Optical/Sensory ILLusions, Creativity and the COMP

Optical and Sensory Illusions, Creativity and the Comparison Process (COMP )

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

Optical illusions are “glitches” or errors, in our visual system’s processing of retinal images. This can potentially give important insights into just how our visual cortex processes images from the retina. In the same way that a genetic error can give insights into how normal gene products function, by providing a comparison to normal, so these visual processing errors can also provide insights.

Several of these optical illusions have been presented before, but will go over them once again to provide the foundation for new insights into visual cortical processing. First, the lunar illusion is seen when a full or nearly full moon is just above the horizon, It appears to be larger than when it’s in the sky. The dispelling, correcting, or comparing step is easy to do in this case. Hold up a meter rod, or something similar to it which is graded, and measure the maximum width of the moon above the horizon and then when it’s up in the sky. This will provide a comparison method which will show that it’s an illusion.

Second, there is an illusion which is created when several regular off centered boxes are interposed between straight lines. It creates the illusion that the lines are not straight. Simply laying down a clear plastic straight edge on a printout of the illusion will by Comparison show that at least 2 of the lines are straight, dispelling & correcting this illusion.

Go down the list to the one just under “Jesus illusions”, called “Line illusions”. The one you see is referred to here.

A motion illusion is created when sitting stopped at a light, while in a car, next to a large truck or bus. If the large vehicle begins to move forward, we get a motion illusion that the car is moving backwards. By comparing this illusion to a street sign or something fixed next to the road, the illusion at once is dispelled by the correcting comparison.

If we have a bit of metal in our pocket on a cooler day, & we reach into the pocket and touch part of the metal, we can get an illusion of wetness. Only by feeling around for wetness/liquid and finding none, and feeling the metal’s shape, such as a coin, is the illusion dispelled by this correcting comparison.

If we hear an echo and we move towards it, we can dispel the echo by finding out the actual source of it, the correcting comparison.

Another interesting illusion is that called the Checkerboard illusion, of a green(or gray), stubby cylinder resting on a shaded checkerboard square.

http://www.slate.com/blogs/bad_astronomy/2013/12/07/optical_illusion_shades _of_grey.html (Phil Plait’s great website.)

Scroll down to this one and the one above, which ALSO, the Cornsweet Illusion, shows the correcting comparison, which, as predicted by the COMP model, corrects it.

In the Checkerboard ILLusion two of the squares, one inside and one outside of the shade from the cylinder, look to be different gray shades. The correcting comparison is created by joining the two squares with the same shade of gray, thus showing they are the same. The comparison derangement is created by each square being simultaneously compared to a different shade of gray, the one being in the shade, the other outside of it. This very Clearly demonstrates the comparison process which has gone awry, and why it’s a very good demonstration of the COMP going on the visual cortex, where all optical illusions are imaged.

All illusions, be they visual, hearing, touching and so forth, are capable of being dispelled by a simple comparison test. Sometimes there is more than one kind of correcting comparison which will work. All visual illusions are created by the comparison process operating in the visual cortex, even if it arises in the retina, in the case of looking at opposite colors, such as purple and yellow objects which are persistently gazed at, and the gaze at once shifts to a white paper target. Simply by waiting for the rhodopsin color pigments of the retina to normalize, the illusion just fades away. Again, the correcting comparison.

The comparison process creates these sensory illusions and can correct them, too. Each illusion can be categorized simply by the kind of illusion it is, and the way in which the illusion is comparison corrected. Once the comparison correction and its corresponding illusion type are categorized, broadly, pattern recognition, will be created by our cortical comparison processors. & then we will begin to understand more and more about how images of all types arise, i.e., edges, lines, shapes, colors, shading, etc. & will give us very likely a much deeper understanding of what kinds of processes are going on in the visual cortex which create the images we see.

Literally, tho, an unlimited number of visual illusions can be created, just because the comparison process is capable of working in an unlimited way every time we see something. This has created a huge number of illusions to work through, but by using this process of illusion/correcting comparison method we should begin to see patterns, and then be able to understand more.

Once we understand visual comparison processes, then we will be given insights into all sorts of cortical comparison processes, such as language, hearing, creativity, memory organization, and so forth, endlessly. That is because the human cortical cell columns, with the exception 2 changes in the motor cortex, are all fundamentally very similar in origin and structure, created out of 5 layers of complex neuronal connections and kinds. This organization must relate directly to function in some way, a structure/function relationship, a COMP. This will allow us to further investigate the exacting neurophysiological processes and connections going on the cortical cell layers of the visual cortex. And that will give us insights into the functioning of the slightly different cortices for the major, functioning areas of the brain. This will give us the structure function relationship between the neurophysiology and how it’s converted to what we see. That is, it will begin to enlighten us specifically as to how the mind works from a neurophysiological basis. This will further permit a good, scientifically valid and reliable understanding of the mind/brain interface. That is the power of the comparison process.

Our cortical cell columns (and similar ones in the great apes and dolphins) exist in 100,000’s of numbers in the gyri of our brain, doing basically one process, the COMP, but with many different variations which can lead to hearing musical notes, or speaking or understanding language, reading (where dyslexia is the key to understanding reading COMPs, again the error of dyslexia can show us the way to understanding normal reading processing by the COMP), our sense of conscience, our consciousness insofar as that uses the Comparison Process.
It will be a LOT of work, trial and error, but that’s how our brain works, and with a better understanding of comprehension, will come many good things in education and medical applications.

Creativity and the COMP

Where does creativity come from? What exactly is the mental process which creates it? The Comparison Process can provide some very good insights. First, consider Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, which includes the COMP in it. Einstein held and proved that all distance and time measurements had to arise from having a single, arbitrary point from which we measured distance and time. There was no absolute space or time. When we measure distance, we start at a specific spot in space, and measure from that. Using a ruler, we set it down next to what we want to measure, and COMPARE the length of the object we are measuring against the ruler. It’s a comparison process. With the tape measure we can measure longer distances by making the same comparison against the tape. With an odometer we can also measure this by subtracting the starting distance from the ending distance of the trip. Using a trip odometer, we simply push the button to zero it, thus establishing our starting point from which we compare the distance. In most all cases, measurement is a comparison process, a COMP.

Relativity is called relativity because we measure relative to a fixed point, either in space, or time. Time is a COMP, also, and has been addressed in the Intro of “Le Chanson Sans Fin” Part 1″, already. Relativity is thus a Comparison Process.

When Einstein realized that all measures of distance and time were related to a fixed arbitrary site he got rid of Newton’s absolute space and time postulate. That was his first creative insight & creative leap. It was his first major creative breakthrough. From there things began to get interesting. In “Cosmos” by Carl Sagan, we were taken through Einstein’s thought experiment of what things look like riding on a photon, compared to a normal spot on the earth. He showed that the Lorentz-Fitzgerald equations were in fact what happened when one moved faster and faster close to the speed of light. Time slows down relative to the earth. The Twin paradox was found to be the case. This was based upon a Comparison between time and events on earth compared to speeding up to near light speed.. Again, the comparison of the two created his understanding of a real, physical process.

