The Complex System of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

By Herb Wiggins, M.D.; Clinical Neurosciences; Discoverer/Creator of the Comparison Process/CP Theory/Model; 14 Mar. 2014
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It’s largely now apparent that complex system approaches can be extended to thermodynamics, in order to create a unifying method which combines the dominant models of the sciences: complex systems as the umbrella and unifying methods of comparison process method; Thermodynamics, relativity & quantum mechanics as the probabilistic model which describes best at present the complexities of such universal systems.

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The Second Law of Thermodynamics can be seen to have many characteristics, which are also seen in complex systems. Initially, it was called the entropy/disorder rule, wherein energy release maximizes, thus reducing order, and maximizing entropy. But there is another aspect to the 2nd law, and that is least action, least free energy, least energy, and the maximizing of energy diffusion as well as mass concentrations being diffused. Also called the minimalist principle, and has been known in one form or another since the later 1700’s. James Hamilton called it least action. LaGrange used it to find the least energy L1, L2, L3, and nearly completely stable L4 & L5 points in the earth-moon system.
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Least energy as it can be most simply called & applied, means that systems strongly tend to reach least energy configurations. Calling it least energy also allows it more simply to be applied to the many aspects of least energy, which we see in the real world examples. Least energy in manufacturing, as W. Edwards Demming began to develop his “efficiency” methods, means least time to manufacture, least costs, least amount of materials being used; least activities in moving materials and products around during manufacturing, and in short, all the myriad ways Least Energy can be applied & used to create efficiency increases & thus the advantages of surplus energy, time, materials, money, and so forth. That is, growth potential.
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Apple Computer as the largest corporation on earth, developed those products which not only were highly efficient, easy and fun to use, but so well marketed, their least energy production and marketing methods, gave them the highest profits both by percentage and totals, ever seen, due to Steve Jobs’ outstanding talents. He united telecommunications, neatly, efficiently and usably with computers, thus doing a very great deal with a product which could be held in one hand. Least energy efficiencies, indeed!!
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The multiplicity of the apps of least energy rules is its chief feature and in having these characteristics, show it’s very likely a complex system & approach. It’s not just A, or not A , but a rich panoply, plethora of outcomes possible which create the time, energy and cost savings in manufacture and the service industries.
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Thus Least energy underlies the efficiencies of Adam Smith, the “invisible hand of the markets”, as a deeper analysis and more fruitful, and thus applicable means to create the growth created by those efficiencies.
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See:
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There is yet another point in all of this. Synonyms and the previously related extensions of those by “word clusters” shows this multiplicity of methods and forms as existing and real. The Analogy synonyms are a good example of this. Hofstadter initially discussed this as a wide application of his cognitive work in “Godel, Escher, Bach….” and his conceptualization can be seen as a basis for the deeper and wider comparison process and thus complex system applications.
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Thus the many ways in which we describe the Least Energy rule also show its synonymic and complex system nature.
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Analogy, metaphor, simile, anecdote, parable, fable, story, koan, many myths, etc. are all the many types of comparison processing which can be used to explain, demonstrate, and teach new concepts and ideas.  But there is the complex system aspect here, too.
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Of the multiplicity of comparison process methods present and real, too. Of the many phrases of words, which ALSO describe such methods. Take the synonym group of “Understanding”: comprehension, insight, apprehension, Know-how. Also, making sense, seeing the connections, seeing/visualizing, connecting the dots, working it out; the entire synonym/word cluster grouping, which shows the many ways in which we use the “understanding” words to “figure out” what we are trying to show, explain and do. Thus the word clusters/synonyms show us the multiplicity of ways we do things. The methods, techniques, skills, styles, technologies, etc.
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The multiplicities of the synonym & word clusters are there BECAUSE of the complex system nature of events in our universe. We create & use language to show the myriads of ways of complex systems. This then deepens our understandings of complex systems by showing more of the vast ways that things are done. More of the myriad aspects of words which reflect the many ways in which events can be understood, classified and described. Synonyms/word clusters are part and parcel of the complex system descriptions of our universe of events. That’s where they come from and which the word cluster extension also develops and explicates as well.
