Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Comparison Process (COMP)

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Comparison Process (COMP)

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process/ COMP Theory/Model

Alan Turing’s test for Artificial Intelligence (AI) was simply that in talking to the AI machine, a person could not determine if he was talking to a machine, or a real person. This has not yet been achieved.

Computers are now used at a very hgh level in terms of automobile design. Let’s consider what they are used for and what they are capable of by describing in a general way what they do. The car must be designed as a massive integration of weight, chassis strength, power plant (engine), drive train, wheels and tires. It has to have electronics in it, too, for many purposes, and the usual options. If the car weighs too much for the engine, it won’t go fast enough. It the wheels/tires are too weak and not supportive, they could collapse under the weight or wear out too fast. If too large, they add too much weight to the car, overburdening the gas mileage limitations. We can see how the entire vehicle from an engineering standpoint is very complicated to build. Look under the hood of today’s car if you think it’s simple/easy to do. It’s a mass of complexity carefully fitted under the hood. Try creating that engine compartment manually with just drawing paper in your spare time so see the magnitude of the problem of design.

The computer can search thru a huge number of possible combinations, by trial and error, much, much faster than human minds can. Well programmed design computers do the work 1000’s of time faster than their human builders, alone. This allows a complex, highly integrated system, the car, with a carefully approximated, trial and error path to be followed to create the final model. Which when tested, tweaked and slightly refined, can be even better. This is why computer design of cars is used today, because it can do the job 1000’s of times faster than humans can. It can search thru the huge number of possible combinations of weights, tire/wheel, chassis strength, engine size/power and so forth and create a vehicle much better designed and more efficiently integrated than human could in the same time. The design computer has become a human prosthesis for matching/comparing the endless possibilites to create a viable, manufacturable, highly integrated machine. This is early AI, too, but 3D and very, very useful. And is probably the most complex form of design going on on the planet on a large scale basis, too.

Partial AI, however, HAS been achieved, and using the Comparison Process can be better understood in many of its subtleties. First, of all, the essential aspect of AI is recognition at all levels, be it voice and speaking, writing, and recognizing what images are. That’s what humans do, using the COMP. Understanding AI using the COMP can give some considerably greater insights than other methods, largely because very few people can well and in detail define/describe what goes on in the human brain during recognition/language. The COMP model states that recognition (cognition) is via the comparison process. That is, a person hears a word, compares that word to the Long Term Memory (verbal) & recognizes each word separately within the context of a sentence, then responds appropriately to that word string. The mind understands what the words mean by comparing them (in the LTM) to the standard usage of those words in much of their complexity.

Ask a, AI programmed computer this series of sentences.
“I Can do it.” The beans are in a Can.” I had to hit the Can.” “He saw the Can-can.”
No computer can figure out what those “cans” mean. Because the computer simulations do not compare words to each other in a sentence, they can only respond so far in pre-programmed ways. They cannot initiate real, creative understanding of word strings, nor create them. The COMP does both.

Because recognition requires that a word be known and stored in a working or long term memory(LTM) place(s) in the brain, the brain can hear a word, compare it to the heard word, and recognize it by a close match. That’s what word re-cognition means. It means when the heard word is processed, it can refer to the same/similar word in the memory, recognize it and all the details around the word, describing the word, giving it meaning, and then respond to it. Recognition is one of the basic cognitive task/process of the cortex, the basic function of the Comparison process. It’s how the brain Knows/Understands words and meanings. If the brain doesn’t know the word, it can be spoken about in terms of other related words the mind knows and then understands the meaning of a new word. A word’s definition is explained in terms of other words with related/associated words. Each new word is built upon the meanings of words learned earlier. No word is an island. No word stands alone. Definitions/explanations of words are given in terms of other words.

It’s the relationships among the many words based upon the Comparison process which creates language and understanding and knowing and comprehension. The COMP clearly shows the relationships/associations among words. That’s how we know words are related and can be used together. Once we understand that the COMP does this, tho we cannot YET understand the complex neurophysiology of the 6 layers of the usual cortex which do this work, and how this neurophysiology creates the COMP, we can still use the COMP as a model of the mind/brain interface. The COMP is a critical-to-understand complex system shortcut. And language is a complex system. The COMP is what verbal thinking does and is. The COMP has other tasks too, but verbal processing is part of what it does everyday, all day long.

Thinking and the COMP are often the same. This gives essential and useful insights in terms of understanding what we mean by “thinking”. If the COMP is being used, that is one kind of important, fairly common thinking process. We can see this when we go to find a word in a dictionary, or any other list or index. We are looking for the word, comparing and matching the other words until we find the entry we are looking for. This is one kind of Comparison Process of a multiplicity of types.

So far we have early AI on google. We put in a word and perhaps some of its modifiers into the box, hit the enter button, the massive google search engine compares/matches that word to those in its huge data base (machine LTM memory) and spits out all of the matches. There is very little thinking going on. In a very primitive way, google matches the word(or closely related spellings) and finds all the references to it and puts them up on the screen. That’s simple recognitiion, or matching, both COMP.

But to ask the machine to UNDERSTAND what the word means is something entirely different. So far, tho, If the machine can TALK/WRITE about the word using coherent meaningful sentences, which are sensible, and those can be pre-programmed into it, then it would give a superficial sense of meaning. However, if it were asked a not pre-programmed question, such as to describe “What you had to eat, today?” it’d stumble. Or if it were asked to describe the meaning of a phrase in more than 2-3 ways, it’d also stumble. Either that, or talk like a dictionary reads, which would be fairly obvious to most human listeners. This also has been achieved.

But to be able to talk and learn new words requires the ability to frame sentences, that is to create a string of meaningful, interelated/associated words Comparing to each other, which makes those relationships real and effective. And that requires creativity. and a lot of processing power, as well as a considerable memory, too. If such a question is asked, then it’d fail, and all machines today would fail. They cannot create language which is flexible enough to sound real. Neither can they describe an idea new to them, either. Because in order to do that, the machine would have to know meaning and be able to compare the words in a sentence to each other, to create meaning. And no computer can do that, yet.

Further, no machine can describe a simple image, either, let alone a mountain scene, and ID where it’s from, such as the Valley of the Yosemite. NO machine can see Half Dome and pick it out of a picture from one of its many seen angles and views. It can be pre-programmed to do so from a stock set of images, but it’d fail the task on something it didn’t know, when observed by a normal person. No computer systems yet can turn a complex image such as Half Dome around in its circuitry and recognize it as Half Dome from different directions. But humans do this and analogous processes all the time by using the Comparison Process.

In order to create real AI the programmer must first learn how to create language from the comparison process, which is how the human brain creates, learns, discovers and teaches/explains language. Until that time, by trial and error, there will be simulated and superficial AI, but not true AI which cannot easily be distinguished from a human source.

The AI computer will have to be able to recognize words and to talk about words. It will have to comprehend what those words mean in real, contextual terms, not just automatonic, pre-programmed responses, which are what goes for voice recogniition today. We can see those work. We simply state Linda Eder at the Youtube entry and it transliterates the spoken word (hopefully) into the words “Linda Eder”, then matches those with what it has and up pop all the Eder tunes/images associated with her. I’ve done this. It works, and it was not fooled by the “eider duck” form, either. It grasped that Linda Eder was pronounced the same as the duck,spelling, too. So some progress has been made, but not enough. Basically, it transliterates the spoken word into letters and then does the primitive matching work usually seen on the google box, just as it does when we write ” Linda Eder” into the box on the Goodle starting page. Sometimes you have to type it in, anyway!!

The ability to string words into a sentence which makes sense, is what humans do. No machine can create that string of words, yet. Because no machine is yet creative. True human creativity comes from the comparison process in our cortex, and that’s how we make new sentences. That’s how we discover and learn. The programmer must create an electronic analogue to the brain’s comparison process in order to speak, coherently. Otherwise it’s just all automatonic words coming out. That’s hard enough.

