Cosmology and the Comparison Process.(COMP )
By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.
In cosmology, let’s lay the groundwork, and then show the breakthroughs which have and can come from the COMP’s creative capabilities. Humason and Hubble did a great deal of work in the early to mid 20th C. observing many interstellar objects via the Mt. Wilson Telescope, then the largest and best in the world. They established that galaxies existed outside of our own, and Humason’s arduous work in obtaining detailed images and spectra of near and distant galaxies showed that the universe was expanding upon the basis of the red shift of the galaxies. This expansion of the universe based upon the massive COMPARISON of these red shifted galaxies, etc. makes their work a well established scientific fact, which cannot be rationally disputed by educated and carefully thinking people. Those galaxies which are more distant have a greater red shift, due to their increased velocity moving them away from the earth, as the fixed point of reference, i.e., in comparison (COMP) to the earth. The further away these galaxies are located, the emission lines in the spectra obtained from these galaxies move to the left, to the red end of the spectrum. And indeed many have been found which are so distant, by COMP, that those emission lines have been moved nearly into the infrared. and probably some DO lie in the IR, too. But these are harder to look for, because not only will they be dimmer, but will require a different kind of detector to find.
But the point is this, and it seems somehow to have been missed. When we look at the emission spectra of the elements on the earth, they are clearly very unique to each element, that is each atom of a specific atomic number. This is true because the emission lines are most commonly created by the excitation of electrons in their discrete stable, outer levels of the atom, and when they jump back to lower levels in their positions around the nucleus, which is unique to each element, they give off a highly specific & characteristic set of emission lines. These lines are the same for each element. They are the same for the elements in the sun and the planets. They are the same for the nearby stars, and the more distant ones in our own Orion spiral arm of our galaxy, both outwards and inwards to the 1600 LY (light years) distant Orion group of nebulae. In the next spiral arms over the emission lines are the same, and exactly so. In the most distant parts of our galaxy we can see using the COMP, about 80K LY distant, where the SagDEG (Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy) is now passing through/near to the disc edge of our galaxy opposite ours, The stars there have the same emission lines, as they do on the earth, and in ALL the stars/objects in the intervening distances. The stars of the quite separate and discrete and different history and origin of SagDEG also show the same emission lines as we see on the earth. The spectra of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, satellite galaxies at 120K LY and further from out our own Milky Way galaxy, ALSO have the same emission lines. That of the nearest large galaxy, the Andromeda also has the same elemental emission lines. Exactly. The same emission lines are seen in a smaller spiral galaxy satellite to the Andromeda, the M33 galaxy.
And so on and on so far out as we can look with our most advanced telescopes. Both on earth and in space, we see the same, exact frequencies of the elemental emission lines in all of the other closer, or more distant galaxies, even those at incredible distances. This is the important point. A linear model of the universe’ expansion (probably incorrect as the universe is a complex system and so not linear) and those redshifts, gives the most distant visible galaxies(ignoring IR shifted distant galaxies, at about 14 Billion light years (B LY) away. They are also 14 B years back in time, too. and even at those distances, and in all the intervening distances, the emission lines are the same by the Comparison Process. THAT is utterly Extraordinary. We have then visual proof that the same elemental electron levels peculiar and particular to each element are the same all over the universe. We know that the electron levels are built upon the nuclear structure of the elements, and thus those are all the same from here on earth to the most distant and most ancient times, all the same. Thus nuclear physics and chemistry and biochemistry here on earth and everywhere in our UNI-verse are all the same.
But there is more. Einstein postulated that a photon’s path would be bent by passing thru a strong enough gravitational field. and his theory of relativity was confirmed in this by finding that the light of a star passing near to the sun bent exactly as Einstein predicted it would in the 1920’s, and whenever rechecked(COMP), since. Further, when we look at distant galaxies, we can see their images also bent by photons from the galaxies, passing very near to very large stars, too. In addition, Einstein stated that if the light from a very, very distant galaxy were to have interposed another large galaxy between the more distant and closer galaxy, on the line of sight of the earth, we would see distorted images of that distant galaxy around the interposed one. And those images, the Einstein arcs and crosses of the light of such distant galaxies, have been found in enormous numbers. Even at distances of nearly 10-12 B LY. And this not only means that again, the laws of gravity as we understand them so far, are the same here on the earth and near to our sun, but also as distantly as we can see, and in all the myriads of places in between–both distant in the past, and up to the present, i.e. distant in space and time compared to the earth.
As an aside:
There is yet one more interesting inference we need to look at. If these Einstein crosses have been seen, clearly in the visible light spectra, and if there is a continuing red shift, then in a very old universe such as ours is, there may be reshifts into the infrared frequencies. And correspondingly there should be visible, real, but more faint Einstein crosses and arcs, similar to what we see in the visible spectrum, tho as the IR images would be far more distant, would be correspondingly fainter and hard to see. We have the IRAS satellite. Are we looking for those? Imagine the change in cosmology and our estimate of the age of the universe should a number of IR Einstein crosses and arcs be seen. And what of microwave Einstein arcs?
