The Comparison Process (COMP): Explananda 4

The Comparison Process (COMP): Explananda 4

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

1. Neurophysiology of the Comparison Process, anatomic location in brain.
2. Use of the COMP in dictionary reading/creation of dictionary order; phone book listings the same; street addressing using a map to create the addresses and to find/read them; most all maps as COMP.
3. Creation by the COMP of the taxonomies of all known genus/species, the Tree of Life; creation of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of all known stars types;
4, Organization/creation of the Periodic Table of the Elements/isotopes by use of the COMP; the classification of the known sub-atomic particles, also by the same means, the COMP; IUPAC listing of known chemical compounds organized by same comparison processes.
5. Mathematics as a comparison process creation; how does each number compare to the others, generates basic arithmetic; algebra, geometries, plane and spherical, as well as trigonometry.
6. Language as a creation by COMP; Discovery as a COMP function.
7. The major function of the COMP is re-cognition using the LTM as a stable platform upon which to build up the complexity. underlies all learning, informal and formal learning, called education. COMP is active in trying to make sense of what is being sensed.
8. Humor/jokes arise as creations and being understood by using the COMP; the dopamine kick in humor, discovery, curiosity, and creativity which re-inforces the success of each performance; building design uses the COMP as well as construction.
9. Recognition as a common biological trait seen in most all animals; neurophysiology of animal COMP like ours in higher primates, analogous in mammals, and birds/reptiles, down through the fish and more primitive forms.
10. Koko’s ability to use Ameslan (American Sign Language) as a demonstration of higher primates’ similar cortical neurophysciology to ours.
11. Porpoise intelligence/communication as a form of mammalian recognition showing COMP
12. Recognition in sponges and other similar early forms of life.
13. DNA as a biochemical form of comparison process at a biochemical level; complementarity and copying are forms of the COMP; ancient origin of DNA and biochemical recognition.
14. The COMP in decipherment of lost languages, a sort of decoding system, a Rosetta stone in and of itself; cryptography and the COMP.
15. Creativity and the COMP
16. Medical examinations, differential diagnoses, treatments and therapies as forms of the comparison process.
17. Art as a form of the COMP be it visual, musical, dance, etc.

Die Gotterfunken
18. “Ode to Joy” by Schiller; use of “Joy” inspiring Beethoven’s 9th Symphony, Scherzo and Choral finale, especially; inspiration as the COMP capability.
19. Religion unlocks the feeling of the Gotterfunken; the effect of increased dopamine in creating Die Gotterfunken.
20. The similarity of psychosis and mania, being high levels of dopamine activity of the Dopamine 2 receptors, which impair cortical functioning, creating
21. Relationship between madness and creativity solved–dopamine 2 receptor site overactivity.; music releases the dopamine via COMP
22. Love and dopamine/COMP relationship. Re-infroces love; Power of dopamine release mediated by COMP.
23. Heightened feelings of increased dopamine 2 receptor site stimulation.
24. Dopamine release as the basis for great movements of all sorts, including religions, political movements (Marxism/National Socialism) ;
Dopamine can be very damaging if not properly controlled.
25. All the good and bad of the COMP coupled with dopamine effects shows the huge capabilities, the vast multiplicities built into the COMP either with or without dopamine release effects. Die Gotterfunken.

The Comparison Process(COMP) is a high level function largely located in the 100,000’s of cortical cell columns in the human brain, which anatomically make up the gyri of the brain, and where speech/language, creativity, visual imaging/processing, sensorimotor functions, musical functions, etc., including most high level memories are stored.

Because each of these cortical cell columns are very much alike, this explains how the same, single function, the COMP can account for in multiplicit ways, neatly, parsimoniously most all high level processes. The COMP generates language, math, movement, sensation, visual images, hearing and music, and a great many other functions using the Comparison Process.

The Comparison Process can be very simply demonstrated by taking out a dictionary and looking up the word, Comparison. The brain organizes the search, again the comparison process, and we look for the C section in the dictionary, usually finding it by trial and error. But when we find ourselves in the “C’s”, we look for “com”. Finding that, we continue to move down, comparing each letter, one after the other, until we get to the “COMPA-” and then finally find Comparison.. We compare what we find, to what we search for, find the match, and we’ve found the word. Comparison is then given meaning by strings of words which explain/define “comparison”. Words are defined in terms of other words, esp. high level abstractions. In other instances, they can be compared to images of the word’s spelling, or as an image for “bird” for example (comparison). But overall, it’s the comparison process which is being used to both find, and well as build up the dictionary of words, one at a time. By using the same comparison process. the writers using the COMP have created the dictionary’s order. The COMP creates order from disorder, also. Look at a Thesaurus. It’s also organized by finding how words are similar, or different, i.e., the synonyms and the antonyms. Then there are the homonyms, which sound alike, by using our comparison processors, and can be the source of many puns, jokes and double entendres. Humor is also created by the comparison process, just as language is.

Look at the listing of the entire phone book, which order is created again by the COMP, listed by names in alphabetical order. It’s created by the COMP and it’s read and used millions of times a day by all of us, using the same Comparison Process. Doing the same task over and over, listing the names and numbers to create the phone book, and then using the same COMP to read it. The same is true fo ALL dictionaries and phone books and indices in any book and in any language.

Look at our street addressing methods. Same system, numbers in sequence followed by street names. We find the place we’re looking for by finding out where it is on a map, which has been created by finding & writing down all of the corresponding streets/features and how they are related to each other on a geometric grid. You read the map and find the street and street number. This is yet another form of index, created by the COMP. All the same processes, looking for and finding street addresses as the system of COMP we used to find words, etc in the dictionaries, thesauri, encyclopedias and most referent texts and others with indices at the end. Then there are the gazeteers which listing alphobetically where the names for places are, same system. The COMP.

The same is true of the how the extensive lists/descriptions of all of the known forms of life on our planet, called the taxonomy by genus and species. Each belongs to families, then orders, then phyla, then plant, animal, bacterial and other forms, such as viruses. All are related to each other because all of been compared to each other, and those which are very similar, such as the beetles, representing millions of species alone, have been organized to create this vast, compendium, the “Book of Life”. It’s all put together by one single process, the Comparison Process, which has compared and found which species are alike and put them toegether based upon appearances, functions, sizes, genetics and many other factors. All the same, simple function, the COMP.