True speech and meaningful language require that AI understand most of the essential relationships among words/categories/classes of each word. Whether the word is living or not. Where it may be on a map. How the object is used. Whether it’s soft, hard, wet, dry, and much else. Until the AI computer can get/discover/learn these essential, meaningful relationship/associations, which are created by the Comparison Process at work in our cortices, then AI will not truly be able to satisfy Turing’s test.

In “Le Chanson Sans Fin” articles, there are posted many examples of the comparison process which creates creativity from Darwin/Wallace, to Einstein thru Edison. Here’s another: “Peleset”, from Rameses 3’s mortuary pylon, Deir el Bahari, West Bank from El Luxor, shows the Peles-et reference, translating as Pelesi–Land of. Just as the ancient Kheman name for their capital, Uas-et translates as the Place of Power. Ramesses 3 stated he settled those people there, on Egyptian Mediterranean territories, tributary to him.

Trudie and Moshe (Moses) Dothan ( People of the Sea) , noted Philistine area archeologists, who excavated Ashkelon, among other Philistine cities, found the Achean/Mikunan stirrup jars, art motifs and Grey Minyan ware pottery at the lowest, foundational levels, there. Philistine is an anglicized version of the same word, Peleset. The area is also known from Roman times as Palestina, and from our time as Palestine, anglicized from Palestina. The Comparison Process shows that both the geographical areas, and names from 11th BC to present are the same word. This verbal/geographical/archeological comparison shows the creativity process at work, seeing that the words, places and peoples when carefully compared are of the same origins. It’s the comparison process at work.

But images? Recognition of images is what our brains do pretty well. And we can talk about them, recognize what we know and don’t know, too. AI and Machines cannot yet do that. A pciture is worth 1000 words, it requires enormous processing power to analyze images,even by our own visual cortex.

But what about a simple drawing of a banana in color? Some AI programs might be able to call it a banana, but just try to ask them what they’d do with one? Or how it tastes? The ability to discover, learn, then talk about a subject is uniquely human. Until, by trial and error and much creative work, AI computers are able to do these tasks using a system which imitates/models the comparison process of creativity, creating new sentences using the COMP to create the relationships among the words, which make sense, and learning, then we won’t see true, real AI. Because that’s what language can be shown to be, repeated use of the Comparison Process. That’s the key to true AI, which until recently has not been understood, or recognized, or discovered.

Now that the goal of AI can be defined using the COMP model, then they know where to go. And having some sense of direction to the goal, is often half the task done.

Most animals can recognize territories, prey/food, predators and other simple recognition tasks. The primates have very similar cortical cell columns to humans. Those of other mammals, popoises, dogs, birds and reptiles, probably use different sorts of Comparison Process neural structures to create recognition by comparison to learned/discovered LTM analogues of the same. Biochemical recognition by the lower forms of life, such as protozoans, bacteria, fungi, etc., probably qualify as analogous recognition structures. It’s been done before. It can be done by humans using AI. But as so often seen, when the problem can be more exactly defined, it’s easier to do. Otherwise, there’s a lot more of trial and error to work through and that can take a long time.

Now consider the value of a computer which processes at about 10 GHz, compared to the human brain’s parallel processing at about 10Hz. About 1 billion fold speed. If a computer can be made to model human COMP creativity, it could potentially find more useful, creative findings using the COMP by a factor of at least 1000 times. This could potentially result in a speed up of creativity by the same factor, that is, inventiveness. What would happen to progress and output of the arts and sciences when that happened? What could happen to programming when a computer was used to create possible approaches to solve real, significant computer programming problems? Imagine the possibilities. The computer as programming problem solving prosthesis for humans. Speeding up problem solving by 1000’s of times. Or far more. Awesome potential for solving all programming problems. And for solving our own very human, very serious problems of chemical and radiation pollutions.

Optical/Sensory ILLusions, Creativity and the COMP

Optical and Sensory Illusions, Creativity and the Comparison Process (COMP )

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

Optical illusions are “glitches” or errors, in our visual system’s processing of retinal images. This can potentially give important insights into just how our visual cortex processes images from the retina. In the same way that a genetic error can give insights into how normal gene products function, by providing a comparison to normal, so these visual processing errors can also provide insights.

Several of these optical illusions have been presented before, but will go over them once again to provide the foundation for new insights into visual cortical processing. First, the lunar illusion is seen when a full or nearly full moon is just above the horizon, It appears to be larger than when it’s in the sky. The dispelling, correcting, or comparing step is easy to do in this case. Hold up a meter rod, or something similar to it which is graded, and measure the maximum width of the moon above the horizon and then when it’s up in the sky. This will provide a comparison method which will show that it’s an illusion.

Second, there is an illusion which is created when several regular off centered boxes are interposed between straight lines. It creates the illusion that the lines are not straight. Simply laying down a clear plastic straight edge on a printout of the illusion will by Comparison show that at least 2 of the lines are straight, dispelling & correcting this illusion.

http://brainden.com/optical-illusions.htm
Go down the list to the one just under “Jesus illusions”, called “Line illusions”. The one you see is referred to here.

A motion illusion is created when sitting stopped at a light, while in a car, next to a large truck or bus. If the large vehicle begins to move forward, we get a motion illusion that the car is moving backwards. By comparing this illusion to a street sign or something fixed next to the road, the illusion at once is dispelled by the correcting comparison.

If we have a bit of metal in our pocket on a cooler day, & we reach into the pocket and touch part of the metal, we can get an illusion of wetness. Only by feeling around for wetness/liquid and finding none, and feeling the metal’s shape, such as a coin, is the illusion dispelled by this correcting comparison.

If we hear an echo and we move towards it, we can dispel the echo by finding out the actual source of it, the correcting comparison.

Another interesting illusion is that called the Checkerboard illusion, of a green(or gray), stubby cylinder resting on a shaded checkerboard square.

http://www.slate.com/blogs/bad_astronomy/2013/12/07/optical_illusion_shades _of_grey.html (Phil Plait’s great website.)

Scroll down to this one and the one above, which ALSO, the Cornsweet Illusion, shows the correcting comparison, which, as predicted by the COMP model, corrects it.

In the Checkerboard ILLusion two of the squares, one inside and one outside of the shade from the cylinder, look to be different gray shades. The correcting comparison is created by joining the two squares with the same shade of gray, thus showing they are the same. The comparison derangement is created by each square being simultaneously compared to a different shade of gray, the one being in the shade, the other outside of it. This very Clearly demonstrates the comparison process which has gone awry, and why it’s a very good demonstration of the COMP going on the visual cortex, where all optical illusions are imaged.

All illusions, be they visual, hearing, touching and so forth, are capable of being dispelled by a simple comparison test. Sometimes there is more than one kind of correcting comparison which will work. All visual illusions are created by the comparison process operating in the visual cortex, even if it arises in the retina, in the case of looking at opposite colors, such as purple and yellow objects which are persistently gazed at, and the gaze at once shifts to a white paper target. Simply by waiting for the rhodopsin color pigments of the retina to normalize, the illusion just fades away. Again, the correcting comparison.

The comparison process creates these sensory illusions and can correct them, too. Each illusion can be categorized simply by the kind of illusion it is, and the way in which the illusion is comparison corrected. Once the comparison correction and its corresponding illusion type are categorized, broadly, pattern recognition, will be created by our cortical comparison processors. & then we will begin to understand more and more about how images of all types arise, i.e., edges, lines, shapes, colors, shading, etc. & will give us very likely a much deeper understanding of what kinds of processes are going on in the visual cortex which create the images we see.

Literally, tho, an unlimited number of visual illusions can be created, just because the comparison process is capable of working in an unlimited way every time we see something. This has created a huge number of illusions to work through, but by using this process of illusion/correcting comparison method we should begin to see patterns, and then be able to understand more.