Then he realized that being in a gravitational field of 9.8 m./Sec.Sq. was the equivalent to accelerating in any vehicle at 9.8 m./sec.Squared. He compared the two and realized it was the same. Again, the COMP. & from that came the rest of his Relativity model. When one is on the surface of the earth, processes operate at a set, fixed time compared to a standard clock. When one is on a high earth orbit, gravity is lessened, and time speeds up, compared to that on earth. Again, the Comparison Process.

Now look, is this a coincidence, that most all measurement is a COMP, that comparing time/mass effects at great speed compared to those on earth, another COMP, and that gravitational forces/acceleration are equivalent, yet ANOTHER COMP, and that time goes faster in a lower gravitational field when compared to a higher gravitational field, yet another COMP? Of course not. Einstein’s creativity rested upon the realization of the importance of 4 basic findings, each of them arising when he made just the right COMP, to create his Relativity. Therefore, Einstein’s creativity which led to Relativity is based upon use of the COMP.

When Charles Darwin on the Galapagos Isles, by his own writing, said that he saw the Finches there, which when he compared them to each other, were very clearly related and in thinking about it, had clearly come from the same, initial species, it was when he had his Eureka moment, just like Einstein. Again, the Comparison Process created the insight. Wallace, who created his version of Evolutionary model from his observations on the isolated isles of Indonesia, found the same thing. By comparing many different species of plants and animals and finding that they too, had common anatomy and forms, and this meant common ancestors. Again, the COMP.

When Archimedes eluded death from the king of Syracuse, who believed his goldsmith had adulterated the gold in his newly made crown, it was again, clearly the COMP. He was threatened with death if he couldn’t prove the crown was adulterated gold or not, the goldsmith having stolen the difference. When he sat down into his bath, his body displaced a volume of water. He at once realized that all materials have volume, and that by measuring (COMP) the volume displaced by water, he could determine a new quantity, called Density, which is mass divided by volume, or grams/cm.cubed. in today’s physics. Not only were his measurements the COMP, but so was his basic arithmetic and algebra the Comparison Process, as was his realization at that historical “Eureka!” moment, that he could solve the problem by displacing the same weight of gold with water and doing the same with the gold crown, and by COMPARING the difference, determine if gold had been replaced in the king’s crown with a base, less dense metal.

Now look, is it reasonable to conclude that the Comparison Process clearly used throughout this creative discovery of density by Archimedes is a sheer coincidence? No! The COMP lies at the heart and core of most all known, testable creativity. It’s simple, it explains a very great deal and very efficiently, too. It can do a very great deal with a single, basic form of processing, the Comparison.

One more case: that of Thomas Edison’s extraordinary career as an inventor. That is, his creativity process. When Edison found the electric light he transformed human life. Darkness was dispelled and illumination efficiently created without risk of fire and with ease of use. It was his greatest discovery. But what was the creative leap which he took, which created the electric light? The Comparison Process gives us this insight. He used a lot of electricity. He had seen that when electricity of high voltage and current ran through metal wire it made it glow. And he reasoned, using the COMP, what if we use a lot more electricity, and make it glow very brightly? THAT was the creative leap, comparing a bit of power making the wire glow red, to a lot of power creating a bright light. It took him much trial and error to find the carbon filament which lasted some 80 hours, but he did. It took longer for us to find tungsten filaments which would last even longer, using the same trial and error seeking the outcome desired, by the Comparison Process. But there it is.

By extension, using the COMP, most all creativity is COMP, creative writing, the use of language to create meaning and explanation, composition of music, creation of all art. It’s the COMP. Creativity is at its very roots, its very wellspring, the COMP. It’s arrived at with all the great inventors of new ideas, they simply have that moment, when they put the right ideas/observations together and out it comes, the new, revolutionizing idea. Be it Relativity, or Quantum Mechanics, or the electric light, Evolution, or the creation of the idea of density. It all has the same, common source, operating in the cortices of our brains. If we can speak language, we can create a string of words which makes sense and describes formerly unknown events/ideas. If we can understand this new string of words, then we have made a discovery of something new, too. It’s all the same cortical process, the COMP.

The COMP unites all sciences and the arts. It unites all languages and mathematics. It unites us with all the living creatures on our planet who use the COMP to recognize territories, to identify food, to see predators and avoid them, at every high level function, to survive. At the biochemical level, the creation of new life, reproduction, is at the DNA level, a form biochemical of the Comparison Process. It’s very simple, but it does almost everything important to us. This is no accident, as has been described more fully before in “Le Chanson…” And it gives us a very unifying, deeply comprehending, with simplicity above all, about how to understand/comprehend, speak, read, order from chaos, organize almost everything we do. From the very elementary particles, to the atoms, to the elements, to the tens of millions of UIPAC compounds, to the very classification of the millions of genus/species of all living forms and viruses, to the very trillions and trillions of Stars (Hertzsprung/Russell Diagram), to our millions of words, dictionaries, thesauri, all indices and encyclopedias. It creates life, it organizes life taking chaos and creating order, it organizes and controls our minds and the very cells which make up our brains. It is the Comparison Process, unifying, universal, generalizing, comprehending. And when we travel outwards into space over the next 1000’s of years, we will meet other space faring species, eventually, and we will create an understanding of their languages using the COMP, as will they create from ours. The COMP unites us with all the universe. It’s a universal decoder of all languages and events. The Comparison Process.

The Comparison Process: Explananda, Pt. 2

La Chanson Sans Fin: The Comparison Process: Explananda, Pt. 2

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

21. In terms of the Comparison Process what are skills? From first hand experience in a number of fields, they are short cuts, algorithms, &/or methods will allow the user to function faster, more efficiently, more carefully and above all, more creatively in the field. Discovery hones the perceptivity, the COMP , because you are always searching for those events and ideas which will give you the answers. You get better and better at it, with the better methods built into your skills.

22. Let’s take counting pennies as a way of showing the various skills which can be developed and created by using the Comparison Process, showing the abundance of creative new ways we can do our tasks. Then understand how this example shows how, in its each unique way, the skills of all professional trades and professions can be developed.

We have many coins. So we see pennies, nickels, dimes, quarters and even a few half dollars. Using the Comparison Process, and previous learning of what coins are what, we can sort out the pennies from the rest. Sorting is a Comparison Process. Now we have to get the pennies into coin rolls. So, how do we do this? A direct approach is to simply count out 50 coins, 1 thru 50, and then drop them into the roll and seal it. But, let’s ask how a professional would do it. He’d may count them not one at a time but by 5’s, simply seeing the number by grouping 2 and 3 pennies. Then pile up the first groups into 10 penny stacks. Then count it up again and pile into the 2nd 10 penny stack, until there are 5 of them, and then putting them into the penny coin roll. Then the next. But there are other ways, thus showing the complexity of the skill and how it can be used in different ways to count pennies. He has to check and test at every point, to be sure of his count, too.