The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram in astronomy organizes into an interrelated whole all of the known star types, both seen and as yet undiscovered, which can be assigned a place on the HRD. The COMP has by itself organized and ordered into a comprehensive whole, by comparing every single star to the others to create a chart of the natural development of stars during their lifetimes,the main sequence, and finding out where each fits. That’s the COMP. It’s read the same way any dictionary is read, by the COMP. Untold, unlimitted numbers of stars can fit into the HRD, each placed there by the COMP.

In the periodic table of the elements/isotopes all the known elements, both naturally occurring and synthetic are listed, and in groups of associated families with similar characteristics: the noble gasses, which are largely inert, the halogens such as Fl, Cl, Iodine, Astatine, etc., and the alkali metals such as Li, Na, Cs., etc.; the ferrous metals, such as Co, Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo, and related metals. The lanthanide series of rare earths, the the Uranium group, and the gold, silver, Platinum group metals, too. All showing their relationships by the COMP which has created the order in terms of number of protons, which creates atomic number, average weight of the elements found on earth, and imploying the electron levels which determine the bonding chemistries of each element and group. All by the COMP.

There are 4 stable known particles, the proton, the electron, the neutron, created by the combination of 1 proton and electron, and the neutrinos. The first 3 make up all of the atoms known. This is the COMP at work, and has also created the entire classification of all the known elementary particles, most of which are unstable, and break down into electons and neutrinos, and occ. protons. All organized and created by the COMP

Then we have the Int. Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry which lists in a huge compendium all of the known inorganic chemicals/organic compounds, over 32 million by last count. Same comparison process, which organizes and orders the whole, endlessly repeated and referred to. the COMP. The COMP is ubiquitous and has so many complex forms, it’s been disguised for quiite some time, & hard to realize that this vast complexity can be created out of one simple process, but it’s there, if you know how to see it and what to look for. And it’s created in our cortices.

In all databases, in all known pagination systems, in acts and plays organized by acts/scenes, the Opus numbers of musical compositions, and on and on, without end. All the myriad ways. The Bible is organized chronologically by books, and then by chapters and verses, in the same way. The Koran by the surahs. The Bhagavad Gita also into chapters and verses. This is no accident. It allows any person to read any part they want to find, simply by any method of pagination/’indexing.

Mathematics is the comparison process. It’s simply arithmetic, that is, how all numbers are related/compared to each other. 4 is related to 12 by being 8 less, and 12 by being 3 times 4. Adding is the comparison process. When you compare things, you have to have at least 2 to compare to. So comparing items/words, etc., puts them together in combination. Recombination is yet another face of the COMP. Even numbers are all divisable by 2. Squares, cubes adn so forth, all have the same relationship. The same with the reverse, the square root. Algebra is essentially ratios/proportions. Geometry is very similar using shapes. Pi is the ratio of how a circumference compares to the diameter. Trigonometry is how right triangles’ 2 legs compare to each other, with the angle between, which creates the other leg’s length. Simply, the COMP. More complex math is more of the same. It starts out simply and becomes very complex and large, but that’s what the COMP does. and by making it so large and complicated, it hides the extremely simple, capable process, the COMP, which underlies a the foundation of language, math, geometry and much else.

Living systems classifications are based upon the same processes exactly. As all living systems can be organized and understood, at least in part, based upon the COMP, then their basic functions are also built upon it. The biochemical reactions, the structure of the cells, our understanding of it is created by the COMP.

In Language, the child is taught basic words, and how these are compared to each other. In teaching the child we use imitation, mimicry, & other comparison methods all to teach it. When we understand the words, it’s by definitions and showing how the words compare to each other and gives meaning. When we perceive a new word, it’s a discovery for us and we get a bit of a rush. When a child finds something new, he may say, “Daddy! Look what I found!!” The thrill of finding something new, which he knows is new because it’s not like anything he’s seen before. It dosen’t fit with repeated COMPs. It’s new, it’s novel.

Recognition is all the COMP. it means literally, re-known, and that is what the COMP does. When a word has been seen again and again, it’s stored in Long Term Memory. When it’s seen again, it’s re-cognized and what it means also tumbles out of the memory cache in the cortices, often stored in more than one place. Thus Long Term Memory creates the basic stable platform for all of our ideas/words/images. When we find something new, we’ve done a COMP search and not found it. So we find out what it is by observing it, reading about it, asking about it, and getting taught about it. This is education/learning. The COMP processes therefore underlie all critical parts of learning and education of all kinds. It’s all the same process of recognition, or not recognizing it. When we recognize something, we Re-Cognize” it. It’s something we’ve seen/heard, recorded before and it’s alike or the same, or a similar sort of. That’s what creates recognition. We might get a kick of dopamine from it too. Kids are curious because when they find something new, they get that novelty rush, dopamine release, mediated by the COMP in their cortices. So the COMP reinforces learning and doing acts again, such as learning.

Our Cortical cell columns actively are seeking to make sense of and understand what we sense around us all of the time. The COMP is actively seeking to make sense of words it hears, events around us all the time. It seeks connections, it seeks understanding in terms of what it already knows and is fully capable of finding new events, observing them, descriving them in terms of words already known and then adding that new event to what it already knows, so the cache of understood terms/ideas/images grows.

Humor is of the same type. We get a dopamine release from wit, jokes, humor of all kinds, including puns. At the core of each of these is the recognition of novelty, of the word which means two things, or a slightly ribald, unexpected discovery of something new in the joke. All humor is the COMP with that dopamine kick. Same with discovery.

The same is true of creativity. When we create something new, or find something new, we get that same kick, that same re-inforcing jolt of dopamine, depending a good deal upon circumstances. It’s contextual. If the comedian has “warmed up” the audience they are more likely to laugh by the reinforcing done before hand. The COMP can be reinforcing, with discovery, humor, creativity, or seeing or hearing something awe-inspiring. The COMP is self-reinforcing and that’s what created curiosity, too.