Once we understand visual comparison processes, then we will be given insights into all sorts of cortical comparison processes, such as language, hearing, creativity, memory organization, and so forth, endlessly. That is because the human cortical cell columns, with the exception 2 changes in the motor cortex, are all fundamentally very similar in origin and structure, created out of 5 layers of complex neuronal connections and kinds. This organization must relate directly to function in some way, a structure/function relationship, a COMP. This will allow us to further investigate the exacting neurophysiological processes and connections going on the cortical cell layers of the visual cortex. And that will give us insights into the functioning of the slightly different cortices for the major, functioning areas of the brain. This will give us the structure function relationship between the neurophysiology and how it’s converted to what we see. That is, it will begin to enlighten us specifically as to how the mind works from a neurophysiological basis. This will further permit a good, scientifically valid and reliable understanding of the mind/brain interface. That is the power of the comparison process.

Our cortical cell columns (and similar ones in the great apes and dolphins) exist in 100,000’s of numbers in the gyri of our brain, doing basically one process, the COMP, but with many different variations which can lead to hearing musical notes, or speaking or understanding language, reading (where dyslexia is the key to understanding reading COMPs, again the error of dyslexia can show us the way to understanding normal reading processing by the COMP), our sense of conscience, our consciousness insofar as that uses the Comparison Process.
It will be a LOT of work, trial and error, but that’s how our brain works, and with a better understanding of comprehension, will come many good things in education and medical applications.

Creativity and the COMP

Where does creativity come from? What exactly is the mental process which creates it? The Comparison Process can provide some very good insights. First, consider Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, which includes the COMP in it. Einstein held and proved that all distance and time measurements had to arise from having a single, arbitrary point from which we measured distance and time. There was no absolute space or time. When we measure distance, we start at a specific spot in space, and measure from that. Using a ruler, we set it down next to what we want to measure, and COMPARE the length of the object we are measuring against the ruler. It’s a comparison process. With the tape measure we can measure longer distances by making the same comparison against the tape. With an odometer we can also measure this by subtracting the starting distance from the ending distance of the trip. Using a trip odometer, we simply push the button to zero it, thus establishing our starting point from which we compare the distance. In most all cases, measurement is a comparison process, a COMP.

Relativity is called relativity because we measure relative to a fixed point, either in space, or time. Time is a COMP, also, and has been addressed in the Intro of “Le Chanson Sans Fin” Part 1″, already. Relativity is thus a Comparison Process.

When Einstein realized that all measures of distance and time were related to a fixed arbitrary site he got rid of Newton’s absolute space and time postulate. That was his first creative insight & creative leap. It was his first major creative breakthrough. From there things began to get interesting. In “Cosmos” by Carl Sagan, we were taken through Einstein’s thought experiment of what things look like riding on a photon, compared to a normal spot on the earth. He showed that the Lorentz-Fitzgerald equations were in fact what happened when one moved faster and faster close to the speed of light. Time slows down relative to the earth. The Twin paradox was found to be the case. This was based upon a Comparison between time and events on earth compared to speeding up to near light speed.. Again, the comparison of the two created his understanding of a real, physical process.

Then he realized that being in a gravitational field of 9.8 m./Sec.Sq. was the equivalent to accelerating in any vehicle at 9.8 m./sec.Squared. He compared the two and realized it was the same. Again, the COMP. & from that came the rest of his Relativity model. When one is on the surface of the earth, processes operate at a set, fixed time compared to a standard clock. When one is on a high earth orbit, gravity is lessened, and time speeds up, compared to that on earth. Again, the Comparison Process.

Now look, is this a coincidence, that most all measurement is a COMP, that comparing time/mass effects at great speed compared to those on earth, another COMP, and that gravitational forces/acceleration are equivalent, yet ANOTHER COMP, and that time goes faster in a lower gravitational field when compared to a higher gravitational field, yet another COMP? Of course not. Einstein’s creativity rested upon the realization of the importance of 4 basic findings, each of them arising when he made just the right COMP, to create his Relativity. Therefore, Einstein’s creativity which led to Relativity is based upon use of the COMP.

When Charles Darwin on the Galapagos Isles, by his own writing, said that he saw the Finches there, which when he compared them to each other, were very clearly related and in thinking about it, had clearly come from the same, initial species, it was when he had his Eureka moment, just like Einstein. Again, the Comparison Process created the insight. Wallace, who created his version of Evolutionary model from his observations on the isolated isles of Indonesia, found the same thing. By comparing many different species of plants and animals and finding that they too, had common anatomy and forms, and this meant common ancestors. Again, the COMP.

When Archimedes eluded death from the king of Syracuse, who believed his goldsmith had adulterated the gold in his newly made crown, it was again, clearly the COMP. He was threatened with death if he couldn’t prove the crown was adulterated gold or not, the goldsmith having stolen the difference. When he sat down into his bath, his body displaced a volume of water. He at once realized that all materials have volume, and that by measuring (COMP) the volume displaced by water, he could determine a new quantity, called Density, which is mass divided by volume, or grams/cm.cubed. in today’s physics. Not only were his measurements the COMP, but so was his basic arithmetic and algebra the Comparison Process, as was his realization at that historical “Eureka!” moment, that he could solve the problem by displacing the same weight of gold with water and doing the same with the gold crown, and by COMPARING the difference, determine if gold had been replaced in the king’s crown with a base, less dense metal.

Now look, is it reasonable to conclude that the Comparison Process clearly used throughout this creative discovery of density by Archimedes is a sheer coincidence? No! The COMP lies at the heart and core of most all known, testable creativity. It’s simple, it explains a very great deal and very efficiently, too. It can do a very great deal with a single, basic form of processing, the Comparison.

One more case: that of Thomas Edison’s extraordinary career as an inventor. That is, his creativity process. When Edison found the electric light he transformed human life. Darkness was dispelled and illumination efficiently created without risk of fire and with ease of use. It was his greatest discovery. But what was the creative leap which he took, which created the electric light? The Comparison Process gives us this insight. He used a lot of electricity. He had seen that when electricity of high voltage and current ran through metal wire it made it glow. And he reasoned, using the COMP, what if we use a lot more electricity, and make it glow very brightly? THAT was the creative leap, comparing a bit of power making the wire glow red, to a lot of power creating a bright light. It took him much trial and error to find the carbon filament which lasted some 80 hours, but he did. It took longer for us to find tungsten filaments which would last even longer, using the same trial and error seeking the outcome desired, by the Comparison Process. But there it is.

By extension, using the COMP, most all creativity is COMP, creative writing, the use of language to create meaning and explanation, composition of music, creation of all art. It’s the COMP. Creativity is at its very roots, its very wellspring, the COMP. It’s arrived at with all the great inventors of new ideas, they simply have that moment, when they put the right ideas/observations together and out it comes, the new, revolutionizing idea. Be it Relativity, or Quantum Mechanics, or the electric light, Evolution, or the creation of the idea of density. It all has the same, common source, operating in the cortices of our brains. If we can speak language, we can create a string of words which makes sense and describes formerly unknown events/ideas. If we can understand this new string of words, then we have made a discovery of something new, too. It’s all the same cortical process, the COMP.

The COMP unites all sciences and the arts. It unites all languages and mathematics. It unites us with all the living creatures on our planet who use the COMP to recognize territories, to identify food, to see predators and avoid them, at every high level function, to survive. At the biochemical level, the creation of new life, reproduction, is at the DNA level, a form biochemical of the Comparison Process. It’s very simple, but it does almost everything important to us. This is no accident, as has been described more fully before in “Le Chanson…” And it gives us a very unifying, deeply comprehending, with simplicity above all, about how to understand/comprehend, speak, read, order from chaos, organize almost everything we do. From the very elementary particles, to the atoms, to the elements, to the tens of millions of UIPAC compounds, to the very classification of the millions of genus/species of all living forms and viruses, to the very trillions and trillions of Stars (Hertzsprung/Russell Diagram), to our millions of words, dictionaries, thesauri, all indices and encyclopedias. It creates life, it organizes life taking chaos and creating order, it organizes and controls our minds and the very cells which make up our brains. It is the Comparison Process, unifying, universal, generalizing, comprehending. And when we travel outwards into space over the next 1000’s of years, we will meet other space faring species, eventually, and we will create an understanding of their languages using the COMP, as will they create from ours. The COMP unites us with all the universe. It’s a universal decoder of all languages and events. The Comparison Process.