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This then describes the multiplicity of the ways in which we apply, understand and use the Least Energy rules. It’s complex system!!! And begins to unite the models of our universe by a deeper understanding of these multiplicities, such as the many dopamine and catecholamine receptors sites, as showing a complex system at work. & all the other myriads of kinds of receptor sites doing much the same. The many “side effects” of drugs, which are in fact complex system effects, and the many receptor sites for insulin, neurochemicals and many other instances. Each are formed of the same deeper method working, comparison process and creating standards of word categories, and measuring standards to create information as well as comprehend events.
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There are MANY other key aspects of the complex system nature and characteristics of Least energy. A major form of which is stability. Least energy molecules CO2 and H2O are molecules from which no further chemical energy can be obtained. It requires a great deal of activation energy to convert those two into sugars & starches, which the plants can do. Thus stability is a major aspect of least energy. The orbits of the planets are least energy. And the Newtonian N=2 gravitational laws are ALSO least energy solutions to orbits. This largely, however ignores the complex system of the solar system, N=9 and more, but have touched upon that topic before, too.
The ancient Egyptian triad, or trinity, of Uas (power, force), Djed (the backbone of Osiris, stability) and Ankh, (life), shows this. They elevated stability to a great part of how they viewed events. Thus, embodying efficiency and least energy implicitly in their understandings of events. As they strove towards stability, so they also achieved efficiency and by implication, thermodynamic least energy outcomes.
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Even as the Efficiencies of the market Adam Smith called the “invisible hand” guide market growth and development.
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And this growth and development as referred to above is yet another aspect of least energy. And it can describe events from avalanches, to market forces, to embryological growth, also. Most all growth in the natural world is least energy driven, from our basic innovations which succeed because they develop surpluses which can be fed back into the system to create growth, such as the obvious, profits. So the 2nd Law has thus Many aspects to it, which are complex system. And in this way, we extend & deepen our understanding by melding and integrating complex system thinking into thermodynamics, as well.
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In describing the methods by which professionals approach their jobs, we find the fox and the hedgehog analogy. The Foxes know a very great many things, and use this complicated, but not coherent set of lists and methods to do their work. But the hedgehog, he knows one big thing!  And that’s what’s going on here. Complex systems require a very great deal of information to handle, use and understand them. & the foxes use the” splitter” method of knowing lots of details and methods to handle it. But the lumper, the hedgehog, knows a big concept, model, theory to handle it all. Simplifying the mass of data into a single, unified model.
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In the same way,
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For instance, Newtonian orbital equations simplifies most all N=2 orbiting bodies into a single, least energy equation, which describes ALL of the orbits, rather uniquely. As compared to the foxes who have the details and must know the descriptions of all of the orbits of all of the planets in all of the 200+ Billions of star systems in our galaxy, alone.  The least energy Newtonian method wins by least energy!!
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In Shannon’s Information Theory, order, disorder and information have deep implications and relationships. The more the order, and precise, detailed description of events there are, the more information is there and the less entropy. Again, least energy extends I.T. And in addition, because incompleteness can be shown to be less order and more entropy in comparison to higher to lower information events. it becomes clear. Incompleteness is very likely least energy relationships as well.
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Further, the more complete a model is, the less entropy; the more information and more descriptions it holds. The caveat is that the method must also be more efficient, not just a better description, more complete. This doubles up the creative, innovative new model’s value. And because we know from the Second law that perfect efficiency is very unlikely, if not impossible, we know very likely that complete descriptions of events are also unlikely. That most all our models are necessarily NOT complete. Thus there may be almost always much room for improvement in our models.
