into the water and get drowned. In each case of these repeated nightmares, I was usually stressed by situational problems at work, etc.
But the key was, we were showing old family movies of the time we visited in St. Petersburg, FL., and on one of them it showed a movie of that same pier, same color water (all my dreams are in color). At once I recognized that THAT was the source of the dream. I’d walked on the pier with my father, and had been terrified. But I’d forgotten the event.
This was clearly Freudian repressed memory, because for some 45 years it wasn’t clear WHERE the dream had come from. Within a few weeks, that dream tried to recur, I just said while dreaming, this is that old memory and I won’t have this any more. And did not, and haven’t since.

Once the source of the terror was found, and realized what it was, in tandem with Freudian neurosis abatement observations (which argues that Freud’s rules are real and existing by the RoC), the dream stopped. It has never recurred, either. I had a similar dream with a swaying elevator, and once figured out, some 10 years later, when riding on the SAME elevator, the recognition came to me that THAT was where it had come from. It tried to recur, and I abolished it the same way.

19. That dreams can appear to be remnants of older memories many times, which we seem to have forgotten, not just repressed, seems to be the case. The fantastic elements of dreams, events appearing, disappearing and so forth, are simply NOT real and unexplainable at present

However, for this one. I can fly sometimes while dreaming. I lift up off the ground and take off. Sadly, no one who’s ever seen me having one of these dreams has reported any levitation whatsoever of my body!! But the one thing I do recall is that the flying was always very slow. I’d get caught up in wires, etc. and thinking about it, it takes a LOT of processing power to fly, creating all of that changing, cartooning visual imagery, esp. very high, because then the complexity of the surrounding scenery would take a LOT more processing power to recreate that. I am NOT a hang glider person, tho I have no fear of flying at all.

In this case of flying dreams, they are completely synthetic and cannot possibly compare to any real memories at all. In the case of lucid dreaming reports, the persons can also get control of their dreams and create fictional activities, too. Therefore it’s hard to believe the dictum that ALL dreams are based almost completely upon memories, only. Those memories might provide a groundwork, but the mind can build on that, actually. It can create dreams very much like how stories are created, using past experiences. We know this because the scene changes in dreams are NOT real because things simply appear and disappear in violation of physical laws. That is magical thinking, which isn’t real any more than one can fly or cause objects several meters from one, to move into one’s hand. That fiction my dreams have done a lot of. But telekinesis has never been shown to be real without instrumental assistance.

20. However, I was using computers about 1995, and at the time moved up from a low baud of a few 100 to a 2400 baud rate of screen scrolling. It exceeded the ability of my brain to read each line by a factor of several times. But bless my brain it DID try to keep up, tho never really succeeded. Within weeks of that time, tho, my flying dreams ALSO sped up, markedly, and I wasn’t getting slowed down or tangled up in wires again Since then, continuing to use faster and faster computers, I can fly a LOT faster and higher, too, even to this day.

Probably, visual processing speed in my brain sped up to its maximum by using the new high speed modem. And my dreams got faster. One suspects that using computers has sped up the the brain processing of we humans, where such is possible, too. As speed of intellectual processing is related to 85% of IQ, because the IQ tests are timed, therefore this creates a reasonable conclusion from my dreaming of flying, that computers may in fact speed up our brains and make us proportionately smarter, in that respect.

These are the ONLY realistic interpretations of dreams I’ve ever been able to make. Should OTHERS have similar findings, then we can begin by the RoC, to learn more about dreams. Until then it’s a lot of speculation as Father Freud first formally showed us by his very flawed, “Interpretation of Dreams”. We must have a LOT more testable, introspective data to compare with before we can more reliably decode and understand our specific dreams.

21. Let us consider yet another aspect of consciousness using the Comparison Process and the Rule of Commonality. We know we have 100K’s of cortical cell columns pretty working in tandem while we are awake, i.e. parallel processing. Most of these are doing tasks much of the time when we are thinking or going about our daily tasks and activities. But most of the time we ignore much of that blooming buzzing confusion around us. We ignore leaves on plants, rocks and stones on the ground, the complexity of grass leaves on lawns, etc.

All of that implies very clearly that we are ignoring most of the CCC(cortical cell columns) which are working, much of the time. Attention focused means that we are ignoring a lot of sensory input which is constantly going on and being processed. Then what gets our attention? Clearly, we have priorities. Loud noises, bright flashes of lights, hearing our names, a sudden source of pain, and so forth. This refocuses attention to such things. We can also focus on memories and how to type and read to compose lines like this, by ignoring a lot of other sensory inputs, constantly working while we do composition.

So we have a LOT of COMP going on all the time, onto which we can focus our attentions. Each of these are like voices/individuals seeking attention while we are awake. This is the stream of consciousness is it not? When we are not attending it, it becomes the subconscious, very much like that of Freud. We can shift to any of these processed data streams, the pain in a foot, the position of the left leg, the color in the background of the typing screen, and many other things. The totality of this is the consciousness, is it not? It’s awareness of the many sensory inputs and the many tasks our 100K’s of CCC’s are up to when we are awake.