If we don’t look, we won’t find. The Low Surface Brightness galaxies of David Malin’s astute observation, were found in huge size and numbers of very faint galaxies, whose existence had not even been expected by just this same COMP driven creativity. The existence of the very distant satellites of our sun, at highly eccentric orbits, were simply missed because no one would spend the time and money to look for weeks at a field of stars to see if those planetoids beyond Neptune could be found. But when astronomers looked, they found them by the 100’s, upwards of 3200 km. diameter bodies, too.
Do the cosmologists and astronomers dare to look for IR and Microwave Einstein arcs and crosses? And if not, why not? This would further find more highly relevant data to compare to what we know and confirm, or disconfirm current estimates of the universe’ age. These questions show once again, the creativity of the COMP.
This shows the power of the COMP. It can take known, real proven facts and then extend them, showing once again the creativity of the COMP and where creativity comes from. The Comparison Process, everywhere, immanent, working.
This is confirmation of the enormous structural integrity, constancy and stability of our universe, to have lasted at least 14 Billion years (BY) and even at the greatest known distances, in all directions of at least 14 B LY (probably longer and more distant, too). The fact that our universe appears to be accelerating its expansion, indicates its non-linear nature and if so, indicates our universe is far, far older than the linear model implies, upwards of 15-20 B years old. This then has protean implications. Because we know that life as we know it took about 4.5 BY to develop on earth, even tho early life was created a few billion years after the earth’s creation, that given the right conditions at any time and any place in our universe that can exist like ours. and further that these laws of nature will continue for billions of years into the future. Life could and probably has come about by evolution, not once, but unlimited numbers of times inside our galaxy alone. We are not alone in the universe. This is proved beyond all reasonable doubt, by the findings of Hubble and Humason, and the observations of the gravitational effects at similar huge distances in space & time. Therefore it’s wise to look for other life out there. and we have come 15 Billion Yrs. and VERY late to the game.
In addition, not only can we live here on the earth with the proper conditions, but we can live ANYWHERE and ANYWHEN in our universe, as well, thru all spaces and all times. The physics and the chemistry are the same, everywhere, every part of it. We do indeed live in one UNI-verse.
But there is more, much more to this COMP of the distances and times of the emission spectra seen. How does the universe know and stay to be the same, in all times and all spaces? That is a weighty question. How does this function of everywhere in all spaces and all times, having the same physics and chemistry and gravity come about, too? Occam’s Razor, a form of the least energy principle(a complex system characteristic which rules our universe), states that the simplest explanation accounting for the salient facts, is usually the correct one.
And this is the most likely the simplest answer: The universe and all of its parts are the same because at the most fundamental and deepest quantum level, they are all in touch with other parts of the universe instantaneously. That means, in other words, every part of our universe is in constant and immediate contact with every other part, at the level which is very microscopic and small, where quantum level events take place. It means the observations of those laws of chemistry, physics and gravity, including relativity effects and rules, all come from the deepest quantum effects and laws from which our universe arises.
Well, that’s all very well and good, but do we have any other physical evidence for instantaneity in our universe? The answer is we have more solidly based evidences. First of all, Einstein’s thought experiment about what happened to a rider on a light beam. If we rode on it, we’d see that no time passed, because all time slows down more and more if one speeds up matter faster and faster against a relatively fixed position. At that point everything around the photon seems to happen instantaneously, while no time at all passes for the photon. Einstein’s creative COMP, you see, once again. When one hits light speed, all time stops for the photon. The twin never ages at all. And this is instantaneity. There is no time. For the photon everything outside of it happens all at once. There is no time for the photon.
Another well known example is that of the EPR paradox. Einstein, Rosen and Podolsky postulated that if one were to entangle a particle or photon with another, and then separated them, if the spin of one of the pair were measured, it’d instantly fix the spin of the other of the pair. Several years ago, Bell described a way to theoretically test this. and his Bell test has now confirmed, that indeed, the spin of the opposite particle is instantly created. Not at light speed. Not at more than light speed, but INSTANTANEOUSLY, to the point where the current measurement of the transfer of spin information between two particles is above the lower limit of 40,000 (!!!)) times Cee, the speed of light. which is about 6 digits of 99+% instantaneous speed. That’s convincing evidence of universality of instantaneity, too. It’s predicted to be so by Quantum mechanics. and it’s real and true.