Comparison Process. Brain Organization: Explananda, Pt. 3

Comparison Process: Explananda, Pt. 3

As a demonstration of the creativity of the COMP, consider how the brain is organized. The real point is why the motor/sensory system is upside down and reversed left for right? That is the toes/feet/legs are on the superior part of the prefontal gyrus of the motor strip, as are the sensory areas, and the face and up is on the inferior part of the Premotor area. This is really simple to answer creatively using the comparison process. When we look through a magnifying glass held at a distance, what happens to the image? It’s reversed left for right and upside down. Is there a lens in the body? Sure, 1 concave lens in each eye which does this image transform as the magnifying glass. And so the left brain controls the right body and vice versa.
Further, in the brainstem decussation of the pyramids, sensory/motor afferents/efferents take the left brain connections to the right body and vice versa for the right brain connections.

So, it’s pretty clear to figure that our entire brain is organized according to our visual systems. To confirm this note that the visual cortex is also organized this same way. The inferior(lower) visual cortex receives input from the top 1/2 of the visual field of the contralateral eye. The superior part of the visual cortex receives input from the inferior (lower) 1/2 of the visual field in each eye. And of course the left vertical halves of the visual fields in both eyes go to the right visual cortex, and the same vice versa for the right halves.

This confirms that the brain is upside down and reversed right for left due to the lens images in the eyes. Our brains are organized around vision. We are visual creatures. And the same is true for the advanced apes, and probably even most mammals including dolphins. Just look for the Decussation of the pyramids in the brainstem of these mammals to confirm.

The superior parts of the brain’s motor/sensory strips are concerned with sensory/motor functions of the lower parts of the body, and the inf. body parts with the sup. parts of the brain.
The right parietal cortex on both sides is higher cognitive functions, being spatial relationships, and emotions(the cussing center is there) and the Left parietal with verbal reasoning, and so forth, right next to Wernicke’s area in the Left superior temporal lobe. As far as the Top/bottom approach to understanding the brain, the clinical aspects of brain lesions far outweigh any concern for that, surely.

Le Chanson Sans Fin: the Comparison Process, Pt. 3

Le Chanson Sans Fin, the Comparison Process,
Introduction, Part 3

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

When the average person daily deciphers cryptograms on the puzzle pages he uses the same COMP . He uses a similar process for word finding puzzles, sudokus, crosswords, and picture puzzles. When we decode simple or complex codes, we use the same COMP .

When we translate one language into another, we use, again, massively, the COMP to make a useful translation. & most interestingly, when we contact over the next 1000’s of years another space faring species, we will use the COMP to build up our model of their language as they will ours, simply by the COMP. We will point to those things we have in common, stars, rocks, elements, compounds, persons, etc., and give them their names in our language and writing and they will, regardless of what system they use, can give us theirs, words/ideas/images for the same. This is how powerful the COMP is. It will be much the same for any language anywhere in our universe, very likely.

When we make copies, those must built, created & compare very closely to the originals, must they not? Otherwise, how would it be of much value? We can copy a copy and we can compare a copy with another, for fidelity. Again, more words which contain the COMP within them. Every copy from the faxes, to the copiers, to the copy and paste function, all share at their origin, the COMP . It’s how and why copying is possible.

The copying of all written texts including our most sacred texts occurred by using the COMP massively. It’s ancient as the earliest forms of scripts. It’s universal from Mesopotamia, to Egypt, to Aryan cultures and throughoutt East Asia. This is no accident.

But there is far, far more. When the DNA molecule is unzipped in the chromosomes of our cells for cell division & reproduction, the DNA polymerase compares each Adenine to its counterpart, Thymidine, and builds up the other two DNA chains necessary for cell division, based upon the COMP. For every A it creates a T on the complementary double helix chain and vice versa. For every Guanidine it adds a complementary Cytosine and vice versa. and when it’s done with that, it manufactures the proteins from the messenger RNA by creating that strip of RNA, using the same COMP, complementary synthesis to create more proteins to build the rest of the dividing cell.

Cell division is COMP on a biochemical scale, just as copying is. Reproductions of all of the species from the bacteria and the virions, through ALL species on our planet is COMP . Thus we see that our very existence is not only comprehended and understood and talked about using COMP, but our very selves arrived and are created by a similar, analogous, simple biochemical system. Duplication, replication, copying, reproduction can all be COMP dependent tasks.

There are huge numbers of words associated with the COMP. Ratios, relationships, associations, pattern finding/recognition, definitions, etc. Literally, 100’s of words can be found and ID’d which within them at their origins, we find the COMP . This shows it’s tremendously widespread characteristic as well as its enormous importance, too.

In this we & all the plants and animals and others in our world are united. There is one unifying principle, as the COMP unifies most all higher brains’ functionings, it also unifies us with all other life. This grand principle, the COMP , which creates the analogy, the poets’ metaphors, the similes, the anecdotes of Lincoln, the fables of Aesop and the Parables of Jeshua Ben Joseph, to the Zen koans, & the surahs of Mohammed, unifies us all in a totally unexpected way. From the simple to the complex, it shows the power of the COMP , an essential comparison function of our cortex, which appears to be far, far more important than anything else in our brains, the predominant, higher cortical function. & it’s universal.

In the scientific method of logical empiricism we find the COMP at every level. Because science so depends upon measurement, which is a COMP process, therefore this is one. We take a ruler or measuring tape, or any of the many methods and compare those lengths against what we measure. It’s all COMP. When we measure frequencies of light we use the COMP. When we count in our vast censuses, again the COMP. All of our odometers and special travel odometers do the same. They measure, even the most precise micrometers and light interference & quantum devices to measure the tiniest lengths & time intervals, and the parallax methods to determine vast distances. And so on, and on, and limitlessly on.

Measurement in turn depends upon Mathematics, which can be simply defined as the relationships of the numbers. 4 is related to 2 by being twice 4. 12 is related to 4 by being 3 times 4 and 1 & 1/2 of 8. Every number can be related to every other number by the COMP , using words and language. These relationships are adding, subtracting, division and multiplication. Basic arithmetic is all COMP.

In geometry, literally, “land measuring” we find many different kinds of lines, shapes, quadrangles, squares, circles, arcs, chords, ovals, etc. Suffice it to prove the point, is that Pi is the numeric comparison of an ideal circle’s circumference to its diameter and radius. The area of the circle is found by comparing the square of the radius times Pi. Trigonometry is the comparison of right angle triangles’ two sides to one another, which creates the trig functions, sine, cosine, tangent, etc. It’s the way the sides of a right triangle compare to each other, simply. The algebra of ratios and proportions are simply COMP. And on and on.

So the sciences formally measure using the COMP , which is so built-in we scarcely see it. A scientist gets an idea, that perhaps, since all the finches on the Galapagos most closely resemble each other, then possibly they are all related and came from a common ancestor, which on that remote island steadily speciated into the various kinds of finches there. THAT is the point at which Darwin came up with the evolutionary model. By comparing finches, and spending his lifetime finding and confirming with the millions of species both living and extinct which he and we have found since. Wallace found the same speciating patterns in the Indonesian isles, essentially another version of the same thing found by Darwin years earlier. That was the moment of discovery, the comparison of the plants and animals on isolated islands, which showed the way. The COMP.

When Einstein asked the question, what is is like to ride on a light photon?, he was given an insight which lead to a piece of relativity. When he realized that ALL time and space was not absolute, but must be compared to a fixed spot to be measured, THAT was another part. When he realized that time slowed down when objects were sped up relative to a fixed site on the earth, and when he realized that acceleration was equivalent to being in a gravitational field of the same meters/sec.squared value, then he came up with even more. Each of these insights by Einstein were the COMP. That ancient method which orders and creates creativity. Finally, when he realized that time was not a constant, he found that in a higher gravitational field, compared to a less intense field, time slowed down, he had his relativity basics, and created his noted Invariance Theory, which was eventually renamed the Theory of Relativity.

All time and space measurements must be compared to another for meaning.