22. The Stream of Consciousness writing of James Joyce’ “Ulysses” has been mentioned before as a signal way in which consciousness can work. But let us look further. While dreaming we can hear other voices. This means that a voice recording/creation capability is there for us to play any time, but we rarely access it except when sleeping during REM periods. How is this any different from the Voices, or visions which many have reported during waking times, esp. if they are in manic/psychotic states? We have reports of people seeing visual hallucinations, also, tho rarer because that requires a LOT more processing power. How are the voices the madmen hear any different from the controlled words we hear others saying while asleep?

Clearly, the former are out of control and show us what’s going on in comparison. The brain isn’t working right, but the pathology shows us how the brain can work when things go wrong (the comparison process, again). There is a misapprehension and an accessing of memories and the ability to CREATE a conversation using normal imagination and then to imbue it in the manic/psychotic mind with a sense of reality, which it does not have. This is the fictional/inventive aspect of the consciousness at work is it not? And it does not differ that much from the looseness of associations seen, also manifested in Ulysses either? The very basis of creative writing.

How about the demons and voices which folk belief attribute to person who are crazy? The possessions by demons comes to mind. They say things out of their heads, and the COMP in people have falsely interpreted those as being of demon possession, when in fact they are simply expression of unsuppressed and controlled processes in the stream of consciousness which have gone very wrong. The person hearing those voices and what he says have been equally misinterpreted by his hearers as being of demonic origin, the demons of possession and by himself as being something more than the inventions of his own brain, mistaken by himself as being real. The frontal lobes are not doing their testing/checking work very well, and the system becomes delusional, on the part of the hearers as well as he who is talking.

22. Speaking in tongues is yet another manifestation of the COMP gone wrong in the brain, because persons actually think that gibberish means something, when it doesn’t. Anyone can speak this way. We simply set loose the ability to talk and say the biggest bunch of uncontrolled series of sounds, vowels, syllables, etc., we can. But to falsely attribute this to being of some significance is as silly as believing the loose associations of the manic/psychotic are meaningful either. Our Frontal lobe checker for normal, intelligible speech has been disabled voluntarily in glossolalia and by a sick neurophysiology in the mania. And that’s likely what is going on. Again, a problem with the comparison Process, not unlike that being seen in the psychotic, tho certainly not as severe.

23. Where DO all those good ideas we think of come from? And the answer is we parallel process to solve problems and find ideas. The ones which make sense to us we focus upon and ignore the rest. This not only explains how ideas “pop up” seemingly from no where, but gives a rational, evidentiary source for them from the 100,000’s of CCC which are doing the work, either together in connected clusters or in other ways.
These are simply more examples of what is going on inside our brains using the COMP and cortical cell columns which do the work.

Let’s talk about recognition. We know this exists very clearly because we see it massive in others, as well as animals and even some plants have a form of it. Recognition is the major production of the comparison process as stated before and shown by innumerable examples. It means basically that we detect a sensory input (or inputs) or idea/word/image, compare it to LTM and it makes a fit, matches, and so forth. It compares well to that internalized memory in our LTM.

24. Recognition continua can be seen of many types. We’ve all had that pseudo recognition when we’ve heard or seen something and when we check it realize our brain, that is COMP, was playing tricks on us. It didn’t stand up to repeated checking/testing. A sound which sounded like something else, a dark spot in the corner of our vision which disappeared when we tried to see it more clearly. These are the misfirings of the COMP, which create in more substantial cases, delusions, rationalizations, myths, false beliefs, superstitions and so forth. With good training in critical thinking, we can rid ourselves of much of this noise/nonsense parading as useful knowledge. As always, James Lett’s chapter on “Critical Thinking” in Frazier Kendrick’s well edited book, “The 100th Monkey” from Prometheus Books can provide good methods to clear out the “Balogna”, a la Carl Sagan.

24. The complex images of pareidolia, or seeing complex images in clouds, or grass patterns, or Jesus in a tamale of occasional appearance, too. These too are the COMP trying to make sense of things, and failing. Yet we don’t immediately become aware of it. Most of us see the “man in the moon” effect, but if you look, you can also see the native American’s rabbit, too. Rabbit Ears are where the face’s eyes are, to help us see it on a full moon day with minimal cloud cover. That’s the COMP working, though our checkers dismiss it as interesting, but not real, tho similar. Again, the comparison process in action.

25. That’s one end of the recognition continua represented as a part of the dualities of nonsense and errors, versus much more recognizable, real perceptions. I recall being in Raratonga where a great many persons ride motorbikes because fuel is very costly there. Standing on a roadside and saw something coming floating down the road, towards me, with very little noise as the wind was blowing towards it, muffling noise. As the image got closer I began to see a very large woman with a huge, flowing dress which virtually covered the entire motorbike she sat on. And then heard the sound of the small cylinder engine firing off, putt-putting as she came towards me. These are the illusions made by inadequate visual comparisons with audible sounds to make sense of it. Again, something very odd, becoming with time, something very interesting, but entirely real and existing, well within the normal range of recognition. It showed us how with very little data, our COMP is seeking to explain things and make sense of them with descriptions qualitative, which became better, even better as time passed.