Because it doesn’t matter how FAR the two particles are separated, the opposite spin will be instantaneously created in the other one, even if it is on the other side of the universe. and in all space and times distant, too. & if it can join two entangled particles together, then it can join everything else, too. It’s all tied together, you see, at the deepest quantum levels of our universe.
There is yet another evidence of this. We know that in a gravitational fields time slows down compared to a lower field. The higher the gravitational field strength, the slower the time goes. The lower the field strength, the faster events go compared to a standard reference clock. Events on the earth proceed, even at earth’s tiny gravity, slightly slower than do similar, highly synchronized atomic clocks orbiting the earth.
Now consider this further. What happens if we continue to reduce gravitational fields? Not only locally, but at great distances, say in the areas of the universe where there are great voids left in space? In those areas, 100’s of millions to billions of light years across, we should see a substantial increase in speeds of measurable events. Taking this further in a thought problem, if we should cut out all gravity altogether in some way, in such a way that there was NO mass and thus no gravity in the universe, what happens?
We would have instantaneity. So we can see by this careful reasoning from real events, that mass/gravity not only created time by slowing down an innate instantaneity, but in creating time, has created all space as well.
We see an expanding universe. This means that the density of mass/gravity fields is steadily decreasing. Mass & energy cannot be either created or destroyed totally in this universe. It can be converted to energy, but it still exists. This means that in the very long run, what we are now seeing might be the same kind of illusion, comparing (COMP ) the apparent flatness of a very large round globe, which missed the actual curvature, because we haven’t observed over time long enough. A very real decline in mass/energy density, which misses local time speeding up, observable only over millions-billions of years could be the same kind of illusion. We can’t yet see this because we haven’t observed long enough. Nor have we looked for it, either. Just like the trans-Neptune objects were not seen, because they weren’t looked for.
If one puts a neutron into a nucleus, it becomes more stable. If it’s ejected by a nucleus, it will decay in 15 minutes or so. So are to we assume that that the nucleus changes the decay rate of the neutron? Yes, because the locally ultra high gravitational density of the nucleus slows down time to such an extent, that the neutron’s lifespan is greatly prolonged.
Now consider well into the universe’ future, comparing the present epoch to where gravity/mass density has decreased to 1/10 of that found now The speed of neutron decay will increase inside and Outside of the nucleus.. The mass density decline will trigger instabilities in the neutron and thus in the isotopes of the elements. This will first affect very likely the higher atomic numbers as well. So there will be a shift from stability in the formerly not radioactive atoms, to becoming radioactive and decaying. This is where radioactive decay comes from. It explains neatly and clearly why it exists. It’s likely to be true by Occam’s Razor. Steadily over time with expansion of the universe, the largest and heaviest elements will begin to decay faster and faster, until the periodic table of stable elements is substantially smaller than it is now.
Again, massive use of the COMP, its power and creativity to explain and predict previously unknown and unsuspected phenomena in our complex system universe. In the huge voids in our universe, we should see this happening. Increasing instability of matter (Again the complex systems characteristics of stability/instability, endlessly observed and real and used for explanations by the COMP.). Extending this logically, over time, when the density of the universe thru exponentiating expansion comes about over 10’s of billions of years, we’ll see matter coming apart at the high atomic numbered element end. and eventually, all matter will come apart, perhaps even the proton and electron. At those points, according to E=MCexp2, tremendous amounts of energy will be released involving masses beyond comprehension as even the 10 more massive than visible mass, dark matter, converts to energy.
There may be another tremendous explosion at that point. Comparing this to the Big Bang by the size of it.
This show the power of the COMP. It can take known, real proven facts and then extend them, showing once again the creativity of the COMP and where creativity comes from. The Comparison Process, everywhere, immanent, working. e have then the potentiality for the creation of another universe, do we not? A cyclical system of the creation & eventually destruction of one universe, leading to the creation of another. Almost Hindu.
These instantaneity findings postulate the existence of an underlying bosonic quantum level of which is instantaneity is a part. Where there is matter, in large enough amounts, then space/time can be created because it slows down this instantaneity and creates a universe. From this underlying bosonic ylem, we see in our own material universe, the Casimir effect, where the gravitational/mass effects not only sustain mass/gravity and space and time, but spontaneously are creating virtual particles all the time, thus continuing the mass/gravitational fields. From a massive quantum fluctuation of this underlying instantaneity condition, arose our universe and to it, it may eventually return, as mass/gravitational fields lose their strength from the expansion of the universe, and matter falls apart.
It may be that the Casimir effect shows this constant, low level creation of virtual particles, which is this interconnection of all with everything else. It must take place by some means, this constant interactivity with the underlying postulated bosonic ylem, but entanglement seems to be one way. There are probably other evidences, too.
This shows the power of the COMP. It can take known, real proven facts and then extend them, showing once again the creativity of the COMP and where creativity comes from. The Comparison Process, everywhere, immanent, working.