From these and other determinations where it’s possible to identify the point and thinking of the creative scientist, it’s fairly clear, from Kepler’s realization that planetary orbits were not circular and the ancients were wrong, that the earth was NOT the center of the solar system (there was NO privileged point in the solar system) ; & Edison’s work through massive trial and error kind of discovery, shows that the COMP was in use when those creative revelations were present.

The scientist tests his hypotheses reached by the COMP by using double blind, controlled studies, which rule out much bias and interfering noise. This kind of testing ( & ALL testing is COMP, too), creates a finding, or outcome which may confirm, partially confirm/disconfirm or not confirm his hypothesis. If it does confirm it, that is, to a high degree of probability 95% or more, then it’s publishable. If others can confirm it, usually 2 times more, it’s likely correct, using the same COMP which underlies all testing and all measuring. This reference shows it in more detail. It was found weeks after the original discovery was posted in January 2014. It’s not the Basic COMP of the cortex, but simply one of the many ways & methods the COMP can be developed to be used in the sciences, thus confirming again, its deepest value.

http://www.stat.berkeley.edu/~stark/SticiGui/Text/experiments.htm

The confirmation by other, independent persons and labs and sites of a scientific finding, shows that what has been found is indeed real and existing outside of our brains. It means it is a finding which is true under the fixed conditions on earth, when the test was performed can be found anywhere else on earth. And perhaps, even anywhere else in the universe if a physical finding. The universe is what each of us have in common, existing independently and outside of us.

But the secrets of the sciences are these. If you bow to the universe by testing it as the arbiter of what is going on, then that finding can often be used again and again to create a technology based upon it, such as the transistor, and literally millions of other findings do the same. Because the universe is very likely the same everywhere, those events are backed up by the universe everywhere, and just like the existence of the natural laws and the protons/electrons/neutrinos of atoms/mass are stable, so is that finding. That constancy/stability of the universe, and the facts that careful scientific investigation give us empirical truths about, may often mean it’s a universal truth, and can be used by anyone or any intelligence in our local region and possibly very many billions of light years away, too. The findings of the sciences when truly established as real and existing, give the sciences and the technologies the very power of the universe itself. and they are backed up by the very laws of the universe, also. That is not a trival technology or method. & it’s one of the secrets and powerful methods which the scientific method can create.

From the child to the adult, that COMP creates the discoveries which allow us to learn & grow & develop. In the sciences and very likely in the arts, that COMP event creates much of what we call creativity. From Archimedes, to Newton, to Kepler and Einstein and many others, the COMP can be simply seen as the way discoveries are made. It’s the underpinning of creativity. When Edison through the same trial and error experiments found the electric light, he at last realized it with the carbon filament. He had the idea that running electricity thru the right substance would create a usable electric light. THAT was the COMP event. and from that same emotional charging up of the cortex, all the rest of what he found, too.

The COMP is an active process in the cortex always working to create understanding and make sense of events around it. In the event called Pareidolia, the brain can find animals and other common shapes in clouds. It can find the Old Man in the Mtn. in a granite stone formation in Vermont. It can find the Camelback shape of the Mountain in north Phoenix, AZ, and there are literally many 1000’s of such events, which the brain creates using the MofC. It’s working to associate, recognize and create patterns, actively when we are awake. Thiis is how it understands meanings in speech and words, and makes sense of much which is not understood. the COMP is an active function in our cortices. The COMP easily explains pareidolia.

COMP is how to create creativity. How the COMP understands understanding and comprehends comprehension. How we can talk about talking and think about thinking. How we can model a model. How we can think about language. Again, the same transitive, recursive processes, all underlain by the COMP . This is no accident of speech, as it shows the COMP relationships in the words which themselves use the COMP , & depend upon it to work.

Much work in Artificial Intelligence has finally been able to achieve basic, voice activated programs. The implications are endless. Voice activation means a computer is able to detect human words, compare them to a library it can create or already has of such sounds and perform the corresponding simple task. This is through and through machine COMP . The problem has been the AI professionals did not know what they had to do. They simply proceeded from trial and error, as do we all when being creative, to find a way to get the computer to recognize (COMP ) vocalizations we call words.

But to create creativity? It’s COMP as well, When computers can model human COMP for thinking and visual recognition, then they will be truly AI. and when they can create creativity thru the COMP algorithms, and humor, as well via the same COMP skills, then full AI will have been achieved. COMP is the one, very simple process which has been missed. & had we thought of it sooner, it could have been done years ago. But we did NOT know enough of what simple language and words and thinking and creativity were, and what their origins were, until recently.

Imagine the capabilities of a truly COMP creative computer, which at 10 GHz can find thousands of creative breakthroughs in a few minutes, compared to our 100-200 ms. brain processing speed. (The evoked potential, a cortical latency of recognition). With that massive increase in creativity AI could make progress and breakthroughs on a massive basis, not just for the programmers, but for all. And combined with a QC?

“Oh brave new world, that hath such people in it!”

For these reasons the COMP can be metaphorically termed Le Chanson Sans Fin, the Endless Song. & it might well be Le Chanson de la Terre et Le Chanson Universel, as well. It’s real. It’s confirmed billions of times a day, and it must be considered, studied, and extended, and then used to create better lives by the COMP creativity algorithm, which the next section will discuss further.

COMP creates creativity. It also creates humor. It also creates optical and sensory illusions via our visual cortex which works by comparing the images and shapes it perceives. The applications are as endless as the COMP can be repeatedly used. There is no limit to the application of the COMP . That is its power and its capability. Anything, be it internal events in our minds, or external events in existence can be compared to everything else.

Because this endless recursivity, the COMP models the universe, which is also endlessly recursive. Our universe is built of protons/electrons, neutrons (combining 1 each of the former) and neutrinos, the stable particles of the universe. and from each of these used together in all the myriad ways are created; the atoms, elements and isotopes from which mass in our universe is created. From those atoms came all the molecules of chemicals and biochemicals from which life itself is made. (10’s of millions of chemicals which have been EACH classified by the COMP .) Endlessly complex, based upon simple atoms and simple nucleons. Just as DNA is based upon 4 base pairs; just as proteins are based upon 3 codon segments for each amino acid, building up the complexity of cell membranes, ribosomes, chromosomes, the mitochondria that give energy to run the cells & the enzymes which do all the biochemical work of the cells. This enormously stable simplicity of the universe is unlimitted(from a human standpint), compared & described by the COMP . It models piece by piece, system by system, also. and has for 100’s of millions of years on this earth, too. and can for all places and times in our universe for the last 15-20 billions of years and for an equal time, very likely into the future.

When we understand how the COMP works to create language, order, and rules, even creativity, we find one thing. Every time we hear a joke and “get” the punch line, we have done a self-rewarding task. We get a bit of dopamine kick which the novelty gives us. We smile and may laugh. It’s self-reinforcing, so we like jokes, and we repeat them to see others get the same “kick” and experience that dopamine boost ourselves once again. When a child comes in from outside, and has found a new kind of bug or animal, he may say “Daddy!! Daddy!! Look what I found!”. How often have we heard that? That’s the kick of discovery, that momentary reward for finding something new, the thrill of novelty..

When Archimedes got into his bath, saw the water displaced by his body, and realized in that COMP moment, that displacement of water could be used to measure density, he cried out “Eureka, I have found it!”. Again, the dopamine, self reinforcing process, which each of us may feel when we reach that moment of understanding and discovery. The “pleasures of philosophy” which Aristotle wrote of when investigating the world by his methods. The COMP reinforces itself, and is probably responsible for our curiosity as well. & that of the other animals, too. Exploration is a survival tactic. If it’s rewarded, it will be done again. The dopamine kick of the COMP.

How vast and truly omnipresent and ubiquitous this COMP is, is therefore clear. And that it can create copies of itself, and proliferate by creating new order and new ways of understanding, is also clear. It’s plain that the COMP scan simplify down an huge amount of information. What was once dark and confusion, suddenly becomes lit by that bright bolide in the darkness, illuminating the skies of our clear reason to much of what was unknown before, but that light does not fade.