He has the first coin stack of 10 pennies. He notes that since all pennies are closely struck to be very much alike, any stack of 10 pennies is the same height. So using the 10 stacks he puts up 4 more without even counting. and by using the COMP, makes sure they are all the same height. He has counted the coins, without counting the coins!! Comparison Process, a Powerful tool. And so he does this again and again until the pennies are all counted & in rolls. & saves a LOT of time, again, the Least Energy Principle (LEP).

Other tools for coin counting would be plastic coin cylinders for 50 pennies, 100 dimes, 40 quarters, etc., each marked for the right heights of the different coins; or use a mechanical coin separator which does it lots more quickly, for those who must save lots of time, such as banks, supermarkets and large businesses.

23. In every case a skill can be improved using the Comparison Process to find faster ways, better, more efficient ways of doing a task. This is called, when more fully developed, having a skill, a profession, because the practitioner knows very much faster, better ways to do all the important tasks, having learned of these creative methods by teaching, or in many more cases, having created more himself, for their each unique way of performing the “skills upon skills” seen in skilled work of all types. Exactly how words are built up, exactly how language is created, exactly which underlies all the musical styles, and artistic work, too. Same process, endlessly repeated in education and training, and so on and so forth. Comparison Process. & there it is. Le Chanson Sans Fin.

24. Let’s take musical composition, for instance. Each composer has a set of methods, or skills, which he uses to create music. These determine his style of composition which we can easily hear. The composition of music uses the Comparison Process to create the lyricism, the flows of melody and rhythm which mark his style. Each major classical composer is at once recognized when listened to by a musician or experience amateur. The same is often true of popular music of all sorts. We use the COMP to do this, time and again. Beethoven’s music is often richly rhythmical, esp. in his 5th and 9th Symphonies. The music of Rachmaninoff has many richly lyrical and drifting melodies, esp. in his 2nd Symphony. He starts out the section just after the Scherzo with one of his most lovely and beautifully orchestrated melodies. It just drifts on and on, making one variation on the theme after another. The music of Ralph Vaughn Williams in his 3rd Symphony does much the same. And it’s a free association of one melodic variation after another, just like in the Rachmaninoff section. It just flows, a moving, streaming melody. A sort of stream of consciousness in melody.

And good writing is a lot like that. It flows from one idea to the next, cleanly seguing one segment to the next, triggering association after association, which can show one Comparison Process idea after another. Because if you know the COMP methods a composer uses, you can recreate his style of music, then if you know the writing styles, even Shakespeare can be recreated. Each style of music shows a uniquely individual way of writing music. The Styles of music, like the styles of writing, show the methods the author uses.

25. The style of our individual speaking and gait, our ways of walking, are often unique to each of us, and arise from this same use of varying kinds of algorithms which create these highly unique and thus identifiable, recognizable characteristics. So much so that we don’t often need to see the person, to ID him. In the same way, we don’t even have to know which piece it is of Chopin, to ID it’s him. The styles reflect their unique configuration of methods used to create or even play music, too. In art it’s a lot the same. We learn to recognize the drawings of Leonardo daVinci, of the impressionism of Monet, of the Picassos we see. Each reflects their methods and each set of methods gives them their styles. This is what the Comparison Process can show you, because it cannot only give you recognition, but show you patterns, associations, and other methods, too.

It’s the endless richness of the associations which creates the method of creation. The flow of associations called up by our Comparison Process from LTM. The COMP monitors everything, from language, diction, grammar and vocabulary, to position of our limbs when performing a skill, to the appropriate activities we do socially. It watches over our morals, our consciences, to keep us out of trouble.

26. The Comparison Process controls our focus of attention. It blocks out sensations irrelevant to current tasks. It orders the course of the stream of consciousness, too. It’s the main gate keeper of consciousness, and it’s probably active in the frontal and associative brain centers (parietal lobes), too. & thus creates our sense of consciousness as well as our conscience. This is no trivial task or observation.

But what happens when the Comparison Process goes awry? When the streams of associations get too loose, too sloppy, too fast, too socially unacceptable? That may be a characteristic of schizophrenia & mania. Not only does the flow of free associations called up get too fast, causing the pressure of speech, & the looseness of associations, but it becomes socially unacceptable, too. The COMP gets overwhelmed, the behaviors become inappropriate with yelling & screaming and so forth, and it’s flagrant psychosis, or perhaps mania.

The checker, the tester, the main controlling mechanism of the brain, the Comparison Process, has broken down,probably from too much dopamine D2 activation, & a speed up of the flow of information from the LTM and senses. This is associated with schizophrenia and the main dopamine receptor family. The anti-psychotics work, too, to control the disorder, by depressing the dopamine activity. This shows how powerful a tool, the Comparison Process can be in terms of understanding not only normal behaviors and creations, but abnormal psychology, too.

27. Again, a very simple system or the cortex, the Comparison Process can explain more about psychosis and mania, & the association between the two, telling us where the problem is, the cortex of the brain, and how to treat it. It’s known that in many persons, the same gene which causes bipolar disorder can create paranoid schizophrenia. And it’s simple to see how. mania can be a temporary psychotic state. When the control system for D2 overstimulation fails, we get psychosis or schizophrenia. When it’s only partial, we may get a bipolar disorder. Not only does this Comparison Process model show that mania and psychosis are two aspects of the same thing, but it also explains the depression often to the point of suicide, seen in psychoses. & probably indicates that psychosis also has a form of major fluctuation underlying the psychotic state, too, the hallmark of bipolar disorders,. That is, psychosis compared to a bipolar disorder, also has its up and down moods, somewhat camouflaged by the psychotic state. This is not a trivial observation, either. We know that the breakdown of the cortical Comparison Process is a part the problem and thus we know the schizophrenic gene’s abnormality is probably active in the cortex, itself.

28. We get a kick when we see something new. We get some modest excitement at novelty and discovering something new. That’s a bit of dopamine activation. When the brain gets too much excitement from dopamine activation, it can create a psychotic break. and that can be seen with PCP, amphetamines, and cocaine, also, any of which can create a permanent psychosis. The rush of activity in the free associations speeds up to much, the Comparison Process is disabled, and the system breaks down. The checker and tester lose control and the system stops working Pressure of speech, loose associations, inappropriate thinking, anti-social behaviors are all unleashed by this breakdown of the COMP .

29. This consciousness of ours is thus understandable in terms of the free associations called up from our LTM by our Comparison Process. The COMP sequences these to keep the flow under control. It’s what creates attention and inattention. When we sleep & dream, we dream of really silly things. We can fly, objects can appear and disappear, and on and on, but it’s not real. This may be an underlying free association of the brain called up by the Comparison Process from our LTM. & we know this because the cortex is activated during dreaming. When we are not dreaming we see slow activity in the cortex. When we see REM, the cortex changes to a higher rate of acitivity. When the checker is off, we get crazy dreams, but we can while having an awareness of dreams, tell it to stop and it does. Or even order the dream using lucid dreaming. The severely psychotic person is unable to stop this. The COMP is unable to work normally. The cortex has become deranged.