So we have it here, from a very simple cortical cell column function, the Comparison Process, We have developed great complexity and a huge number of more complicated functions, building up from parts a whole, just as the cells build up a larger organism.

That is no accident. Recognition is a biological trait which is not comfined to humans and our cortical cell columns. It’s a natural process with many other forms, from animals recognizing each other, their mates, to landmarks and territories, to nesting & food and predators. All recognition means is they have seen, heard, smelt, detected an event before, stored it in their LTM and when they detect it again, it triggers the recognition by means of an analogous COMP.

When we design buildings, we use the COMP and then closely compare all thru building against those master plans, to make sure it’s done right, it’s done to specifications in the master plan. When we design anything to serve as a master plan, we use the COMP, be it buildings, manufactured items, automobiles, or even our legal and moral systems. It’s all the COMP.

Animals may use different neurophysiology than we in many cases, but in the higher primates, our cortical cell columns are very, very much alike. But in that COMP we are all alike, regardless of it being an ant who knows her sister by touching antennae, as they do along ant trails to food,toand from the nest;; of wolves who smell each other (as do all dogs); or cats; or birds who hear calls, etc., etc., etc. It’s all the COMP

Let’s look at Koko, the gorilla who was taught American Sign Language. Does she have the capability, neurophysiologically of learning language? Yes. She has very nearly the same learning capacities of a 2-3 year old child, and also very similar cortical cell columns, which she used to learn and also used, by imitation, mimicry and reinforcement methods. And she was even able to expand her vocabulary by creating new signs/words by putting them together in novel ways. Creativity is a function of the COMP. She had it so she used it to learn how to communicate with her trainers. Why is this so hard for so many to figure out and accept? Clearly, the gorilla has functioning COMP, a cortex, which can learn how to communicate, where NO WORDS AT ALL existed before. Very similar to our multiplicit, highly capable, highly flexible Cortical Cell Columns which can do so much, too, with so very little.

In porpoises also, the COMP has been used to find porpoise language, by which single whistles, when compared each to each invididual in the porpoise pod responds to it, we can see the recognition by the individual of his own name by the COMP. The porpoise brain is intelligent and it, too, works by the COMP.
This is no accident. It’s the power, the unlimitted recursivity, creativity, repeatabilty of the COMP. Le Chanson Sans Fin,, the endless variations of the single theme, the comparison process.

If you take a red sponge and a white sponge, and separate out gently the individuals cells making up each sponge, mix them and then wait while they sit in a seawater, they simply re-assort themselves into two clumps, one white sponge, the other Red. They have a comparison Process which they use to know self and others. Songes are among the oldest living animals on the earth, going back at least 600 millions of years. They can recognize self and others, biochemically. That is the COMP we see in ants, we see in birds, and we see in humans, uniting ALL living species we have so far found in a great chain of life.

Take the DNA molecule which is the genetic basis of all known life forms. It’s found in all living things in slightly varying, but essentially very similar forms. The DNA polymerase which duplicates the DNA for reproduction in ALL living cells, first identifies the DNA strand to be duplicated, biochemically, then when it detects, that is recognizes, a Thymidine (T), it joins it to a Adenine DNA nucleotide, or vice versa, and when it finds a Cytosine nucletide, adds to it a Guanosine, or vice versa. Then it builds up the entire duplicate DNA strand, very very quickly and accurately, using this biochemical COMP. All reproduction in plants and animals is done this same way, using a biochemical form of the comparison process. ALL of them, from the most recently developed strains of varieties of plants and animals we have domesticated, to the algal stromatolites which date back 3.5 Billions yrs, or more, and today still live in the oceans now as they did then. it’s an extra-ordinary system, to have survived all of this time, because it’s also highly capable and efficient, doing so very much with so very little.

These facts show, again and again, how the COMP in molecular or sensory recognition forms are all very similar, universal and part of living systems. The COMP either biochemical or sensory, or neurophysiological, or of the immune systems, are found in all living systems and cells, regardless of how simple they are or how complex. It’s an endless form of the same process.Each is one more variety of the variations like a theme found in music, among most all the variations of forms found in species and kinds of life. It’s a unifying concept and biochemical process. It exists everywhere on the earth.

The COMP has been shown to be able to decipher the Rosetta Stone by comparing words in known Hellenistic Greek in the bottom section to unknown Ptolemaic hieroglyphics in the top line, by trial and error creating a reconstruction of the written and oral language of the ancient Eygption by Champollion and Young. Much of this creatitivy, learning, education, giving meaning, and translation can be seen in the movie, “Stargate, which brilliantly shows Rolland Emmerich’s craft, understanding and skills in movie making. The COMP can create translations from one language to another, simply by the comparison process. This is an existing and almost trivial and daily repeated activity. It can recreate dead language such as Hittite, cunieiform Sumerian and Babylonian, to the very difficult Linear B translation of ancient, Mikunan Greek into English.

When we do cryptograms, we use the same, trial and error, Comparison Process to decipher them. As we do ANY code. We have built up the laws of the universe by using the COMP in the sciences, which are massive testing, checking, numericity using, measuring, comparison methods, too. We have begun successfully to decode the universe, using the COMP and with no end in sight as the COMP creates creativity as well. With the COMP it seems likely that most all things in time will be shown to us.

That creativity is due to the COMP has been already established beyond all reasonable doubt in previous explananda and Le Chanson. There are literally 100’s of millions of specific instance of it, virtually daily, confirming its existence. For each newly created method/idea/word from the COMP, others can be created. Comparing the COMP functions to everything else which it can be compared to has shown all of this. But there is yet more, far, far more.

When medical professionals do their physical examinations, they know what to look for and what those physical findings mean, by comparing to their large body of knowledge. It creates the differential diagnoses which allow medical practitioners to recognize all known medical conditions. It’s essential to diagnosis. It is responsbile for all measuring and testing and thus underlies those diagnostic tests, as well. It underlies treatments and therapies, and the creation of new methods to treat diseases. It underlies the very methods of the sciences, as well. & it;’s also capable to recognizing previously unknown conditions, studying them and figuring out what they are caused by and how to treat them. It’s more of the same, just another of the endless varieties of the comparison process template. It’s very easy to show

When art is created, be it movies, paintings, music, or any of the other forms, the COMP is there in full panoply, creating complexity from great simplicity. The arts at their very fundamentals are the COMP. Thus the science & the arts and all language, and all cultures are at a very fundamental source, created, sustained, and built up by the COMP in our cortices. This is a grand unifying process. It unites us all. It unites us with all of the other life on our planet. It unites us at the deepest levels to our universe itself and shows us how most everything is related to the rest.