The COMP is endless and limitless. For every new word the child has, he can compare that to others. For every new idea the creativity of the COMP gives us it can compare those with all the others, to create more insights. And the more it creates, the more it proliferates, exponentiating to a much larger size. The math fomula is “X!”, one of the fastest expanding math series known. This is a secret hiding within the COMP. This is its power. A method which can potentially decode the universe, using a self-reinforcing dopamine kick to keep itself going and it can be performed endlessly to help us understand better and better, again and again, in endless reiterations, that complex universe outside of us, and that vast, biological complexity inside of us. Truly, it is “Ignothi Seauton.”

It may eventually form the basic of a unified understanding of almost everything, which it has already partly classified and partially understood. Le Chanson Universel, Sans Fin, de La Terre:The Comparison Process. The followng sections will extend further the creativity function of the COMP and many other observations and confirming substantiations.

End of Introduction: Le Chanson Sans Fin

Le Chanson Sans Fin, the Comparison Process, Pt. 2

Le Chanson Sans Fin, the Comparison Process

Part 2

 This mapping by COMP functions is present in most of the higher animals, as well, from elephants, to wildebeests, to birds, and in all species which are territorial, which is a great many of them, which set up their recognition of what is theirs, using the comparison process/function. This does not necessarily mean that the same brain structures in humans are the same which are used in other animals, but in the cases of the primates, it’s very likely very, very similar structurally, in our corresponding cortical cells columns and areas of the brain. 

 When we look at our time pieces, we compare what is going on, to what we see there. We tell time by the COMP. How often is this done by normal working people, each day? We compare local time to UTI in Greenwich, as well. The COMP is widespread, it’s general, it’s universal for our species.  

 It has created languages in the same way, using different rules in many cases, different sounds and tonalities, but each language in its own way is a self consistent system  created by the COMP, created steadily from the very simple in our infancies, to the complex and markedly flexible and capable vocabularies we use professionally in most major fields. It’s the COMP.

 When we want to understand something, we say it in words, and each of these is ONLY meaningful in the context of other words. When we comprehend some event, it’s the same thing. We can talk about talking. We can think about thinking, we can create creativity, & we can understand understanding. & we can compare a comparison, we can explain understanding. We can model modeling. It’s all self-consistent, unlimitted in the number of times we can do it, and self-reflexive as well.  When we are aware of something, we can think & talk about it. The baby’s awareness is minimal at birth but rapidly grows as it begins to talk, learn and compare words to events around it. The words act as stable platforms upon which more words can be added, each meaningful in terms of other words. Each defined by other already existing words.

 Analysis is simply COMP written large in various different ways. To be aware or conscious of something, means it fits into our model of the world around us, built up by ideas/words/images, from our sensory impressions. It’s predominatly the COMP which does all of this. 

 When there are these many 100’s of millions of COMP examples, this is confirmation on a grand scale, that the COMP is real and working in our cortex. Why something this simple, this basic has been ignored for so long is remarkable, but then again, so was air ignored by our species for 1000’s of years, too, until about the 1700’s. & if air can be ignored, so omnipresent and common, then so can the COMP, too. It’s there, it’s real and it’s always at work. 

 Our laws of morality are based upon a COMP. This system tells us how to relate to others, and how to behave. If we steal, or lie, or are dishonest or cheat, we can in every case compare this to the rules we are taught by language and comparing to real events, to judge if we are wrong or not. This cortical function of the conscience, to which lawful behaviors and rules also apply, is in the frontal lobes of the brain. If the frontal lobes are damaged, then lawful/moral behaviors decline to slovenly appearances, no respect for others or oursevles & asocial often antisocial behaviors & so forth, little short of sociopathy. Again, a cortical function with a cortical origin using  the COMP. 

 Our large structures of legal laws are built upon the same process of comparison, endlessly, be it the English, American, or Napoleonic codes. When a cop stops someone for breaking the red light law, he recognizes this breach by the COMP, and tickets him & that’s COMP. COMP can rule and govern and enforce, too. The method of enforcement of the laws is implicit in the COMP. And so on and on. It organizes society by these legal and moral injunctions, by the COMP . And this is in every case. using the COMP creates a body of laws and induces people to understand them and use them. We compare what others do and find/realize whether they are behaving, or not. These examples all come from and have in common, the COMP for their creation, structuring and compliance and existence. This is no accident. Again this tester for the socially appropriate, the COMP checker,  is in our frontal lobes by clinical evidence. Further, in normal people we can appeal in social ways that they “keep on the straight and narrow”. And so these individuals correct their behaviors, accordingly. The COMP can enforce and control this order. It can actually GOVERN behaviors, as anyone who has corrected a child can immediately see. The COMP is a governor of the brain as well. not only does it create the order of the higher cortical functions, but it has checking and testing functions, also, which can internalize socially appropriate behaviors, diction and grammar in language, and watch skills as they are being performed, correcting each & every one of them, too. The COMP acting out of our cortex serves to order, organize and create higher functions and it can also govern and correct them in process, as well. 

 The universe can also be modelled by a similar system of laws, observed and confirmed, which shows us the behaviors, characteristics and various stable parts and processes in the universe. We compare & refer to (another COMP based word) new events to those which we find and find that they are indeed consistent with, ie, they compare closely with the gravitation, or laws of motion and so forth. It’s the same system of organization. So it’s very clear that cortical brain organization and systems are bound by the COMP, from start to finish. 

 The key to understanding the COMP is that it’s a process, not an event or thing. It compares ideas, words, images, events, etc. In doing so it expends energy in our cortex where the comparison work is being done. In doing so, it can order thoughts, and that is the anti-entropic event which a process which creates order must be able to do. It creates order. By creating methods of classification by comparison. By creating indices to organize books and other related systems. By expending energy it creates order, and is anti-entropic. This is the key to creativitiy. This is the key to organizing and controling and governing. It reverses entropy by doing the work of comparison in the cortex. & more energy is required to write out the laws, and disseminate them. Quite within the laws of Thermodynamics and physics. 

 We know this COMP occurs in the cortex of the brain. We can easily Identify  many of the places which specific functions are going on such as speech, visual image processing, hearing of music, sensation, motor control and so forth. Specifically where this occurs within the 5 layer, neuronal/physiological structure of the cortex is not known. But now we know where and what to look for. A system of neural connections, which cannot only store memories, but which can compare them, considering them at least 2 at a time or more. At present time we do not know  how the cortex works. But we know NOW where to look and what to look for, so the job is half done. We have to means now to idnetify the exact neurophysiology of the COMP and by extension, thinking and analysis and the very roots of cortical consciousness. That’s no mean redirection of investigation. 

 The COMP is therefore seen as a great unifying process going on in our brains, which creates most of these grand schemes in all of their flexibility & complexity, based upon comparing real events, images & perceptions and categories of events in the brain. From the simplicity of the  COMP, comes the complexities of the mind and brain. Let us consider the thermodynamics of this method, which can take a basic function, the COMP from the widespread usage of it in doing much of our high level processing.

 Essentially, the COMP  creates order from chaos. It can order the universe for us by its endless capacity to be repeated. In order to create order by the laws of thermodynamics, there must be in energy input. At that point where the COMP makes the comparison, which allows the dictionary, or encyclopedia or book index to be ordered by the alphabetization rules, the cortex does the COMP. THAT is the process using energy which creates the decreased disorder. This should be measurable in the brain cortex. Creating order costs energy and the brain’s physiology uses this energy to create a new word, a new concept, or even a sentence, but the process uses energy and the active process of the COMP is the key to understanding what does it. 

 Shannon’s information theory stated that essentially, the entropy of information is directly related to how much it restricts a description of an event in existence. In other words, order is increased by using the COMP, which acts according to and within the known laws of thermodynamics in our cortex. Nothing unlawful is going on here. In fact, it’s what we’d expect to happen. All of the neurophysiology is there to do it and order is created. It’s possible to use this massive order creating process to create order in books. That indexing capacity can be given a thermodynamic value, also. & it can be measured and studied. This is all very real, you see. Recognition of the COMP and how it works allows us to trace drerctly from speech and language to the exact places in the cortex where the COMP is working. And then to trace throughout the brain where similar COMP is ongoing. 