In the normal person, this stream of consciousness from our vision, sensations, memories, and so forth is controlled. In dreams, it’s not very well controlled, as we see during dreams a lot of impossible events, which once we realize it, can be controled using lucid dreaming techniques. Thus we see that the Comparison Process in the brain can not only create control of inappropriate behavior, but can as well, using the same comparison function, control dream states.

When this control breaks down, we can get mania and psychotic states, which can be largely restored by using judicious amounts of major/minor tranquilizers. Major tranquilizers if used early enough can completely control many psychotic breaks, and if used long enough 2-3 years, can even cure some psychosis, permanently.

30. Clearly, the Comparison Process is one “ruler of the brain”.It not only measures and tests by comparisons, but it can keep things under control. The COMP is seen to be important, general and widespread because it truly reflects existing cortical structure(s), which performs that action. It can control people from getting out of control, by other persons appealing to them. In the psychotic it can work too, but not as well, and occ. not at all. A child who is misbehaving, is taught discipline by the COMP, learning & then enforcing by internalization in the LTM. In cases of persons who have had a frontal lobe injury, we often see lack of social appropriateness, they get slovenly in appearance, they cuss, swear loudly and lack the social graces, to say the least. The frontal lobe has a cortex, and this area is where the Comparison Process in the frontal lobes works. If’ it’s damaged by some means, be it a genetic cause(Huntingdon’s), or trauma, or drugs or other cause, then the person becomes antisocial or even sociopathic. This is the power of the COMP function. It’s universal, it’s general, it applies to almost every major cortical function. and it governs our conscious activities like no other.

In the language areas of association, it’s responsible for creating speech and learning. It underlies creating new words and descriptions to cover new events and new ideas. In the musical area, it watches over the playing of notes and the recognition of melodies and the very creation of music. In the spatial relationships function of the right parietal lobe, it observes events there, testing, controling, comparing, measuring. In the motor and sensory areas, it does the same. In the Visual cortex, it’s constantly working to compare input to analyze by some means how the visual data compares to its set and learned algorithms, to find meaningful shapes, and so forth. It sees motion by comparing the positions from time to time, and detects motion by comparing the changes in positions of similar events.

31. As an aside, most of the illusions we see result from the visual system Comparison Process getting fooled. For instance, when we watch a bicycle wheel & shiny spokes spinning. At a certain speed when its spin slows down, our visual cortex shows us the illusion that the spinning reflection may move clockwise, then paradoxically, as the spin slows down more, it moves the other way. If you measure the speeds of the wheel when this change takes place, in the middle of that change from rotating clockwise or counter, that measures the rate of the impulses going from the retina to the visual cortex. It’s a stroboscopic effect, which measures the rate that the retina send impulses to the cortex. No one has ever really explained that before. But as the stroboscopic system can, by certain measured, definite rates determine speeds, so do the rotating bicycle tire spokes measure by spinning rate, the retinal impulse frequency to the visual cortex. It’s a COMP .

32. But even more important, we know the important principle, that if an error is made (such as in the genes), it can often tell us something about the structure which is creating the error. It may tell us how normal function of that genetic structure works. We often learn more from metabolic errors, than studying normal functions, too. The Comparison Process gives us something more to compare to, and we find more about normal functioning. So, too, a careful study of all major kinds of visual illusions should reveal important clues as to how our visual cortex compares inputs to create realistic images, those same images which we see in our dreams. Understanding how the COMP works can give extremely fruitful insights into our visual system’s processes of nerve impulses from the retina. And given these, nearly without end, as the visual illusions can be created without end. A sensory illusion is based upon the same process, an error in the Comparison Process used in the sensory cortex.

In fact, this tendency to compare and try to find shapes/images can go wrong, too. The cortex is always using the COMP always trying to make sense of what’s around it. When it goes wrong, & creates an image, it’s called an hallucination. & we see this prominently in psychosis, too. The Checker is off duty to some extent. In the auditory cortex, which we know by physiological MRI is activated in schizophrenic auditory hallucinations, the same is seen. It calls up the sounds of remembered voices, and these are interpreted as real. In the same way, the calling up of images in dreams which can be manipulated and controlled in Lucid Dreaming states, probably by a system the Comparison Process influences, & then we have dreams.

You see the method. One association leads to another. One comparison with a normal state can be made to an abnormal state, to elucidate how the systems work. That’s a how much a very DAMN powerful tool, the COMP function can be. It opens up vast new areas of insights into both normal and abnormal psychologies.

33. The delusion is a false, persistently unsubstantiated belief/idea, which is strongly held (LTM) and which resists the facts and all reason. The checker isn’t working again. The control capability of the Comparison Process is turned down. It’s no accident that schizophrenias are associated with delusions, either. The gatekeeper of social morals, rules, beliefs and behaviors, the COMP is damaged. So the COMP can explain in part, where the problem is in the cortex, in those cortical cell columns, where the Comparison Process is created by the neurophysiology of the brain.

Delusional states outside of shizophrenia can also be created. In those, if not too long standing, pyschotherapy can often intervene and restore the balance. This was how and why psychoanalysis occasionally worked. The checker, the Comparison Process was still working well enough that it could be reconditioned by psychological methods & insights to restore control and get rid of the delusion. In other cases, medications are far more effective. But in many delusion states cannot be treated with meds. This is another problem entirely and will be addressed later with potentially curative methods in an article on “Brain Hardwiring”.

34. You see the power of the conception, the Comparison Process. A sign of a good, fruitful model is its wide explanatory power from a very simple process. How it shows how humor comes about. How it shows the source of creativity in the “Aha!” moment, when a comparison is made with the punch line of the joke. How the same “Aha’ is seen upon recognition, upon discovery, upon creation of something new and novel. The COMP brings so very much together. It’s a powerful tool, because not only can one use the Comparison Process , but it can be held aside, and other, high level, cortical functions can be compared to it. To learn more, such as what creates consciousness, the LTM, the COMP and the constant call up of data for checking, comparison and other functions, such as motor and speech output are invoked.

It’s very simple recursive system which creates the complexity in our brains, from language & to most all our skills. It creates our understanding and even creates creativity. Being recursive and self consistent, it can comprehend understanding. It’s a simple, but powerful method used by the cortex to develop personality, and everything else, including the control structures which create our consciousness and conscience. It’s broad, it’s general, it may well be universal in scope in humanity

It’s a powerful tool, it can be used again and again, and it very likely represents something very real and working in the Neurophysiology of our cortical cell columns. & you can see above, my method of creative writing, and the free association (comparing 1 idea to another) of one topic to another, also. It’s an inexhaustible source of new discovery, creation & understanding of complex systems. It gives us important insights into how our brain functions at the higher cortical levels. It’s virtually unlimitted. Everything in the universe can be compared to everything else. Everything in our sensory outputs and LTM can be compared to the others & a great deal can be learned in many cases. “Gnothi seauton”, indeed!!

It models the universe’ own recursivity with recursivity of its own. and it does it everywhere, and can do it everywhere in our universe, too. Isn’t that interesting?