And it’s easy to see how such inadequately evaluated images can become myths, that is, the illusions become delusions and very often damaging to our best interests, long term survival and benefit.

25. The other end of the continuum would be those images, senses, touches, audible inputs which are very easily, accurately recognized, such as hit tunes or classical pieces, coins, or books, or cars, etc. Those are highly probable events to some extent, although to describe them completely reduces the chances of the description verbal being completely correct. This is how, roughly, Bayesian statistics used by can imitate human recognition, tho in the brain’s CCC’s there is nothing definably mathematical going on at all. Qualitative matching, comparison descriptions are very different from mathematics, and much more flexible and useful, too, as has been shown in other “Description/Measurement” articles.

26. Let’s look at memorable events in our lives compared to those events we mostly ignore or don’t attend to much. Those events which are of importance to us, marriage, having a child, seeing a scene of great beauty, a tune of similar note, we have in each case a great deal of dopamine release. On the other hand, very unpleasant experience, such as when we broke a bone, or were burned, or badly hurt emotionally, or socially embarrassed are also recalled, due to the same process. This facilitates and reinforces the laying down of a permanent memory causing protein synthesis and synapses creation to make that memory trace long lasting. less memorable events, such as learning from books, we have to reinforce again and again to learn, esp. if we don’t much have an interest in it. Again, tying in the COMP to the dopamine release we see there also. This is easy to understand using reason alone. But the neurophysiological evidence also supports that conclusion. Again, our minds combine with known physiological responses to figure out what’s going on in our brains/minds.

Well, enough of these meanderings. My mental legs are getting tired. Time to get back home, have a bit of a snack and print out those images we took for our long term memory notebooks in our minds/brains. Maybe tonight we’ll dream of the Old Man in the Mountain in Vermont, or the Camelback Mountain, or even Les Grand Tetons!!

And maybe some reading this will find those many more valid interpretations and methods of introspection to open up further our understanding of the mind/brain.

“Scientists identify link between introspection and brain structure” 2010
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/news/news-articles/1009/10091604

Empirical Introspection and the Comparison Process

Empirical Introspection and the Comparison Process

By Herb Wiggins, M.D. Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/COMP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014

“Progress in physics is always preceded by an epistemological advance.” — Albert Einstein

“Least energy rules.”

Contents
1. The Comparison Process COMP) as the basis of recognition and cognition, arsing in brain cortex, working in tandem with LTM. The COMP hallmark is recognition. seen in all major classes of advanced animals.
2. Territoriality as recognition and the COMP.
3. Lower life has biochemical forms of the COMP. Reproduction is a complementary form of it.
4. COMP creates language and meaning, COMP as universal decoder.
5. Empirical introspection (EI), insights from medical practice which prove this.
6. Basis of empirical introspection in the sciences, and scientific medicine
7. Pain and EI.
7b. Dreaming, dream interpretation and introspection
8. Reading, creating dictionaries, indexes, phone books, all empirical introspection. (EI)
9. That which is real inside of us is what we all have in common. That which is real outside of us is what we have in common with what exists in the universe outside of us.
10. Measuring as a form of the COMP
11. Confirmation of the existence of EI and the COMP: 100’s millions of times.
12. The commonalties of the creativities.
13. The source of creativity of computer programming.
14. Mathematical creativity and the COMP by Empirical introspection
15. Creativity as a form of recognition. Seeing inside the minds of creative people using the COMP
16. The LEP and origin of feedback systems.
17. The massive capabilities of the COMP, endless, unlimited.
18. Stabilities and their importance.
19. Empirical Introspection of movie making.
20. The dopamine boost built into the COMP
21. Problems of modern society related to loss of the secret of the dopamine boost and attempts to replace it with drugs, raves, etc.
22. The ubiquity in brain of the dopamine boost structure/function; Our solutions to problems are inside of us and also outside.

1. One of the Comparison Process’ (COMP) major tasks is recognition (although it is a multiplicit, complex system with many other capabilities), that is, Re-knowing, and lies at the basis of cognitive activities in the brain. The COMP in the cortex is able to create a memory of stable events, existing both within and without the nervous system. It can then compare any future event to the stored Long Term Memory (LTM) event for further processing. The function is identifying or calling up the LTM event and comparing it to that which is being seen, thought about, or interacted with to establish similarity, identity, a match, or common characteristics, associations, and/or relationships, connections. This is some of what the COMP can do. But the basic task is the recognition function. It can do this endlessly, without limitations over time. It is how we recognize speech, the sounds we call words. It is how we recognize written words. It is how we communicate with each other. Indeed if humans were not social there would be no need for words much at all, beyond a few vocalizations and grunts, etc. which many animals, including our nearest relatives have.