 In other animals from the arthropods, to fish to the higher mammals, we recognize that they set up territories . They know the landmarks from their sensory inputs of their environment and they know what is theirs. They know(COMP) because they recognize their territories. They recognize mates, predators, food, and so forth. In each case, the dog knows his master’s sound, his footsteps, his smell, his voice. and he compares these to his LTM and he recognizes his master and family. All of the animals can do this recognition in some way, from the at least the arthropods & fish on up. So it’s a VERY widespread COMP. and it unifies us all in that basic respect. In the arthropods, we know we have seen territoriality in the crabs and other crustaceans. These are 100’s of millions of years old. Even the sea anemones and corals will limit their competition by attacking their non-self neighbors, establishing territoriality. By whatever means, they recognize self, from non-self, and maintain their piece of intertidal zone or coral reef. Recognition means COMP in some form is operating  This dates the COMP capability, in whatever biochemical/neural form it was created for each species, back to at least 600 million years ago in the Pre-Cambrian period. This kind of ancient evidence for its existence is not trivial. Essentially, it’s always been with life on earth at least in the multicellular form. 

 But there is more, far, far more. When the Rosetta stone was found, it carried the same message in 3 symbolic languages. The top was Ptolemaic Egyptian hieroglyphs. The middle, Egyptian demotic, a sort of cursive writing for legal and common events, and the last was Hellenistic Greek which was known.  Champollion and Young deciphered the hieroglyphics and the demotic by the COMP and trial and error, which is the same thing. They compared pharoah’s names in the cartouches to the names they knew in the lower Greek section  and confirmed all of it, Slowly, carefully over the years, they were able to develop from very simple words and letters the complex language of the ancient Egyptians which had been lost. Does this sound familiar to how babies learn language? It’s not a coincidence. T

 he lost languages of the Hittites, Sumerian, cuneiform systems and even Linear B have been decoded using the COMP in the same way, steadily building up the language. Recapping the same way we have all learned language as children. The endless comparing, the trials and errors, the eventually creating of a consistent system for the Egyptian language. COMP all through. 

 It’s been found recently that bottlenosed porpoises, Tursiops truncatus (as they are classified), also uses language. This was found, not surprisingly, using trial and error and the COMP. When animal ethologists were observing and recording porpoise whistles, they heard a series of repeated whistles. When they recorded and then played each of them back, the whistles alerted & corresponded(COMP) to some individuals, specifically. That is they compared what happened to the porpoises when their suspected names were played back and found they responded to them. The findings were well past highly significant. The dolphins use the COMP as do we. They have names which compare to individuals. and when we begin to learn their porpoise language, we will find the COMP as central to their use and development of language as do we. This is not a coincidence. This is the power of a most ancient and capable COMP system. Which even the brightest animals have, including our primate cousins. And the whales and dolphins are far, far older than we are.

Le Chanson Sans Fin: The Comparison Process–Introduction, Pt. 1

 Le Chanson Sans Fin: The Comparison Process–Introduction, Pt. 1 

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

 “Every fundamental advance in physics was preceded by an epistemological advance.”–Albert Einstein

  “Almost anything which jogs us out of our current abstractions, is a good thing.”–Lord North, Alfred Whitehead, co-author of the Principia Mathematica.

  “Ignothi seauton.” Know yourself.–Socrates, 5th C. BC

  “There is no royal road to understanding. You have to do the work.”–Anon.   

Part 1: 

The Comparison Process (COMP) is likely to be the predominant,  high level, cortical function/process of the brain, which subsumes language, thinking, creativity, visual perceptions, associations, and perceptions of laws, morality, music, creativity and many other high level cortical functions. It lies directly on the neurophysiology/cortex interface between brain & mind. 

The COMP is very simple. From this simple process, languages of any kind can be created. Education, teaching, learning, discovery and creativity can arise from COMP. It is basically a strategic, active process used in the cortices of the brain to do everything from operation of the motor and sensory cortex, to consciousness & the conscience and much else besides. The COMP does not create the emotions, altho the cortex clearly modulates and can control them. It’s a very simple process, recursive & reiterative, not a thing or object, but an active function, and from this simplicity all the rest can be built.  

Einstein wrote that no time nor space was absolute. In order to measure time and space we must start with a fixed reference point, a point relative to which we measure, a point which is arbitrary and then measure from there. In the same way, our cortex starts with the sensory inputs and compares them with each other to create our consciousness, language, and much else. For instance, when we use words we use the COMP, largely. We hear sounds as babies, and begin to imitate them as our mothers teach us to talk. She corrects & develops our language from the simple words, to the more complex by example, correction and addition of words. By the time we are in our teens we have a good command of the language, and can create and add to it on our own. As ontogeny recaps philogeny in our bodies’ development from infant to adult, so do our basic language skills develop by adding more and more words, and more and more language skills, from the simple, to the complex vocabuaries of language.  

The COMP is there from the first in the cortex and is the built in structural process of all languages, which is why babies from any race/locale can learn any language. The method is built into the cortex and is the COMP. When we hear  words we compare those to words in our verbal Long Term Memory (LTM) and we understand what a word means by comparing it to those already there.  If not, then we ask the person to tell us what the word means, by using other words with which we are already familiar. i.e., we compare the words we already know for a definition of the new word. Definition is COMP. No word is an island. No word stands alone, to paraphrase John Donne. Each word is given meaning by other words, and each word is & can be defined by other words. Each word must be compared to other words for meaning, otherwise there is no meaning. Words are highly contextual for this reason. A language is probably a complex system of related words. 

 For instance, take a noun, a verb and the object following the verb, the usual grammatical sentence.  

The Tree stop orange. 

 It makes no sense at all. Still the grammar is there, a noun subject, a verb, and an object. But it makes no sense despite that proper grammatical construction. Now why? Because none of the words relate to each other at all. Without these relationships the words are meaningless in this case. Change the sentence to “The orange tree stopped growing.” and anyone can see the line is understandable. All the relationships are there. It’s a tree, an orange tree. Living trees can stop growing for many reasons. It makes sense now because the words can all be “compared” to each other using the COMP very quickly, and we have a normal, comprehendable sentence. We created the sense by arranging a set of words which allowed those “meaningful” relationships to be read and understood. 

 Grammar does NOT necessarily create meaning. That’s the point here. It’s the relationships among the words which do that. Whatever creates a meaningful sentence must create a meaningful relationship among the words. No one can talk about “steely” when talking about tree bark. But about a person’s eyes? Again, highly contextual, created by the COMP creating relationships among the words to give meaning. 

 In “Jabberwocky”  by Lewis Carroll, we read the words:

 “Twas brillig and the slithy toves did gyre and gimble in the wabe. All Mimsy were the borogoves and the mome raths outgrabe.” 

Again, all of the grammar is correct, but there is absolutely no meaning. It has form, but like in the first sentence, no meaning. Grammar does NOT create meaning. and this has been the crowbar in the metal gears for trying to understanding language. Get rid of the sole “grammar” requirement, and everything starts to make sense.

  Contextuality is the capacity of words to have many meanings depending upon their context, i.e,, the words around them which they can be compared to. 

CF.: “I CAN do it.”;  The beans were in the CAN.”;  (Another, but rather rude phrase “CAN” related to the WC); and lastly, “He saw the Can-can.” 

There it is. Understanding of language is based upon the relationships among the words for meaning and context. The grammar is a red herring, a false lead, a distraction. 

 When my beloved g’ma had a stroke affecting her speech output area, Broca’s, she could still talk. She’d say something like ” I go sit.” meaning she wanted to sit down. The grammar is bad, but the meaning was still intact. These instances show that it’s the relationships of the words which give meaning, NOT grammar, which can give form, but not meaning, necessarily. 