35. In the immune system, we have found many of the same, basic components. But let’s think about more of this, creatively, using the Comparison Process function. Essentially, the immune system defends the body against foreign invaders, such as bacteria, virions, fungi, etc. But how, exactly does it do this? Very simply, it builds upon knowing, biochemically, what is self, and what is not self. Each of our cell surfaces have on them as do all other cells, the HLA protein/polysaccharide molecules on the cell surface in many places. The cells recognize each other by these. They are in constant biochemical communication with each other. They all have the same HLA surface features on the cell membranes.

Let’s give a real and existing example to compare to. A study has been reported some years ago where a small white and a small red sponge were each broken down mechanically into the cells which made up each sponge. Then those cells were mixed together & compared to what happened. They were observed over hours. The sponge cells organized themselves back again in clusters of white and red sponge cells and re-grew the sponge of each type. Biochemically, they knew which cell was self, and which was not self. So these HLA identifiers on our cell membraines are not new, as sponges go back to Precambrian times. This method of identification of self is very, very ancient and again, something which all living organisms have, even the protozoans. This common link connects all living cells from the smallest known to even our brains, and they way they were. They can ID biochemically, “the self” and know what is foreign. It the Comparison Process on a cellular level, you see.

36. And this is essentially THE main organizing characteristic of the immune system, of all immune systems. It, just like knowing the essential characteristics of plate tectonics, can be used to understand much more of the complexity of organization of living systems, perhaps even all systems. The Immune system has a biochemical ID method for self and not self. It does not attack self, except where the system goes wrong, that is the autoimmune diseases of Multiple sclerosis, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, Guillain-Barre, and others. It’s in the identifying part, i.e. the Comparison Process of the immune system where this goes wrong. Something which needs to be & is yet to be found.

But, let’s think carefully about how the immune system attacks foreign invaders. It first recognizes them as not self. When the lymphocytes, polymorphonuclears, phagocytes and others sense a complex chemical (even the chemical Urushiol, which is the contact allergen in poison oak),which is not self, it creates an antibody to it which attacks and isolates it and tries to expel it from the body. If it’s a bullet or shrapnel, it walls it off with scar tissue, removing it from immune system attack. If it’s bacteria such as Strep or Staph, it creates a walling off effect, immobilizes it and expels it by an abscess, which ruptures and the whole mess comes out, including any small foreign bodies carrying the bacteria.

The lymphocytes detect foreign compounds, which they “know” biochemically, by comparing it to their catalog of what is self. Then the lymphocytes move in, and create antibodies which then attach to that foreign body, bacteria, virus, etc., and THAT creates a massive cellular response which constrains, removes and destroys the invader.

37. But, using the Comparison Process , let’s look deeper and more creatively. What exactly happens biochemically when lymphocytes detect foreign chemicals? They must find, create and then massively re-create many, many specific, highly bonding antibodies, which will attach to the foreign molecule. But how does it find them? & That is where it gets interesting.

It must biochemically sort through trillions (quadrillions?) of possible antibodies, to find the one(s) which will permanently bond to the foreign compound, cell wall or membrane. And that complexity can take a LOT of time to sort through, again, a Comparison Process. If we tried in our labs to create & find those specific antibodies, which can best attach to such foreign molecules, sorting through the trillions or more of possible types, it’d take us millions of years, or more. The time it takes our immune system to solve this immense biochemical sorting problem is about 2-3 days. After that antibody production by the proliferation of lymphocytes all producing enough antibodies to attach and immobilize and target attacks on all the foreign molecules. We cannot do this in a finite time. Our computers cannot do this much sorting in a finite time. But look, the Comparison Process shows that our immune systems, worldwide, and in most of the higher animals, do this time and again, every day, for the last how many 100’s of millions of years? & it works. and that sorting & organizing process is, of course, a biochemical supercomputer method using the Comparison Process .

38. There is an immense computer, a sorter, built into our immune systems which solves this problem by some means. It uses the COMP and a whole bevy of extremely efficient, biochemical algorithms (or skills, sound familiar?) to do this. When this sorter is found in the immune system, then we will have found the biochemical supercomputer which creates our effective immune system. We know how it works, we will know where it works, and we can find it, too. That’s how the Comparison Process shows us what’s going on by organizing living systems using COMP structures. It’s universal. It’s general, It’s practical and it works.

Considering that our immune systems also know what has invaded before, and can attack those repeat strains of invaders, thus giving us lifetime immunity to many kinds/strains of viruses, etc., which is the basis of all vaccinations, then it must have a memory system of these previous invasions built into our immune system. A sort of LTM for creating antibodies, stored in the spleen, lymph nodes and other places, probably, possibly even stem cells.

This therefore should guide our study of the immune system, which can be seen as a Comparison Process working on the biochemical level, to ID self, and not self. Which is based upon simple ID system, based upon the COMP generator of a biochemical system within our white cells. From that simplicity, this enormous immune system complexity is built. & it’s capacities which exceed ours by at least trillions of times over.

39. Find the ID’g biochemical system Comparison Process governing structures in the immune systems, and you find the core engine of immunity. Where the immunity is stored, how it creates new immunities (the creativity function, the COMP function, again). The immune system’s cells on patrol must constantly be comparing self to find non-self. That comparison engine drives the immune system. When it finds not self, it attacks. If a former infection, it finds the cells which create the antibodies anew and attacks so fast, the system doesn’t get sick again. If not, it creates by comparing trillions or more of antibodies against the foreign agent, until it finds those which effectively attack it. It probably has some very efficient search engnes to sort out that problem. It’s creative, tho. It creates a fever which speeds up this process enormously, a sort of metabolic overdrive. THAT is the reason fever is often associated with infection. It speeds up often by 2-4 times the immune system attack processes.

Also, It must be sure the attacking antibodies do NOT attack self, either. And THIS part of the immune system is what goes wrong in autoimmune diseases

41. There is a clue here and it’s a big one. It’s known that women who have multiple sclerosis have far fewer flare ups, that is antibody attacks against the myelin sheath, when they are pregnant. The mother doesn’t but rarely attack the baby, for some reason. The fetus/baby are immunologically privileged. How this comes about shows us how the body doesn’t attack self. also. Thinking Comparison Process, and creatively, those drugs which reduce or block flare ups of MS, such as prednisone type, or meds of the interferon beta 1a and 1b types, or glatiramer acetate, etc. These block the autoimmune reaction of the MS type, also. Simply create a glatiratimer or interferon 1a &1b, and find out by labelling those molecues, injecting them, to find where in the body immune system & lymphocytes it binds, THERE is the library of immunocytes, and THERE is where the immune system problem is. It will simplify the problem immensely, because we will know where to look for the autoimmune creating problem, simultaneously finding the immunity giving library. By using the Comparison Process, which both gives insights and explanations as well as creative methods to solve problems. QED

The Comparison Process: Explananda Pt. 1

The Comparison Process: Explananda, Pt. 1.
posted 28 feb. 2014

By Herb Wiggins, discoverer/creator of the Comparison Process//COMP Theory/Model, 14 Mar. 2014, USA.

Sensory Illusions

1. The various sensory illusions, from optical, to movement and motion sickness, including space sickness are readily explainable in terms of the Comparison Process (COMP). Further, using a simple comparison, these illusions are easily shown to be illusions.