We’ve seen Paranoid shizophrenia and how it and bipolar disorder are related, genetically and by the COMP. Psychosis is the same as the mania in bipolar disorder, clearly. Fanaticism, religious conversions, visions of the saints, and all those similar hallucinations, including both the aural and visual of dream states, are created by the COMP. This is no coincidence. The COMP lies at the foundation of all higher level brain functions. Paranoid schizophrenia is due to a Dopamine 2 receptor site being overstimulated. The same can be seen with PCP, amphetamines and cocaine and other manic states. When the D2 receptor is blocked by using haloperidol or any of the other major transqulizers, the delusions, the paranoias, and the rest of it often go away. All of it features of the COMP gone awry.

When we hear the stirring music of Ravel, or Linda Eder, and many other great singers, such as Oum Calthoum of Egypt, who can induce a state of great pleasure. When we are in love, we get a very similar emotion. When St. Paul underwent his conversion on the Road to Damascus. When we read of the ancient Saturnalias, the Bacchanalis, the mystery religions, we see the same thing.

Der Gotterfunken

“Ode to Joy” by Friedrich Schiller, set to music by Beethoven in the last, great choral movement of his 9th Symphony

“Daphne et Chloe Suite”
— Maurice Ravel

“Do unto others as you your have others do to you.”
— Rabbi Hillel 1st C. BC.
— Jeshua Ben Joseph, 1st C. AD.

“There is faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love.”
–1st Corinthians

The COMP arises from inspiration, and can be a cause of inspiration, also. All the great religions, from the ATMAN, the oneness with the universe, to the ecstasies of the mystery religions of the Greeks, to St. Paul on the road to Damascus, and the proselytizing fervor of the religious zealots. All of these have the COMP as the means by which these emotional states can be created. Be it humor or comedy, or awe-inspiring music, or great writing and poetry.

When we see Buddha under the Bodhi tree, where he was enlightened to great joy. When we read of the All in the Atman. When we see the proselytizing of the Christians snd Muslims. When we see the cults which create the same, awe-inspring, great relgious feelings, both ancient and modern. Then we seen the COMP with it’s dopamine releasing potential. It’s all very much the same, all the myriad ways, all the endless variations of the COMP major theme, which can unite all humans, and all plants and animals known from the very deepest biochemical levels of reproduction of self, to the brilliancies and inspirational moments of arts and religions. The comparison process enlightens us about the richest complexities inside ourselves and other life, and to the richest complexities of everything outside of us. It’s all related, you see. It’s mostly the same source. The comparison process.

We’ve seen Paranoid schizophrenia and how it and bipolar disorder are related, genetically and by the COMP. Psychosis is the much same as the mania in bipolar disorder, clearly. Fanaticism, religious conversions, visions of the saints, and all those similar hallucinations, including both the aural and visual of dreams states, are created by the COMP. This is no coincidence. The COMP lies at the foundation of most all higher level brain functions. Paranoid schizophrenia is due to a Dopamine 2 receptor site overstimulation. The same is true of PCP, amphetamine, cocaine and other manic states. When the D2 receptor is blocked by using haloperidol or any of the other major transqulizers, the delusions, the paranoias, and the rest of it often go away. All if it features of the COMP gone awry.

There is a relationship between madness and creativity, and it’s the COMP. There is a relationship between the overactivity of the D2 receptors of the Cortex and Schizophrenia and mania. The same is true during religious conversions, visions, and so forth. We get a dopamine kick from jokes, from discoveries, great music, good comedy. great art, outstandingingly awe inspiring scenes such as the Yosemite Valley and Falls during the maximum spring run off, with 3 of the world’s highest waterfalls, among 12 others. These are creations of the COMP.

When we hear the stirring music of Ravel, or Linda Eder, and the other great singers, such as Oum Calthoum of Egypt, who can induce a state of great feeling, the “tarab”; When we are in love, we get a similar, deep feeling. When St. Paul underwent his conversion on the Road to Damascus. When we read of the ancient Saturnalias, the Bacchanalis, the ecstasies of the great mystery religions, we see the same thing.

But whence comes love? Be it agape, eros, philias, maternitas(mother’s love for a child), love of country, love of a man for a good woman, which can be the best and most enduring form of love, tho rare. Where does love come from? It’s dopamine in origin, and comes from recognition of a loved one. That good feeling we get when we are around them. That sense of emptiness which arises upon absence or death, and its withdrawal effects, and in the latter, the grief which it can create, which can cause a person to die, too.

What of the martyrs for Christ, who would give up their very lives thru the most cruelest tortures and deaths for their faith? Of the men who would die for their country? What of the enormous power of the Jihad, which is a similar thing? What of the charismatic leaders who can create devotion and followers, which great persuaders can stir the emotions against all reason, such as Lincoln, FDR, and more recently, Steve Jobs, with his reality field distortion persuasions?

These show the capabilities of what can be released using the COMP. And they are all related, too. It can be used for good, or for bad. The Buddha under the Bodhi tree, and flood of sensations created by his “Enlightenment”. How Christians feel when they are converted and go on to proselytize others. The great religious impulses and feelings. All, the COMP, the dopamine agonist responses, too. Recognition of a lover, can create the emotion of love, which is dopamine related. Creation of new ideas, or a new, great song can do the same. The power of humor, also. Each of these recognitions, discoveries, creations, can give rise to this sensation. The Awe inspiring sensation which Einstein most respected, which can give rise to great creations, such as Beethoven’s 9th.

Standing on the edge of Glacier Point for the 1st time, gazing out over the entire Yosemite Valley’s magnificent scenery, seeing the spring runoff at its maximum, from 3 of the world’s greatest waterfalls in full glory, among the other 12 there, too. Hearing that great roar of the voice of Yosemita Falls. & how many other scenes, situations? That sense of Awe as Einstein wrote it. The Pleasures of Philosophy written of by Aristotle. The sense of the Gotterfunken of the major religions and that Oneness with God. It all is connected too, and can be created by the COMP.