The recognition function is a major hallmark of the Comparison Process. Whenever recognition is seen that marks a COMP being used. We see this is the major kinds of animals, from our nearest relatives the great apes, through the primates, the rest of the mammals, the birds, reptiles, down to the fishes, all of which display an ability to recognize their fellow species, for purposes of mating and protection if heard/flock/schooling kinds of species. They have territories as well, and must recognize landmarks, scents and other features, including the sun for navigation, and moving about.

2. Territoriality of itself must necessitate the use of recognition. This means that all known animals have it, in some form or another, even down to the lowly anemones, who know self from not self and are capable of defending territory. It’s necessary for reproduction as well, surely a convincing argument for the presence of recognition in all known species above the level of sponges.

But even sponges recognize self from not self. The experiment where red and white sponges were gently broken down into their constituent cells, and then in a nutrient sea water bath reconstituted themselves once again into red and white sponges shows this.

In the immune system the cells of the body know self from not self. And it is constantly on the hunt for foreign proteins and chemicals which can disrupt function. This is a biochemical form of comparison process, just in the same way sponge self-recognition was.

The higher animals know each other, and they know where their nests/dens and territories are, they know family from outsiders by sight and scents, and they know food and dangers and predators, too. These are all recognition and necessarily imply in each animal showing those characteristics, the recognition capacity which results of their own, analogous to ours, COMP. It is a universally used process from the highest animals in the great apes down to the lowliest sponges and very likely lower.

The bacteria and algae know food, and they have protections against attacks, too. And because those very likely date back at least 3.5 Billion years, these biochemical recognition methods are very, very ancient. They extend through the entire chain of life, from the very lowest to the highest, and unite in a very real way, all life.

3. Our means of reproduction using DNA/RNA replication of the basic building blocks of the genes, the nucleotides, also is a form of the comparison process, where when the DNA or RNA polymerase during replication detects a thymidine, it adds on an adenine and vice versa (uracil in RNA, which distinguishes RNA from DNA), and the same with guanosine/cytosine pairings. It must recognize each of those nucleotides, biochemically, and then complementary processes add on the one of the other.

When the cell reproduces it duplicates the DNA chain, while it also is creating more proteins using RNA to replicate the gene sequence by complementary processes and that then goes to the ribosome where 3 DNA bases are coded (codons) into a specific amino acid, which chains build up the basic, essential proteins/polypeptides of the cell, without which the cell would not survive metabolically or structurally. These are yet other Comparison processes, albeit biochemical on the part of the DNA/RNA polymerases and their transcriptions and then creation by a similar comparison process into proteins, etc. From the very start of life to the very present, the COMP in one form or another has been essential for all life. It binds all life together from the lowest to the highest, and is a unifying characteristic of all life. That is the Comparison Process, be it replication of DNA/RNA, be it protein/polypeptide synthesis, be it knowing cellular life from other cells, be it the immune system, be it recognition of other species or self and same species, be it territoriality, and be it the highest known form, human, higher primate cortical cell columns and cortex, the Comparison process of the brain.

4. It’s very clear then with this kind a ubiquity, in animal behaviors alone that it should be found in human brains. But there it has been able to create language, by simple recognition of words, meaning by comparing those words to each other in unique contextual forms. And in creating every single kind of language, which can be translation and related using the comparison process into every other kind of known language. The COMP is a universal decoder of language and it allows every person on earth to develop their own unique ways of stating those languages, as well, our idiosyncratic speech patterns, unique to us all, that our fellow humans can identify each of us by, too. All the myriad ways of all of the languages, each stated in unique, individual ways, but each the same. From simple to enormous complexity. Understanding this fact allows us to enormosly simplifiy the complexity around us into unifying principles/observations. It sees through the “buzzing, blooming confusion” and orders it.

It has allowed us by trial and error comparisons to translate and understand the Rosetta Stone and many other extinct languages, too. It allows us to decrypt the newspaper cryptograms and more complex codes,. It has allowed us to decrypt the genetic codes as well, and even to decode the universe’ events into the natural laws we have found. It does not just create language and recognition, but it also much more.

5. It allows us to create an empirical introspection into the very innermost workings of our minds. Because the COMP is the major function of the cortex, in almost every case it gives us the critical insight into what to look for. In the medical field, this is a common practice. It’s very simply done, and it’s empirical introspection, where the mind can look at the mind. Where the mind can comprehend and study by observation the workings of the mind body and nervous system. Where we can detect and apprehend thoughts, themselves. And the exact internal, mental processes leading to language and its use.

Take the scientific method and confirmations for instance. There are scientists who find an interesting observation and they carefully describe and then publish their findings. If other scientists can observe and find the same events, then it is considered confirmed. But why that? Because the universe is what we all have in common. If others see the same events we see, and record them, it’s likely those are real and existing outside of ourselves and we are not just seeing what we want to see. We use double blind, carefully controlled, prospective studies to be sure we are not looking at what we want to find. For that reason, confirmation of events is the sine qua non of sciences. If and when others observe and describe the same acceleration of masses in earth’s gravitational field, then the 9.8 m/sec squ. value becomes established as the case and scientific, empirical truth is found. This is how it’s done. That establishes carefully done observations as true and real.