First, the lunar size illusion is fairly well known. The moon at the horizon when it’s rising looks larger, compared to the moon in ascent, well away from the horizon. Why is this? Because the horizon provides a large horizon line to which the visual cortex can compare it to. So it looks larger. When in the sky, there is nothing to compare it to, either, so our visusal cortex gives it a “default” size. How this can be shown is when the moon is rising over the lip of a large, long canyon, it also looks larger than when it’s higher in the sky. A large building edge behind which the moon is rising also creates this illusion. Simply by holding up a long enough measuring stick horizontally, & comparing that to the moon in the horizon versus the moon ascended shows it’s no larger in the sky than it is when rising. It dispels the illusion.

Another visual illusion is that of one which uses straight lines intersected by jagged boxlike white and black, or colored shapes. The lines look curved. By placing a clear plastic measuring ruler in the middle of it, it can be shown that the lines are in fact straight and the illusion disappears on either side of the measuring ruler’s edge. Most other optical illusions can be similarly shown to be illusions simply by comparing them to standard edges & so forth.

There is a movement illusion which is also related to optical illusions. When one is sitting in a car, and there’s a large truck on the right side, both stopped at a light, or intersection, if the larger truck begins to move the car driver has the illusion that his vehicle is moving backwards. Because the visual system is comparing the truck to the car, this creates that momentary illusion of backwards movement. This is quickly dispelled by comparing oneself to a fixed object on the road, which shows the truck is what’s moving, not the car. This illusion can also be produced when passenger rail cars are moving in opposite directions, stop at a station, and the one may move, giving the illusion of backwards movements, once again in the stationary car. Which can be dispelled by fixing on the stable platform one is next to.

Most other simple optical illusions can be shown to be a result of a comparison illusion created by the visual system. And this can be shown by using a dispelling comparison, which does that. The reason why such illusions are created is that the Comparison Process is being used by the visual cortex, when it creates images and shapes from the retinal data sent to it. It should, theoretically, allow us to understand how these illusions are being created by the visual cortex on a neurophysiological basis.

Suffice it to say, that if the Comparison Process can explain neatly, efficiently most every sensory illusion thrown at it, then it must be correct, a widespread cortical processing method, and recursive and highly important as well. That it is very widespread appearing in nearly every testable circumstance, shows that it’s real, cortical, stable and universal in humans, as well as other species which show the Comparison Process traits.

2. This comparison process should give us insights about how our visual cortex creates images and shapes. The problem further is that we cannot necessarily assume that our visual system uses Euclidean geometry and for this simple reason. We do NOT find geometric shapes in the natural world, at all. And our visual system was created 100,000’s of years before geometry. Therefore, in order to figure out how images/shapes are created from the raw data from the retina, we must understand what kind of geometry the visual cortex uses, which will be non-euclidean, very likely.

There is no necessity that our visual cortex be Euclidean. Look at the shapes of trees and boulders and such in the natural world. There are VERY few straight lines, boxes, squares, circles and other such. There is therefore no logical reason to believe that our brains use human geometries to construct the world, either. Right angles and such other boxy shapes which mark human buildings, structures, roads, etc., are not seen in the natural world. Exactly what kind of comparison process geometries our brains use to show curves, rounded edges and such is not clear, but the optical illusions of these types will probably show us a great deal more about how the visual cortex, using comparison process methods, creates visual images & what geometries it uses.

3. There are illusions involving colors, which are very large in number as well. We often call this camouflage. Simplest are the white coats of snow hares, ermins and foxes grown in the winter to disguise themselves against the snow. In the spring they grow again their summer camouflage coloring and revert back to the usual surface colorations they use most of the year. The polar bears’ everwhite fur is another prominent example.

Protective colorations of the insects are the most prominent of the same kind of illusions. A bug will make use ot its green color and hides among the green leaves. Some insects esp. in tropics will mimic leaves to avoid detection. Conversely some predators such as carnivorous larvae and preying matises will use the same to hide themselves from both their prey and predators.

Camou outfits worn by the military do much the same thing. Whether or not these work optimally in the widely varying natural environment is a matter of opinion. But at night, the skulkers dress in black to use the darkness as a way to hide, also.

These camouflage illusions can be readily dispeled by bright light and forcing, as in the above, the predators and prey to move, which is highly unlikely that leaves and twigs can do.

The Chameleon has a limited but significant ability to turn its skin to colors which can partially imitate the colors of its surroundings. We once in a biology lab put a purple sheet of paper under a chameleon. It took a while, but turned a sort of brown with some tingers of red, the closest it could get. Certain Mollusca of the squid and Octopi families have a very brilliant chromatophore system which can almost use every color in the rainbow from brilliant reds to blues. They use the same to camouflage themselves, and in the squid to show interest in mating as well as other signals to the other squid around them, a sort of color communication.

3a. There is mimicry, which is yet another illusion. The Viceroy butterfly looks a great deal like the Monarch butterfly, which is poisonous. The large eyes on some butterflies, some larvae and even the eyed Elater, a kind of large click beetle, have these to scare away predators. Syrphid flies look a great deal like yellow jacket wasps. These create illusions of being what they are not. And in doing so show that the Comparison Process is active not only in us, but in many of the other living animals and plants in existence.

Some plants’ flowers mimic insects to induce them to mate with them, thus spreading their pollen. Some flowers exude stench like smells in order to attract flies to. If it were not for the Comparison Process being active in insects, this would not occur. This gives yet another deep insight into how general and universal the COMP is, even tho the arthropods and birds are very likely not using our same neurophysiology to do the COMP, they are almost certainly using an analogous system.

4. The illusions of our sense of touch can be perceived when we touch pieces of metal in our pocket and it feels cool to the touch and for an instant, wet. Wet items evaporate water & can feel cooler because of that. But when we feel for water and a typical liquid sensation on our fingers, we feel hard metal and realize our comparing senses have, once again, by mistaking coolness for water, which further comparison testing with our fingers shows to be metal. Testing of this sort is also, like in other testing procedures, the COMP.

5. Likewise motion sickness of all sorts creates a real problem. Those found in amusement park rides are well known & Those occur while riding in cars, boats, planes & vehicles.. But why do these occur?

By understanding the basic nature of the balance system in our inner ears and our senses which tell us which way is down, that is, the gravity sense. Normally when we move our bodies and thus our heads, the fluids in our semicircular canals, by our ears, have, by inertia, a flow created in those canals. The flow gives the information which way the head is moving. That we have 3 of these canals, each at about right angles to the others, shows clearly the 3-dimensional nature of our universe & our balance system’s response to it. Each canal is oriented mainly to the X, Y and Z axes of a 3 dimensional space. From this architecture, the inner ear can detect the slightest movements in any direction, including up and down.

But resting, it does not detect anything, tho perhaps some gravity. It mainly detects change. This is a comparison process. It has very little to compare to, in and of itself. however, the eyes know and feed into the balance system their input. The eyes can see what is up and down and combining with the pressure sense on the bottoms of the feet, which are sensory cues also as to what is up and down and our body positions, can create a sense of what is down, and whether we are moving or not. This is a complex balance system and for this reason is not well understood.