 When one uses the COMP all of this becomes clear, as well. When we speak we are constantly comparing the words to each other to make sense. That means the active process of the COMP is being used all the time to imbue the string of words with meaning. And if the right words are used, then meaning will result from the relationships among them which are possible despite the bad grammar. 

 Take a look at our dictionaries. They use words to define words. They define each word by comparing it to others of known meaning. The dictionaries provide Synonyms, the words which mean much the same, with their mostly connotated differences, The large books called Thesauri are made up of whole collections of these Synonyms, all based upon the COMP. The Antonyms, which are opposites, again COMP. & then there are the Homonyms, pun forming, sound alike words/combinations, which can create the double entendre and are the source of much humor. Again, another instance of an unsuspected new kind of word, wherein the words create far more than was in them from the beginning. 

 The dictionary is organized by alphabetical means. This means a word starting with a “c” is compared & located to the 3rd section beginning with all such words. The next letter is found, an ‘o” and then one turns to the “c” words followed with an “o” after the “C”. The next letter, is searched for, comparing the words until one gets to “com”, and so on until one gets to “comparison”

 The method is self-consistent and reflexive. Comparisons can be compared, endlessly. It’s very self organizing. Because there is no absolute meaning, and all words must be compared to other words for their meaning, it makes complete sense. No word is an island. No word stands alone.. Meaning is best gained by comparison of words to others, i.e., definitions. In the same way we derive distance, speed & time by comparing to fixed, but arbitrary standards, so do the meanings of words rely upon other words. We define words by other words, comparing the meanings of the phrases to create the definitions. No word can possibly stand alone. What would it mean? Meaning is created by comparing to other words with meanings.

 And so the list of words grows & grows as more and more categories are recognized, filled with words which fit into each category. Overall, this is COMP. It creates words by showing us new events/new relationships, and so forth. It builds new words by discoveries of new events, new meanings, and so forth. The structure function- relationship is itself a comparison. Definitions are comparisons. Contrasting and differences in meaning are established by comparison. 

 Essentially, we use words to communicate with others, not ourselves.. It’s a social activity. The words created and learned are then stored in the LTM, which creates a stable, recallable, recognizable entity, a word, which reflects a concept/idea/image or event in existence. These are models for events in existence and is the way our higher cortical functions in our brains are organized. It is nothing less than the fundamental way we process information, i.e., think. This may well mean that in practice, language is a complex system. With literally 100,000’s of words in most technical and advanced languages, the complex interactions of these words with other words in sentences, often creating new meanings and new discoveries, very likely shows this. 

 When we recall words wrongly, wanting to say cryolite and instead say rhyolite, These errors show us how words are stored in our verbal memories. When trying to recall words, we often get words which are near to it, but not it. Koskiusko, or tabasco or something similar for “capsaicin” the active ingredient in chiles. Note that this means that most words are stored by sound. They may rhyme, or sound similiarly, and so when reaching for a word we want from verbal memory, we refer to a storage cache of similar words, and get the wrong one, time to time. The words can be stored in many different ways and categories, too. Thinking of States in the South, we get a different word storage cache from States on the east coast. All of these associations of words that we know and the ideas behind them are likely mostly stored this way. 

 Any kind of error, be it a genetic error creating a disorder, or other conditions, creates a new opportunity to compare that genetic disorder to the normal. Any new finding which can be compared to normals or other conditions, can create new insights, simply because it allows the COMP to be used again in a new way. In some mouse models, researchers use mutagens to create genetic changes. Then they back cross the offspring of that mouse to bring out the recessives created by the mutagens. This often results in interesting findings, by this method of genetic error creation, which is little more than one more of the myriads of types of COMP. Any difference from what we see normally, any finding which is unusual can be of this value, simply because it permits the COMP to be used on one more event, one more situation, to enlighten us. 

 Encyclopedias are organized the same way as dictionaries. This is not a trivial example of the COMP, either. When we speak, we find words in our LTM (Long Term Memory) which we use to express our thoughts. The words give language via our LTM a stable platform from which it can grow. When we view the dictionary, when we listen, the same process goes on. We hear words, compare them to those we know and derive meaning from the multiple, fluent, automatic comparisons we make. When we read, we see letters/symbols which phonetically correspond, ie. compare, to words we already know. When we write, we reverse this process, finding words in the verbal LTM which we then write down and create writing. From start to finish when we speak and think and hear using language, we are constantly comparing each word to other words & their meanings AND relationships, which we already know.

  When we see something familiar, it’s familiar because we have a LTM item which allows us to recognize it. Recognition is a COMP. Whenever recognition is seen, it’s COMP in every testable case. Everyone uses the COMP 1000’s of times daily in these instances. When we see a face, we compare it to our library of faces in the right inferior temporal cortex where those are found. If this area is damaged badly, we will not be able to recognize faces. If verbal memory is damaged by strokes or other injuries we lose parts or all of speech. If visual cortex is damaged we can no longer do the comparison processing of the images to see. If motor/sensory cortex is damaged we can no long move or feel on the affected side relative to the brain injury. If the right hemispheric sensory strip is damaged, we might not even realize we HAVE a left side at all!!  

  In every case there is a structure/function relationship between the COMP to cortical functions in the brain. If there is a function, such as sight, or sensation, or movement of a body part, or smell, or hearing, there exists a corresponding part of our cortex which subsumes these higher functions.  In this way, by comparing those persons with damage in specific areas of the brain, we have found this to be an inviolable rule. For every function of the brain we can detect, there is a corresponding area(s) which create that function. Therefore we can be sure that the COMP resides in the cortices of the brain, and that it operates there wherever there is intact, functional cortex.

 From this simple COMP, operating in many different ways, all based upon the simple 100’s of 1000’s of cortical cell columns, again, massively reduplicated, we find higher level cortical functions, such as speech, hearing, music, memory, motor/sensory functions, thinking and processing of information of all sorts. In most every case, it’s COMP or a variant of it. For instance, when we classify all species of living forms, we have created an immensely complicated classification system, based upon the COMP. Every organism we see, unless it’s a new one, can be classified by observing it, noting its size, shape, color and other major characteristics, including genetics, and then refer by COMP to the classification of all biological forms, and find it. Each part of this immense, organized, well ordered system was built up by using the COMP on a massive scale. Every single known species has been observed, studied, and compared to many others, to find out where it fits. This is massive COMP. As there are millions of such bacteria, plants, microrganisms, and animals, this is millions of instances of confirmations of the use of the COMP. It shows that from the simple COMP a huge, orderly classification scheme can be organized & ordered/created from disorder.

 COMP creates order from chaos. It shows how categories are created by the COMP to hold vast numbers of events within each of them. From trees to bacteria to the huge numbers of millions of insects, mostly beetles, the Coleoptera. All this vast order, like language, has been created simply by comparing each form of life to the others. It can be repeated and referred to endlessly. It can be made to include extinct life forms as well. It can be done without limit, just like our words and number systems, also created by the COMP without limit. The COMP has created our entire system of classification of all living things simply by the COMP used again and again. This is not a trivial proof. 

 In the Hertzsprung Russell Diagram of the stars, literally 10,000’s of stars have been compared to each other to establish the Main Sequence of stars and upon this scheme almost all stars can be fitted. A similar system exists for the galaxies and all those other event such as planets, comets, nebulae, nova/supernoava remnants, etc. Literally, the COMP can be used to catalog and organize everything we can observe, and it has & continues to do so. Inside All of us, Everywhere.

  The elements and chemical compounds based upon them are compared and classified extensively by the rules of the IUPAC system. The Periodic table of the elements and isotopes is the result of this.  Many of the elements, such as the noble gases, the halides, the highly reactive gases such as flourine, chlorine, iodine, and the ferrous metals, to name just a few, have close relationships to the other similar elements. This is 10’s of millions more  confirmations from each chemical found and so classified by comparing it to the rules & structures in chemistry.  

The COMP underlies our creation of & reading of maps, which are set up to compare to physical landmarks & guide us about. For every landmark, address, or other characteristic, there has been this COMP  function used. and when we use/read the map, we look to the physical references we see around us and then compare them to the map to see which way to go. Using a compass is much the same thing.