Let us extend the same method to empirical introspection. Here are some basic examples of how it’s done. When a person comes to the doctor for numbness and tingling of the fingers, we know the anatomy and the function of the nerves in the hand/arm which are clearly, provable related to those tinglings. If the thumb, forefinger, middle finger and part of the thumb side of the ring finger tingle, or are numb, we know it’s the median nerve, because that’s what has been carefully and confirmed to be the case in unlimited numbers of humans so far studied. Unless the person is medically sophisticated they would not know this and when a person states the truth, we can tell. By comparing their symptoms which they sense, to that which we know to be the case about nerves and so forth, we KNOW it’s a median nerve problem. That means we have looked by examination and history into those person’s minds and found that their statements correspond/compare to real, existing events. That is provably empirical introspection is it not? This can be done with almost all of the nerves in the body, everyday, in every nation where there are good medical professionals. It’s a fact. It’s common to all humans. There are other tests such as the electromyogram which can also independently confirm what the patients says is going on. This is valid, empirical introspection

Let’s go further to a more difficult problem, looking at pain. People can have pain in certain parts of their bodies, and we know what is commonly seen by building up huge databases of medical information. Suppose the person reports a bad, throbbing headache, periodically, which her mother also had, and a sister has, too. Further, the headache are often presaged by spots in the eyes, or scintillations of light, which are called scotomata. We do an exam, find no neurological abnormalities, compare the signs/symptoms to our differential diagnostic tables, and make a working diagnosis of migraine headaches. Often then we do tests to see if there are brain structural abnormalities, hypertension, etc., which can cause similar headaches. We give a triptan medication and if the headaches are frequent, a med which will likely prevent a lot of them. If the triptans work and the headaches abate, then it’s very likely migraines. This method can be extended to other kinds of pain, as well. This yet again, is another empirical introspection into the senses, the most difficult one of all, pain. But we have tests and many other ways of telling what is real and what is not.

The same is true of foot pain, back pain, chest pain, etc. The same can be easily extended to the vision, and touch sensations, too. We can even investigate loss/absence of gravity sense, also. This is all empirical introspection, because we know that all humans have characteristic states and conditions which they report by introspection which correspond very well to known anatomy and common reports. Because we all have these organ systems in common. Just as we all have events in existence in common. It’s the similar analogous process to scientific investigation, observation and reporting, and is used very day all over the world. What we have in common is real, within our bodies or without. That’s the key. A trained observer, the medical professional, relies upon his OWN introspective, trained methods, to make a diagnosis of a condition reported by the introspection of the patient. This is completely legitimate and practical. It’s not just that introspection of the patient, it’s also the introspection, and recognition of the condition by the medico, which is at play here. And it’s valid and reliable. It’s not perfect, but nothing in this world is. But it works and is practical.

7b. Dreaming and dreaming states

The problem of dream interpretation is the problem of introspection. How do we know what dreams mean has been the bugaboo of the entire field since Freud’s “The Interpretation of Dreams”. Most of it simply is not believed because of lack of substantiation for his approach. A great many New Agers also talk about dream interpretation with an equivalent lack of credible substantiation.

But there is a way and in the clinical neuroscience it’s been used for years. How do we know that dreams exist? Because of the Rule of Commonality (RoC). We know that pain exists in people for the same reason, everyone knows about it and has realistic appreciation for those injuries and related problems such as migraine headaches with also do exist. The same is true of pleasure and other findings, introspective.

But in specific cases? That’s a tough one. When a patient comes in with numbness, either persistent or intermittent in the hand, we can tell if it’s real or not by several techniques. First, does it correspond (compare) to real sensory nerve distributions or not? If hand/glove kind it’s not always clear. With a careful exam we can detect numbness and tingling with specific methods and find on electromyograms (EMG) whether or not the reports of numbness have a concomitant injury shown by increased latencies and slowed nerve conduction speeds. The above can provide realistic and SPECIFIC determinations that the individual complaints are real. That is, the introspective reports are the case.

But how can we do this in dreams? We know they exist, but reports of dream content are colored by length of time elapsed between the dream and report, emotional factors such as social concerns about appropriateness, etc. But occasionally there are real cases where we CAN show this. I’ve been a field biologist for over 50 years. My observational skills are developed.

I have two cases. This first where a recurrent dream of walking along a weathered wooden pier with planks missing, and the green water below with waves sloshing against the piles and at times almost close enough to get my feet wet. In each case over 40 years, I was simply terrified I’d fall into the water and get drowned. In each case of these repeated nightmares, I was usually stressed by situational problems at work, etc.

But the key was, we were showing old family movies of the time we ere in St. Pete, FL., and on one of them it showed a movie of that same pier, same color water (all my dreams are in color) and at once I recognized that that was the source of the dream. I’d walked on it with my father, and had been terrified. But I’d forgotten the event.