But there is a gravity sense built into our feet and visual sensations & the Semicircular Canals, because of these simple facts. Put a person on a teeter totter & move him up and down on it. He will consistently orient himself vertically even tho the flat seat he’s on will change its angle comared to a flat surface as he goes up and down. In addition, when we walk on slanted surfaces such as hillsides, we immediately orient ourselves to down by changing the angles of our ankles & feet to match the hillside steepness as much as we can. We always know what’s down & up.

How this related to motion sickness is clear. When we move, the inner ear may give us signals we are moving, but if we have nothing very good to compare that to from the rest of our bodies, then we will get motion sickness. The system stops working temporarily, until the motion stops. This is what causes most motion sickness. We get dizzy, we have nothing to compare our movements to, because the feet are sending us no correcting signals, and the eyes can’t do it by themselves because of too rapid, changing movements, esp. when upside down.

Simply by fixing on an arbitrary not moving part of our vision, the disorientation can be partially abated. That is, we compare a fixed object or space in our vision & the illusion is dispelled. If not, then we can become rather ill.

6. This is seasickness also. If we fix our eyes on the horizon, then we can limit seasickness to a great extent. If nothing is there to fix our eyes on, such as on a foggy day, then we have to learn a new system, which is called “getting your sea legs” and so it’s abolished that way. We simply adopt another comparison method to avoid being seasick when the ship is rolling. Modern cruise ships use very large, long lengths of the boats to make them far less likely to rock and roll on the waves, thus minimizing the rolling of the ship with the waves.

It should be possible in smaller vessels, to create an electronic light bar based upon the plumb bob effect, which always points down, a sort of artificial horizon which if bright & large enough & easy enough to see, could compensate for the rolling of smaller ships and thus, visually help correct seasickness. The same would be true for aircraft and vehicles of all sorts.

7. Space sickness is yet another problem which results from a total lack of gravity, which our inner ears have some response to even in normal gravity. However, all visual cues are gone, the balance system has NOTHING to compare to, as gravity and sensory cues are gone, and so medicines such as promethazines are about all that work because they sedate the inner ear & brainstem.

But the Comparison Process shows us a way around this too. Give the space sick person something to compare with their visual part of the balance system. If 4 long, wide yellow lines were to be painted or somehow affixed evenly & symmetrically to the floor, ceiling and both right & left walls, the eyes could then have something to which could help the balance system orient itself. and the space sickness would abate ever faster than simply waiting for the brain to adopt these visual cues using arbitrary objects, walls & other shapes in the space cabins, themselves. Again the utility of the Comparison Process. It neatly and easily explains motion sickness of all kinds, and suggests ways to abate it.

8. The Comparison Process is self-organizing. Recall that the entire classification of living organisms, plants, animals, protozoa, bacteria, even including the viruses have been and are still being organized into a comprehensive whole, i.e., millions of species, by the COMP . This shows the power, widespread use, and the flexibility as well as the practicality of the system, as does the same for all known stars, the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The Comparison Process has organized into a comprehensive whole almost the whole of everything that existed and has existed, so far as is known. This is not a trivial task nor a trifling achievement. It’s clear, empirical testimony to the efficiency and ubiquitous presence of the COMP system.

9. Essentially, we use words to communicate with others, not ourselves.. It’s a social activity. The words created and then learned are then stored in the LTM, which creates a stable, recallable, recognizable entity, a word, which corresponds to a concept/idea/image or event in existence. These are models for events in existence and is the way our higher cortical functions in our brains are organized. It is nothing less than the fundamental way we process information, i.e., think.

This may well mean that in practice, language is a complex system. With literally 100,000’s of words in most technical and advanced languages, the interactions of these words with other words in sentences, often creating new meanings and new discoveries, very likely shows this.

10. The dialects of the major languages all show that there is NO single, universal standard for speaking. We use the standard midwestern American English against which the other dialects are compared. We can hear the other dialects of all English speakers, from Scotland, to London, from Capetown to Canberra and Auckland, all of which use slightly different pronunciations to mark their forms of English. Because the LTM (Long Term Memory) of words is a bit flexible (& all people die), the language can and will change over time, creating new words, new pronunciations, and so forth, altho the written word tends to create more stability or pronunciation than used to exist. We simply compare what we hear in English to ID the locale from which the other dialect occurs, be it Delhi, or Dover. There is NO absolute dialect in English, any more than there is absolute space or time, or measurements. However all speakers require the COMP to create meaning and understanding. It’s very simple & widely applicable in language, daily.

11. Let us consider time. Time is not absolute. We base all of our time measurements upon an arbitrary standard against which we compare and create those standards. Our year arbitrarily begins on 1 Jan., based upon the Roman Calendar, their year based upon the date when Rome was established according to their beliefs. We base the Western calendar upon year 1 AD. The ancient Egyptian year began on the heliacal rise of the star Sirius, which they identified with Aset (Isis). That usually marked the beginning of the inundation of the Nile within a few days, and when everything agricultural came to a halt until the flooding was over.

For every day we begin and center the day on noontime, or high noon, when the sun is at its maximum height. That’s why noon is 12 PM, and its counterpart, midnight is 12 AM. That’s the standard. It can be checked because it’s the center of most days in the center of each time zone. There is some wandering from that point, but it’s the standard upon which all the rest of the clock is based.

& again, in every case we see the usual repetition of elements, the second, of which 60 make a minute, of which 60 make an hour, of which 24 make a day, and of which about 30 make a month of the 12 months each year. Showing again, just like DNA structure, protein structure, atomic structure, they are created from repeating elements.

Every time we look at a clock, we make a comparison of that instant with the time, compared to our standard. The Comparison Process is an organizing, ordering process, and creates our time tables, schedules, plans and so forth, all based upon that creative process, the COMP. The COMP keeps us on schedule, and makes orderly production and work possible. Time keeping is little more than the Comparison Process at its deepest, most fundamental level.

Synchronizing our clocks is 3 times over COMP. First, we must have that standard time, which is kept based upon & compared to Noon. Second, there must be a clock which compares exactly to the UTI. And thirdly, there must be the two time pieces or more which are to be synchronized, that is, they must keep exactly the same time on both of them. This is achieved by using at every point, Comparison Process. This demonstrates yet again how basic and fundamental the COMP is in time alone.

12. Any kind of error, be it a genetic error creating a disorder, or other conditions, creates a new opportunity to compare that genetic disorder to the normal. Any new finding which can be compared to normals or other conditions, can create new insights, simply because it allows the Comparison Process to be used again. Is some mouse models, researchers are using mutagens to create genetic changes. Then they back cross the offspring of that mouse to bring out the recessives created by the process. This often results in interesting findings, by this method of genetic error creation, which is little more than one more of the myriads of types of COMP. Any difference from what we see normally, any finding which is unusual can be of this value, simply because it permits the COMP to be used on one more event, one more situation, to enlighten us.