Where does the electron and other particles/photons go when it’s QT’ing? Or any other particle for that matter? Via the instantaneous bosonic ylem of the universe, very likely.
There are probably others examples of instantaneity, but it’s probable that the entire universe is connected instantaneously with the rest of the universe by this underlying bosonic, instantaneous quantum level. Again, by COMP of the exactitude of the laws of physics over all the billions of LY and years, and the fact that for the photons all the universe happens all at once, and for the results of the Bell test. When particles become entangled, they may partake of this instantaneity. When quantum tunneling occurs, they may briefly pass thru this bosonic ylem of the quantum level which generated/generates our universe.
And it might also explain the probable existence of faster than light(FTL) events on the quantum level. In 1955 Wigner, who later won the Nobel Prize in physics, showed that alpha particles emitted in the radioactive decay of an isotope, occ. moved FTL. Hawking radiation from the probable evaporation of black holes (And by the COMP, of neutron stars to white dwarf matter) is consistent with Quantum Mechanics. The too early arrival of neutrinos even before the light reaches us from a supernova explosion, may be yet another example. Quantum mechanics does not prohibit FTL speeds. If true, and it seems likely, then the QT events seen in our enzymes which perform biochemical transformations, may also do FTL QT, because that is the ultimate in least energy/time production of such events. Again, by picking up the instantaneity velocity of travelling thru the underlying instantaneous bosonic ylem.
Bose-Einstein condensates may also show some of this instantaneity, when a mass of matter cooled to very near absolute zero becomes a single quantum state. and very nearly bosonic in nature, too. Even potentially transparent to mass passing thru it, which is a bosonic trait, not that of a fermion.
Let’s look at a simple process, to give some idea of this recursive, yet simple observation can give insights into the origin of our universe. what happens when a single high energy gamma ray is converted to an electron/positron pair? These have opposite charges and mass. The gamma ray has no charge and no mass as it’s a boson. The e–/e+ pair have mass, and are fermions, not bosons. From a boson, mass has been created in the fields of our universe, as well as anti-matter and charge. How this comes about is yet another mystery of the complex system of our universe. But it’s altogether real and true.
Bosons giving rise to matter/antimatter pairs. COMP shows that’s what may have happened at the big Bang, too. Some kind of quantum fluctuation occurred in the underlying boson ylem and there was the big bang. The asymmetry of particles, seems to have created more anti-matter than matter, which is why matter predominates in our universe.
But lets look further. When the gamma ray converts to the e-/e+ pair & energy, its energy is roughly halved. The e- goes on but if the e+ collides with another e-, they will annihilate either other, and an X-ray wil be given off. The energy of the individual particles is declining. The ene4rgy is spreading out. The X-ray may be absorbed by an electron and then it will emit a lower energy photon, again. and so on and on until just IR is scattered around.
COMP shows us this is exactly governed by the Laws of Thermodynamics. The energy/mass will diffuse outwards, and the energies of the pair and so on, will steadily decline. This is entropy, the so called heat death of the universe principle. That is the way things go in our universe. From higher energies to lower. From more mass to less as hydrogen is converted to photons of energy in the stars, and then it spreads itself out, again. This is, in short the arrow of time, and it’s thermodynamic physics on the quantum level, on average, which creates this arrow of time. process of this sort do not reverse. It’s created again and again, in lots of other ways. It’s the second law of thermodynamics which creates the arrow of time, in our macroscopic universe, as well as at the quantum level, tho in the latters, it’s a probability which when summed up over 10 exp 23 times, shows us the laws of thermodynamics. Time moves in the direction it does by the laws of thermodynamics. The arrow of time IS the 2nd law of thermodynamics and the two are equivalent by the COMP.
The expansion of the universe is driven by the 2nd law. Energy tends to diffuse. Matter tends to spread out using energy. The mass/density of the universe tends to decline over eons. This is no accident, but lies at the core of the bosonic ylem which underlies our universe. Therefore, by the MofC, if the universe is expanding faster and faster, tho the expansion speed up is slight, we should see in this same way, the gamma ray converting into a e-/e+ pair, faster and faster, too, over the long haul. Just as we should see the neutron & isotopes decaying faster.
Why is the speed of light 300 K km/sec.? Current physics gives us no answer. But now we know that matter exists between no time and instantaneity, which are the same thing, their dual nature of the same event. In the early universe, with very high gravity, light was a lot slower. As the mass/density of the universe decreased to our epoch, Cee is what it is. On the way to instantaneity, light velocity may steadily speed up. We have not yet checked the speed of light off our earth to any great or accurate degree. In a much lower gravity, light should move faster than it does on the earth, too. We can’t do that experiment very well yet, because we are not living off the earth or very far from the sun. But when we do……. (grin)
end of cosmology section