This was clearly Freudian repressed memory, because for some 45 years it wasn’t clear WHERE the dreams had come from. Within a few weeks, that dream tried to recur, I just said while dreaming, this is that old memory and I won’t have this any more. And did not, and haven’t since.

Once the source of the terror was found, and realized what it was, in tandem with Freudian neurosis abatement observations (which argues that those are real and existing by the RoC), the dream stopped. It has never recurred, either. I had a similar dream with a swaying elevator, and once figured out, some 10 years later, when riding on the SAME elevator, the recognition came on me that THAT was where it had come from. It tried to recur, and I abolished it the same way.

That dreams can appear to be remnants of older memories many times, which we seem to have forgotten, not just repressed, seems to be the case. The fantastic elements of dreams, events appearing, disappearing and so forth, are simply NOT real and unexplainable.

However, for this one. I can fly sometimes while dreaming. I lift up off the ground and take off. Sadly, no one who’s ever seen me having one of these dreams has reported any levitation of my body!! But the one thing I do recall is that the flying was always very slow. I’d get caught up in wires, etc. and thinking about it, it takes a LOT of processing power to fly, esp. very high, because then the complexity of the surrounding scenery would take a LOT more processing power to recreate that. I am NOT a hang glider person, tho I have no fear of flying at all.

In this case of flying dreams, they are completely synthetic and cannot possibly compare to any real memories at all. In the case of lucid dreaming reports, the persons can also get control of their dreams and create fictional activities, too. Therefore it’s hard to believe the dictum that ALL dreams are a result of memories, only. Those memories might provide a groundwork, but the mind can build on that, actually. We know this because the scene changes in dreams are NOT real because things simply appear and disappear in violation of physical laws. That is magical thinking, which isn’t real any more than one can fly or cause objects several meters from one, to move into one’s hand. That my dreams have done a lot of.

However, I was using computers about 1995, and at the time moved up from a low baud of a few 100 to a 2400 baud rate of screen scrolling. It exceeded the ability of my brain to follow by a factor of several times. But bless my brain it DID try to keep up, tho never really succeeded. Within weeks of that time, tho, my flying dreams ALSO sped up, markedly and I wasn’t getting slowed down or tangled up in wires again Since then, continuing to use faster and faster computers, I can fly a LOT faster and higher, too, even to this day.

Probably, visual processing speed in my brain sped up to its maximum by using the new high speed modem. And my dreams got faster. One suspects that using computers has speed up the the brain processing of we humans, where such is possible, too. As speed of intellectual processing is related to 85% of IQ, because the IQ tests are timed, therefore this creates a reasonable conclusion from my dreaming of flying, that computers may in fact speed up our brains and make us proportionately smarter, in that respect.

These are the ONLY realistic interpretation of dreams I’ve ever been able to make. Should OTHERS have similar findings, then we can begin by the RoC, to learn more about dreams. Until then it’s a lot of speculation as Father Freud first formally showed us. We must have a LOT more testable data to compare with before we can more reliably decode and understand our specific dreams.

8. Let us now extend this introspection to the recognition processes we see when people read a dictionary or thesaurus or map, etc. Do we not have and see the same activities in all persons who refer to those lists and texts? Do we not see the same process which creates those texts and indices and the taxonomic Tree of Life of all the species which exist? Each of which can be read by anyone, using the same process. Of course we do. The Comparison process is what we all have in common, be it reading a text, finding a word in a dictionary, or finding something on a map, or the creation of the map, besides. This yet another kind of empirical introspection. It’s valid, and meets the criteria for validity. it can be done again and again and provably is the same process both in using the dictionary and creating it. The same, Comparison Process each time.

9. This is confirmation of the existence of the COMP in our brain cortex, that it’s a higher function, as well. Because when those areas are ablated by strokes, trauma or other damage, those reading, speech, and comprehension functions are gone. The structure/function rule of the brain has been shown to be true without limit, so far. For every function of the brain, there is a corresponding structure which creates that function. There is the speech center for talking and reading and writing. There is a right inferior temporal lobe for face identification. There is the visual cortex for interpreting signals from our retina which reproduces with extraordinary accuracy events which we look at in all their shades and colour frequencies and corresponding colours. The same is true of the other senses. Same is true of our feelings. We all have these in common. We all have the same emotions in common and all of these can be related to a structure in the brain.

We all have consciousness in common. This is the awareness and knowledge of that which is around us and inside of us. Ideas/words express this knowledge carefully and fairly accurately too. We have those words in common do we not, in one language or dialect or the many others? This establishes those ideas/words/images as real and existing in our brains/minds. The reports are real, both those inside and outside. The words and knowledge are the same. When we say something, we know it, and can communicate it. And in all of these cases, the Comparison process is working. The writing and the reading of those words is of the same origin, the COMP.

We have our consciences in common, located mainly in the frontal lobes, by which we internalize society’s restrictions and acceptable activities. We compare that to what we do and what others do. In the laws of nature, we compare the behaviors and descriptions of events in existence outside of us, comparable also to the same structure of moral laws, which we use daily, all of us in common. The Legal laws are the same. The templates/forms/structures of logic, math, and others are of the same kind, readable and creatable and modifiable by the COMP.