13. In the legal and moral laws, the same is the case. One obeys the laws. One compares the laws regarding social behaviors to one’s own and other’s actions. The process of internalization and memory of these laws is in our LTM, largely frontal lobes. This is the source of our conscience. How we know what to do and what not to do. It’s in almost every case, a Comparison Process, by which we compare ours and others’ actions for social, legal, and moral propriety and acceptability..

Where is this tester for the socially appropriate, the COMP checker, which is in the brain? In our frontal lobes, because we know when a person’s frontal lobes are damaged, they lose social propriety, may become slovenly, without manners and moral/legal behaviors. And this is found in the cortex of the frontal lobes.

14. The universe can also be modelled by a similar system of laws, observed and confirmed, which shows us the behaviors, characteristics and various stable parts and processes in the universe. We compare & refer (another COMP based word) new events to those which we find and find that they are indeed consistent with, ie, they compare closely with the gravitation, or laws of motion and so forth. It’s the same system of organization.

So it’s very clear that almost all higher cortical brain organization and systems are bound by the Comparison Process , from start to finish.

15. In each case, the Comparison Process is used by a complementary method to recreate life. This kind of complementary DNA reading is very basic because it’s yet another form of the COMP. It creates a chemical structure which can be Identified for what it is by the cell, and the cell knows how to use it, biochemically. It’s biochemical recognition, again the COMP. This shows how basic the entire process is to life as we know it, and shows how once again, the entire life processes from the most very basic parts, are built up by a COMP . From a simple system of 4 base pairs & 20 some amino acids, is created the complexity of the cell.

But all of these DNA, RNA and protein/polypeptide creations use energy. And this is the process by which everything is created in the cell. Creation of life is done by this process, essentially, applied again and again. It’s recursive, just like the Comparison Process is recursive and models the processes very clearly. It’s how living systems create more order from chaos. It’s how all life is created & reproduces. It’s the way the biological world works. The COMP is how non-living matter and energy are turned into growing, living cells, driven by the COMP , manifested in terms of biochemicals & rules.

16. It can all be modeled using the Comparison Process which creates language and mathematics and models life itself. It’s modelled by the COMP, which is itself a creative principle, too. The Comparison Process is the way our cortex organizes the world around us. It uses many other spin off, related principles to do this the same way, such as the Least Energy Principle, which is of itself a Comparison Process. The laws of thermodynamics are also used, as guidelines as to how this all works, again based upon the COMP , because these laws compare to the all known chemical and physical processes, mapping them very exactly.

17. It’s easy to think that words, languages and math and related brain functions are the way in which the world works. But it’s not so. Our mental methods created by our cortices use this method, but it’s not THE method by which it’s done. It describes what’s done, building up a model, but these are not the events themselves. Those mental methods are the underlying neurophysiological structures & functions.

As Korzybski, the founder of general semantics theory, wrote, “The word is not the thing.” in other words, more generally, the /idea/word/image is not the event in existence to which it refers. The former are the structural means by which the Comparison Process in our brains creates a model of the world, but it’s not the world itself. Those events in existence exist outside the nervous system. Every structure has its limits and capabilities. So does the COMP . Those are the exponential barriers such as light speed, absolute zero, particle physics creating higher and higher energies, until it’s too costly to go further, climbing that greased, steep slide of the exponentially rising curve, until we must fall back. When we find those, we turn back and create new means to overcome those limits, via the Comparison Process.

Brains can create many fictions, easily, myths, gods & goddesses, demons and such, but these don’t compare to anything in reality which we can test and measure. We must make careful distinction between our brain modeling structures and those events outside of our brains which we have in common with everyone else. Confirmation of findings in scientific studies and reliable accounts create that commonality and excludes brain fictions. If we do not then we confuse, consistently, fictions and reality, events in existence with our abstractions, and commit the error so well described by Lord North, Alfred Whitehead, co-author of the “Principia Mathematica” with Bertrand Rusell, revolutionizing mathematics, “the fallacy of misplaced concretism.” Nonexisting abstracts get reified, when they are not real. Pi gets to be thought of as real, tho it’s an abstraction from the comparison of the ideal circle’s circumference with its ideal diameter, as a straight, ideal line. Good tools, but no perfect circle nor perfectly straight line can ever be measured, or exist.

18, Consider when we build a structure such as a house. We have blueprints and related designs, now mostly computerized due to an efficiency rule, the LEP. We constantly compare to the designs to make sure we build it properly. COMP at every step and stage. We have the basic building blocks, the wood, the concrete, the bricks and steel/metal frames, if necessary and the piping and wiring, not to mention the roof materials. The structure is built and ordered according to the COMP and the skills and tools we use based upon that cortical method. We can build a large, grand house, or a smaller, simpler home. There are no limits to what we can build using this method and enough resources. It’s the Comparison Process .

Just why this has not been stated before and explored for the very important observation which it is, is curious. . So many things can go unrecognized, even tho common, for a very great, long time, esp. if of the idealistic mindset, which tends to ignore real,existing events, in favor of brain ideas, words and concepts, which of course, do not exist outside the brain.

19. When you are out on a field trip, you make discoveries of new kinds of plants, trees, insects, birds and so forth, many of which you’ve never seen before. In a very practical sense, I saw a great many things uknown to me and this created discovery, Others do, too. The Comparison Process ran through my memory, & didn’t recognize at first, each new event, and then I learned what it was by comparing to that information from a person who had, i.e, books. This was repeated many times, adding new insects and trees and birds & stars, etc., to my memory, which eventually went into LTM (long term memory). The more you learn, the more you can compare together and find them, again and again.

Discovery is a form of creativity. It adds to your creative powers. & if you find enough, then it adds to your ability to learn more, too. The Comparison Process makes this discovery possible, repeatedly, and then adds to it in a recursive and growing way. It adds again and again to your skills of discovery by comparing the way you do things, and then improving upon them. The more you know, the more you can find, Again, the Comparison Process and the more you can compare with what you have already found. such as butterflies, likes and dislikes, and so forth. It creates a library of events which you can reference from your LTM. and the more you can compare, the more you can learn. Because each new creation adds to the creations you can make, because it’s one more item to compare to, it builds up quickly in biology. So discovery is one form of creativity.

I recall being with family at a lake, when about 10 PM, suddenly the sky and land lit up with a brilliant light to our NE. We had no idea what it was at the time, maybe an exploding plane or something, until we read the next day, that a large, brilliant bolide, a meteor, had entered earth’s atmosphere a few hundred miles to the east of us, and the perception became the discovery. & it was ordered into the category of meteor, and made sense, then. Discovery then is compared to pre-existing idea/word/ images and becomes knowledge and order.

20. Creativity is more than just discovery, it’s also the comparison of two or more idea/concepts/images from our memory of events, or may occur in the presence of events,

21. In terms of the Comparison Process what are skills? From first hand experience in a number of fields, they are short cuts, algorithms, &/or methods will allow the user to function faster, more efficiently, more carefully and above all, more creatively in the field. Discovery hones the perceptivity, the COMP , because you are always searching for those events and ideas which will give you the answers. You get better and better at it, with the better methods built into your skills.

End of pt. 1.