The inspiration of the great leaders, Churchill, Alexander the Great, Jesus, Mohammed, the Buddha, and many, many others, including Frederick the Great.
All of these are related to the COMP, because the COMP can release them.

Seeing that bright bollide which illuminates the clear skies of our reason, creating enlightenment from what was once confusion and darkness. But that light does not fade.

This may be what starts many great movements and religions, be they good or bad, from Christianity to cults; from the Reformation, to the National Socialists; from the fight/right for Revolutionary freedom in the US and France, to the ignominious start in Petrograd from 1917, to 1991 end of the USSR. There is a commonality in our minds/brains. The inspiration to greatness or the worst. That creativity/inspiration built into all of us.

Religious and political zealots and fanatics can also come from the dopamine release which can be created by the COMP. The Kamakazis, the hashish manias which created the assassins, the mania of the Terrorist suicide bombers. The Creators of religious cults know how to create this feeling. and because it’s dopamine related, we can figure out how to block it. Dopamine inhibitors like haloperidol, and the other dopamine blockers can stop it, because the mania/psychosis we see is related to the same thing. Combined with an environmental template surrounding the one so allficted, it can be controlled, then generally ablated if it’s not too well fixed and the person is not too old. This is generally called de-programming.

from madness and creativity and some of the highest values of inspiration can come from the same source. We cannot have the one without the other. They are all parts, uniquely created inside of each of us, old far beyond the ancient and highly capable, from the complex neurophysiology which gives rise to the COMP. Every person carries the COMP neurophysiology. Everyone is capable of creativity, as our common use of all languages shows every day. It unifies us, it holds us together. It’s that divine piece of God inside of all of us. That capacity to create, to know, to love, to inspire and be inspired to greater achievements and goals. Those deepest feelings of awe and mystical experiences: The Gotterfunken, built inside of all of us, which draws all together at the most deepest fundamental levels with our fellow humans, and all the other life on the earth and outwards to all which is in our universe, the Spark of God.

The Comparison Process: Explananda, Pt. 2

La Chanson Sans Fin: The Comparison Process: Explananda, Pt. 2

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

21. In terms of the Comparison Process what are skills? From first hand experience in a number of fields, they are short cuts, algorithms, &/or methods will allow the user to function faster, more efficiently, more carefully and above all, more creatively in the field. Discovery hones the perceptivity, the COMP , because you are always searching for those events and ideas which will give you the answers. You get better and better at it, with the better methods built into your skills.

22. Let’s take counting pennies as a way of showing the various skills which can be developed and created by using the Comparison Process, showing the abundance of creative new ways we can do our tasks. Then understand how this example shows how, in its each unique way, the skills of all professional trades and professions can be developed.

We have many coins. So we see pennies, nickels, dimes, quarters and even a few half dollars. Using the Comparison Process, and previous learning of what coins are what, we can sort out the pennies from the rest. Sorting is a Comparison Process. Now we have to get the pennies into coin rolls. So, how do we do this? A direct approach is to simply count out 50 coins, 1 thru 50, and then drop them into the roll and seal it. But, let’s ask how a professional would do it. He’d may count them not one at a time but by 5’s, simply seeing the number by grouping 2 and 3 pennies. Then pile up the first groups into 10 penny stacks. Then count it up again and pile into the 2nd 10 penny stack, until there are 5 of them, and then putting them into the penny coin roll. Then the next. But there are other ways, thus showing the complexity of the skill and how it can be used in different ways to count pennies. He has to check and test at every point, to be sure of his count, too.

He has the first coin stack of 10 pennies. He notes that since all pennies are closely struck to be very much alike, any stack of 10 pennies is the same height. So using the 10 stacks he puts up 4 more without even counting. and by using the COMP, makes sure they are all the same height. He has counted the coins, without counting the coins!! Comparison Process, a Powerful tool. And so he does this again and again until the pennies are all counted & in rolls. & saves a LOT of time, again, the Least Energy Principle (LEP).

Other tools for coin counting would be plastic coin cylinders for 50 pennies, 100 dimes, 40 quarters, etc., each marked for the right heights of the different coins; or use a mechanical coin separator which does it lots more quickly, for those who must save lots of time, such as banks, supermarkets and large businesses.

23. In every case a skill can be improved using the Comparison Process to find faster ways, better, more efficient ways of doing a task. This is called, when more fully developed, having a skill, a profession, because the practitioner knows very much faster, better ways to do all the important tasks, having learned of these creative methods by teaching, or in many more cases, having created more himself, for their each unique way of performing the “skills upon skills” seen in skilled work of all types. Exactly how words are built up, exactly how language is created, exactly which underlies all the musical styles, and artistic work, too. Same process, endlessly repeated in education and training, and so on and so forth. Comparison Process. & there it is. Le Chanson Sans Fin.

24. Let’s take musical composition, for instance. Each composer has a set of methods, or skills, which he uses to create music. These determine his style of composition which we can easily hear. The composition of music uses the Comparison Process to create the lyricism, the flows of melody and rhythm which mark his style. Each major classical composer is at once recognized when listened to by a musician or experience amateur. The same is often true of popular music of all sorts. We use the COMP to do this, time and again. Beethoven’s music is often richly rhythmical, esp. in his 5th and 9th Symphonies. The music of Rachmaninoff has many richly lyrical and drifting melodies, esp. in his 2nd Symphony. He starts out the section just after the Scherzo with one of his most lovely and beautifully orchestrated melodies. It just drifts on and on, making one variation on the theme after another. The music of Ralph Vaughn Williams in his 3rd Symphony does much the same. And it’s a free association of one melodic variation after another, just like in the Rachmaninoff section. It just flows, a moving, streaming melody. A sort of stream of consciousness in melody.

And good writing is a lot like that. It flows from one idea to the next, cleanly seguing one segment to the next, triggering association after association, which can show one Comparison Process idea after another. Because if you know the COMP methods a composer uses, you can recreate his style of music, then if you know the writing styles, even Shakespeare can be recreated. Each style of music shows a uniquely individual way of writing music. The Styles of music, like the styles of writing, show the methods the author uses.