10. In measuring it’s all Comparison Process. This has been proven time and again, for everyone. Anyone can take a ruler or tape and measure lenghts and distances. Anyone with any training can read a map. The COMP is real because of these unlimited, repetitive, confirming facts. The organization of the Tree of Life by these endless COMP events, that of the periodic table of elements, that of the Hertzsprung/Russell diagram (which organizes into a coherent whole the trillions of observable stars, each a confirmation of that comparison/correspondence to the HRD), that of the repetitions of the same measurements of time and calendars, and our words, images, and the written words which exactly correspond/compare to those mental ideas/words/images. This same commonality of use by the same/similar variations on them, shows they are real.

11. The 100’s of millions of telephone books and dictionaries. The endless listing of street addresses, and the 100’s of millions of maps and templates of all sorts. Endless in its variations, and all real and existing, as the that single, simple Comparison Process existing in all of our cortices which does the thinking, information processing and understanding and speaking and reading. Each and every one of the 34 million known chemical compounds (of an estimated quadrillions possible, (mostly in what’s left of the rain forests) has been named, classified, organized and indexed by that. Is that enough evidence, or are we dealing with what the British justifiably call bloody mindedness?

The Comparison Process is confirmed by these events in the millions and even billions of examples. If several thousands show it, 100 millions show it beyond all reasonable doubt. And any variations among us in reading/writing those lists, is simply the endless variations on a common theme.

12. Let us take creativity. Because we know what to look for, the COMP, we can see inside the minds of those being creative. They have often told us how they did it, from Kekule to Einstein, whose 5 discoveries created Relativity. We know that Newton found the spectrum and realized what it was by comparing it to the rainbow. We know that Newton AND Leibniz both found the calculus, slightly different forms of it, but essentially the same. What were the insights and creativity which led to both of their insights? They’d be comparison processes very similar to the insight of Archimedes whose text showing the calculus from 2300 years ago we now have, also. Compare those 3 men’s insights. That is the mathematical form of Creativity using the COMP.

We have brilliantly creative computer programmers. What are the exact means by which they create new programming techniques? How did Borland create resident pop-up programs? What were his insights as to how to do that? Take every major advance in programming and find the ways in which those insights arose, and compare and cross check them with the number of very similar creative advances made by other programmers. In this way we can again look inside the heads of the programmers for the COMP which creates the creativity of programmers. And then we can model that using a computer system, and create a creative computer, which creativity can proceed at speeds of millions of times faster, than we whose COMP works at about 100-200 msec., compared to a potentially unlimited speed of the quantum computers now working.

14. Gauss, Riemann, and Lobatschevsky almost simultaneously created non-Euclidean geometry. So did a 12th Century monk, but thought it was so silly he didn’t continue it. ALL FOUR found the same thing, that the parallel line axiom was NOT necessary to build up a consistent geometry. and so developed that from which the modern space/time geometry is used in physics today. This is a very similar comparison process creativity in four mathematicians. The same is true of the rest of mathematical creativity and describes how Ramanujan and all the others performed their creative magic.

The same is true of scientific creativity, or verbal creativity, of creative writing. The COMP model extends itself by logic and by proxy to every other field of the sciences and arts, and music, as well.

15. Because we see that these creativity events are ALSO recognitions of the value of that which is created. Creativity is a form of recognition. The recognition by Darwin and Wallace, that on remote isles, a single species tended to diversify into many species and when those diversified enough it’d lead to every species known developing from previously existing forms, that is, evolutionary model which is now scientific fact. Evolution has been confirmed literally 10 millions of times. If evolution is confirmed by those many instances, then how much more confirmed is the comparison process in our brains by the 10 billions of times it’s confirmed every day when 7.5 million humans use it?

We can see inside our own brains/minds this kind of COMP which created the same findings by different men at different times. That commonality of events, which is the key to empirical introspection. We can actually get inside the heads of our most creative people now and see how their minds are working. We can SEE the creative acts. We can see the organizing power of the Comparison process as it organizes each and every part of our dictionaries, our maps, our indices, our everything. Organizing to create knowledge. Organizing to create prediction and control in our consciousness and our consciences, as well as control of industrial production, agriculture, etc.

16. It underlies the Least Energy Rule because that is a COMP. Compare the outputs and costs of each method being studied by the LEP. The least energy one is favored, by the COMP, which is yet an LEP, too.

It’s the feedback loop you see, the original one. It processes and creates a product, which can be endlessly and consistently fed back in, to create more output. Each fed back in. The Comparison Process even explains, uniquely, and cleanly, the feedback systems. How’s that for practicality and utility?

It organizes, unifies, simplifies and yet allows all complexities and endless variations within itself and those to be more clearly understood. Simple, yet complex. Easy, yet surrounds itself with endless variations of incredible size and complexity, which hid/hides and camouflaged(s) it from us for 1000’s of years.