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Besides the subtleties of incompleteness, there is that of simplicity. A more complete model simplifies all of the details, and links greater relationships to this increase in simplicity. This is yet another aspect of least energy. Or to quote H. D. Thoreau, “simplify, simplify, simplify.”
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The major trait of new effective models is that they are elegant, explain much with little (simplicity), they are fruitful, giving many, important new insights and find many new and often unexpected findings. And that they are by Shannon’s rules, more complete, describe more with less, as well.
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Let’s take the Periodic chart of the elements and examine it from these new epistemologies and paradigms. How did Mendeleev find this organization of the elements? Let’s use these methods to empirically look into how his mind worked. He knew that elements, intrinsically could not be broken down into smaller parts by normal chemical means available at the time. Thus, they were stable, being least energy atomically. Further, he began to see patterns, the before mentioned pattern recognition that follows basic recognitions, when the recognitions are fed back into the comparison processing systems. That created the next category as he knew lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium were all chemically very similar. His brain recognized this high similarity. So he grouped them in a linear, vertical line just under hydrogen, also with 1+ charge, we now know. Showing how bonding concepts flowed directly from this grouping of the alkali metals, the first hierarchy of the elements. Thus proving the hierarchical nature of the periodic chart and grouping with the many other taxonomies of our understanding by those uniting relationships.
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Then he saw that NaCl, common salt, linked the alkali metal, Na, to chloride. And also, iodine, fluorine, bromine, and so forth. Using the alkali metals as a basic standard he created the halogen linear standard.
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And at once given their weights realized that there were elements to the right and left of Li and F, as well as the next series Na and Chloride. He had created the outlines of the periodic chart. and all that was left was filling it in. His model was therefore, HIGHLY fruitful, not only in bonding characteristics, but in relating all of the elements into a chart reflecting their fundamental relationships of weights, atomic numbers, etc. Which also over time gave rise to nuclear models of the atoms, as well as the isotopes. AND he realized not only were there gaps in the chart, but that those could be found, as well. Thus it’s massive fruitfulness; again, the power of a good model.
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He knew of neon, argon, krypton, but realized there was another element missing above neon, which was only found first in the sun much later, and then on the earth. Helium4 was put into its place. The chart was predicting outcomes, which were unexpected!!! And so rubidium was found below cesium, and francium below and so forth.
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Finding beryllium, he put that next to lithium, and then ID’d those elements which combined with 2 halogens, as well. and on and on he went, with the heavier weight elements following each of them together. He’d found the grand design of the elements. And note how this comparison process model, models very accurately his modeling, as it does the models of Darwin/Wallace for evolution and how Edison found, by Trial & Error, his amazing discoveries, creations. As it does indeed Einstein and most all other creative acts.
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And this is how most all of our anatomies, taxonomies, hierarchies, & classifications are built up. Not ignoring the alphabetic hierarchies of the dictionaries, thesauri, indices, telephone and city directories, and maps, which show how all on those classifications are related to most everything else, there, too. Alphabetic systems are used, with numbers, to rank together words whose relationships are not known, but need to be organized so they can all be listed, organized & understood.
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And within the dictionary, which are least energy classifications using ordering by alphabets are also least energy. & within the dictionaries, we can find THESE least energy classifications, which correspond to groupings unsuspected in linguistics, largely least energy. We find the repeating words, beginning with “re-“, 1000’s of them in fact. Reiteration, reflect, re-organize, remind, reconsider, remember and most importantly, recognize, etc. And those similar words, such as again and again, forever and ever, etc., etc., etc, which reflect the repeating events in existence and map and describe those very, very well.
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In addition, and this has been missed, we find the “com” words, in all their nearly unlimited forms, again, the “cum” words from the parent Latin word, which go together under the “com” sections, and many others, as well. Those are the “go together” words, the “KO-ine’ related words. Cooperate, company, commiserate, and so forth. & yet, each of those are groups of events which can be connected, and collected together. Hiding all the time, and disguising and camouflaging the parent of the entire organization, “comparison”!  These are the depths within depths, and yet there are far, far more in the dictionary. Without limit, too. & anyone can open up the dictionary and find many of those and many other examples too many here to relate.