25. The style of our individual speaking and gait, our ways of walking, are often unique to each of us, and arise from this same use of varying kinds of algorithms which create these highly unique and thus identifiable, recognizable characteristics. So much so that we don’t often need to see the person, to ID him. In the same way, we don’t even have to know which piece it is of Chopin, to ID it’s him. The styles reflect their unique configuration of methods used to create or even play music, too. In art it’s a lot the same. We learn to recognize the drawings of Leonardo daVinci, of the impressionism of Monet, of the Picassos we see. Each reflects their methods and each set of methods gives them their styles. This is what the Comparison Process can show you, because it cannot only give you recognition, but show you patterns, associations, and other methods, too.

It’s the endless richness of the associations which creates the method of creation. The flow of associations called up by our Comparison Process from LTM. The COMP monitors everything, from language, diction, grammar and vocabulary, to position of our limbs when performing a skill, to the appropriate activities we do socially. It watches over our morals, our consciences, to keep us out of trouble.

26. The Comparison Process controls our focus of attention. It blocks out sensations irrelevant to current tasks. It orders the course of the stream of consciousness, too. It’s the main gate keeper of consciousness, and it’s probably active in the frontal and associative brain centers (parietal lobes), too. & thus creates our sense of consciousness as well as our conscience. This is no trivial task or observation.

But what happens when the Comparison Process goes awry? When the streams of associations get too loose, too sloppy, too fast, too socially unacceptable? That may be a characteristic of schizophrenia & mania. Not only does the flow of free associations called up get too fast, causing the pressure of speech, & the looseness of associations, but it becomes socially unacceptable, too. The COMP gets overwhelmed, the behaviors become inappropriate with yelling & screaming and so forth, and it’s flagrant psychosis, or perhaps mania.

The checker, the tester, the main controlling mechanism of the brain, the Comparison Process, has broken down,probably from too much dopamine D2 activation, & a speed up of the flow of information from the LTM and senses. This is associated with schizophrenia and the main dopamine receptor family. The anti-psychotics work, too, to control the disorder, by depressing the dopamine activity. This shows how powerful a tool, the Comparison Process can be in terms of understanding not only normal behaviors and creations, but abnormal psychology, too.

27. Again, a very simple system or the cortex, the Comparison Process can explain more about psychosis and mania, & the association between the two, telling us where the problem is, the cortex of the brain, and how to treat it. It’s known that in many persons, the same gene which causes bipolar disorder can create paranoid schizophrenia. And it’s simple to see how. mania can be a temporary psychotic state. When the control system for D2 overstimulation fails, we get psychosis or schizophrenia. When it’s only partial, we may get a bipolar disorder. Not only does this Comparison Process model show that mania and psychosis are two aspects of the same thing, but it also explains the depression often to the point of suicide, seen in psychoses. & probably indicates that psychosis also has a form of major fluctuation underlying the psychotic state, too, the hallmark of bipolar disorders,. That is, psychosis compared to a bipolar disorder, also has its up and down moods, somewhat camouflaged by the psychotic state. This is not a trivial observation, either. We know that the breakdown of the cortical Comparison Process is a part the problem and thus we know the schizophrenic gene’s abnormality is probably active in the cortex, itself.

28. We get a kick when we see something new. We get some modest excitement at novelty and discovering something new. That’s a bit of dopamine activation. When the brain gets too much excitement from dopamine activation, it can create a psychotic break. and that can be seen with PCP, amphetamines, and cocaine, also, any of which can create a permanent psychosis. The rush of activity in the free associations speeds up to much, the Comparison Process is disabled, and the system breaks down. The checker and tester lose control and the system stops working Pressure of speech, loose associations, inappropriate thinking, anti-social behaviors are all unleashed by this breakdown of the COMP .

29. This consciousness of ours is thus understandable in terms of the free associations called up from our LTM by our Comparison Process. The COMP sequences these to keep the flow under control. It’s what creates attention and inattention. When we sleep & dream, we dream of really silly things. We can fly, objects can appear and disappear, and on and on, but it’s not real. This may be an underlying free association of the brain called up by the Comparison Process from our LTM. & we know this because the cortex is activated during dreaming. When we are not dreaming we see slow activity in the cortex. When we see REM, the cortex changes to a higher rate of acitivity. When the checker is off, we get crazy dreams, but we can while having an awareness of dreams, tell it to stop and it does. Or even order the dream using lucid dreaming. The severely psychotic person is unable to stop this. The COMP is unable to work normally. The cortex has become deranged.

In the normal person, this stream of consciousness from our vision, sensations, memories, and so forth is controlled. In dreams, it’s not very well controlled, as we see during dreams a lot of impossible events, which once we realize it, can be controled using lucid dreaming techniques. Thus we see that the Comparison Process in the brain can not only create control of inappropriate behavior, but can as well, using the same comparison function, control dream states.

When this control breaks down, we can get mania and psychotic states, which can be largely restored by using judicious amounts of major/minor tranquilizers. Major tranquilizers if used early enough can completely control many psychotic breaks, and if used long enough 2-3 years, can even cure some psychosis, permanently.

30. Clearly, the Comparison Process is one “ruler of the brain”.It not only measures and tests by comparisons, but it can keep things under control. The COMP is seen to be important, general and widespread because it truly reflects existing cortical structure(s), which performs that action. It can control people from getting out of control, by other persons appealing to them. In the psychotic it can work too, but not as well, and occ. not at all. A child who is misbehaving, is taught discipline by the COMP, learning & then enforcing by internalization in the LTM. In cases of persons who have had a frontal lobe injury, we often see lack of social appropriateness, they get slovenly in appearance, they cuss, swear loudly and lack the social graces, to say the least. The frontal lobe has a cortex, and this area is where the Comparison Process in the frontal lobes works. If’ it’s damaged by some means, be it a genetic cause(Huntingdon’s), or trauma, or drugs or other cause, then the person becomes antisocial or even sociopathic. This is the power of the COMP function. It’s universal, it’s general, it applies to almost every major cortical function. and it governs our conscious activities like no other.