17. It’s all very similar, we see now. Simple, powerful, endless in variations, and because it does a very great deal with only a little, it’s least energy rule obedient and complete amenable to thermodynamic analysis. Because it does the same in every field, it’s a huge simplification, but allows endless complexity to be developed, and understood and explains in details those endless variations on a theme, be it living forms, be it mathematics, be every language and the dialects, be it visual arts, music in all its endless variations of rhythms, styles, scales and modes, and even fashions and design of cars, architecture and much else. It even explains each human’s, each living form’s genetic and personality and behavioral uniqueness and yet commonality with all other living species, alive or extinct. It does a LOT with a little. It’s efficient.

18. What are stabilities, the Djed of the ancient Egyptians? Those are maintained similarities, samenesses. We see this in trees, rocks, stars, matter, and the repeating, reiterating process by which those are built, maintained and broken down. Stabilities are created by the Pauli Exclusion Principle and chemical bonding. Stabilities are Least Energy Principle forms. CO2 and H2O are stable because they are least energy. No chemical energy can be obtained from those molecules. And upon those stabilities of water and carbon dioxide molecules, plus nitrogen and trace elements, all life has been built, within the endless cycling of CO2 and H2O molecules’ stabilities.

The COMP is also a LEP stability, the most common denominator of our mental processes. That is why the cortical cell columns are almost exactly alike. That is why but for the motor cortex, the micrographic examinations of the 6 layers of the entire cortex, except for their neuronal synaptic connections to each other and cortical cell columns(which demonstrates their unique functions of visual, language, sensation, hearing, musical, emotional, etc., cortical functions) are almost exactly the same. That is why the electroencephalogram over every single piece of cortex reveals the same alpha, beta, and theta activities. It even explains the 14 and 6 EEG activity over the motor cortex which lacks layer 4 and has Betz cells instead.

19. It’s been easy to analyze films using the Comparison Process as well. We can use it to see inside the heads of the directors, producers and script writers, and how they are inside the head of the audiences. How they are using humor, surprise, action and creativity to entertain and enthrall their audiences so they keep coming back again and again to watch the movie in the theaters, on the Internet, or by buying a DVD at home or with friends.

20. This is why the COMP will succeed, in the long run. Not only is it backed up by the LEP, but it’s also reinforced by the dopamine boost. Once individuals rediscover this ancient boost and use it creatively for inspiration and better lives, and given the positive feedback nature of the COMP/dopamine system in our cortices, not much is going to stop this process. In the long run on earth and the rest of our universe, least energy rules.

When creativity and understanding are understood, as they now are, this will create, potentially a renaissance in the arts and sciences which can dwarf anything yet seen. In each of us, this massive, repetitive, endlessly/unlimited process is active. Understand it, learn how to boost and inspire yourselves. This creative Spark of Life exists within all of us. It’s the Gotterfunken, the veriest spark of God Himself, the “chi”, the Atman, the feeling of Enlightenment, those mystical feelings and states. And any of us can learn to call it up, learn to use it for ourselves and others. It’s very powerful and underlies all good leadership, all loyalties, all inspiration. It in its best forms it is love incarnate, be it agape, eros, philias, maternitas, or love of country, or our pets and possessions. It underlies the “AHA” or Eureka emotions of discovery/creation. It underlies our jokes and witty entertainment. It underlies all those feelings of awe, of astonishment, of childlike wonder. All the goodness of life itself.

21. We find that our modern societies we have a great many problems to solve. What better than to use the Comparison Process to solve those? It’s there within all of us, immanent, and working. Is this not a good solution? Everyone has the potential to do it. Because everyone has those same, cortical cell columns, the same structures and the functions, the COMP and the dopamine releasers built in.

We find the drug additions, which are simply attempts to feel better, to replace that “loving feeling” that good feeling which has been lost. These are many of the emptinesses of modern society, the malaise. We’ve “lost that loving feeling” and we can’t quite “get it back”. It’s the dopamine boost. In the societies we find the young turning to raves, and rock concerts and sex, and other self-destructive, damaging activities. Because the dopamine boost secret has been lost. People turn from the main stream churches to fundamentalism, to the exciting church services of the same, where that has been preserved. When most church services were once exciting and rejuvenation experiences, they are now too often boring and not re-inforcing, because they do NOT boost the dopamine in those who attend them. Staid, quiet, laid back and not interesting. They’ve lost that loving feeling. and just can’t get it back.

22. Yet it’s there inside each of us. Everyone has dopamine in their brains/bodies. Everyone has the Comparison Process which can release it in all the myriad ways. Dopamine boost is innate in our very natures. It palpably, provably drives the emotions, it inspires, it creates love. The dopamine boost we feel when with friends and loved ones. That’s the self-reinforcing system created by our minds/brains. Reinforce it, make it become part of the LTM, and you can have it any time you need it. That’s the key, regardless of how we find it, let the outcomes be good in the long run, and by their fruits we will know the best ways. The answers are there, our COMP is set up to find them. Here inside and within each of us are the solutions to our problems within and without.

Let a Revelation in understanding create a Kuhnian Revolution.