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We find the hierarchies of the “high higher highest” grouping of the comparative adjectives, and the “low lower lowest” forms, or the “some, more most”, and “some lesser and least”, to show how many kinds those are, which although NOT grouped together in the dictionary ARE grouped together as the 3 forms of linear adjectives which describe, and can be used to create linear numerical groupings as well.
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There are the least energy, vast numbers of contractions (can’t, weren’t), acronyms (NASA, FBI), and abbreviations (abbrev, etc.), which are ALSO least energy forms, too. Seen often in slang, esp. the Aussie -o ending for funnel web spider, the funno, and so forth. Again, least energy forms in all the myriad ways.
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Returning to the “com” words we see depths within depths again, just as Mendeleev did, in the commons, commiseration, company forms. But hidden there are the collection, com-lection changed to collection to save a consonant and thus time. Corroboration instead of com-roboration. Again, hiding the “com” words in all their myriads of ways. Those missed by linguistics not understanding the Least energy rules and applying those deeply widely and without limit to the words, themselves.  And the lovely co-re-spond being an “re-” word as well as a “com” word. And the same with com-re-lation, correlation. Without limits. least energy forms!!! All of this missed, too.
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And yet there are MORE depths within depths of least energy rules.
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Knowing Latin we know of the ab  and ex prepositions. So for “abfection, we get affection; and likewise for ex-fection, we get effection, saving yet another letter/consonant and time/energy in saying the words. And those are also without limit, too. arrogate, instead of ab-rogate. Affliction shortening now ab-fliction.  & on and on as we can find literally numbers without limit of those all over the dictionaries. Thus we have applied the comparison processes which created the periodic chart of the elements to the dictionaries to find again, those relationships and categories of many, many kinds of words which heretofore have been missed.
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There are many many other examples of many kind of word groups, which there is no time nor space to relate. See what you can find which is original, new and not expected, the fruitfullness of this approach is at once apparent again!!!
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These show the vast efficeincies and apps of the comparison processing and least energy methods. Without limits.
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But furthermore as well, we know that as our models are most all incomplete, that they can become MORE complete by work of trial and error and related processes. Thus we have the means, without limit, & most all of our methods can be “improved” without limit, virtually. because no matter how efficient they might be compared to earlier methods, they still have room for improvement.
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This necessarily contemplates and implies that there likely exist unlimited improvements in our ways of doing things. Our models, our technologies, skills, devices, tools and methods can be improved without limit, Up to a point of diminishing returns. And means that once realizing this, we can always find ways to get better from there.
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Further still, the skills of the professionals compared, versus those of the amateurs can now be understood as efficient methods developed over time, by trial and error. We can apply least energy rules here as well, without limit, and the applications of these can change and improve education in ALL fields. Comparison processing and least energy are universally applicable
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For instance, We can take a group of 12 highly skilled professionals & studying their styles and methods of doing things for the specific methods each uses. Then comparing those dozen persona & their myriads of similar and different methods for efficiency. & Then teaching those specific, now unknown, but which can be found with careful observation and work, methods which are very efficient. Then teaching those advanced methods to students, specifically. This will speed up education substantially. and because it’s a universal application, likewise likely applying to ALL fields, to improve and upgrade our professionals without limits. This is the Promised Land.
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These are but a few of the multiplicities of implications, developments and possibilities which can be created by the complex system approach to the 2nd Law. Unlimited growth and an efflorescence of creativity and outputs in the sciences & arts, and indeed in all fields, unparalleled in human history!!  All because the the applications fo the complex systems, comparison process and unlimited methods, and least energy rules. This is the promised land of the undiscovered country. Unlimited cultural nd scientific developments potentially dwarfing most anything which has ever been seen before.
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Least Energy Rules…….
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