In the language areas of association, it’s responsible for creating speech and learning. It underlies creating new words and descriptions to cover new events and new ideas. In the musical area, it watches over the playing of notes and the recognition of melodies and the very creation of music. In the spatial relationships function of the right parietal lobe, it observes events there, testing, controling, comparing, measuring. In the motor and sensory areas, it does the same. In the Visual cortex, it’s constantly working to compare input to analyze by some means how the visual data compares to its set and learned algorithms, to find meaningful shapes, and so forth. It sees motion by comparing the positions from time to time, and detects motion by comparing the changes in positions of similar events.

31. As an aside, most of the illusions we see result from the visual system Comparison Process getting fooled. For instance, when we watch a bicycle wheel & shiny spokes spinning. At a certain speed when its spin slows down, our visual cortex shows us the illusion that the spinning reflection may move clockwise, then paradoxically, as the spin slows down more, it moves the other way. If you measure the speeds of the wheel when this change takes place, in the middle of that change from rotating clockwise or counter, that measures the rate of the impulses going from the retina to the visual cortex. It’s a stroboscopic effect, which measures the rate that the retina send impulses to the cortex. No one has ever really explained that before. But as the stroboscopic system can, by certain measured, definite rates determine speeds, so do the rotating bicycle tire spokes measure by spinning rate, the retinal impulse frequency to the visual cortex. It’s a COMP .

32. But even more important, we know the important principle, that if an error is made (such as in the genes), it can often tell us something about the structure which is creating the error. It may tell us how normal function of that genetic structure works. We often learn more from metabolic errors, than studying normal functions, too. The Comparison Process gives us something more to compare to, and we find more about normal functioning. So, too, a careful study of all major kinds of visual illusions should reveal important clues as to how our visual cortex compares inputs to create realistic images, those same images which we see in our dreams. Understanding how the COMP works can give extremely fruitful insights into our visual system’s processes of nerve impulses from the retina. And given these, nearly without end, as the visual illusions can be created without end. A sensory illusion is based upon the same process, an error in the Comparison Process used in the sensory cortex.

In fact, this tendency to compare and try to find shapes/images can go wrong, too. The cortex is always using the COMP always trying to make sense of what’s around it. When it goes wrong, & creates an image, it’s called an hallucination. & we see this prominently in psychosis, too. The Checker is off duty to some extent. In the auditory cortex, which we know by physiological MRI is activated in schizophrenic auditory hallucinations, the same is seen. It calls up the sounds of remembered voices, and these are interpreted as real. In the same way, the calling up of images in dreams which can be manipulated and controlled in Lucid Dreaming states, probably by a system the Comparison Process influences, & then we have dreams.

You see the method. One association leads to another. One comparison with a normal state can be made to an abnormal state, to elucidate how the systems work. That’s a how much a very DAMN powerful tool, the COMP function can be. It opens up vast new areas of insights into both normal and abnormal psychologies.

33. The delusion is a false, persistently unsubstantiated belief/idea, which is strongly held (LTM) and which resists the facts and all reason. The checker isn’t working again. The control capability of the Comparison Process is turned down. It’s no accident that schizophrenias are associated with delusions, either. The gatekeeper of social morals, rules, beliefs and behaviors, the COMP is damaged. So the COMP can explain in part, where the problem is in the cortex, in those cortical cell columns, where the Comparison Process is created by the neurophysiology of the brain.

Delusional states outside of shizophrenia can also be created. In those, if not too long standing, pyschotherapy can often intervene and restore the balance. This was how and why psychoanalysis occasionally worked. The checker, the Comparison Process was still working well enough that it could be reconditioned by psychological methods & insights to restore control and get rid of the delusion. In other cases, medications are far more effective. But in many delusion states cannot be treated with meds. This is another problem entirely and will be addressed later with potentially curative methods in an article on “Brain Hardwiring”.

34. You see the power of the conception, the Comparison Process. A sign of a good, fruitful model is its wide explanatory power from a very simple process. How it shows how humor comes about. How it shows the source of creativity in the “Aha!” moment, when a comparison is made with the punch line of the joke. How the same “Aha’ is seen upon recognition, upon discovery, upon creation of something new and novel. The COMP brings so very much together. It’s a powerful tool, because not only can one use the Comparison Process , but it can be held aside, and other, high level, cortical functions can be compared to it. To learn more, such as what creates consciousness, the LTM, the COMP and the constant call up of data for checking, comparison and other functions, such as motor and speech output are invoked.

It’s very simple recursive system which creates the complexity in our brains, from language & to most all our skills. It creates our understanding and even creates creativity. Being recursive and self consistent, it can comprehend understanding. It’s a simple, but powerful method used by the cortex to develop personality, and everything else, including the control structures which create our consciousness and conscience. It’s broad, it’s general, it may well be universal in scope in humanity

It’s a powerful tool, it can be used again and again, and it very likely represents something very real and working in the Neurophysiology of our cortical cell columns. & you can see above, my method of creative writing, and the free association (comparing 1 idea to another) of one topic to another, also. It’s an inexhaustible source of new discovery, creation & understanding of complex systems. It gives us important insights into how our brain functions at the higher cortical levels. It’s virtually unlimitted. Everything in the universe can be compared to everything else. Everything in our sensory outputs and LTM can be compared to the others & a great deal can be learned in many cases. “Gnothi seauton”, indeed!!

It models the universe’ own recursivity with recursivity of its own. and it does it everywhere, and can do it everywhere in our universe, too. Isn’t that interesting?

35. In the immune system, we have found many of the same, basic components. But let’s think about more of this, creatively, using the Comparison Process function. Essentially, the immune system defends the body against foreign invaders, such as bacteria, virions, fungi, etc. But how, exactly does it do this? Very simply, it builds upon knowing, biochemically, what is self, and what is not self. Each of our cell surfaces have on them as do all other cells, the HLA protein/polysaccharide molecules on the cell surface in many places. The cells recognize each other by these. They are in constant biochemical communication with each other. They all have the same HLA surface features on the cell membranes.

Let’s give a real and existing example to compare to. A study has been reported some years ago where a small white and a small red sponge were each broken down mechanically into the cells which made up each sponge. Then those cells were mixed together & compared to what happened. They were observed over hours. The sponge cells organized themselves back again in clusters of white and red sponge cells and re-grew the sponge of each type. Biochemically, they knew which cell was self, and which was not self. So these HLA identifiers on our cell membraines are not new, as sponges go back to Precambrian times. This method of identification of self is very, very ancient and again, something which all living organisms have, even the protozoans. This common link connects all living cells from the smallest known to even our brains, and they way they were. They can ID biochemically, “the self” and know what is foreign. It the Comparison Process on a cellular level, you see.

36. And this is essentially THE main organizing characteristic of the immune system, of all immune systems. It, just like knowing the essential characteristics of plate tectonics, can be used to understand much more of the complexity of organization of living systems, perhaps even all systems. The Immune system has a biochemical ID method for self and not self. It does not attack self, except where the system goes wrong, that is the autoimmune diseases of Multiple sclerosis, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, Guillain-Barre, and others. It’s in the identifying part, i.e. the Comparison Process of the immune system where this goes wrong. Something which needs to be & is yet to be found.

But, let’s think carefully about how the immune system attacks foreign invaders. It first recognizes them as not self. When the lymphocytes, polymorphonuclears, phagocytes and others sense a complex chemical (even the chemical Urushiol, which is the contact allergen in poison oak),which is not self, it creates an antibody to it which attacks and isolates it and tries to expel it from the body. If it’s a bullet or shrapnel, it walls it off with scar tissue, removing it from immune system attack. If it’s bacteria such as Strep or Staph, it creates a walling off effect, immobilizes it and expels it by an abscess, which ruptures and the whole mess comes out, including any small foreign bodies carrying the bacteria.

The lymphocytes detect foreign compounds, which they “know” biochemically, by comparing it to their catalog of what is self. Then the lymphocytes move in, and create antibodies which then attach to that foreign body, bacteria, virus, etc., and THAT creates a massive cellular response which constrains, removes and destroys the invader.

37. But, using the Comparison Process , let’s look deeper and more creatively. What exactly happens biochemically when lymphocytes detect foreign chemicals? They must find, create and then massively re-create many, many specific, highly bonding antibodies, which will attach to the foreign molecule. But how does it find them? & That is where it gets interesting.

It must biochemically sort through trillions (quadrillions?) of possible antibodies, to find the one(s) which will permanently bond to the foreign compound, cell wall or membrane. And that complexity can take a LOT of time to sort through, again, a Comparison Process. If we tried in our labs to create & find those specific antibodies, which can best attach to such foreign molecules, sorting through the trillions or more of possible types, it’d take us millions of years, or more. The time it takes our immune system to solve this immense biochemical sorting problem is about 2-3 days. After that antibody production by the proliferation of lymphocytes all producing enough antibodies to attach and immobilize and target attacks on all the foreign molecules. We cannot do this in a finite time. Our computers cannot do this much sorting in a finite time. But look, the Comparison Process shows that our immune systems, worldwide, and in most of the higher animals, do this time and again, every day, for the last how many 100’s of millions of years? & it works. and that sorting & organizing process is, of course, a biochemical supercomputer method using the Comparison Process .

38. There is an immense computer, a sorter, built into our immune systems which solves this problem by some means. It uses the COMP and a whole bevy of extremely efficient, biochemical algorithms (or skills, sound familiar?) to do this. When this sorter is found in the immune system, then we will have found the biochemical supercomputer which creates our effective immune system. We know how it works, we will know where it works, and we can find it, too. That’s how the Comparison Process shows us what’s going on by organizing living systems using COMP structures. It’s universal. It’s general, It’s practical and it works.

Considering that our immune systems also know what has invaded before, and can attack those repeat strains of invaders, thus giving us lifetime immunity to many kinds/strains of viruses, etc., which is the basis of all vaccinations, then it must have a memory system of these previous invasions built into our immune system. A sort of LTM for creating antibodies, stored in the spleen, lymph nodes and other places, probably, possibly even stem cells.

This therefore should guide our study of the immune system, which can be seen as a Comparison Process working on the biochemical level, to ID self, and not self. Which is based upon simple ID system, based upon the COMP generator of a biochemical system within our white cells. From that simplicity, this enormous immune system complexity is built. & it’s capacities which exceed ours by at least trillions of times over.

39. Find the ID’g biochemical system Comparison Process governing structures in the immune systems, and you find the core engine of immunity. Where the immunity is stored, how it creates new immunities (the creativity function, the COMP function, again). The immune system’s cells on patrol must constantly be comparing self to find non-self. That comparison engine drives the immune system. When it finds not self, it attacks. If a former infection, it finds the cells which create the antibodies anew and attacks so fast, the system doesn’t get sick again. If not, it creates by comparing trillions or more of antibodies against the foreign agent, until it finds those which effectively attack it. It probably has some very efficient search engnes to sort out that problem. It’s creative, tho. It creates a fever which speeds up this process enormously, a sort of metabolic overdrive. THAT is the reason fever is often associated with infection. It speeds up often by 2-4 times the immune system attack processes.

Also, It must be sure the attacking antibodies do NOT attack self, either. And THIS part of the immune system is what goes wrong in autoimmune diseases

41. There is a clue here and it’s a big one. It’s known that women who have multiple sclerosis have far fewer flare ups, that is antibody attacks against the myelin sheath, when they are pregnant. The mother doesn’t but rarely attack the baby, for some reason. The fetus/baby are immunologically privileged. How this comes about shows us how the body doesn’t attack self. also. Thinking Comparison Process, and creatively, those drugs which reduce or block flare ups of MS, such as prednisone type, or meds of the interferon beta 1a and 1b types, or glatiramer acetate, etc. These block the autoimmune reaction of the MS type, also. Simply create a glatiratimer or interferon 1a &1b, and find out by labelling those molecues, injecting them, to find where in the body immune system & lymphocytes it binds, THERE is the library of immunocytes, and THERE is where the immune system problem is. It will simplify the problem immensely, because we will know where to look for the autoimmune creating problem, simultaneously finding the immunity giving library. By using the Comparison Process, which both gives insights and explanations as well as creative methods to solve problems. QED